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CORSO BASE DI

FITOTERAPIA
PROFESSIONALE
INDICE

BREVE STORIA DELLA FITOTERAPIA pag. 1


Le prime civilizzazioni pag. 1
La conoscenza delle piante pag. 2
Lutilizzo delle piante nel Medio Evo pag. 2
LAsia ed i commerci internazionali pag. 3
Salute e igiene: dal XIV al XVII secolo pag. 3
Linfluenza di Paracelso ed il nuovo razionalismo pag. 4
Le sostanze chimiche pag. 4

LA GALENICA pag. 6
Le tisane pag. 7
Le compresse pag. 7
I succhi pag. 7
I nebulizzati pag. 7
I macerati pag. 7
Le tinture madri pag. 8
Le sospensioni integrali di pianta fresca pag. 8
Gli oli essenziali pag. 8
Totum pag. 8

COME IMPIEGARE LE PIANTE pag. 10

PERCORSO TERAPEUTICO PRIMA FASE OBBLIGATORIA:


LA DETOSSINAZIONE pag. 16
Piante epato-protettrici pag. 17
Desmodio pag. 17
Cardo di Maria pag. 24

Piante epato-stimolatrici Fase alcalina-colloidale pag. 25


Tarassaco pag. 25
Radice nera pag. 34
Carciofo pag. 36
Chrysanthellum Americanum pag. 37
Chrysanthemum Parthenium pag. 38
Fumaria pag. 44
Bardana pag. 45

I
Piante epato-stimolatrici Fase acida-cristallina pag. 46
Alburno di Tiglio pag. 46
Erica pag. 47
Baccharis pag. 48
Kinkeliba pag. 49
Artiglio del Diavolo pag. 50

APPROCCIO AI SINGOLI SISTEMI PER IL RIEQUILIBRIO


SPECIFICO pag. 55
Sistema Intestinale pag. 55
Disbiosi intestinale pag. 56
Acidit gastrica pag. 56
Aerofagia pag. 58
Afte pag. 60
Costipazione pag. 61
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 64

Pelle pag. 67
Acne pag. 67
Alopecia pag. 69
Bruciature pag. 70
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 71

Sistema Respiratorio Polmoni pag. 74


Bronchite acuta pag. 74
Asma pag. 76
Sinusite pag. 80
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 83

Sistema Nervoso pag. 85


Angoscia pag. 85
Ansia pag. 88
Depressione pag. 89
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 92

Sistema Immunitario pag. 94


Debolezza immunitaria pag. 95
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 101

Sistema Osteo-Articolare pag. 103


Artrite-Artrosi pag. 103
Artrite metabolica pag. 112
Demineralizzazione pag. 114
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 116

II
Sistema Cardio-Circolatorio pag. 119
Aritmia pag. 120
Aterosclerosi-Arteriosclerosi pag. 121
Problemi circolatori-Insufficienza venosa pag. 125
Ipertensione arteriosa pag. 131
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 133

Sistema Endocrino pag. 137


Classificazione farnacologica delle piante usate in
Ginecologia ed endocrinologia pag. 140
Patologia tiroidea pag. 155
Patologia surrenalica pag. 159
Il ciclo mestruale pag. 166
La sindrome pre-mestruale pag. 171
Lo Yam pag. 175
Altre piante che possono essere utilizzate pag. 180
SCHEMI RIASSUNTIVI pag. 186

E fatto divieto di utilizzare o riprodurre, anche parzialmente, il testo


e le foto di questa dispensa, salvo espressa autorizzazione
della Phytomed Italia srl

III
BREVE STORIA DELLA FITOTERAPIA
Lutilizzo di piante medicinali da sempre stato importante per
luomo. Testimonianze delluso di rimedi fitoterapici sono state
ritrovate in diverse sedi: in Irak, in una tomba che risale a 60.000
anni fa state rinvenute diverse piante, fra cui lefedra; Aristotele,
nel IV sec. a.C., attribuiva una psiche alle piante.

Risale invece al Medio Evo la teoria delle signature che stabiliva


un rapporto fra la forma della pianta ed il relativo utilizzo a scopo
salutistico: le foglie della Polmonaria officinalis assomigliano al
tessuto dei polmoni e quindi la pianta potr essere utilizzata per il
trattamento dei disturbi che colpiscono il sistema respiratorio; il
fusto del Bambou tabashir assomiglia ad una colonna vertebrale
cos come il frutto del pygeum africanum (pruno africano)
assomiglia alla prostata e rispettivamente erano utilizzati:
lessudato del bambou per le articolazioni (ricco in silicio) e la
scorza del pygeum per i problemi prostatici.

Di fatto fino al XX secolo in ogni villaggio era presente un


esperto dellutilizzo delle piante per la salute. Per arrivare a
tale conoscenza, luomo per secoli ha osservato il comportamento
animale ed ha studiato gli effetti delle piante.

Le prime civilizzazioni

Gi dal 3000 a.C. la civilizzazione di Egitto, Medio Oriente, India e


Cina ha reso pi elaborata la preparazione e luso delle piante. La
malattia viene concepita come lazione di uno spirito cattivo e la
guarigione pu essere ottenuta solo mettendosi in contatto con il
mondo degli spiriti: per fare questo bisogna ricorrere a piante
allucinogene.

Solo dal 500 a.C. la medicina comincia ad avere un ruolo proprio,


separato dal mondo degli spiriti e della magia.

Ippocrate (460 377 a.C, circa) viene considerato come il padre


della medicina, ed lui che concepisce la malattia come un
fenomeno naturale. E lui il primo ad affermare che la medicina
deve essere esercitata senza cerimoniali o riti magici.

La medicina razionale appare, nel I sec. a.C, anche nei testi


cinesi.

1
La conoscenza delle piante

Il commercio fra Europa, Medio Oriente, India ed Asia permise, gi


dal II sec. a.C., di far circolare diverse variet di piante
medicinali. Con lintensificarsi del commercio, cresce anche
linteresse per le piante medicinali; cominciano a diffondersi le
opere di classificazione sistematica in base alle diverse propriet
terapeutiche.

Il primo erbario europeo viene redatto da Dioscoride nel I sec.


d.C.: De materia medica, che cita piante ancora oggi ben
conosciute, quale, ad esempio, la bardana. In questa opera
vengono descritte 600 piante e rimarr il principale testo di
riferimento in Europa fino al XVII sec.

Ugualmente importante, per lo sviluppo della medicina e della


conoscenza delle piante, stato il contributo di Galeno (131-200),
medico personale dellImperatore Marco Aurelio. E sua, infatti, la
teoria dei quattro umori: ispirandosi ad Ippocrate ed Arisotele,
ha sviluppato il concetto per cui il mondo composto da quattro
elementi (fuoco, aria, terra ed acqua) e le piante hanno quattro
diverse propriet: caldo, secco, freddo, umido. Nellorganismo
scorrono quattro principali fluidi: sangue, bile gialla, bile nera,
linfa. Lo stato ideale consiste in una eguale ripartizione nel corpo
dei quattro fluidi (umori); la predominanza di uno determina
temperamenti specifici. Galeno ha introdotto il concetto spirituale
di pneuma, che consiste nel soffio vitale dellorganismo. La salute
dipende, secondo Galeno, dallequilibrio fra i quattro elementi, i
quattro umori e la loro unione con il soffio vitale (pneuma).

Lutilizzo delle piante nel Medio Evo

Fra le popolazioni rurali del Medio Evo, la conoscenza delle piante


e del loro utilizzo non si fondava sullinsegnamento offerto da
scuole di medicina, ma derivava perlopi dalla pratica derivante
dallassistenza ai malati affetti dalle pi diverse patologie.

Fra il VII ed il XV sec. si diffonde la cultura araba, favorendo la


conservazione delle conoscenze greche e romane. Gli Arabi
avevano grandi conoscenze in farmacia, e mescolavano le piante
per accrescerne lefficacia o migliorarne il gusto. Avicenna fu uno
dei pi grandi medici dellepoca.

2
In India si diffonde lo studio dellAyurveda e con esso la
costruzione di ospedali e di coltivazioni di piante medicinali. Anche
le grandi civilt precolombiane avevano conoscenze di fitoterapia,
ma fra loro ancora forte il legame spirituale e magico. In Europa
verso lanno 1000 vengono fondati i primi ospedali e le prime
scuole di medicina: una delle pi importanti la Scuola
Salernitana.

Il commercio con Asia e Africa permette la conoscenza e lutilizzo


di piante nuove; Ildegarda di Bingen (1098-1179) grande esperta in
materia di fitoterapia, menziona la Galanga (Alpinia officinarum),
che una pianta utilizzata in Asia e che agisce a livello del sistema
digestivo.

LAsia ed i commerci intercontinentali

Con la diversificazione dei percorsi commerciali, aument


considerevolmente il volume di importazioni di nuove piante, e con
esso la disponibilit sul mercato europeo. Ma il commercio non
pi a senso unico: anche alcune piante europee cominciano a
viaggiare verso Oriente.

La scoperta, e la conseguente colonizzazione, dellAmerica, hanno


portato ancora piante diverse, introdotte ed utilizzate nelle pi
grandi capitali. Nelle comunit rurali, si utilizzavano invece solo le
piante straniere che si adattavano alle condizioni climatiche e che
potevano essere utilizzate come alimenti. Un esempio laglio,
originario dellAsia centrale.

Salute e igiene: dal XIV al XVII secolo

E questo il periodo in cui si hanno le peggiori condizioni di vita in


Europa: le citt medievali erano sovraffollate, non si conoscevano
le regole basilari di igiene e queste condizioni non potevano che
favorire lo sviluppo e la propagazione di epidemie gravissime: la
Peste Nera (1348-1349), la sifilide.

In Europa, i medici non avevano a disposizione mezzi efficaci per


combattere queste malattie e seguivano ciecamente la teoria degli
umori di Galeno, oppure prescrivevano continui salassi, mettendo
in pericolo la vita del paziente, o ancora consigliavano lassunzione
di minerali tossici allo scopo di riportare in equilibrio gli umori.
Lutilizzo dei minerali ha aumentato linteresse per le formule
chimiche ed ha, in questo modo, accelerato la frattura fra la
medicina e lutilizzo delle piante.

3
Linfluenza di Paracelso ed il nuovo razionalismo

Una delle figure pi rilevanti del XVI secolo stata senza dubbio
quella di Paracelso (1493-1541), personaggio sicuramente fuori del
comune che ha rifiutato le teorie di Galeno a favore di una pi
attenta osservazione dei fenomeni medici. Ha poi studiato
attentamente i dosaggi delle piante, affermando che la loro
tossicit dipende solo dalla dose.

Paracelso ha dato un contributo decisivo allo sviluppo della


chimica, della medicina moderna, della fitoterapia e
dellomeopatia. Ha studiato lalchimia, ha riportato in auge la
teoria delle signature ed ha affermato la superiorit delle piante
medicinali locali rispetto a quelle importate.

I medici dellepoca continuano per nelle loro prescrizioni di


veleni metallici (mercurio) senza alcuna prudenza, con terapie che
spesso risultano mortali per i malati. Parallelamente, la medicina
moderna guarda con sospetto alle concezioni di forza vitale, di
qi (energia primaria nella medicina tradizionale cinese), di
prana nellAyurveda e di vis medicatrix naturae secondo
Ippocrate. Queste nozioni hanno perso di interesse via via che si
sono imposte le idee filosofiche e matematiche di Cartesio (1596-
1650). Cartesio ha diviso il mondo in due opposti principi: il corpo
e lo spirito, la natura e le idee: il concetto di forza vitale
dominio della religione e non della medicina.

Lapproccio razionale ha permesso numerosi progressi nella


conoscenza del corpo umano: vengono pubblicati diversi lavori sul
funzionamento del cuore e sulla circolazione sanguigna.

Le sostanze chimiche

Lapproccio scientifico alla medicina permette anche di progredire


nella conoscenza tradizionale delle piante. Un esempio eloquente
fornito dallo studio della digitale (digitalis purpurea). Il dottor
William Withering (1741-1799) cominci a studiare la digitale dopo
aver ritrovato una ricetta di famiglia, contenente digitale, per il
trattamento della ritenzione idrica, patologia spesso rivelatrice di
una debolezza cardiaca. Pubblic uno studio in cui dimostr
lefficacia dei principi attivi (oggi noti come glucosidi cardiaci)
contro la ritenzione idrica.

4
Lisolamento dei singoli componenti della pianta ha aperto la
strada allo sviluppo, gi a partire dallinizio del XIX secolo, di
laboratori chimici: nel 1838 dal salice bianco venne estratto
lacido salicilico, precursore dellaspirina, che verr poi
sintetizzato in laboratorio per la prima volta nel 1860. Questo per
non che il primo passo, perch la fitoterapia costituisce ancora il
trattamento predominante.

