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1. Stress Outline

1. Introduction

2. Equilibrium

3. Internal Forces

4. Stress

5. Average Normal Stress

6. Average Shear Stress

Dr. Sami W. Tabsh, P.E. 7. Factor of Safety

Department of Civil Engineering 8. Applications

AUS

1

Reference: R.C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, Prentice Hall 2

1. Introduction 1. Introduction

Mechanics of materials investigates the

Mechanics of Materials is a branch of

relationships between:

applied mechanics that deals with the

behavior of solid bodies subjected to various a) External loads, and

types of loading. b) Internal forces and stresses

M

V

R R

Compression Tension (stretching) Bending Torsion (twisting) Shearing 3 4

1. Introduction 1. Introduction

This subject also deals with:

- Computation of deformations, and

- Investigation of stability.

Mechanics of materials depend on:

- Material properties

- Structural form

- Cross-sectional dimensions

- Nature of the applied loads

5 6

1. Introduction 1. Introduction

The origin of mechanics of solids dates back Experimental and

to the 17th century. At that time Galileo theoretical studies

performed experiments on beams made from improved the work of

different materials. Galileo in the 18th and 19th

Poisson (1781-1840)

centuries. In particular,

significant work was done

in France by Poisson,

Saint-Venant, Cauchy, and

Navier. Saint-Venant (1797-1886)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 7 8

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

Surface Forces:

A body can either They are caused by the direct contact of one

be subjected to: body with another.

a) Surface forces, or - If the area of contact is small (a point), then

b) Body forces the force is concentrated.

- If the load is distributed along a line, then it is

called a linearly distributed load.

- If the load is applied over an area, then it is

considered pressure.

9 10

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

Body Forces:

They are forces that are

applied through volumes.

They occur when a body

exerts a force on another

Concentrated load on floor Line load on floor Pressure load on floor without contact.

Examples: weight of a body,

magnetic field.

11 12

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

Support Reactions: A roller support

Forces that develop at supports are can resist a force

called reactions. The most common perpendicular to a

types of supports in 2-dimensions are: line along the

surface of the

a) Roller

rolling. Hence, it is

b) Hinge a reaction with 1

c) Fixity unknown.

13 14

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

A hinge (or pin) support can resist a force in A fixed support resists a force in any

any direction, but cannot resist a moment. direction and a moment. Hence, it is a

Hence, it is a reaction with 2 unknowns. reaction with 3 unknowns. It prevents

translation and rotation of the member.

Type of connection Reaction

15 16

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

17 http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Mechanics/Statics.html

18

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

Equations of Equilibrium:

In a 3-dimensional Cartesian system (x-y-

Equilibrium of a body requires: z), the above Equations become:

a) Balance of forces, and Fx = 0

b) Balance of moments. Fy = 0

Mathematically, equilibrium is ensured by Fz = 0

the 2 vector equations: ----------------- (2)

Mx = 0

F=0

----------------- (1) My = 0

M=0

19

Mz = 0 20

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

Free-body diagram is a sketch used to show

When the forces and the structures are the relative magnitude and direction of all the

coplanar (exist in 2-dimensions): forces acting upon an object in equilibrium in a

Fx = 0 given situation away from its surroundings.

Fy = 0 ----------------- (3) Example: What is the force P needed to start moving the block up.

P 50x9.81 N

Mpoint = 0 P

=0.15

To minimize mistakes, free-body-diagrams y

x

N

o

0.15N

60o 30

structures and machines. 21

Actual Structure Free-Body-Diag. 22

2. Equilibrium

2. Equilibrium D

Diagram for a rigid body are: A B

3 E C

Select a coordinate system 80Kg

Actual Structure

Indicate all the known forces and moments acting

on the body with magnitude and direction clearly

labeled

Indicate all unknown forces and moments acting

on the body and indicate their assumed direction

Label all relevant angles and dimensions, as well

as all relevant points on the diagram 23 Free-Body-Diag. 24

3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces

Consider a body Although the exact

subjected to external distribution of the

forces. To find the internal forces at the cut

resultant internal forces may be unknown, we

at a plane, we use the can use Eqns. (1) to

method of section. This find the resultant force

means we cut the body FR and moment MRo at

at the plane and take a a point located within

FBD of the lower part. the cut plane (point O).

25 26

FR and MRo can be

In 2-dimensional

resolved into 2

cases, torsion is

components, one _|_

not relevant.

and another tangential

Therefore, only

to the plane:

normal force, shear

N = Normal force force, and bending

V = shear force moment exist at a

T = Torsional moment cut.

