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107

Chapter 10
Mechanism Trains

10.1 Find the speed and direction of gear 8 in the figure. What is the kinematic coefficient of
the train?

N 2 N 4 N 5 N 7 18 15 33 16 5
q 8/
2 = = =+ Ans.
N 3 N 5 N 6 N8 44 33 36 48 88
2w 2 = ( +5 88 ) ( 1 200 rev/min ccw ) = 68.18 rev/min ccw
w8 = q 8/ Ans.

10.2 Part (a) of the figure gives the pitch diameters of a set of spur gears forming a train.
Compute the kinematic coefficient of the train. Determine the speed and direction of
rotation of gears 5 and 7.

R2 R4 7 in 9 in 7 R R 7 30 in 9 in 21
q 5
/2 = = =+ q 7
/ 2 = q 5/ 2
5 6 = =+ Ans.
R3 R5 15 in 30 in 50 R6 R7 50 9 in 16 in 80
2w 2 = ( +7 50 ) ( 120 rev/min cw ) = 16.80 rev/min cw
w5 = q 5/ Ans.
/ 2w 2 = ( +21 80 ) ( 120 rev/min cw ) = 31.50 rev/min cw
w7 = q 7 Ans.

10.3 Part (b) of the figure shows a gear train consisting of bevel gears, spur gears, and a worm
and worm gear. The bevel pinion is mounted on a shaft which is driven by a V-belt on
pulleys. If pulley 2 rotates at 1200 rev/min in the direction shown, find the speed and
direction of rotation of gear 9.

R2 N 4 N 6 N8 6 in 18 20 3 3
q 9
/2 = = =
R3 N 5 N 7 N9 10 in 38 48 36 304
2w 2 = ( 3 304 ) ( 1 200 rev/min ) = 11.84 rev/min cw
w9 = q 9/ Ans.
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10.4 Use the truck transmission of Fig. 10.2 and an input speed of 3000 rev/min to find the
drive shaft speed for each forward gear and for reverse gear.

N 2 N 6 17 17 289
First gear: q 9
/2 = = =+
N 3 N 9 43 43 1 849
w9 = q 9/2w 2 = ( 289 1 849 ) ( 3 000 rev/min ) = 468.9 rev/min Ans.
N 2 N 5 17 27 153
Second gear: q 8/ 2 = = =+
N 3 N8 43 33 473
w8 = q 8/2w 2 = ( 153 473 ) ( 3 000 rev/min ) = 970.4 rev/min

N 2 N 4 17 36 51
Third gear: q 7/2 = = =+
N 3 N 7 43 24 86
w7 = q 7/ 2w 2 = ( 51 86 ) ( 3 000 rev/min ) = 1 779.1 rev/min

/ 2w 2 = ( 1.0 ) ( 3 000 rev/min ) = 3 000 rev/min

w 2 = q 2
N 2 N 6 N11 17 17 22 3 179
Reverse gear: q 9
/2 = - =- =-
N 3 N10 N 9 43 18 43 16 641
w9 = q 9/ 2w 2 = ( -3 179 16 641) ( 3 000 rev/min ) = -573.1 rev/min

10.5 The figure illustrates the gears in a speed-change gearbox used in machine tool
applications. By sliding the cluster gears on shafts B and C, nine speed changes can be
obtained. The problem of the machine tool designer is to select tooth numbers for the
various gears so as to produce a reasonable distribution of speeds for the output shaft.
The smallest and largest gears are gears 2 and 9, respectively. Using 20 teeth and 45 teeth
for these gears, determine a set of suitable tooth numbers for the remaining gears. What
are the corresponding speeds of the output shaft? Notice that the problem has many
solutions.

We also set N 6 = 20 teeth (minimum). Ans.