In effetti fino a circa il 1950, tutti i farmaci erano costituiti da


piante; solo successivamente cominciata la sintesi chimica.

5
LA GALENICA
La galenica la forma in cui il prodotto viene presentato.

Secondo la curva di Valnet, tanto pi la pianta fresca, tanto pi


efficace. La pianta integra, inoltre, permette di sfruttare la
sinergia degli elementi che la compongono: il tutto superiore
rispetto alla somma dei singoli elementi.(J.M. Pelt)

Il ribes nigrum, ad esempio, in natura ha sia propriet cortison-


like, sia propriet diuretiche, in quanto lattivit cortison-like
porta ad un aumento della ritenzione di liquidi con conseguente
aumento della pressione arteriosa. Il macerato glicerinato di ribes
nigrum presenta la sola propriet cortison-like e non quella
diuretica, mentre il totum le ha entrambe.

6
Le tisane
un infuso in acqua. Con questo
procedimento possibile
utilizzare i soli principi
idrosolubili, mentre si perdono
enzimi e vitamine termolabili. Se
si vogliono sfruttare le virt
medicinali degli oli essenziali,
necessario coprire linfuso per
evitarne levaporazione. Si versa
acqua bollente sulla pianta, si
lascia in infusione per un tempo
massimo di quindici minuti, poi si
filtra. Il rapporto ottimale fra
pianta ed acqua di 5 gr di pianta
per 100 di acqua.

Le compresse
Hanno un contenuto minimo di materiale inerte (eccipienti,
lattosio) del 30%, a cui vengono aggiunti piante triturate e rese in
polvere. La procedura di triturazione (la tramoggia sviluppa calore)
rovina i principi attivi termolabili.

I succhi
In terapia vengono utilizzati succhi ottenuti da piante medicinali.
Diversi sono i succhi alimentari che derivano dalla frutta. I succhi
industrializzati contengono conservanti, coloranti ed aromi
artificiali.

I nebulizzati
Si ottengono a partire da un estratto acquoso, che viene
nebulizzato in corrente di aria calda e molto secca; lacqua
evapora lasciando una polvere finissima, con una buona
biodisponibilit ma che pu alterarsi facilmente a causa dellalto
grado di igroscopicit.

I macerati
I macerati glicerinati derivano da estrazioni con alcool e glicerina
di gemme fresche, raccolte in primavera, di giovani germogli e di
tessuti embrionali in fase di crescita, oppure da estrazioni dalla
scorza interna delle radici o ancora dagli steli.

7
Le tinture madri
Si tratta di preparazioni liquide che derivano dallestrazione di
pianta fresca, o di parte di essa, lasciata macerare in alcool. La
preparazione avviene da pianta fresca, raccolta nel giusto periodo
balsamico. Generalmente il titolo alcolico del 10% in rapporto al
peso della pianta disidratata. La macerazione in alcool deve durare
almeno per 21 giorni. Con questo tipo di preparazione possono
essere utilizzati i principi solubili in alcool. Permette la
standardizzazione e la conservazione. Partendo da una pianta
medicinale si ottiene un farmaco.

Le Sospensioni Integrale di Pianta Fresca


La pianta viene lavorata a -196, diventa estremamente friabile e
polverizzabile. La polvere viene messa in alcool e lefficacia
superiore rispetto alla Tintura Madre. La posologia complicata
(prodotto non uniforme) e la procedura di raffreddamento a 196
rompe le catene enzimatiche della pianta fresca.

Gli oli essenziali


Sono antibiotici molto potenti, selettivi, che non distruggono la
flora batterica intestinale ed impediscono la comparsa della
recidiva. I primi studi sono stati fatti dallIstituto Pasteur.
Contengono: terpeni, principi attivi acidi e dermocaustici. Gli oli in
commercio sono solitamente deterpenati, e quindi viene tolta la
loro peculiarit. Lacidit tipica di queste sostanze in grado di
eliminare la disbiosi intestinale. Gli oli essenziali costituiscono il
totum delle piante aromatiche. Se utilizzati per via interna,
devono essere contenuti in capsule gastro-resistenti a lento rilascio
intestinale.
Lestrazione degli oli essenziale pu avvenire con due metodi:
- distillazione: le piante vengono sminuzzate e poi introdotte in un
alambicco con acqua bollente. Si forma del vapore acqueo che
racchiude le parti aromatiche della pianta, che vengono poi
raccolte in una serpentina raffreddata;
- spremitura: le bucce sminuzzate vengono pressate. Questo tipo di
preparazione utilizzato soprattutto per gli agrumi.

Totum
E la forma galenica pi efficace se si parte da una pianta
medicinale. La pianta viene criotriturata a freddo, in un ambiente
a temperatura 15; questo procedimento la rende estremamente
friabile. Viene poi eliminata lacqua, ottenendo una polvere con un
alto grado di biodisponibilit; questa polvere viene poi incapsulata.

8
Se la polvere ottenuta viene messa in alcool, si ottiene una Tintura
Madre. Con la preparazione del totum, si ha la massima integrit
della pianta, i cui effetti collaterali sono ridotti al minimo, in
quanto la pianta in totum, e quindi cos come si trova in natura,
equilibrata.

9
COME IMPIEGARE LE PIANTE
Il nostro corpo composto da sangue, linfa, liquido extra-cellulare
e liquido intra-cellulare, cos come si pu vedere dallo schema
seguente:

Il fisico si deve nutrire, per poter dare nutrimento ai diversi liquidi


che lo compongono. E evidente limportanza dellalimentazione, e
limportanza di assumere alimenti vitali, che effettivamente
contengano nutrimenti.

La trasformazione degli alimenti produce tossine, che devono


essere eliminate attraverso gli organi emuntori.

Il fegato non ha sbocchi verso lesterno, e deve quindi demandare


la funzione di eliminazione ad altri organi, a seconda del tipo di
tossina che deve essere eliminato. Si possono infatti distinguere
tossine colloidali (o basiche o alcaline), costituite principalmente
da muco, e tossine acide (cristalli).

10
Lintestino smaltisce tossine colloidali. La vescicola biliare
produce bile, che viene riversata nellintestino, per poter lavorare
le sostanze colloidali immesse nel bolo alimentare.Quando
lintestino non in grado di provvedere alleliminazione (per
surlavoro o altre cause) altri organi emuntori svolgono una
funzione di soccorso (pelle, polmoni, utero).

La pelle pu smaltire sia tossine colloidali che tossine acide,


attraverso la sudorazione.

I polmoni smaltiscono sostanze acide con la respirazione, ma


anche tossine colloidali, coinvolgendo tutto il sistema respiratorio
(orecchie ostruite, naso ostruito di mattino dopo una cena
abbondante). Un disequilibrio a livello intestinale pu facilmente
portare ad un problema polmonare. In genere i polmoni fungono da
organo di emunzione di soccorso quando si verifica uneccesso di
saturazione tossinica da colloidi non evacuati dallintestino.

Le reni smaltiscono tossine di tipo acido.

Lutero in grado di eliminare sostanze collose, a volte grumose.

Se le tossine colloidali non riescono ad essere eliminate, le colle


ritornano nel sangue, provocandone un ispessimento con
conseguenti problemi circolatori, venosi, comparsa di emorroidi
(che costituiscono un chiaro sintomo di disequilibrio epatico). Ne
consegue un intasamento a livello del sistema linfatico (di cui un
sintomo tipico il dolore alla spalla destra), e potranno comparire
cervicalgie la cui origine epatica.

Il protrarsi di questa situazione nel tempo porter ad una


inversione di acidit: le tossine colloidali non possono entrare nel
liquido extra-cellulare ed il fisico (non riuscendo ad eliminare
leccesso di tossine colloidali) inizier a produrre tossine acide
interessando organi emuntori di soccorso non tipici al terreno di
appartenenza. Questi ultimi eccedendo il normale lavoro di
emunzione tenderanno ad essere colpiti da infiammazioni locali e
gravi patologie.

Anche le sostanze acide che non vengono eliminate dagli organi


emuntori preposti (reni, pelle), rientrano nel sangue, provocando
dolori articolari, tendiniti, epicondiliti, gotta. Quando il sistema
circolatorio si saturato , poich gli acidi non possono entrare
nella linfa, si avr produzione di sostanze tossiniche colloidali
(inversione di acidit), che dovranno essere smaltite da pelle,
polmoni ed intestino.

11
Il primo intervento dovr sempre avere
come obiettivo lalimentazione

Sar necessario eliminare gli alimenti che hanno provocato


lintossinazione dellorganismo, e quindi il regime dietetico dovr
essere adattato alla persona ed alla sua alimentazione di base: non
esiste una dieta uguale per tutti.

Lintossinazione dipende spesso dalle abitudini e deriva dalla


mancanza di variet e dalleccessiva quotidianit di alcuni cibi.
In Italia lintossinazione pu derivare da un consumo eccessivo di
carboidrati (pane, pasta) e bisogner quindi intervenire variando
lalimentazione e riducendo lassunzione di carboidrati. Il regime
alimentare dovr essere abbinato allassunzione di piante
specifiche che possano aiutare ad aprire gli organi emuntori e
quindi a facilitare leliminazione delle tossine.

Qui di seguito riportiamo lalimentazione detossinante proposta dal


dr. Saggio Saggese.

12
COLAZIONE ORE PRANZO E CENA ORE
10,30 (ALTERNANDO GLI ALIMENTI) 16,00
Luned Lievito di A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e
birra Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al Un frutto
cubetto, cartoccio
miele, caff
dorzo Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
oppure the, peperoni)
un frutto, un
tuorlo duovo Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o
parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg.di oliva


Marted Lievito di A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e
birra Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al Un frutto
cubetto, cartoccio
miele, caff
dorzo Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
oppure the, peperoni)
un frutto
Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o
parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg. di oliva


Mercoled Lievito di A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e
birra Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al Un frutto
cubetto, cartoccio
miele, caff
dorzo Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
oppure the, peperoni)
un frutto, un
tuorlo duovo Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o
parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg. di oliva


Gioved Lievito di A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e
birra Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al Un frutto
cubetto, cartoccio
miele, caff
dorzo Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
oppure the, peperoni)
un frutto
Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o
parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg. di oliva

13
Venerd Lievito di birra A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e
cubetto, Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al Un frutto
miele, caff cartoccio
dorzo oppure
the, un frutto, Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
un tuorlo peperoni)
duovo
Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o
parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg. di oliva


Sabato Lievito di birra A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e Un frutto
cubetto, Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al
miele, caff cartoccio
dorzo oppure
the, un frutto Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
peperoni)

Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o


parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg. di oliva


Domenica Lievito di birra A scelta, carni bianche o pesce (molluschi e Un frutto
cubetto, Un frutto crostacei esclusi) cotti a vapore, ai ferri o al
miele, caff cartoccio
dorzo oppure
the, un frutto, Verdure crude (no pomodori, melanzane e
un tuorlo peperoni)
duovo
Formaggi: piccole quantit di ricotta o
parmigiano

Bevande: acqua naturale e non gasata

Condimenti: limone e olio extra verg. di oliva

14
Nel trattamento bisogna poi sempre considerare le interazioni che
esistono fra i diversi sistemi, come si pu facilmente vedere dallo
schema qui sotto riportato.

Per la salute della persona, tutti i sistemi devono essere tenuti in


equilibrio.

15
PERCORSO TERAPEUTICO
PRIMA FASE OBBLIGATORIA: LA DETOSSINAZIONE
La detossinazione costituisce la prima tappa fondamentale ed
obbligatoria di ogni percorso terapeutico, ed ha come obiettivo

il ripristino della funzionalit epatica


e la detossinazione del sistema fisiologico

1. Alimentazione

Lalimentazione detossinante dovr essere seguita per 60


giorni, in quanto il tessuto epatico impiegher 21 giorni per
rigenerarsi e pulirsi (l80% degli epatociti si rigenerano in
tre settimane), ma a livello degli altri tessuti saranno
ancora presenti accumuli tossinici. Dopo 60 giorni sar
possibile reintegrare, con prudenza, gli alimenti non consentiti nel
regime di detossinazione.

2. Indagine

Dovr essere condotta unindagine semeiotica strumentale o non


per identificare la gravit dello squilibrio globale. Diversi sono i
fattori che dovranno essere tenuti in considerazione:
- let (ad esempio, la disbiosi in un bambino sicuramente pi
grave rispetto alladulto);
- il numero dei sistemi che si trovano in disequilibrio: con tre
sistemi fuori posto, si avranno forti ripercussioni sul sistema
immunitario
- il tipo di terreno specifico del paziente

3. Scelta della terapia

Lapproccio potr essere di diverso tipo: kinesiologico, iridologico,


attraverso la morfopsicologia, o con altre metodiche, ma in base a
questo bisogner essere in grado di stabilire la terapia
detossinante specifica, individuando gli organi che devono essere
riequilibrati e gli organi pi sollecitati.