M = Bending moment 27 28

Example 1: 30 in

Solution: 15 in

Two rods are welded at B:

a) Cut at mid BC and isolate

a) Find the normal force at B B

the lower part as FBD:

mid rod BC if P = 40 kips.

30 k 30 k Fy = 0 => 30 k 30 k

b) Find the force P that will 40 in 40 in

N + 30 + 30 40 = 0

cause a tensile force in

AB having the same or N = -20 kips (Comp.)

magnitude as a A A

compressive force in BC.

P 29 40 k 30

3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces N2

N1

b) Apply P at point A and cut Fy = 0 =>

first within AB and isolate -N2 + 30 + 30 P = 0 -------- (b)

the lower part: B

In addition to Eqs. (a) and (b), we

Fy = 0 => have: 30 k 30 k

N1 P = 0 --------- (a) A N 1 = N2 ------------- (c)

Now, cut within BC and Solving the above 3 Equations we

isolate the lower part as P

get: A

FBD: P = 30 kips (down).

31 P 32

Example 2: Solution:

Find the shear and moment at midspan of MB = 0 =>

the beam shown. RAy = [2x12x6 + (3x12/2)x4]/12 = 18 kN (up)

5 kN/m

3x12/2 kN

2x12 kN 4m

2 kN/m

2 kN/m 5-2=3 kN/m

A B

A B

12 m 6m 6m

33

RAy RB 34

Cut at midspan and isolate the left side: Example 3:

Fy = 0 => A system consists of a frame, cable and

VO = 18 2x6 1.5x6/2 = 1.5 kN frictionless pulleys, acted on by a 1 kN force.

MO = 0 => Find the internal forces at O. All pulleys have

a radius of 10 cm.

MO = 18x6 2x6x3 (1.5x6/2)x2 = 63 kN-m

1.5x6/2 kN

2x6 kN 2m 50 cm

1 kN

2 kN/m (5-2)/2=1.5 kN/m

O

A MO +

O

3m 3m

18 kN VO 35 25 cm 25 cm 40 cm 36

3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces 10 cm

Solution: 10 cm Fx = 0 =>

Cut vertically through NO = - 1 kN (comp.)

the frame at point O and Fy = 0 =>

50 cm

1 kN

through the cable. Note MO

VO

VO = -1 kN

that the tension in the 50 cm

1 kN 10 cm NO

cable is constant, equal VO

MO MO = 0 =>

25 cm 1 kN

to 1 kN, the pulleys are 10 cm NO

MO = -(1)(25 - 10) (1)(10)

frictionless. 25 cm 1 kN = -25 kN-cm (ten. on top)

37 38

Example 4: Solution:

The board of the sign Cut the post at A and

structure shown is isolate the top part as

subjected to 60 psf wind FBD. There are 6

load. Determine the unknown internal Vx

Mx

internal forces at point A forces at A (3 forces

if the board weighs 4800 and 3 moments): Nz

Vy

lb and the post weighs Vx, Vy and Nz My

200 lb/ft. y Tz

39

and Mx, My and Tz. 40

Total wind force along Fx = 0

ve y-axis is:

=> Vx = 0 7200 lb

Wind = (60)(15x8)

7200 lb Fy = 0

= 7200 lb 4800 lb

3600 lb

=> Vy = 7200 lb

Total weight of post Mx Vx

3600 lb Fz = 0 =>

along ve z-axis is:

Nz = 3600 + 4800 Nz

Post wt. = (200)(8+10) Vy

= 8400 lb My

= 3600 lb y

y Tz

41 42

3. Internal Forces 4. Stress

Mx = 0 => Consider a body subjected to several forces.

Mx = -7200(10 + 4) The internal force distribution at a section of

= -100,800 lb-ft the body is shown on right.

7200 lb

My = 0 => 4800 lb

3600 lb

My = -4800(6.5) Mx Vx

= -31,200 lb-ft

Mz = 0 => Vy Nz

Tz = 7200(6.5) My

= 46,800 lb-ft y Tz

43 44

n

4. Stress 4. Stress

Fn F

If we consider a very small As the area A approaches

area, A, within the whole zero, so does the force F.

Ft

area of the cross-section t However, the quotient n

A, it will be subjected to a F/A will approach a finite F

Fn

very small force F. limit, called the stress.