Since the largest speed reduction will be obtained with gears 2-5-6-9,
N N 20 20
wC ,min = 2 6 w A = 450 rev/min = 137 rev/min
N5 N9 N 5 45
From this we get N 5 = 29.197 , and we choose N 5 = 30 teeth . Ans.
Next, using distance units of circular pitch, the distance between shafts B and C is
BC = N 5 + N 8 = N 6 + N 9 = N 7 + N10 = 65 teeth . N8 = BC - N 5 = 35 teeth Ans.
Similarly the distance between shafts A and B is
AB = N 2 + N 5 = N 3 + N 6 = N 4 + N 7 = 50 teeth . N 3 = AB - N 6 = 30 teeth . Ans.
Since the minimum is 20 teeth and since AB = N 4 + N 7 = 50 teeth we see that
20 N 4 , N 7 30 and we choose N 4 = N 7 = 25 teeth Ans.
and, finally, N10 = BC - N 7 = 40 teeth Ans.
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With all tooth numbers known, we can now find the output shaft speed for each gear
arrangement. These are
Arrangement Kinematic coefficient, q C
/A Output shaft speed, wC , rev/min
2-5-5-8 0.571 257.1
2-5-6-9 0.296 133.3
2-5-7-10 0.416 187.5
3-6-5-8 1.285 578.6
3-6-6-9 0.667 300.0
3-6-7-10 0.938 421.9
4-7-5-8 0.857 385.7
4-7-6-9 0.444 200.0
4-7-7-10 0.625 281.3

10.6 The internal gear (gear 7) in the figure turns at 60 rev/min ccw. What are the speed and
direction of rotation of arm 3?

N 2 N 4 N 6 20 teeth 40 teeth 36 teeth 20

q 7
/2 = = =
N 4 N 5 N 7 40 teeth 18 teeth 154 teeth 77
w 7 - w3 60 rev/min - w3 20
q 7
/2 = = = ; w3 = 81.1 rev/min ccw Ans.
w 2 - w3 0 - w3 77

10.7 If the arm in the figure rotates at 300 rev/min ccw, find the speed and direction of rotation
of internal gear 7.

N 2 N 4 N 6 20 teeth 40 teeth 36 teeth 20

q 7
/2 = = =
N 4 N 5 N 7 40 teeth 18 teeth 154 teeth 77
w 7 - w3 w7 - 300 rev/min 20
q 7
/2 = = = ; w = 222.1 rev/min ccw Ans.
w 2 - w3 0 - 300 rev/min 77 7

10.8 In part (a) of the figure, shaft C is stationary. If gear 2 rotates at 800 rev/min ccw, what
are the speed and direction of rotation of shaft B?

N2 18 teeth 3 3
q 3/
2 = -
N3
=-
24 teeth
=-
4
w3 = q 3/
2w 2 = - ( 800 rev/min ccw ) = 600 rev/min cw
4
N 5 N 7 18 teeth 20 teeth 3
q 8/
5 = = =
N 6 N8 42 teeth 40 teeth 14
w8 - w3 0 + 600 rev/min 3
q 8/
5 = = = ; w3 = 2 200 rev/min cw Ans.
w5 - w3 w5 + 600 rev/min 14
110

10.9 In part (a) of the figure, consider shaft B as stationary. If shaft C is driven at 380 rev/min
ccw, what are the speed and direction of rotation of shaft A?

N 5 N 7 18 teeth 20 teeth 3
q 8/
5 = = =
N 6 N8 42 teeth 40 teeth 14
w8 - w3 380 rev/min - w3 3
q 8/
5 = = = ; w3 = 483.6 rev/min ccw
w5 - w3 0 - w3 14
N 24 teeth
w 2 = - 3 w3 = - 483.6 rev/min ccw = 644.8 rev/min cw Ans.
N2 18 teeth

10.10 In part (a) of the figure, determine the speed and direction of rotation of shaft C if (a)
shafts A and B both rotate at 360 rev/min ccw and (b) shaft A rotates at 360 rev/min cw
and shaft B rotates at 360 rev/min ccw.

N 5 N 7 18 teeth 20 teeth 3
q 8/
5 = = =
N 6 N8 42 teeth 40 teeth 14
N 18 teeth
(a) w3 = - 2 w 2 = - 360 rev/min ccw = 270 rev/min cw
N3 24 teeth
w 8 - w3 w8 + 270 rev/min 3
q 8/
5 = = = ; w8 = 135 rev/min cw Ans.
w5 - w3 360 rev/min + 270 rev/min 14
N 18 teeth
(b) w3 = - 2 w 2 = - 360 rev/min cw = 270 rev/min ccw
N3 24 teeth
w 8 - w3 w8 - 270 rev/min 3
q 8/
5 = = = ; w8 = 289.3 rev/min ccw Ans.
w5 - w3 360 rev/min - 270 rev/min 14

10.11 In part (b) of the figure, gear 2 is connected to the input shaft. If arm 3 is connected to
the output shaft, what speed reduction can be obtained? What is the sense of rotation of
the output shaft? What changes could be made in the train to produce the opposite sense
of rotation for the output shaft?