16
Lapproccio classico prevede di utilizzare una pianta epato-
protettrice, per rigenerare la cellula epatica, da abbinare ad
una pianta che stimoli la funzione epatica. Unitamente a
queste due si somministrer una pianta ad azione sintomatica
sul sintomo riflesso.

La necessit di un intervento primariamente a livello epatico


risulta evidente dalla considerazione per cui il fegato svolge pi di
500 funzioni, fra cui:

trasformazione degli zuccheri


produzione di colesterolo
produzione e trasformazione di vitamine, enzimi ed
oligoelementi
termoregolazione corporea
trasformazione degli ormoni (ormonoproteine)

Prima di procedere al riequilibrio di tutti gli altri sistemi, di


fondamentale importanza che il fegato sia in buono stato.

PIANTE EPATO-PROTETTRICI

Desmodio Desmodium adscendens

Famiglia: Leguminose

Provenienza: Africa

Parte utilizzata: foglia e fusto

Principali costituenti:
alcaloidi (triptamina) e acidi grassi

17
Propriet:
Rigenerazione e protezione delle cellule epatiche; non
colagogo n coleretico
Difesa contro gli attacchi infiammatori o virali o tossici
Riduce la reazione allergica grazie alla sua azione protettrice
(inibisce lazione dellistamina) ed inibisce la monoossidasi
dellacido arachidonico
Permette la normalizzazione delle transaminasi

Utilizzo:
Disfunzioni epatiche minori
Epatiti virali, epatiti tossiche (da farmaci)
Lesioni epatiche dovute a chemioterapia od alcolismo
Manifestazioni allergiche o broncospasmi
Il Desmodio pu essere utilizzato sia in caso di intossinazione da
colle che in caso di intossinazioni di tipo acido.

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit (test di mutazione inversa e di tossicit
acuta), nessuna incompatibilit con altri trattamenti.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti. Si possono
consigliare almeno due cicli allanno, nei cambi di stagione
(settembre/ottobre, marzo/aprile).

Studi clinici
Numerosi studi dimostrano che il Desmodio consente:
- la prevenzione della cirrosi attraverso lattenuazione dei processi
infiammatori
- la normalizzazione delle transaminasi e delle gamma GT
- un rapido recupero della fatica
- la ripresa dellappetito

Riportiamo qui di seguito alcuni studi effettuati sul Desmodio,


tratti dal sito PubMed, della National Library of Medicine:
*****BIOCHEMISTRY*****
McManus OB Harris GH Giangiacomo KM Feigenbaum P Reuben JP Addy ME
Burka JF Kaczorowski GJ Garcia ML
An activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels isolated from a medicinal
herb.
In: Biochemistry (1993 Jun 22) 32(24):6128-33
ISSN: 0006-2960

18
Large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (maxi-K) channels play an
important role in regulating the tone of airway smooth muscle and
the release of bronchoconstrictive substances from nerves in the lung.
Crude extracts of Desmodium adscendens, a medicinal herb used in Ghana as a
treatment for asthma, inhibit binding of monoiodotyrosine charybdotoxin
(125I-ChTX) to receptor sites in bovine tracheal smooth muscle membranes that
have been shown to be associated with maxi-K channels. Using this assay, three
active components have been purified and identified by NMR and MS.
Comparison with authentic samples revealed the three active components as the
known triterpenoid glycosides dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-I), soyasaponin I,
and soyasaponin III. The most potent of these compounds, DHS-I, is a partial
inhibitor of 125I-ChTX binding (Ki = 120 nM, 62% maximum inhibition).
Inhibition of 125I-ChTX binding is primarily due to a decrease in the observed
maximum number of binding sites, with a smaller decrease in affinity. DHS-I
increases the rate of toxin dissociation from its receptor, suggesting that
modulation of ChTX binding occurs through an allosteric mechanism. DHS-I
reversibly increases the open probability of maxi-K channels from bovine
tracheal smooth muscle incorporated into planar lipid bilayers when applied to
the intracellular, but not the extracellular, side of the membrane at
concentrations as low as 10 nM. In contrast, DHS-I had no effect on several other
types of potassium channels or membrane transporters. This natural product is
the first example of ahigh-affinity activator of calcium-dependent potassium
channels and is the most potent known potassium channel opener.
Registry Numbers:
115422-61-2 (Charybdotoxin)
117210-14-7 (dehydrosoyasaponin I)
51330-27-9 (soyasaponin I)
55304-02-4 (soyasaponin III)
7440-70-2 (Calcium)

*****BRITISH JOURNAL OF UROLOGY*****


Hirayama H Wang Z Nishi K Ogawa A Ishimatu T Ueda S Kubo T Nohara T
Effect of Desmodium styracifolium-triterpenoid on calcium oxalate renal stones.
In: Br J Urol (1993 Feb) 71(2):143-7
ISSN: 0007-1331

We have studied the inhibitory effects of Desmodium styracifolium- triterpenoid


(Ds-t) (extracted from Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr, a herbal
medicine) on the formation of calcium oxalate renal stones induced
experimentally by ethylene glycol (EG) and 1 alpha(OH)D3 (1 alpha D3) in rats.
The incidence of urinary stone formation was 81% in the control group, which
received EG and 1 alpha D3, and 29% in the Ds-t group, which received EG and 1
alpha D3 supplemented by Ds-t. The serum calcium (Ca) concentration in the Ds-
t group was significantly elevated and urinary Ca excretion was markedly
reduced.
Urinary excretion of citrate (Cit), a factor that prevents stone formation, was
significantly increased in the Ds-t group. Excretion of urinary phosphorus (P),
which was elevated to a significantly greater extent in the controls than in the
Ds-t group, was increased in both groups. The increase in urine volume in the
Ds- t group was significantly greater than in the control group. The 24-h
creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) was significantly lower in the controls. These
findings suggest that Ds-t inhibits the formation of Ca oxalate stones in
rat kidneys by increasing the output of urine, decreasing the
excretion of calcium and increasing the urinary excretion of citrate.
Ds-t may be useful in preventing the recurrence of urinary Ca oxalate
stones in the clinical setting.

19
*****AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE*****
Ho CS Wong YH Chiu KW
The hypotensive action of Desmodium styracifolium and Clematis chinensis.
In: Am J Chin Med (1989) 17(3-4):189-202
ISSN: 0192-415X

The cardiovascular pharmacology of aqueous extracts of Desmodium


styracifolium (DSE) and Clematis chinensis (CCE) were studied in rats both in
vivo and in vitro. DSE produced two successive hypotensive actions: the first one
via cholinergic receptor stimulation, while the second one potentiated by
blockades of autonomic ganglion and alpha-adrenoceptor. In contrast to DSE,
CCE produced only one hypotensive response which was mediated through
histaminergic activity.
Furthermore, both extracts relaxed isolated methoxamine preconstricted helical
tail artery strips. CCE also produced both negative chronotropic and inotropic
effects on isolated atria, while DSE was positive chronotropic without apparent
effect on the contractile force.

*****CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY*****


Addy ME Burka JF
Effect of Desmodium adscendens fractions on antigen- and arachidonic
acid-induced contractions of guinea pig airways.
In: Can J Physiol Pharmacol (1988 Jun) 66(6):820-5
ISSN: 0008-4212

Three fractions (n-butanol, F2, and L5), isolated from an aqueous extract of
Desmodium adscendens, a plant used in Ghana for the management of asthma,
were evaluated for their pharmacological activity using ovalbumin and
arachidonic acid-induced contractions of guinea pig airways. All three fractions
inhibited the ovalbumin- induced contractions of indomethacin-pretreated
tracheal spirals from sensitized animals dose dependently, but only L5 and n-
butanol inhibited such contractions in the absence of indomethacin. The
concentrations required to inhibit ovalbumin-induced contractions of lung
parenchymal strips were threefold higher than with trachea. The contractile
response over a 60-min period was divided into three phases. F2 and n-butanol
inhibited all phases, whereas L5 inhibited only the late phase. n-Butanol and L5
inhibited arachidonic acid-induced contractions on indomethacin-pretreated
tracheal spirals, a leukotriene-dependent reaction. There was no inhibition of
arachidonic acid-induced contractions of lung parenchymal strips, which is
largely a thromboxane-dependent reaction. The results suggest that D.
adscendens contains several pharmacologically active substances
that can inhibit allergic airway smooth muscle contraction at
multiple sites, including the synthesis and (or) activity of the
bronchoconstrictor leukotrienes.
Registry Numbers:
506-32-1 (Arachidonic Acid)
53-86-1 (Indomethacin)
71-36-3 (n-butyl alcohol)
9006-59-1 (Ovalbumin)

*****CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN*****


Kubo T Hamada S Nohara T Wang ZR Hirayama H Ikegami K Yasukawa K
Takido M
Study on the constituents of Desmodium styracifolium.
In: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) (1989 Aug) 37(8):2229-31
ISSN: 0009-2363

20
Two triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from Desmodii Herba [the
dried whole plants of Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae)]
and their chemical structures were characterized as soyasaponin I and a new
saponin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1---- 2)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl- (1--
--2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]soyasapogenol E, respectively, by chemical and
spectroscopic means.

*****JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY*****
Addy ME Burka JF
Effect of Desmodium adscendens fraction 3 on contractions of respiratory
smooth muscle.
In: J Ethnopharmacol (1990 Jul) 29(3):325-35
ISSN: 0378-8741

The third flash chromatography fraction prepared from an aqueous extract of


Desmodium adscendens leaves (DAF3) was evaluated for pharmacological
activity using contractions of tracheal spirals and lung parenchymal
strips caused by ovalbumin, arachidonic acid, histamine and
carbachol. DAF3 inhibited both the early and late phases of antigen-induced
contractions of both tissues dose-dependently, but had no effect on arachidonic-
induced contractions. With tracheal spirals, the inhibition occurred whether the
tissue was pretreated with indomethacin or not. On tracheal spirals, the
maximum contraction (Emax) caused by histamine and carbachol were
enhanced, but the pD2 value for histamine was not affected while that for
carbachol was decreased. DAF3 had no effect on Emax or pD2 values for these
agonists on lung parenchymal strips. The results suggest that DAF3 may
inhibit the release of free arachidonic acid.
Registry Numbers:
506-32-1 (Arachidonic Acid)
51-45-6 (Histamine)
51-83-2 (Carbachol)
64-17-5 (Alcohol, Ethyl)
9006-59-1 (Ovalbumin)

Addy ME Awumey EM
Effects of the extracts of Desmodium adscendens on anaphylaxis.
In: J Ethnopharmacol (1984 Aug) 11(3):283-92
ISSN: 0378-8741

Desmodium adscendens, used by herbalists in Ghana for the treatment of


asthma, is anti-anaphylactic in vitro. As the plant material is administered
orally, in vivo studies of its anti-anaphylactic property were undertaken using
the guinea-pig. The results show that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of D.
adscendens, when taken orally, reduce anaphylactic contractions, interfere with
histamine- induced contractions, and reduce the amount of smooth muscle
stimulating substances released from lung tissue of guinea pigs.
Registry Numbers:
51-45-6 (Histamine)
9006-59-1 (Ovalbumin)

N'gouemo P Baldy-Moulinier M Nguemby-Bina C


Effects of an ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens on central nervous
system in rodents.
In: J Ethnopharmacol (1996 Jun) 52(2):77-83
ISSN: 0378-8741

21
This study investigates some pharmacological effects of the ethanolic extract of
the leaves of Desmodium adscendens (Papillionaceae), a medicinal plant in the
African traditional medicine, on the central nervous system. The plant extract
induced hypothermia and had analgesic effect in mice. D. adscendens suppressed
the tonic phase of convulsion and mortality induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)
in mice. In addition, the plant extract delayed the onset of PTZ forelimb clonus,
and generalized limbic seizures induced by kainic acid. In contrast, the plant
extract did not affect either tonic convulsion induced by maximal electroshock in
mice or the progression of limbic seizures towards the status epilepticus in rats.
Registry Numbers:
487-79-6 (Kainic Acid)
54-95-5 (Pentylenetetrazole)
64-17-5 (Alcohol, Ethyl)
64-19-7 (acetic acid glacial)

Addy ME Dzandu WK
Dose-response effects of Desmodium adscendens aqueous extract on histamine
response, content and anaphylactic reactions in the guinea pig.
In: J Ethnopharmacol (1986 Oct) 18(1):13-20
ISSN: 0378-8741

Different concentrations of a hot water extract of Desmodium adscendens, a


plant used in Ghana to control asthmatic attacks, were used in drinking water to
evaluate the plant's anti-anaphylactic properties in guinea pigs. The results show
that the extract's inhibition of histamine-induced ileal contraction is largely
competitive and that its effect of reducing lung histamine content is dose-
dependent. The results also show that the extract causes a dose- dependent
reduction in the amount of spasmogens released anaphylactically and in
anaphylactic-induced contraction of ileal muscle.
Registry Numbers:
51-45-6 (Histamine)

*****MEMORIAS DO INSTITUTO OSWALDO CRUZ*****


Vargas VM Guidobono RR Henriques JA
Genotoxicity of plant extracts.
In: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz (1991) 86 Suppl 2:67-70
ISSN: 0074-0276

Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine


(Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis
anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were
screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test
(Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B.
anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere
(Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the
capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage
induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

*****PHYTOCHEMISTRY*****
Monache GD Botta B Vinciguerra V de Mello JF de Andrade Chiappeta A
Antimicrobial isoflavanones from Desmodium canum.
In: Phytochemistry (1996 Feb) 41(2):537-44
ISSN: 0031-9422

22
Bioassay-directed fractionation of Desmodium canum resulted in the isolation
and characterization of three antimicrobial isoflavonones. These compounds,
namely, desmodianones A, B and C, were assigned the structures 5,7,2'-
trihydroxy-6,6"-dimethyl-6"-(4-methylpent-3-
enyl)pyrano(2",3";4',5')isoflavanone, 5,2',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methyl-8-
(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-is oflavanone, and 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methyl-5'-(3,7-
dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl )-isoflavanone,respectively.