This force can be resolved There are two different

into 2 components: Ft

types of stresses: t

Fn: normal component, & i- Normal Stress

Ft: tangential component. ii- Shear Stress

45 46

4. Stress 4. Stress

i- Normal Stress:

It is the force per unit area acting normal to High heel versus flat bottom shoes

A, denoted by :

Fn

= lim Fn/A --------------- (4)

as A 0

A

If Fn pulls on A => tensile stress

If Fn pushes on A => compressive stress

Low stress

High stress

47 48

4. Stress 4. Stress

Normal Stresses

ii- Shear Stress:

It is the force per unit area acting tangential to

A, denoted by : A

= lim Ft/A --------------- (5)

Ft

as A 0

49 50

4. Stress 4. Stress

z

Cartesian Stress Components: z = lim Fz/A

as A 0 z

If F is resolved into 3 components along the

x, y and z axes, we obtain 1 normal stress zx = lim Fx/A

and 2 shear stresses: as A 0 zx zy

z zy = lim Fy/A

as A 0 x y

Resolution Fz Note:

F For z, the subscript denotes the direction of

of force into A A = (x)(y) the normal stress. For zx and zy, the 1st

components Fx subscript (z) denotes the orientation of the

Fy

area, while the 2nd (x or y) denotes the

x y

51 direction of the shear stress. 52

4. Stress 4. Stress

Now, if we cut the body by a plane parallel to Cutting a cube out of the

the x-z plane, we obtain the stresses on an inside of the body, we get

area _|_ to the y axis: the stresses on all faces.

Using the equations of

y

equilibrium, it can be

shown that:

- Normal stresses on

opposite faces are equal.

xy = yx & xz = zx & zy = yz

53 54

5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

For long, slender

members that are

subjected to axial

forces at their ends,

the average normal

stress is more

important than the

actual normal

stress.

55 56

For a bar to undergo uniform

deformation (w/o distortion), it is

necessary for: For a bar with

a) The load P to be applied at the cross-sectional

centroid of the cross-section area A subjected

b) The material to be homogeneous to an axial force

(i.e same properties throughout its P, the average

volume), and normal stress is:

c) The material to be isotropic (i.e. P

same properties in all directions). = ------------- (6)

57

A 58

Example 5: P

P 2ftx2ft Solution:

A 10 ft-high concrete column

with 2 ft by 2 ft square cross- The weight of the column above

section is subjected to a 500 the mid-height is:

kips axial force on the top. W = con V = (0.15)(5x2x2) 5 ft

Determine the average normal 10 ft => W = 3 kips W

stress at the midd-height of the The internal axial force at the

column. Include the weight of middle of the column is:

the column in the calculations. Fy = 0 => N

Given: con = 0.150 k/ft3 N = P + W = 500 + 3 = 503 kips (C)

59 60

5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

Example 6: a a

the middle of the column is: with constant (75 75 mm

= P/A = 503/(2x2) mm) thickness is

Section a-a

subjected to 100 1m

= 125.75 k/ft2 (873 psi) kN-axial tension at

its end. Determine 100 mm

the average normal b b 75 mm

stress at its mid- Section b-b

= 125.75 ksf height. Ignore the

weight of the bar. 100 kN

61 62

200 mm Force at mid-height: Fy=0 => P = 100 kN (T)

Solution:

P

Extend vertical lines (200-100)/2 Cross-sectional area

c c

from the bottom to the 0.5 m at mid-height:

top. From similar A = (2X+100)(75) 2X+100=150 mm

X X 0.5 m

triangles: = (2*25+100)(75) 75 mm

= 11250 mm 2 100

X 0.5 0.5 m Section c-c

= Stress at mid-height:

50 1 100 kN

100x103

=> X = 25 mm 100 mm

= P/A = = 8.89 N/mm2

11250

63

MPa 64

Example 7:

Solution:

A shaft is made by welding two members

together. Member AB has a 1-in diameter, Stress in member AB: P 50 k 30 k

while member BC has a 1.5 in-diameter. Cut between A and B C

B

Find the maximum normal stress in the shaft. & isolate the right side:

Fx = 0 => -P 50 + 30 = 0

1 in 50 kips 1.5 in 30 kips

A => P = -20 kips

C 20

24 in B 36 in AB = P/A = = 25.5 ksi (C)

(0.5)2

65 66

5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

Example 8:

Stress in member BC: Determine the maximum force P that can be

Cut between B and C applied on the truss below, if the stress in

P 30 k

& isolate the right side: any member cannot exceed 150 MPa.