N 2 N 4 N 5 20 teeth 28 teeth 16 teeth 5

q 6
/2 = = =
N 4 N 5 N 6 28 teeth 16 teeth 108 teeth 27
w6 - w3 0 - w3 5 5
q 6
/2 = = = w3 = - w 2
w 2 - w3 w2 - w3 27 22
The speed reduction is 17 22 = 77.3% Ans.
The sense of the output rotation is opposite to the input sense. Ans.
The opposite sense of rotation for the output shaft can be produced by replacing gears 4
and 5 by a single 44-tooth gear. Ans.
111

10.12 The Lvai type-L train shown in Fig. 10.10 has N2 = 16T, N4 = 19T, N5 = 17T, N6 = 24T,
and N3 = 95T. Internal gear 7 is fixed. Find the speed and direction of rotation of the arm
if gear 2 is driven at 100 rev/min cw.

N 2 N 4 N 6 16 teeth 19 teeth 24 teeth 384

q 7
/2 = = =
N 4 N 5 N 7 19 teeth 17 teeth 95 teeth 1 615
w 7 - w3 0 - w3 384
q 7
/2 = = = ; w3 = 31.19 rev/min ccw Ans.
w 2 - w3 -100 rev/min - w3 1 615

10.13 The Lvai type-A train of Fig. 10.10 has N2 = 20T and N4 = 32T.
(a) If the module is 6 mm, find the number of teeth on gear 5 and the crank arm
(b) If gear 2 is fixed and internal gear 5 rotates at 10 rev/min ccw, find the speed and
direction of rotation of the arm.

(a) N 5 = N 2 + 2 N 4 = 20 teeth + 2 ( 32 teeth ) = 84 teeth Ans.

R3 = m ( N 2 + N 4 ) 2 = ( 6 mm/tooth ) ( 20 teeth + 32 teeth ) 2 = 156 mm Ans.
N 2 N 4 20 teeth 32 teeth 5
(b) q 5
/2 = = =-
N 4 N 5 32 teeth 84 teeth 21
w5 - w3 10 rev/min - w 3 5
q 5
/2 = = =- w3 = 8.08 rev/min ccw Ans.
w2 - w3 0 - w3 21

10.14 The tooth numbers for the automotive differential shown in Fig. 10.19 are N2 = 17T, N3 =
54T, N4 = 11T, and N5 = N6 = 16T. The drive shaft turns at 1200 rev/min. What is the
speed of the right wheel if it is jacked up and the left wheel is resting on the road surface?

N2 17 teeth
w3 = w2 = ( 1 200 rev/min ) = 377.8 rev/min
N3 54 teeth
N5 N 4 16 teeth 11 teeth
q 6
/5 = - =- = -1
N 4 N6 11 teeth 16 teeth
w6 - w 3 w 6 - 377.8 rev/min
q 6
/5 = = = -1 w6 = 755.6 rev/min Ans.
w5 - w3 0 - 377.8 rev/min
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10.15 A vehicle using the differential shown in Fig. 10.19 turns to the right at a speed of 30 mi/h
on a curve of 80-ft radius. Use the same tooth numbers as in Problem 10.14. The tire
diameter is 15 in. Use 60 in as the distance between treads.
(a) Calculate the speed of each rear wheel.
(b) Find the rotational speed of the ring gear.

vcar ( 30 mi/h ) ( 5 280 ft/mi ) ( 60 min/h )

(a) wcar = = = 33.0 rad/min
r ( 80 ft )
For the right and left wheels, respectively:
v
w6 = R =
( 33.0 rad/min ) ( 80 ft 12 in/ft - 30 in )
= 651.26 rev/min Ans.
r ( 2p rad/rev ) ( 15.0 2 in )
vL ( 33.0 rad/min ) ( 80 ft 12 in/ft + 30 in )
w5 = = = 693.27 rev/min Ans.
r ( 2p rad/rev ) ( 15.0 2 in )
N5 N 4 16 teeth 11 teeth
q 6
/5 = - =- = -1
N 4 N6 11 teeth 16 teeth
w6 - w3 651.3 rev/min - w3
(b) q 6
/5 = = = -1 w3 = 672.27 rev/min Ans.
w5 - w3 693.2 rev/min - w3

10.16 The figure shows a possible arrangement of gears in a lathe headstock. Shaft A is driven
by a motor at a speed of 720 rev/min. The three pinions can slide along shaft A so as to
yield the meshes 2 with 5, 3 with 6, or 4 with 8. The gears on shaft C can also slide so as
to mesh either 7 with 9 or 8 with 10. Shaft C is the mandril shaft.
(a) Make a table showing all possible gear arrangements, beginning with the slowest
speed for shaft C and ending with the highest, and enter in this table the speeds of
shafts B and C.
(b) If the gears all have a module of 5 mm, what must be the shaft center distances?