*****PLANTA MEDICA*****
Iwu MM Jackson JE Tally JD Klayman DL
Evaluation of plant extracts for antileishmanial activity using a mechanism-
based radiorespirometric microtechnique (RAM).
In: Planta Med (1992 Oct) 58(5):436-41
ISSN: 0032-0943

Extracts of eleven plants used in Nigerian traditional medicine have been


evaluated for possible antileishmanial activity using a radiorespirometric
microtest technique based on in vitro inhibition of catabolism of 14CO2 from a
battery of 14C-substrates by promastigotes. Of 13 methanol extracts tested, 5
from Gongronema latifolia, Dorstenia multiradiata, Picralima nitida, Cola
attiensis, and Desmodium gangeticum, were active at concentrations of 50
micrograms/ml or less against a visceral Leishmania isolate.
Registry Numbers:
124-38-9 (Carbon Dioxide)

*****PROSTAGLANDINS LEUKOTRIENES AND ESSENTIAL FATTY


ACIDS*****
Addy ME
Some secondary plant metabolites in Desmodium adscendens and their effects on
arachidonic acid metabolism.
In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1992 Sep) 47(1):85-91
ISSN: 0952-3278

The effects of three chemically different groups of compounds, (triterpenoid


saponins, beta-phenylethylamines and tetrahydroisoquinolines), known to be
present in Desmodium adscendens, on plasma membrane ion channel,
cytochrome P450 NADPH- dependent oxygenation of arachidonic acid, and
production of prostaglandins by the cyclooxygenase enzyme system, are
described. The very high-conductance calcium-activated potassium ion channel,
which is responsible for the maintenance of tone in smooth muscles, was
activated by the saponins. The cytochrome P450 NADPH-dependent
monooxygenase reaction, which produces epoxy- and hydroxylated eicosanoids
from arachidonic acid metabolism, was inhibited by an analogue of the
tetrahydroisoquinoline present in the plant. This analogue also acted as a
reductant in the prostaglandin synthesizing system using microsomes from ram
seminal vesicles. The same system was activated by the beta-phenylethylamines
found in the plant material, with the formation of more prostaglandins, the type
being dependent on the amount of cyclooxygenase enzyme used and the presence
or absence of coenzyme.
Registry Numbers:
506-32-1 (Arachidonic Acid)

23
*****YAO HSUEH HSUEH PAO [ACTA PHARMACEUTICA SINICA]*****
Yang JS Su YL Wang YL
[Studies on the chemical constituents of Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck)
Merr.]
In: Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao (1993) 28(3):197-201
ISSN: 0513-4870 (Published in Chinese)

A new alkaloid, named desmodimine, C12H15NO4, gum, and a new natural


product, named desmodilactone, C8H13NO3, mp 84-85 degrees C have been
isolated from the aerial parts of Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr.
belonging Leguminosae. On the basis of spectral analysis their structures were
deduced as formula I and II. In addition, lupenone (III), lupeol (IV),
tritriacontane (V), stearic acid (VI), eicosanoic acid eicosyl ester (VIII) and beta-
sitosterol (VII) were isolated for the first time from this plant.
Registry Numbers:
150036-83-2 (desmodimine)
60010-74-4 (desmodilactone)

Cardo di Maria Carduus marianus

Famiglia: Composite

Provenienza: Europa

Parte utilizzata: semi e foglie

Principali costituenti:
flavonolignani (silimarina)
principi amari
tiramina, istamina

Propriet:
Epatoprotettore: la silimari-
na inibisce lingresso di elementi
tossici nella cellula
Colagogo
Coleretico
Aumenta la produzione di
enzimi digestivi

Utilizzo:
Intossicazioni epatiche
Disfunzioni epatiche minori
Epatiti

24
Tollerabilit:
Il contenuto in istamina la rende allergizzante.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno durante i pasti.

Studi clinici:
Diversi studi hanno dimostrato che possibile prevenire
intossicazioni epatiche, anche gravi, dovute allingestione di
tetracloruro di carbonio o di funghi velenosi, tramite lassunzione
di silimarina.

PIANTE EPATO-STIMOLATRICI

In abbinamento alla pianta con funzione epato-protettiva, si


abbineranno una o due piante che stimoleranno la funzionalit
epatica.

Per scegliere la pianta pi adatta, si dovr stabilire lappartenenza


del paziente ad un terreno alcalino o acido.

Fase alcalina/colloidale

Tarassaco o Dente di Leone Taraxacum officinale

Questa pianta viene utilizzata per valutare il grado di


inquinamento del territorio, perch raccogli i metalli pesanti
depurando laria.

Famiglia: Composite

Provenienza: il tarassaco cresce in


tutti i continenti. E coltivato per
seminagione in Francia ed in
Germania.

Parte utilizzata: radice e foglie

Principali costituenti:
Principi amari: lactucopicrina
Triterpeni
Vitamine: A, B, C, D

25
Le foglie:
Aminoacidi
Carotenoidi
Minerali (Potassio)
La radice:
Tarassacosidi
Zuccheri
Minerali
(Potassio,Calcio)

Tarassasterolo

Propriet:
Potente depurativo, a livello epatico e biliare
Diuretico
Antinfiammatorio
Tonico amaro

Utilizzo:
Costipazione
Problemi cutanei
Reumatismi
Intossinazione epatica e biliare
E una pianta epatica che riesce per anche a riequilibrare la
funzione renale. Pu essere utilizzato nel caso di pazienti con
intossicazione da colle in fase di inversione di acidit.

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Studi clinici:
Riportiamo qui di seguito alcuni studi effettuati sul Tarassaco,
tratti dal sito PubMed, della National Library of Medicine:

1: Genome 2000 Oct;43(5):827-35


Meiotic recombination in sexual diploid and apomictic triploid dandelions.
van Baarlen P, van Dijk PJ, Hoekstra RF, de Jong JH
Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
[Medline record in process]

Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with


diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping
populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central
and northern regions.

26
Previous studies have demonstrated unexpectedly high levels of genetic variation
in the apomictic populations, suggesting the occurrence of genetic segregation in
the apomicts and (or) hybridization between sexual and apomictic individuals. In
this study we analysed meiosis in both sexual diploid and apomictic triploid
plants to find mechanisms that could account for the high levels of genetic
variation in the apomicts. Microscopic study of microsporocytes in the triploid
apomicts revealed that the levels of chromosome pairing and chiasma formation
at meiotic prophase I were lower than in that of the sexual diploids, but still
sufficient to assume recombination between the homologues. Nomarski DIC
(differential interference contrast) microscopy of optically cleared
megasporocytes in the apomicts demonstrated incidental formation of tetrads,
which suggests that hybridization can occur in triploid apomicts.
PMID: 11081973, UI: 20532223

2: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2000 Aug;22(3):519-30


Taraxacum officinale inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from
rat astrocytes.
Kim HM, Shin HY, Lim KH, Ryu ST, Shin TY, Chae HJ, Kim HR, Lyu YS, An NH,
Lim KS
College of Pharmacy, Center of Oriental Medicinal Science, Wonkwang
University, Iksan, Chonbuk, South Korea. hmkim@wonnms.wonkwang.ac.kr
[Medline record in process]

Substance P (SP) can stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-


alpha) from astrocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The objective
of the current study was to determine the effect of Taraxacum officinale (TO) on
the production of TNF-alpha from primary cultures of rat astrocytes. TO (100
and 1000 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the TNF-alpha production by
astrocytes stimulated with LPS and SP. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been shown to
elevate TNF-alpha production from LPS-stimulated astrocytes while having no
effect on astrocytes in the absence of LPS. We therefore examined whether IL-1
mediated inhibition of TNF-alpha production from primary astrocytes by TO.
Treatment of TO (100 and 1000 microg/ml) to astrocytes stimulated with both
LPS and SP decreased IL-1 production significantly. Moreover, the production of
TNF-alpha by LPS and SP in astrocytes was progressively inhibited with
increasing amount of IL-1 neutralizing antibody. Our results suggest that TO
may inhibit TNF-alpha production by inhibiting IL-1 production and that TO has
an antiinflammatory activity in the central nervous system.
PMID: 10946829, UI: 20401653

4: Fitoterapia 2000 Jun;71(3):269-273


Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale.
Kisiel W, Barszcz B
Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, 12 Smetna Str., Pl-31 343, Krakow, Poland
[Record supplied by publisher]

Five germacrane- and guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two


previously described taraxinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of
Taraxacum officinale, together with benzyl glucoside, dihydroconiferin, syringin
and dihydrosyringin. The other three lactones were identified as 11beta, 13-
dihydrolactucin, ixerin D and ainslioside. Moreover, the stereochemistry at C-11
in dihydrotaraxinic acid was assigned.
PMID: 10844166

27
6: Plant Physiol 2000 May;123(1):71-80
Cloning, developmental, and tissue-specific expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-
fructosyl transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan localization in roots.
Van den Ende W, Michiels A, Van Wonterghem D, Vergauwen R, Van Laere A
Department of Biology, Botany Institute, K.U., Kardinaal Mercierlaan 92, B-
3001
Heverlee, Belgium. wim.vandenede@bio.kuleven.ac.be

Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating


fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the
cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid
sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium
intybus
86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST
from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. Fructan
concentrations, 1-SST activities, 1-SST protein, and mRNA concentrations were
compared in different organs during vegetative and generative development of
T. officinale plants. Expression of 1-SST was abundant in young roots but very
low in leaves. 1-SST was also expressed at the flowering stages in roots, stalks,
and receptacles. A good correlation was found between northern and western
blots showing transcriptional regulation of 1-SST. At the pre-flowering stage, 1-
SST mRNA concentrations and 1-SST activities were higher in the root phloem
than in the xylem, resulting in the higher fructan concentrations in the phloem.
Fructan localization studies indicated that fructan is preferentially stored in
phloem parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the secondary sieve tube elements.
However, inulin-like crystals occasionally appeared in xylem vessels.
PMID: 10806226, UI: 20267941

7: Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000 Feb;65(2):192-7


Changes in the hormonal status of the Taraxacum officinale Web. ovary at
early stages of embryogenesis.
Blintsov AN, Gussakovskaya MA, Yermakov IP
School of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899,
Russia.
mag@1.plantphys.bio.msu.ru.