C C

Fx = 0 => -P + 30 = 0 P

Note:

A=10 mm2

=> P = +30 kips

3m 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2

30

AB = P/A = = 17.0 ksi (T)

(0.75)2 A=15 mm2 B

A

Conclusion: Max. stress in rod is 25.5 ksi (C)

67 4m 68

Solution: Next, we find the member forces:

First, we find the support reactions in terms Joint A: FAC

of P using the equations of equilibrium: Fx = 0

Fx = 0 P

C

=> FAB = P (T) P FAB

A

=> RAx = - P Fy = 0

MA = 0 3m => FAC = 3P/4 (T) 3P/4

FBC

=> RB = +3P/4 B

Joint B: 3

RAx

Fy = 0 A Fy = 0 P

4

4m RB B

RAy => FBC = -5P/4 (C)

=> RAy = -3P/4 69

3P/470

After that, we equate the actual stress to the Shear stress is the

allowable stress for each member and solve stress component that

for P. Finally, we select the smallest P: acts in the plane of the

Member AB: cross-section, defined

()max = FAB/A => P/15 = 150 or P = 2250 N by:

Member AC: V A

= ---------- (7) C A C

D B

D

()max = FBC/A => (5P/4)/20 = 150 or P = 2400 N and A = cross-sectional area.

71 72

6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

Here you can see a plank A scissors, paper cutter and paper puncher

of wood with 3 forces acting are all examples of the action of shearing.

on it. The forces are not in

line with each other and so

if the material is not strong

enough it will shear off.

This is the same principle

as that of make a hole in a

plate.

73 74

a) Single Shear: It occurs when a member is

subjected to one shear force, as shown below:

V P

= A = P

A

P

where A = area of bolt or glue.

75 76

b) Double Shear: It occurs when a member is

subjected to two shear forces in the same

direction, as shown below:

P/2

V P/2 V P

= A = = 2A

A P/2

77 78

6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

The bolt below is in double shear. If the Example 9:

diameter of the bolt is 6 mm, then the average Determine the average normal and shear

shear stress in the bolt is: stresses acting on a plane defined by an

V F/2 V 1000 angle for the rod shown below.

= A = = 2A = 2xx32 = 17.7 MPa

A

F F

79 80

Solution: Now, cut along the inclined plane and isolate

the left side as FBD:

The cross-sectional area along the cut is: N

A

F

F F

V

Fx = 0 => N (sin ) + V (cos ) = F

Fy = 0 => N (cos ) = V (sin )

sin = A/A => A = A/(sin ) A

A Solving the above 2 Eqs., we get:

N = F sin and V = F cos

81 82

Therefore, the average normal stress along Example 10: 20 mm-diam. each

C D

the inclined plane is: A 100-kN load is 20mm x 60 mm

= N/A = (F sin )/[A/(sin )] supported by the 0.6 m each

= [F (sin )2]/A system shown.

and the average shear stress along the Find the normal B 25 mm-diam.

rods, and the

= V/A = (F cos )/[A/(sin )] A

shear stresses

= [F (cos )(sin )]/A in the bolts.

83 100 kN 84

6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

Solution:

Normal stress in rod AB: Shear Stress in Bolt B: 50 50

P P

AB = P/A = 100x103/(50x60) Bolt is in double shear, V = 50 kN

= 33.3 MPa (T) => = V/A = 50x103/[25/2)2]

B 100

Normal stress in rod BC or BD: = 102 MPa

Fy = 0 => 2P = 100 Shear Stress in Bolt C or D:

50

or P = 50 kN A Bolt is in single shear, V = 50 kN

BC = BD = P/A => = V/A = 50x103/[(20/2)2]

= 50x103/(20x60) 100 kN

= 159.2 MPa 50

= 41.7 MPa (T) 85 86

C Solution:

Example 11: P C

Determine the force MB = 0 => P

16 in

4-kips load in the or P = 3 kips

position shown. A

12 in The reactions are obtained A RBx

Also, find the shear B from: 12 in B

4 kips

stress in the bolt at B Fx = 0 => RBx = -3 kips 4 kips RBy

if the diameter of the Elevation Side view Fy = 0 => RBy = +4 kips

bolt 0.5 inches.

87 88

Therefore, the total resultant reaction at

support is: The bolt is in double shear: RB

RB = RBx + RBy = (3)2 + (4)2 = 5 kips => V = RB/2 = 5/2 = 2.5 kips

The shear stress in the bolt is: RB/2

3 kips 3 kips = V/A = V/(D2/4) RB/2

= 2.5/(3.14x0.52/4) = 12.8 ksi

3 kips B

B

4 kips 4 kips 4 kips 5 kips 89 90

7. Factor of Safety 7. Factor of Safety

In the design of structural members or

The important reasons why we limit the

machines, the stress in the material must be

stress to an allowable value are:

kept below an allowable stress, defined as:

