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# CVE/MCE 223: Mechanics of Materials

1. Stress Outline
1. Introduction
2. Equilibrium
3. Internal Forces
4. Stress
5. Average Normal Stress
6. Average Shear Stress
Dr. Sami W. Tabsh, P.E. 7. Factor of Safety
Department of Civil Engineering 8. Applications
AUS
1
Reference: R.C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, Prentice Hall 2

1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Mechanics of materials investigates the
Mechanics of Materials is a branch of
relationships between:
applied mechanics that deals with the
behavior of solid bodies subjected to various a) External loads, and
types of loading. b) Internal forces and stresses

M

V
R R
Compression Tension (stretching) Bending Torsion (twisting) Shearing 3 4

1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This subject also deals with:
- Computation of deformations, and
- Investigation of stability.
Mechanics of materials depend on:
- Material properties
- Structural form
- Cross-sectional dimensions
- Nature of the applied loads
5 6
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The origin of mechanics of solids dates back Experimental and
to the 17th century. At that time Galileo theoretical studies
performed experiments on beams made from improved the work of
different materials. Galileo in the 18th and 19th
Poisson (1781-1840)
centuries. In particular,
significant work was done
in France by Poisson,
Saint-Venant, Cauchy, and
Navier. Saint-Venant (1797-1886)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 7 8

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium
Surface Forces:
A body can either They are caused by the direct contact of one
be subjected to: body with another.
a) Surface forces, or - If the area of contact is small (a point), then
b) Body forces the force is concentrated.
- If the load is distributed along a line, then it is
called a linearly distributed load.
- If the load is applied over an area, then it is
considered pressure.
9 10

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium
Body Forces:
They are forces that are
applied through volumes.
They occur when a body
exerts a force on another
Concentrated load on floor Line load on floor Pressure load on floor without contact.
Examples: weight of a body,
magnetic field.
11 12
2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium
Support Reactions: A roller support
Forces that develop at supports are can resist a force
called reactions. The most common perpendicular to a
types of supports in 2-dimensions are: line along the
surface of the
a) Roller
rolling. Hence, it is
b) Hinge a reaction with 1
c) Fixity unknown.

13 14

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium
A hinge (or pin) support can resist a force in A fixed support resists a force in any
any direction, but cannot resist a moment. direction and a moment. Hence, it is a
Hence, it is a reaction with 2 unknowns. reaction with 3 unknowns. It prevents
translation and rotation of the member.
Type of connection Reaction

15 16

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium

## Roller Hinge Fixed

17 http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Mechanics/Statics.html
18
2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium
Equations of Equilibrium:
In a 3-dimensional Cartesian system (x-y-
Equilibrium of a body requires: z), the above Equations become:
a) Balance of forces, and Fx = 0
b) Balance of moments. Fy = 0
Mathematically, equilibrium is ensured by Fz = 0
the 2 vector equations: ----------------- (2)
Mx = 0
F=0
----------------- (1) My = 0
M=0
19
Mz = 0 20

2. Equilibrium 2. Equilibrium
Free-body diagram is a sketch used to show
When the forces and the structures are the relative magnitude and direction of all the
coplanar (exist in 2-dimensions): forces acting upon an object in equilibrium in a
Fx = 0 given situation away from its surroundings.
Fy = 0 ----------------- (3) Example: What is the force P needed to start moving the block up.
P 50x9.81 N
Mpoint = 0 P

=0.15
To minimize mistakes, free-body-diagrams y

## are normally used in the analysis of 30o

x
N
o
0.15N
60o 30
structures and machines. 21
Actual Structure Free-Body-Diag. 22

2. Equilibrium
2. Equilibrium D

## The basic steps in developing a Free-body 4 5

Diagram for a rigid body are: A B
3 E C

## Draw the rigid body 2m 2m 1.5 m

Select a coordinate system 80Kg
Actual Structure
Indicate all the known forces and moments acting
on the body with magnitude and direction clearly
labeled
Indicate all unknown forces and moments acting
on the body and indicate their assumed direction
Label all relevant angles and dimensions, as well
as all relevant points on the diagram 23 Free-Body-Diag. 24
3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces
Consider a body Although the exact
subjected to external distribution of the
forces. To find the internal forces at the cut
resultant internal forces may be unknown, we
at a plane, we use the can use Eqns. (1) to
method of section. This find the resultant force
means we cut the body FR and moment MRo at
at the plane and take a a point located within
FBD of the lower part. the cut plane (point O).
25 26

## 3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces

FR and MRo can be
In 2-dimensional
resolved into 2
cases, torsion is
components, one _|_
not relevant.
and another tangential
Therefore, only
to the plane:
normal force, shear
N = Normal force force, and bending
V = shear force moment exist at a
T = Torsional moment cut.
M = Bending moment 27 28

## 3. Internal Forces C 3. Internal Forces N

Example 1: 30 in
Solution: 15 in
Two rods are welded at B:
a) Cut at mid BC and isolate
a) Find the normal force at B B
the lower part as FBD:
mid rod BC if P = 40 kips.
30 k 30 k Fy = 0 => 30 k 30 k
b) Find the force P that will 40 in 40 in
N + 30 + 30 40 = 0
cause a tensile force in
AB having the same or N = -20 kips (Comp.)
magnitude as a A A
compressive force in BC.
P 29 40 k 30
3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces N2