The hormonal status of the Taraxacum officinale Web. ovary was quantitatively
assayed for the first time during early stages of embryogenesis. Apparent
concentrations of endogenous cytokinins were measured using two systems of
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA systems differed from
one another by the specificity for the main endogenous forms of zeatin. The
specificity of two heterological ELISA systems based on zeatin- and kinetin-
specific antisera was studied. A new immunochemical approach to the problem
of differential quantitative determination of natural zeatin forms is suggested.
This approach does not require preliminary separation of experimental samples
into individual fractions. True concentrations of zeatin and zeatin riboside in the
T. officinale ovary were calculated based on the average values of apparent
concentrations of endogenous cytokinins. When the embryo sac maturation had
been completed, there was a threefold increase in the zeatin riboside
concentration within the following 12 h. By the time of the first division of an
unfertilized ovicell (i.e., within the next 12 h), there had been a twofold decrease
in the zeatin riboside concentration. Therefore, at early stages of division of the
unfertilized ovicell the zeatin riboside concentration virtually returned to the
initial level. In contrast to zeatin riboside, there was a steady trend toward an
increase in the zeatin concentration in the T. officinale ovary. Within the first 12
h and the next 12 h after completion of the embryo sac maturation, the zeatin
concentration was increased 1.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The results of this
work provide a pioneering insight into the dynamics of various natural forms of
zeatin during the reproductive process. The immunochemical approach to

28
quantitative monitoring of various natural forms of zeatin and their dynamics
during embryogenesis suggested in this work can be extended to similar
biological, medical, and agricultural problems of differential determination of
low-molecular-weight agents of similar structure but different biological
activity.
PMID: 10713546, UI: 20180399

8: Mol Ecol 2000 Jan;9(1):1-8


Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers reveal that
population structure of triploid dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) exhibits
both clonality and recombination.
Van Der Hulst RG, Mes TH, Den Nijs JC, Bachmann K
Institute for Systematics and Ecology, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318,
NL-1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands. hulst@bio.uva.nl

Highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints of


triploid apomictic dandelions obtained from three localities in an area where
diploids are lacking were analysed to infer the predominant modes of
reproduction. The distribution of markers was analysed using character
compatibility to infer whether many genotypes agree with a tree-like structure in
the data set. The presence of incompatible character state combinations (matrix
incompatibility; MI) was used as a measure of genetic exchange. The detection of
overrepresented genotypes, of which some were widespread, confirmed
asexual reproduction. Not all genotypes were overrepresented; approximately
half of the genotypes in the three localities were found only once. Because, in
terms of genotype frequencies, only a part of the genetic variation is described,
more important aspects of the molecular data such as relationships between
markers or genotypes have been studied. The analysis of character compatibility
indicated a disagreement of the data with a clonal structure. Nearly all
genotypes contributed to MI and this contribution varied considerably among
genotypes in each sampled locality. A gradual decrease of matrix incompatibility
upon successive deletion of genotypes showing the highest contribution to MI
indicated that marker distribution of virtually all genotypes disagreed with a
tree-like structure in the data. This result suggested that many genotypes were
separated by one or more sexual generations. Consistent with this conclusion
was the fact that markers that show a low probability of contributing to MI are
different in every sampled locality, which is most easily explained as the result of
recombination. Apparently, asexual reproduction has resulted in
overrepresented, widespread genotypes but sexual recombination has also
substantially contributed to genetic variation in the sites studied.
PMID: 10652071, UI: 20117582

9: Sci Total Environ 1999 Oct 1;239(1-3):165-71


Potential of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) as a bioindicator of manganese
arising from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in
unleaded gasoline.
Normandin L, Kennedy G, Zayed J
TOXHUM (Human Toxicology Research Group), Faculte de medecine, Universite
de Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic


manganese (Mn) compound currently added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. It
has been suggested that the combustion of MMT containing Mn could cause
various deleterious health effects in animals and humans at very high
concentrations. This study evaluates the potential of dandelions (Taraxacum
officinale) as bioindicators of Mn environmental contamination. Samples were
picked at three different distances from a highway: a highly exposed site (E++), a
lightly exposed site (E+) and a control site (E), located respectively at 10, 50 and

29
100 m. The total Mn, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and Zn concentrations were measured in the
soils and in the plants
(flower, stem, leaves and root) by neutron activation analysis. Exchangeable Mn
was measured in soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mn
concentrations of the different parts of the plant and exchangeable Mn in soils
were not correlated with distance from the roadway and, thus, do not seem to be
a sensitive indicator of Mn contamination. Soil Mn concentrations were
correlated with distance from the roadway. This suggests the hypothesis that the
environmental fate of Mn from MMT sources could be associated with an
increased total Mn in soil but does not lead to an increase in exchangeable Mn.
PMID: 10570841, UI: 20037431

Eur J Biochem 1999 Nov;266(1):302-7


Two branches
of the lupeol synthase genein the molecular evolution of plant oxidosqualene
cyclases.
Shibuya M, Zhang H, Endo A, Shishikura K, Kushiro T, Ebizuka Y
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

Two new triterpene synthase cDNAs, named as OEW and TRW, were cloned
from olive leaves (Olea europaea) and from dandelion roots (Taraxacum
officinale), respectively, by the PCR method with primers designed from the
conserved sequences found in the known oxidosqualene cyclases. Their ORFs
consisted of 2274 bp nucleotides and coded for 758 amino acid long polypeptides.
They shared high sequence identity (78%) to each other, while they showed only
about 60% identities to the known triterpene synthases LUPI (lupeol synthase
clone from Arabidopsis thaliana) and PNY (beta-amyrin synthase clone from
Panax ginseng) at amino acid level. To determine the enzyme functions of the
translates, they were expressed in an ERG7 deficient yeast mutant. Accumulation
of lupeol in the cells of yeast transformants proved both of these clones code for
lupeol synthase proteins. An EST (expression sequence tag) clone isolated from
Medicago truncatula roots as a homologue of cycloartenol synthase gene,
exhibits high sequence identity (75-77%) to these two lupeol synthase cDNAs,
suggesting it to be another lupeol synthase clone. Comparatively low identity
(approximately 57%) of LUP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana to either one of these
clones leaves LUP1 as a distinct clone among lupeol synthases. From these
sequence comparisons, now we propose that two branches of lupeol synthase
gene have been generated in higher plants during the course of evolution.
PMID: 10542078, UI: 20009418

11: Biochemistry (Mosc) 1999 Sep;64(9):1030-7


A new subtilisin-like proteinase from roots of the dandelion Taraxacum
officinale Webb S. L. Bogacheva AM, Rudenskaya GN, Preusser A, Tchikileva IO,
Dunaevsky YE, Golovkin BN, Stepanov VM
Department of Natural Compounds, School of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow
State
University, Moscow, 119899, Russia. annamb@genebee.msu.su

A serine proteinase from roots of Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L. was isolated


by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration on Superose 6R using FPLC. The
enzyme is a 67-kD glycoprotein containing 54% carbohydrate which we have
named taraxalisin. The substrate specificity of taraxalisin toward synthetic
peptides and oxidized insulin B-chain is comparable with that of cucumisin from
Cucumis
melo and the subtilisin-like serine proteinase macluralisin from Maclura
pomifera. The proteinase is inactivated by DFP and PMSF. Taraxalisin exhibits
maximal activity at pH 8.0. The pH range for stability of the enzyme is narrow--
6.0-9.0. The temperature optimum for the subtilisin-like activity is 40 degrees C.

30
The N-terminal sequence of taraxalisin has 40% of its residues identical to those
of subtilisin Carlsberg. Thus, the serine proteinase from dandelion roots is a
member of the subtilisin family, which is evidently widespread in the plant
kingdom.
PMID: 10521720, UI: 99453393

12: Gen Pharmacol 1999 Jun;32(6):683-8


Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in
mouse peritoneal macrophages. Kim HM, Oh CH, Chung CK
Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University,
Iksan, Chonbuk, South Korea. hmkim@med.wonkwang.ac.kr

The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Taraxacum
officinale (TO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO). Stimulation of mouse
peritoneal macrophages with TO after the treatment of recombinant interferon-
gamma (rIFN-gamma) resulted in increased NO synthesis. TO had no effect on
NO synthesis by itself. When TO was used in combination with rIFN-gamma,
there was a marked cooperative induction of NO synthesis in a dose-dependent
manner. The optimal effect of TO on NO synthesis was shown 6 h after treatment
with rIFN-gamma. This increase in NO synthesis was manifested as an increased
amount of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein. NO production was inhibited
by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. The increased production of NO from rIFN-
gamma plus TO-stimulated cells was decreased by treatment with a protein
kinase C inhibitor such as staurosporin. In addition, synergy between rIFN-
gamma and TO was mainly dependent on TO-induced tumor necrosis factor-
alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. All the preparations of TO were endotoxin free.
These results suggest that the capacity of TO to increase NO production from
rIFN-gamma-primed mouse peritoneal macrophages is the result of TO-induced
TNF-alpha secretion.
PMID: 10401993, UI: 99328420

13: Plant Physiol 1999 May;120(1):121-30


The MADS-domain protein AGAMOUS-like 15 accumulates in embryonic tissues
with diverse origins.
Perry SE, Lehti MD, Fernandez DE
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison,
Wisconsin 53706-1381, USA.

AGL15 (AGAMOUS-like 15), a member of the MADS-domain family of regulatory


factors, accumulates preferentially in the organs and tissues derived from double
fertilization in flowering plants (i.e. the embryo, suspensor, and endosperm). The
developmental role of AGL15 is still undefined. If it is involved in embryogenesis
rather than some other aspect of seed biology, then AGL15 protein should
accumulate whenever development proceeds in the embryonic mode, regardless
of the origin of those embryos or their developmental context. To test this, we
used AGL15-specific antibodies to analyze apomictic embryogenesis in dandelion
(Taraxacum officinale), microspore embryogenesis in oilseed rape (Brassica
napus), and somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In every case,
AGL15 accumulated to relatively high levels in the nuclei of the embryos. AGL15
also accumulated in cotyledon-like organs produced by the xtc2 (extra
cotyledon2) mutant of Arabidopsis and during precocious germination in oilseed
rape. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of AGL15 appeared to be
developmentally regulated in all embryogenic situations. AGL15 was initially
present in the cytoplasm of cells and became nuclear localized before or soon
after embryogenic cell divisions began. These results support the hypothesis that
AGL15 participates in the regulation of programs active during the early stages
of embryo development.
PMID: 10318690, UI: 99252258

31
15: Arch Dermatol 1999 Jan;135(1):67-70
Allergic contact and photoallergic contact dermatitis to plant and pesticide
allergens.
Mark KA, Brancaccio RR, Soter NA, Cohen DE
Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of
Medicine, New York, USA. kam7@is4.nyu.edu

BACKGROUND: The panel of patch test allergens used for the evaluation of
patients with suspected photoallergy typically does not include plant and
pesticide allergens. The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis and
photoallergic contact dermatitis to plant and pesticide allergens was determined
for this subgroup of patients. OBSERVATION: Positive reactions were detected in
12 of 26 patients who were tested with our photoallergen series: 5 with allergic
contact dermatitis, 5 with photoallergic contact dermatitis, and 2 with both. Four
of the 12 patients had positive patch and photo-patch test reactions to plant
allergens, pesticide allergens, or both. The positive patch test reactions were to
the plants Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) and Tanacetum vulgare (tansy)
and to the pesticides folpet and captafol. Positive photo-patch test reactions were
to the pesticides folpet and captan. The histories of the patients suggested that 2
or 3 of the 4 patients had clinically relevant reactions. In the other 8 patients,
positive reactions to the patch and photo-patch tests included fragrances,
sunscreens, and antibacterial agents.
CONCLUSION: Plant and pesticide allergens should be included in the patch and
photo-patch test series used for the evaluation of patients with suspected
photoallergy.
PMID: 9923784, UI: 99120659

16: FEBS Lett 1998 Oct 23;437(3):237-40


Taraxalisin -- a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l.
Rudenskaya GN, Bogacheva AM, Preusser A, Kuznetsova AV, Dunaevsky YaE,
Golovkin BN, Stepanov VM
Chemistry Department of Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
rudenskaya@biog.chem

Latex of dandelion roots contains a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes a


chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0.
Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the
beginning of plant development after the winter period. The protease was
isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation of the root extract followed by
affinity chromatography on a Sepharose-Ala-Ala-Leu-mrp and gel filtration on
Superose 6R performed in FPLC regime. Pure serine proteinase named
taraxalisin was inactivated by specific inhibitors of serine proteinases,
diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). Its
molecular mass is 67 kDa and pI 4.5. pH stability range is 6-9 in the presence of
2 mM Ca2+, temperature optimum is at 40 degrees C; Km=0.37+/-0.06 mM. The
substrate specificity of taraxalisin towards synthetic peptides and insulin B-
chain is comparable with that of two other subtilisin-like serine proteinases,
cucumisin and macluralisin. The taraxalisin N-terminal sequence traced for 15
residues revealed 40% coinciding residues when aligned with that of subtilisin
Carlsberg.
PMID: 9824298, UI: 99039904

17: Arch Latinoam Nutr 1997 Sep;47(3):265-70


[Nutrient content in vegetable species from the Argentine Chaco]. [Article in
Spanish]
Rozycki VR, Baigorria CM, Freyre MR, Bernard CM, Zannier MS, Charpentier M
Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (I.T.A.), Santa Fe, Republica Argentina.