1. Applied load may not be certain

all = fail/(F.S.) ----------- (8) 2. Material properties may not be certain

all = fail/(F.S.) ----------- (9) 3. Cross-section dimensions may not be exact

where all, all = allowable normal/shear stress 4. Accidental loading such as impact, vibration

fail, fail = normal/shear stress at failure 5. Unexpected decay of material

and F.S. = factor of safety (>1) 6. Human errors in design and construction

91 92

For example, if the crushing (a) Cross-sectional area of axially loaded

load on a 150x300 mm member:

concrete cylinder is 500 kN

and a factor of safety of 3 is

used, then:

fail = P/A = 500x103/[(150/2)2] = 28.3 MPa

all = fail/(F.S.) = 28.3/3 = 9.43 MPa The required cross-sectional area of an axially

Therefore, in the design of a concrete loaded member based on a given all is

column, the compressive stress may not obtained from:

exceed 9.43 MPa. 93

Areqd = P/all -------------- (10) 94

8. Applications 8. Applications

(b) Cross-sectional area of a pin subjected to

shear: (c) Area to resist bearing:

The required bearing

area of a base plate

based on a given

bearing stress (b)all

is obtained from:

The required cross-sectional area of a pin Areqd = P/(b)all -------- (12)

based on a given all is obtained from:

Areqd = V/all -------------- (11) 95 96

8. Applications 8. Applications

(d) Area to provide bond:

The required surface area

of a rod subjected to

shear bond caused by an

axial load is:

Areqd = P/(all)bond ------- (13)

If the rods diameter d is

given, the embedment:

l = Areqd/(d) 97 98

450 k

8. Applications 8. Applications

Example 12: D

A column with circular cross- Solution:

t

section is supported on a There are 3 modes of failure for this

square footing. Find the Elevation column-footing system:

diameter of the column and b

1. The column may fail in compression,

dimensions of the footing if it is

2. The soil may fail in bearing, and

subjected to 450 kip axial load.

b 3. The footing may fail in punching

Given: (all)col = 1000 psi

shear.

[(b)all]ftg = 5 ksf &

(all)ftg = 300 psi Plan 99 100

8. Applications 8. Applications

Compression in Column:

450 k 450 k

450 k Acol = P/all 450 k 450 k

=> Acol = 450/1 = 450 in2

But Acol = D2/4 D

all

=> D = 4 Acol/

Compression Soil Bearing Punching Shear

101 102

450 k 450 k

8. Applications 8. Applications

Bearing in Soil: Punching Shear:

Aftg = P/(ball P = Acol(ball + A all

=> Aftg = 450/5 = 90 ft2 where A = surface area of

b

But Aftg = b2 (D x t) cylinder

450 k

450 k => t = [P - Acol(ball] /( D all)

=> b = Aftg D

{450 [(2)2/4](5)}

or t = = 19.2 in all t

= 90 = 9.5 ft ball (24) 0.3 ball

103 104

8. Applications 8. Applications

Example 13: Solution:

A hanger is fixed into the a) Diameter of bolt A: Bolt A

support by 3 bolts, as The bolt is in double shear

shown. Determine the: Bolt B

=> V = F/2 = 60/2 = 30 kips

a) Diameter of bolt A Bolt A F=60 kips

Areqd = V/All = 30/10 = 3 in2

b) Diameter of bolt B 30 30

which results in a diameter:

c) Embedment of bolt B

D = 4(3)/ = 1.95 in

Given: all = 18 ksi

Practically, 2 in-diameter is specified. 60

all = 10 ksi & (all)bond = 1 ksi 60 kips 105 106

P P

8. Applications 8. Applications

Bolt B

l

b) Diameter of bolt B: c) Embedment of bolt B: Bolt B

The diameter of this bolt The embedment of this

is obtained based on the bolt is obtained based on

allowable tension: the allowable bond shear:

=> P/bolt = 60/2 = 30 kips 60 kips => V/bolt = 60/2 = 30 kips 60 kips

Areqd = P/All = 30/18 = 1.67 in2 Areqd = P/(All)bond = 30/1 = 30 in2

Practically, a 1.5 in-bolt is specified. Practically, a 6.5 in-embedment is specified.

107 108

http://www.youtube.com/watch?

Mecmovie

v=coRgpxG2pyY

109 110

http://www.youtube.com/watch? http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=WA64uhHmiXk v=KFal96skKwE

111 112

Exercise

Determine the D

normal stress in

the cable BDE and 4 5

3 E

shear stress in the A B C

pin at support A

2m 2m 1.5 m

(double shear).

Assume that the 80Kg

diameter of the

cable and pin is 10

mm. Bracket at support A 113 114

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