(a)
Gears w B , rev/min wC , rev/min
2-5-7-9 180.0 38.7
4-8-7-9 327.3 70.4
3-6-7-9 589.1 126.8
2-5-8-10 180.0 241.5
4-8-8-10 327.3 439.0
3-6-8-10 589.1 790.2

(b) AB = m ( N 2 + N 5 ) 2 = ( 5 mm/tooth ) ( 16 teeth + 64 teeth ) 2 = 200 mm Ans.

BC = m ( N 7 + N 9 ) 2 = ( 5 mm/tooth ) ( 17 teeth + 79 teeth ) 2 = 240 mm Ans.
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10.17 Shaft A in the figure is the output and is connected to the arm. If shaft B is the input and
drives gear 2, what is the speed ratio? Can you identify the Lvai type for this train?

N 2 N 3 N5 16 teeth 18 teeth 18 teeth 9

q 6
/2 = - =- =-
N3 N 4 N6 18 teeth 16 teeth 50 teeth 25
w6 - w A 0 - w A 9
q 6
/2 = = =- ; w A = ( 9 34 ) w 2 Ans.
w2 - w A w2 - w A 25
This train is Lvai type-F. Ans.

10.18 In Problem 10.17, shaft B rotates at 100 rev/min cw. Find the speed of shaft A and of
gears 3 and 4 about their own axes.

Step Arm 2 3 4 5 6
Locked +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1
Arm fixed 0 +16/9 -128/81 +16/9 +16/9 -1
Total +1 +25/9 -47/81 +25/9 +25/9 0
w A = + ( 9 25) w 2 = ( 9 25 ) ( 100 rev/min cw ) = 36.0 rev/min cw Ans.
w3 = ( -47 81) ( 9 25) w2 = - ( 47 225 ) ( 100 rev/min cw ) = 20.9 rev/min ccw Ans.
w 4 = ( 25 9 ) ( 9 25 ) w 2 = ( 1.0 ) ( 100 rev/min cw ) = 100.0 rev/min cw Ans.

10.19 Bevel gear 2 is driven by the engine in the reduction unit shown in the figure. Bevel
planets 3 mesh with crown gear 4 and are pivoted on the spider (arm), which is connected
to propeller shaft B. Find the percent speed reduction.

N 2 N3 36 teeth 21 teeth 9
q 4
/2 = - =- =-
N3 N 4 21 teeth 52 teeth 13
w4 - w B 0 - w B 9
q 4
/2 = = =- ; w B = ( 9 22 ) w 2
w2 - w B w2 - w B 13
Speed reduction to 9/22 = 40.9% is speed reduction of 59.1%. Ans.
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10.20 In the clock mechanism shown in the figure, a pendulum on shaft A drives an anchor (see
Fig. 1.9c). The pendulum period is such that one tooth of the 30T escape wheel on shaft
B is released every 2 s, causing shaft B to rotate once every minute. In the figure, note
that the second (to the right) 64T gear is pivoted loosely on shaft D and is connected by a
tubular shaft to the hour hand.
(a) Show that the train values are such that the minute hand rotates once every hour
and that the hour hand rotates once every 12 hours.
(b) How many turns does the drum on shaft F make every day?

(a) w B = 1.0 rev/min

N B NC 8 teeth 8 teeth 1
q D
/B = = =
N C N D 60 teeth 64 teeth 60
w D = q D/ Bw B = 1 60 rev/min Dt D = 60 min/rev Ans.
N N 1 28 teeth 8 teeth 1
q H D E =
/B = qD/B =
N E N H 60 42 teeth 64 teeth 720
720 min/rev
w H = q H / Bw B = 1 720 rev/min Dt H = = 12 hr/rev Ans.
60 min/hr
N D 1 8 teeth 1
(b) q F
/ B = qD / B
= =
N F 60 96 teeth 720
/ Bw B = ( 1 720 rev/min ) ( 60 min/hr ) ( 24 hr/day ) = 2 rev/day
w F = q F Ans.