32
The nutrient composition was investigated in wild vegetable products grown in
the Argentine Chaco. The evaluated species were: Rumex sp., Amaranthus
quitensis and Taraxacum officinale, as vegetable leaves; Morrenia odorata,
Passiflora sp. (in two ripening stages) and Eugenia myrciantes as fruits; and the
pollen of the flowers of Typha domingensis. Sampling was performed during
three harvesting seasons. Values for protein, total lipid, crude fiber, ash,
reducing and total sugar, starch, total pectin and computed energy value are
given. Mineral values are reported for: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium,
iron and phosphorus. Vitamin values are given for ascorbic acid and beta-
carotene. Comparison of two means test was employed to test the significant
differences among the means. In the wild leaves, higher concentrations of the
macronutrients were found thean in commercially exploited cultivars such as
swiss chard, spinach and chicory. Also higher energy value: 33-60 Kcal against
14-30 Kcal/100 g. Unusually high levels of calcium, iron and magnesium were
found for Amaranthus quitensis (274.3, 6.4 and 136.2 mg/100 g, respectively)
and 48.9 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid were found in Rumex sp. As a rule, all these
wild fruits exhibited higher amounts of macronutrients and energy value than
cultivated species such as apples (Mallus sp). The most interesting results were
for T. domingensis pollen regarding its macro and micronutrient composition
with an energetic value of 287.7 Kcal/100 g.
PMID: 9673684, UI: 98338472

18: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1998 May;20(2):283-97


Taraxacum officinale restores inhibition of nitric oxide production by cadmium
in mouse peritoneal macrophages.
Kim HM, Lee EH, Shin TY, Lee KN, Lee JS
Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University,
Iksan, Chonbuk, South Korea.

Nitric oxide (NO) produced at high concentrations by the inducible NO synthase


is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense.
The involvement of NO in the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has been proposed. We
have established that Cd inhibits the production of NO by recombinant IFN-
gamma (rIFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal
macrophages. In the present study, we searched restoration drug against the
inhibition of NO production by Cd in Oriental medicine. An aqueous extract of
Taraxacum officinale (Compositae) (TOAE) restored the inhibition of NO
production by mouse peritoneal macrophages pretreated with Cd in a dose-
dependent manner. The effect of TOAE was mainly dependent on TOAE-induced
tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. These results suggest that the
capacity of TOAE to restore NO production from interferon-gamma (IFN-
gamma)-primed mouse peritoneal macrophages is the result of TOAE-induced
TNF-alpha secretion.
PMID: 9653673, UI: 98317560

19: FEBS Lett 1998 Mar 20;425(1):97-100


Slow turnover of the D1 reaction center protein of photosystem II in leaves of
high mountain plants.
Shang W, Feierabend J
Botanisches Institut, Goethe-Universitat, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The D1 reaction center protein of photosystem II usually exhibits a rapid


turnover in light. The D1 protein turnover was compared in three species of
alpine plants, Homogyne alpina, Ranunculus glacialis, Soldanella alpina, and in
the lowland plant Taraxacum officinale by radioactive labeling in light and
subsequent chase experiments. The D1 protein of alpine plants could also be
recognized by its more rapid labeling, relative to other membrane proteins.

33
However, compared to T. officinale the turnover of the D1 protein was
considerably slower in the alpine plants. The potential advantage of a slow D1
turnover for adaptation to the environmental conditions of high mountain plants
is discussed.
PMID: 9541014, UI: 98200083

20: Phytochemistry 1997 Sep;46(2):283-7


Anthocyanin-producing dandelion callus as a chalcone synthase source in
recombinant polyketide reductase assay.
Akashi T, Saito N, Hirota H, Ayabe S
Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Purple-coloured dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) callus cultures producing


anthocyanin pigments were established on a cytokinin-rich medium under the
light. When the cells were placed in the dark, only grey cells proliferated.
Anthocyanin productivity of these cells was partially restored in the light. The
major pigment was identified as cyanidin 3-(6"-malonylglucoside). The lower
stem of the original plant contained the same pigment. Chalcone synthase (CHS)
activity was detected in the extracts of these purple cells, whereas no activity was
observed in grey cells propagated in the dark. When the CHS-active cell-free
extract was combined with the extract of Escherichia coli over expressing
polyketide reductase (PKR) cDNA of licorice (Glycyrrhiza echinata),
isoliquiritigenin (a 6'-deoxychalcone), in addition to naringenin (a 5-
hydroxyflavanone), was detected as the reaction product from 4-coumaroyl-
CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This result confirms the catalytic function of the
PKR gene product.
PMID: 9311152, UI: 97457214

Radice Nera Raphanus sativus niger

Famiglia: Crucifere

Provenienza: Asia, ma coltivata in


tutto il mondo.

Parte utilizzata: radice

Principali costituenti:
Zolfo
Vitamina C
Rafanina (potente antibatterico)

Propriet:
Stimola la secrezione biliare e
favorisce leliminazione delle tossine,
depurativa. Lavora efficacemente sulle
sostanze grasse.
Digestiva
Antibatterica
Fluidifica le secrezioni bronchiali e paranasali

34
Utilizzo:
Discinesia biliare
Eccesso di tossine
Lievi disfunzioni epatiche
Dispepsie
Problemi della pelle
Bronchite, sinusite
Costipazione

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit. Ha un forte potere detossinante, e
lassunzione della pianta pu provocare manifestazioni cutanee
che derivano dalleliminazione delle tossine.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Studi clinici:
Riportiamo qui di seguito alcuni studi effettuati sulla Radice Nera,
tratti dal sito PubMed, della National Library of Medicine:

2: Rev Roum Virol 1990 Apr-Jun;41(2):113-7


[The effects of aqueous extracts of Raphanus niger on an experimental influenza
infection in mice and on the enzyme polymorphism in lung tissue extracts].
[Article in French]
Prahoveanu E, Esanu V
Institut de Virologie Stefan S. Nicolau, Bucarest, Roumanie.

Prophylactic effects of Raphanus niger water extract against A/PR


8/34 influenza virus experimental infection was tested in mice, by
means of the following parameters: mortality mean survival time
and hemagglutinating (HA) titre of lung extract. Variations of the
isoenzymatic structures of peroxidase and acid and alkaline phosphatases were
studied too. The results revealed the significant reduction of mortality and of
hemagglutinating titre and the augmentation of mean survival time.
Modifications of the isoenzymatic structures, especially of the phosphatases,
are characteristic for the illness state as well as for the one induced by R. niger
extract treatment.
PMID: 2176532, UI: 91098030

3: Virologie 1987 Apr-Jun;38(2):115-20


[Immunomodulation with natural products. I. Effect of an aqueous
extract of Raphanus sativus niger on experimental influenza infection
in mice].
[Article in French]
Prahoveanu E, Esanu V

A Raphanus sativus niger water extract was administered by intranasal


instillations to mice before inoculation of the influenza virus A/PR 8/34 (H1N1)
strain by the same route. The extract ensured some protection against the

35
experimental influenza infection. A significant decrease of the hemagglutinin
titre of the mouse lung homogenate was noted, as well as a decrease of the
mortality rate and a significant increase of the rate of survival as compared to
the untreated controls.
PMID: 3617495, UI: 87293872

Carciofo Cynara scolimus

Famiglia: Composite

Provenienza: bacino Mediterraneo

Parte utilizzata: foglie e radice

Principali costituenti:
Acidi fenoli
Flavonoidi
Inulina
Principi amari (cinaropicrina)
Sali di potassio e di magnesio

Propriet:
Favorisce leliminazione delle tossine, drenante epatico
Coleretico, colagogo
Ipocolesterolemizzante
Ipoglicemizzante
Diuretico

Utilizzo:
Insufficienza epatica
Pre-cirrosi, cirrosi
Intossicazioni
Diabete
Costipazione
Dermatosi

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

36
Chrysanthellum americanum

Famiglia: Compositae

Provenienza: Africa

Parte utilizzata: pianta intera

Principali costituenti:
Flavonoidi
Saponine

Propriet:
Azione positiva sul sistema circolatorio: consolidamento ed
impermeabilit dei vasi capillari. Migliora la circolazione delle
estremit inferiori (azione vitaminica P)
Azione epato-protettiva: protegge il fegato dagli eccessi
alimentari o da alcool e dallabuso di farmaci
Disintossicante epatico: grazie allinduzione enzimatica del
citocromo P450.
Azione protettiva a livello pancreatico
Fluidificante biliare ed ematico
Coleretico e colagogo
Ipocolesterolemizzante, abbassa il tasso di trigliceridi

Utilizzo:
Insufficienza epatica
Intossicazioni
Problemi circolatori

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit. Il Chrysanthellum americanum non deve
essere utilizzato in abbinamento con altre piante fluidificanti
(gingko) n con aspirina o farmaci fluidificanti: si possono rischiare
emorragie.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

37
Chrysanthemum parthenium

Famiglia: Compositae

Provenienza: Asia e Balcani

Parte utilizzata: sommit


fiorite

Principali costituenti:
Lattoni sesquiterpenici
(partenolide)
Olio essenziale ricco in
tuione
Flavonoidi

Propriet:
Abbassa il tasso di trigliceridi, soprattutto tipici dellalcool,
ma non ha effetto sul tasso di colesterolo
Antipiretico ed antinfiammatorio
Combatte efficacemente gli stati di emicrania

Utilizzo:
Intossicazioni
Emicranie, soprattutto se recidive, anche se di origine pre-
mestruale

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Studi clinici:
Riportiamo qui di seguito alcuni studi effettuati sul
Chrysanthemum parthenium, tratti dal sito PubMed, della National
Library of Medicine:

*****LANCET*****
Murphy JJ Heptinstall S Mitchell JR
Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in
migraine prevention.
In: Lancet (1988 Jul 23) 2(8604):189-92
ISSN: 0140-6736

38
The use of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) for migraine prophylaxis was
assessed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.
After a one-month single-blind placebo run-in, 72 volunteers were randomly
allocated to receive either one capsule of dried feverfew leaves a day or matching
placebo for four months and then transferred to the other treatment limb for a
further four months. Frequency and severity of attacks were determined from
diary cards which were issued every two months; efficacy of each treatment was
also assessed by visual analogue scores. 60 patients completed the study and full
information was available in 59. Treatment with feverfew was associated with a
reduction in the mean number and severity of attacks in each two-month period,
and in the degree of vomiting; duration of individual attacks was unaltered.
Visual analogue scores also indicated a significant improvement with feverfew.
There were no serious side-effects.

*****BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY*****
Sumner H Salan U Knight DW Hoult JR
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase in leukocytes by
feverfew.
Involvement of sesquiterpene lactones and other components.
In: Biochem Pharmacol (1992 Jun 9) 43(11):2313-20
ISSN: 0006-2952

Leaves or infusions of feverfew, Tanacetum parthenium, have long been used as


a folk remedy for fever, arthritis and migraine, and derived products are widely
available in U.K. health food shops. Previous reports have suggested interactions
with arachidonate metabolism. Crude chloroform extracts of fresh feverfew
leaves (rich in sesquiterpene lactones) and of commercially available powdered
leaves (lactone-free) produced dose-dependent inhibition of the generation of
thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by ionophore- and
chemoattractant-stimulated rat peritoneal leukocytes and human
polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Approximate IC50 values were in the range 5-50
micrograms/mL, and inhibition of TXB2 and LTB4 occurred in parallel. Isolated
lactones (parthenolide, epoxyartemorin) treated with cysteine (to neutralize
reactive alpha-methylene butyrolactone functions of the sesquiterpenes).
Inhibition of eicosanoid generation appeared to be irreversible but not
timedependent. We conclude that feverfew contains a complex mixture of
sesquiterpene lactone and non- sesquiterpene lactone inhibitors of eicosanoid
synthesis of high potency, and that these biochemical actions may be relevant to
the claimed therapeutic actions of the herb.
Registry Numbers:
29552-41-8 (parthenolide)
4371-52-2 (Cysteine)
54397-85-2 (Thromboxane B2)
71160-24-2 (Leukotriene B4)

*****BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY*****


Hay AJ Hamburger M Hostettmann K Hoult JR
Toxic inhibition of smooth muscle contractility by plant-derived sesquiterpenes
caused by their chemically reactive alpha- methylenebutyrolactone functions.
In: Br J Pharmacol (1994 May) 112(1):9-12
ISSN: 0007-1188

1. Previous studies have shown that extracts of feverfew (Tanacetum


parthenium) and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene alpha- methylenebutyrolactone
obtained from it, inhibit smooth muscle contractility in a time-dependent, non-
specific and irreversible manner. 2. The hypothesis that this toxic effect is due

39
specifically to the presence in the sesquiterpene lactone of the potentially reactive
alpha-methylene function was tested on rabbit isolated aortic ring preparations.
This was done (a) by comparing the effects of two plantderived sesquiterpene
lactones purified from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis): cynaropicrin
(an alpha- methylenebutyrolactone) and solstitialin 13-acetate (lacking the
alpha-methylene function), and (b) by chemically inactivating the alpha-
methylene functions in cynaropicrin and parthenolide by reaction with cysteine.
3. The results show that the characteristic smooth muscle inhibitory profile is
demonstrated by the two alpha-methylenebutyrolactones (parthenolide and
cynaropicrin), but not by the compound lacking this functional group (solstitialin
13-acetate), or by those previously active compounds in which it has been
inactivated with cysteine. 4. Thus the alpha-methylene function is critical for this
aspect of the toxic pharmacological profile of the sesquiterpene butyrolactones,
which are natural products widely distributed in the Compositae family of
flowering plants.
Registry Numbers:
22738-70-1 (solstitialin)
29552-41-8 (parthenolide)
35730-78-0 (cynaropicrin)
4371-52-2 (Cysteine)
59-42-7 (Phenylephrine)

*****JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY*****
Bejar E
Parthenolide inhibits the contractile responses of rat stomach fundus to
fenfluramine and dextroamphetamine but not serotonin.
In: J Ethnopharmacol (1996 Jan) 50(1):1-12
ISSN: 0378-8741

The isolated rat stomach fundus preparation, a sensitive bioassay to evaluate


serotonin-(5-HT) like activity, was used as a model to study the effects of
parthenolide (PAR), a component to Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew), on 5-HT
storage, release and stimulation of the 5-HT2B receptor. Cumulative-
concentration response curves to 5-HT and the indirectacting serotonergics
fenfluramine (F) and dextroamphetamine (DA) on fundus were obtained in the
presence and absence of 1 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-5) PAR. 5-HT release elicited by F
and DA was indirectly assessed by comparing the contraction elicited by these
compounds on tissues from reserpinetreated, L-p-chlorophenylalanine (l-PCPA)-
treated and untreated rats. The observed order of agonist potencies on intact
fundus was: 5-HT > DA > F and the order of intrinsic activity was: 5-HT > DA >
F. PAR did not show agonist effects nor antagonism toward 5-HT on rat fundus
at all concentrations used. However, PAR antagonized non-competitively the
effects of F and DA. Contractile responses to 5-HT were not significantly different
on mucosa-denuded fundus and tissue strips from untreated, l-PCPA- and
reserpine-treated rats. PAR appears to inhibit 5-HT release mediated responses
by the indirect-acting 5-HT agonists on fundal tissue.
Registry Numbers:
19216-56-9 (Prazosin)

29552-41-8 (parthenolide)
458-24-2 (Fenfluramine)
50-67-9 (Serotonin)
51-64-9 (Dextroamphetamine)

40
*****JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY*****
Hayes NA Foreman JC
The activity of compounds extracted from feverfew on histamine
release from rat mast cells.
In: J Pharm Pharmacol (1987 Jun) 39(6):466-70
ISSN: 0022-3573

An extract of the plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) produces a dose-


dependent inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells
stimulated with anti-IgE or the calcium ionophore A23187. Greater inhibition of
anti-IgE-induced histamine release was achieved with feverfew compared with
the inhibition of A23187-induced release. Inhibition of anti-IgE-induced
histamine release by feverfew extract was observed when the drug was added
simultaneously with anti-IgE and the inhibitory activity increased only slightly
when the drug was preincubated with the cells for 5 min before anti-IgE
stimulation. In this respect feverfew differs from cromoglycate and quercetin.
Feverfew extract inhibited anti-IgE-induced histamine release to the same extent
in the absence and presence of extracellular glucose. It is concluded that feverfew
extract contains a novel type of mast cell inhibitor.
Registry Numbers:
117-39-5 (Quercetin)
37341-29-0 (IgE)
52665-69-7 (Calcimycin)

Capasso F
The effect of an aqueous extract of Tanacetum parthenium L. on
arachidonic acid metabolism by rat peritoneal leucocytes.
In: J Pharm Pharmacol (1986 Jan) 38(1):71-2
ISSN: 0022-3573

The effect of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L., Schultz Bip.) as a whole plant
on an aqueous extract equivalent to 20 mg dried plant per ml, has been examined
on both cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase activity in rat leucocytes in-vitro. At
10-25 micrograms ml-1 feverfew had no effect on the formation of arachidonate
metabolites while at highest concentrations (50-200 micrograms ml-1) it
inhibited both cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolic products.
Registry Numbers:
EC 1.13.11.12 (Lipoxygenase)
EC 1.14.99.1 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase)
506-32-1 (Arachidonic Acid)

Barsby RW Knight DW McFadzean I


A chloroform extract of the herb feverfew blocks voltage-dependent potassium
currents recorded from single smooth muscle cells.
In: J Pharm Pharmacol (1993 Jul) 45(7):641-5
ISSN: 0022-3573

We have studied the effects of a chloroform extract of fresh leaves from the herb
feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) on potassium currents in smooth muscle. The
currents were recorded from single cells dissociated from the rat anococcygeus
and the rabbit ear artery using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. When
applied to cells isolated from the rat anococcygeus, the extract reduced the

inactivating voltage-dependent potassium current in a concentrationrelated


manner, with an IC50 value (the concentration that reduced the current by 50%)
of 56 micrograms mL-1. Complete block of the current occurred at 1 mg mL-1. In
addition to reducing the peak current, feverfew decreased the time to peak of the

41
current and increased the rate of decay of the current. These effects can be
explained by the feverfew extract blocking open potassium channels. In single
cells isolated from rabbit ear artery the feverfew extract again reduced the
voltage-dependent potassium current, whilst at the same time having the
spontaneous transient outward currents which arise as a consequence of
activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. These results suggest that
chloroform extracts of feverfew leaf contain an as yet unidentified substance
capable of producing a selective, open-channel block of voltagedependent
potassium channels.

Barsby RW Salan U Knight DW Hoult JR


Feverfew extracts and parthenolide irreversibly inhibit vascular responses of the
rabbit aorta.
In: J Pharm Pharmacol (1992 Sep) 44(9):737-40
ISSN: 0022-3573

Samples prepared from chloroform extracts of fresh leaves of


feverfew(Tanacetum parthenium) strongly inhibited responses of rabbit aortic
rings to phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, thromboxane mimetic U46619
(9,11-dideoxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-epoxy-methano-PGF2 alpha), and angiotensin II,
but the inhibition to contractions induced by potassium depolarization was much
less. The inhibition was concentration- and time-dependent, non-competitive,
and irreversible, and also occurred in endothelium-denuded preparations. The
feverfew extracts also caused a progressive loss of tone of precontracted aortic
rings and appeared to impair the ability of acetylcholine to induce endothelium-
dependent relaxations of the tissue. These effects were mimicked by a purified
preparation of an alpha- methylenebutyrolactone, parthenolide,
obtained from the extract. Our results demonstrate a nonspecific and potentially
toxic response to feverfew on the vasculature.
Registry Numbers:
29552-41-8 (parthenolide)
51-84-3 (Acetylcholine)
59-42-7 (Phenylephrine)

Heptinstall S Awang DV Dawson BA Kindack D Knight DW May J


Parthenolide content and bioactivity of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium (L.)
Schultz-Bip.). Estimation of commercial and authenticated feverfew products.
In: J Pharm Pharmacol (1992 May) 44(5):391-5
ISSN: 0022-3573
Three physicochemical methods (HPLC, NMR spectroscopy, and HPLC of a
derivative) have been used to measure parthenolide in authenticated Tanacetum
parthenium (feverfew) and in several commercial purported feverfew products.
A bioassay based on inhibition of the secretory activity of blood platelets by
extracts of feverfew in comparison with parthenolide was also used. Similar
results were obtained for all three physicochemical assays and also for the
bioassay. Thus different methodologies yield consistent values for parthenolide
content of feverfew preparations. Parthenolide appears to be mainly responsible
for the antisecretory effects of extracts of feverfew. Authenticated Tanacetum
parthenium grown in the UK contained a high level of parthenolide in leaves,
flowering tops and seeds but a low level in stalks and roots. The level of
parthenolide in powdered leaf material fell during storage. The purported
feverfew products varied widely in their parthenolide content and in some
products parthenolide was not detected. Possible reasons for the variation in
parthenolide content are discussed. Since therapeutic efficacy has only been
demonstrated for preparations of feverfew that contain parthenolide, it is
suggested that manufacturers of feverfew products should use measurements of
parthenolide as a means of standardization and quality control.
Registry Numbers:29552-41-8 (parthenolide)

42
*****PHYTOCHEMISTRY*****
Williams CA Hoult JR Harborne JB Greenham J Eagles J
A biologically active lipophilic flavonol from Tanacetum parthenium.
In: Phytochemistry (1995 Jan) 38(1):267-70
ISSN: 0031-9422

A new lipophilic flavonol, 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether, called


tanetin, has been characterized in the leaf, flower and seed of feverfew,
Tanacetum parthenium. It co-occurs with the known 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,7-
dimethyl ether, quercetagetin 3,7-dimethyl ether and quercetagetin 3,7,3'-
trimethyl ether. Pharmacological tests indicate that tanetin could contribute to
the anti-inflammatory properties of feverfew by inhibiting the generation of pro-
inflammatory eicosanoids, although it is unlikely to be the only biologically
active compound within the plant. Water soluble flavone glycosides were
detected in the leaves and identified as apigenin 7-glucuronide, luteolin 7-
glucuronide, luteolin 7-glucoside and chrysoeriol 7-glucuronide.

*****PLANTA MEDICA*****
Barsby RW Salan U Knight DW Hoult JR
Feverfew and vascular smooth muscle: extracts from fresh and dried plants
show opposing pharmacological profiles, dependent upon sesquiterpene lactone
content.
In: Planta Med (1993 Feb) 59(1):20-5
ISSN: 0032-0943

Preparations of fresh or dried feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) are


widely consumed in the U.K. as a remedy for arthritis and migraine, but the
pharmacological basis for this has not been established. We have, therefore,
compared the properties of extracts of fresh plants with those of dried powdered
leaves available commercially from health food shops. The two extracts differed
radically in their content of alpha-methylbutyrolactones and in their
pharmacological profile when tested in vitro on the rabbit aortic ring and rat
anococcygeus preparations. Extracts of fresh leaves caused does- and time-
dependent inhibition of the contractile responses of aortic rings to all receptor-
acting agonists so far tested; the effects were irreversible and may represent a
toxic modification of post-receptor contractile function in the smooth muscle. The
presence of potentially -SH reactive parthenolide and other sesquiterpene
alphamethylenebutyrolactones in these extracts, and the close parallelism of the
actions of pure parthenolide, suggest that the inhibitory effects are due to these
compounds. In contrast , chloroform extracts of dried powdered leaves were not
inhibitory but themselves elicited potent and sustained contractions of aortic
smooth muscle that were not antagonised by ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor
antagonist). These extracts did not contain parthenolide or butyrolactones
according to a chemical-HPLC assay, We conclude that there are marked
differences in the pharmacological potency and profiles between
preparations from fresh and dried feverfew and that this may relate to their
lactone content. As the effects of the lactones are potentially toxic, it will be
necessary to compare the clinical profiles and side effects of preparations
obtained from the two sources.

*****POLISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACY*****


Gromek D Kisiel W Stojakowska A Kohlmunzer S
Attempts of chemical standardizing of Chrysanthemum parthenium
asa prospective antimigraine drug.
In: Pol J Pharmacol Pharm (1991 May-Jun) 43(3):213-7
ISSN: 0301-0244

43
A quantitative analysis of biologically active sesquiterpene lactones in ethanol
and aqueous extracts of Chrysanthemum parthenium and its form flosculosum
was carried out. The sesquiterpene lactone contents in the extracts were
comparable, although the contents of ethanol extracts (ca. 0.5%) were higher
than of aqueous ones (ca. 0.3%). Parthenolide was found to be the main
constituent of the lactones. The applied IR and TLC/FID methods for quantitative
determination of the total sesquiterpene lactones and parthenolide, respectively,
may be used for chemical standardizing of the raw material and its
preparations.
Registry Numbers:
29552-41-8 (parthenolide)

*****PROSTAGLANDINS, LEUKOTRIENES AND MEDICINE*****


Makheja AN Bailey JM
A platelet phospholipase inhibitor from the medicinal herb feverfew
(Tanacetum parthenium).
In: Prostaglandins Leukot Med (1982 Jun) 8(6):653-60
ISSN: 0262-1746

Feverfew has been used since antiquity to treat fevers and other inflammatory
conditions. Feverfew extracts were found to inhibit ADP, thrombin, or collagen-
induced aggregation of human platelets, but significantly, did not affect
aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. Synthesis of thromboxane B2 from
exogenous 14C-arachidonic acid was also not inhibited. Washed platelets
prelabelled with 14C-AA responded normally to thrombin by releasing 14C-
TXB2. This was completely blocked by feverfew. A purified platelet
phospholipase A2 was inhibited by the material with an I50 of 0.1 antiplatelet
units. The pharmacological properties of feverfew may thus be due to an
inhibitor of cellular phospholipases, which prevents release of arachidonic acid
in response to appropriate physiological stimuli.
Registry Numbers:
EC 3.1.- (Phospholipases)
EC 3.4.21.5 (Thrombin)
506-32-1 (Arachidonic Acid)
50683-78-8 (12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid)
54397-85-2 (Thromboxane B2)
58-64-0 (Adenosine Diphosphate)
59985-28-3 (12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid)
9007-34-5 (Collagen)

Fumaria Fumaria officinalis

Famiglia: Fumariacee

Provenienza: Europa e Africa del Nord

Parte utilizzata: foglie, corteccia

Principali costituenti:
Flavonoidi
Alcaloidi (fumarina)
Acido fumarico
Sali minerali
Polifenoli

44
Propriet:
Stimolante epatico e della vescicola biliare, depurativa
Diuretica
Anti-aggregante piastrinica
Antistaminica
Leggermente lassativa
Amfocoleretica: favorisce la continuit del flusso biliare,
anche in caso di asportazione della colecisti
Antispastica
Contrasta lipertensione arteriosa e laritmia
Ammorbidisce le arterie

Utilizzo:
Gonfiori addominali
Disbiosi
Emicranie di origine epatica
Litiasi della vescicola biliare
Discinesia della vescicola biliare
Affezioni respiratorie
Affezioni cutanee

Tollerabilit:
Buona, ma tossica ad alte dosi. Si consiglia la somministrazione per
20 giorni, seguita da 15 giorni di interruzione.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti (dose massima).

Bardana Arctium lappa

Famiglia: Composite

Provenienza: Europa, ma viene


coltivata in tutto il mondo

Parte utilizzata: radice

Principali costituenti:
Glucosidi amari
Flavonoidi
Tannini
Olio essenziale
Inulina
Sesquiterpeni
45
Propriet:
Depurativa, stimola le funzioni epato-biliari
Batteriostatica
Antibiotica ed antisettica
Ipoglicemizzante
Diuretica

Utilizzo:
Acne e malattie della pelle in generale
Stati di iperglicemia

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti (dose massima).

Fase acida/cristalli

Alburno di Tiglio Tilia cordata

Famiglia: Tiliacee

Provenienza: Europa

Parte utilizzata: alburno. Lalburno la seconda


corteccia della pianta, costituita dallo strato di fibre
legnoso pi esterno e pi giovane dellintero fusto.

Principali costituenti:
Cumarine
Polifenoli
Vitamine B1, B2 e C
Zuccheri e derivati triterpenici

46
Propriet:
Drenante epato-biliare ed urinario
Antalgico per le emicranie
Solve lacido urico e ne migliora il metabolismo
Antispastico
Ipotensivo

Utilizzo:
Malattie reumatiche
Litiasi biliari
Litiasi renali

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti (dose massima).

Erica Calluna vulgaris

Famiglia: Ericacee

Provenienza: regioni temperate dellemisfero Nord

Parte utilizzata: sommit fiorite

Principali costituenti:
Arbutina
Tannini
Flavonoidi
Inulina

Propriet:
Depurativa e detossinante a livello
renale
Antisettica per le vie urinarie
Diuretica
Arbutoside

47
Utilizzo:
Cistiti
Litiasi renali e biliari
Reumatismi
Artrite
Gotta
Edemi
Ritenzione idrica

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Baccharis - Carqueja

Famiglia: Composite

Provenienza: Brasile

Parte utilizzata: parti aeree

Principali costituenti:
Principi amari
Olio essenziale (carquejolo)
Sesquiterpeni

Propriet:
Favorisce leliminazione delle tossine, depurativa,
soprattutto a livello epato-renale
Digestiva
Colagoga e coleretica
Leggermente lassativa
Diuretica
Favorisce la regolazione del tasso di zucchero nel
sangue
Inibisce laccumulo di depositi grassi

48
Utilizzo:
A livello urinario: per il drenaggio di
reni e vescica
A livello epatico: favorisce unazione
antitossica
A livello intestinale: per contrastare la
costipazione
A livello circolatorio: per lievi
insufficienze

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Kinkeliba Combretum micranthum

Famiglia: Combretacee

Provenienza:
Africa occidentale
(Senegal e Mali)

Parte utilizzata: foglie

Principali costituenti:
Composti polifenolici
(tannini)
Colina (combretina)
Inositolo, sorbitolo
Nitrato di potassio

Propriet:
Colagoga e coleretica
Stimola la secrezione esocrina del pancreas
Attivit antispastica
Diuretica
Tonica

49
Utilizzo:
Sovraccarico epatico e vescicolare
Digestione difficile
Fermentazioni intestinali
Insufficiente eliminazione renale di acqua ed urea

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Artiglio del Diavolo Harpagophytum procumbens

Famiglia: Pedaliacee

Provenienza: Africa (Namibia)

Parte utilizzata: radice secondaria

Principali costituenti:
Glucosidi iridoidi (arpagoside,
procumbide)
Zuccheri
Fitosteroli
Flavonoidi
Arpagochinone

Propriet:
Antinfiammatorio
Analgesico
Antireumatico
Tonificante del sistema digestivo
Ipotensivo
Gli arpagosidi contenuti bloccano la produzione di PGE2
(inibiscono la prostaglandinosintetasi); ne deriva unazione
antinfiammatoria e viene favorita leliminazione di acido urico.

50
Utilizzo:
Drenaggio epatico
Iperuricemia
Ipercolesterolemia
Reumatismi
Artrite
Artrosi
Gotta

Tollerabilit:
Ottima. Nessuna tossicit. Lutilizzo controindicato in caso di
ulcera gastrica o duodenale.

Modo duso:
2 capsule per tre volte al giorno prima dei pasti.

Studi clinici:
Riportiamo qui di seguito alcuni studi effettuati sullArtiglio del
Diavolo, tratti dal sito PubMed, della National Library of Medicine:

Phytomedicine 2001 Jan;8(1):28-30


(Inhibition of TNF-alpha synthesis in LPS-stimulated primary human
monocytes by Harpagophytum extract SteiHap 69.)
Fiebich BL, Heinrich M, Hiller KO, Kammerer N.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical
School, Germany. bernd_fiebich@psyallg.ukl.uni-freiburg.de

Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) is often used in the supportive


treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeletal system.
Here we studied the anti-inflammatory properties of the Harpagophytum extract
SteiHap 69 (Steiner Harpagophytum procumbens extract 69) on primary human
monocytes, a useful model of peripheral inflammation. After eliminating
lipopolysaccharides of bacterial origin, SteiHap 69 prevented the LPS-induced
synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in stimulated primary
human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Harpagide and harpagoside
had no effect on LPS-induced TNFalpha-release. Our data provides evidence that
the Harpagophytum extract SteiHap 69 has anti-inflammatory properties.
Further studies are required in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of
Devil's claw anti-inflammatory effects.

Joint Bone Spine 2000;67(5):462-7


(Harpagophytum procumbens in the treatment of knee and hip
osteoarthritis. Four-month results of a prospective, multicenter,
double-blind trial versus diacerhein.)
Leblan D, Chantre P, Fournie B.
Laboratoires Arkopharma, Carros, France.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Harpagophytum in the


treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis comparatively with the slow-acting
drug for osteoarthritis, diacerhein. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter,
randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted in 122 patients
with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Treatment duration was four months and
the primary evaluation criterion was the pain score on a visual analog scale.
Harpagophytum 2,610 mg per day was compared with diacerhein 100 mg per

51
day. RESULTS: After four months, considerable improvements in osteoarthritis
symptoms were seen in both groups, with no significant differences for pain,
functional disability, or the Lequesne score. However, use of analgesic
(acetaminophen-caffeine) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (diclofenac)
medications was significantly reduced in the Harpagophytum group, which also
had a significantly lower rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: In this study,
Harpagophytum was at least as effective as a reference drug (diacerhein) in the
treatment of knee or hip osteoarthritis and reduced the need for analgesic and
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy.

Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149(8-10):254-7


[Therapy of degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system with
South African devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC)].
Wegener T.
Dienstleistung Phytopharmaka Rheda-Wiedenbruck, Deutschland.
tankred.wegener@t-online.de

Extracts of the secondary tubers of Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens)


are recommended for the supportive treatment of degenerative painful
rheumatism. There was observed an improvement of motility and a reduction of
pain sensation in several clinical studies. Pharmacological experiments have
shown analgesic, antiphlogistic and antiinflammatory actions. Most important
constituents are iridoid glycosides, which are supposed to contribute mainly to
the observed effects. However, the entire extract has to be considered as active
ingredient.

J Ethnopharmacol 1985 May;13(2):193-9


(A drug used in traditional medicine: Harpagophytum procumbens
DC. III. Effects on hyperkinetic ventricular arrhythmias by
reperfusion.)
Costa De Pasquale R, Busa G, Circosta C, Iauk L, Ragusa S, Ficarra P,
Occhiuto F.

In Langendorff preparations of rat heart, hyperkinetic ventricular arrhythmias


(HVA) have been induced by an ischaemic perfusion (coronary flux 0.5 ml/min;
pressure 8 mmHg) and following reperfusion at basal conditions (coronary flux
8 ml/min; pressure 50 mmHg). Crude methanolic extracts of Harpagophytum
procumbens secondary roots and harpagoside showed a significant, dose-
dependent, protective action toward HVA induced by reperfusion.

J Ethnopharmacol 1984 Aug;11(3):259-74


(A drug used in traditional medicine: Harpagophytum procumbens
DC. II. Cardiovascular activity.)
Circosta C, Occhiuto F, Ragusa S, Trovato A, Tumino G, Briguglio F,
de Pasquale A.

In conscious normotensive rats the dried crude methanolic extract of


Harpagophytum procumbens secondary roots caused a significant dose-
dependent reduction of arterial blood pressure. The decrease was significant
only at higher doses given by gavage (dried extract = 400 mg/kg). At the same
time a decrease of heart rate was observed. In the same experimental conditions,
harpagoside presented an activity lower than doses of Harpagophytum
procumbens extract containing corresponding quantities of harpagoside. In
spontaneously beating Langendorff preparations of rabbit heart, the

52
Harpagophytum procumbens methanolic extract caused a mild decrease in the
heart rate with a concomitant mild positive inotropic effect at lower doses but a
marked negative inotropic effect at higher doses. The coronary flow decreased at
higher doses only. The negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects of
harpagoside were comparatively higher with respect to that of the extract,
whereas harpagide had only a slight negative chronotropic effect and a
considerable negative inotropic one. Both in experiments on intact rats and on
isolated rabbit heart, the Harpagophytum procumbens extract also
demonstrated a protective action with regard to arrhythmias induced by
aconitine, and particularly to those provoked by calcium chloride and
epinephrine--chloroform.

53
Riassumendo:

La prima fase obbligatoria di detossinazione dovr durare dai 30


ai 60 giorni, durante I quali, oltre a consigliare un regime
dietetico adeguato, sar necessario far assumere dei rimedi
fitoterapici:

una pianta epato-protettrice


desmodio
cardo di maria
+

una pianta epato-stimolatrice


per la fase alcalina/colloidale:
tarassaco
radice nera
carciofo
chrysanthellum americanum
chrysanthemum parthenium
fumaria
bardana

per la fase acida/cristalli:


alburno di tiglio
erica
baccharis
kinkeliba
artiglio del diavolo

una pianta sintomatica


dovr essere utilizzata una pianta in grado di attenuare il
sintomo pi evidente manifestato dal paziente.

Alla fine di questa prima fase, i risultati positivi devono essere


visibili e ben percepiti dal paziente. In alcuni casi, il
trattamento di detossinazione pu essere risolutivo, e si potr
quindi continuare con una semplice terapia di mantenimento. In
altri casi si dovr ricorrere ad una strategia di media durata per
riportare il terreno in equilibrio, impostando terapie mirate sul
sistema da riequilibrare.

54