N1
b) Apply P at point A and cut Fy = 0 =>
first within AB and isolate -N2 + 30 + 30 P = 0 -------- (b)
the lower part: B
In addition to Eqs. (a) and (b), we
Fy = 0 => have: 30 k 30 k
N1 P = 0 --------- (a) A N 1 = N2 ------------- (c)
Now, cut within BC and Solving the above 3 Equations we
isolate the lower part as P
get: A
FBD: P = 30 kips (down).
31 P 32

## 3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces

Example 2: Solution:
Find the shear and moment at midspan of MB = 0 =>
the beam shown. RAy = [2x12x6 + (3x12/2)x4]/12 = 18 kN (up)
5 kN/m
3x12/2 kN
2x12 kN 4m
2 kN/m
2 kN/m 5-2=3 kN/m
A B
A B
12 m 6m 6m
33
RAy RB 34

## 3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces

Cut at midspan and isolate the left side: Example 3:
Fy = 0 => A system consists of a frame, cable and
VO = 18 2x6 1.5x6/2 = 1.5 kN frictionless pulleys, acted on by a 1 kN force.
MO = 0 => Find the internal forces at O. All pulleys have
a radius of 10 cm.
MO = 18x6 2x6x3 (1.5x6/2)x2 = 63 kN-m
1.5x6/2 kN
2x6 kN 2m 50 cm
1 kN
2 kN/m (5-2)/2=1.5 kN/m
O
A MO +
O
3m 3m
18 kN VO 35 25 cm 25 cm 40 cm 36
3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces 10 cm

Solution: 10 cm Fx = 0 =>
Cut vertically through NO = - 1 kN (comp.)
the frame at point O and Fy = 0 =>
50 cm
1 kN
through the cable. Note MO
VO
VO = -1 kN
that the tension in the 50 cm
1 kN 10 cm NO
cable is constant, equal VO
MO MO = 0 =>
25 cm 1 kN
to 1 kN, the pulleys are 10 cm NO
MO = -(1)(25 - 10) (1)(10)
frictionless. 25 cm 1 kN = -25 kN-cm (ten. on top)
37 38

## 3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces

Example 4: Solution:
The board of the sign Cut the post at A and
structure shown is isolate the top part as
subjected to 60 psf wind FBD. There are 6
load. Determine the unknown internal Vx
Mx
internal forces at point A forces at A (3 forces
if the board weighs 4800 and 3 moments): Nz
Vy
lb and the post weighs Vx, Vy and Nz My
200 lb/ft. y Tz
39
and Mx, My and Tz. 40

## 3. Internal Forces 3. Internal Forces

Total wind force along Fx = 0
ve y-axis is:
=> Vx = 0 7200 lb
Wind = (60)(15x8)
7200 lb Fy = 0
= 7200 lb 4800 lb
3600 lb
=> Vy = 7200 lb
Total weight of post Mx Vx
3600 lb Fz = 0 =>
along ve z-axis is:
Nz = 3600 + 4800 Nz
Post wt. = (200)(8+10) Vy
= 8400 lb My
= 3600 lb y
y Tz
41 42
3. Internal Forces 4. Stress
Mx = 0 => Consider a body subjected to several forces.
Mx = -7200(10 + 4) The internal force distribution at a section of
= -100,800 lb-ft the body is shown on right.
7200 lb
My = 0 => 4800 lb
3600 lb
My = -4800(6.5) Mx Vx
= -31,200 lb-ft
Mz = 0 => Vy Nz
Tz = 7200(6.5) My
= 46,800 lb-ft y Tz
43 44

n
4. Stress 4. Stress
Fn F
If we consider a very small As the area A approaches
area, A, within the whole zero, so does the force F.
Ft
area of the cross-section t However, the quotient n
A, it will be subjected to a F/A will approach a finite F
Fn
very small force F. limit, called the stress.
This force can be resolved There are two different
into 2 components: Ft
types of stresses: t
Fn: normal component, & i- Normal Stress
Ft: tangential component. ii- Shear Stress
45 46

4. Stress 4. Stress
i- Normal Stress:
It is the force per unit area acting normal to High heel versus flat bottom shoes
A, denoted by :
Fn
= lim Fn/A --------------- (4)
as A 0
A
If Fn pulls on A => tensile stress
If Fn pushes on A => compressive stress
Low stress

High stress
47 48
4. Stress 4. Stress
Normal Stresses
ii- Shear Stress:
It is the force per unit area acting tangential to
A, denoted by : A
= lim Ft/A --------------- (5)
Ft
as A 0

49 50

4. Stress 4. Stress
z
Cartesian Stress Components: z = lim Fz/A
as A 0 z
If F is resolved into 3 components along the
x, y and z axes, we obtain 1 normal stress zx = lim Fx/A
and 2 shear stresses: as A 0 zx zy
z zy = lim Fy/A
as A 0 x y
Resolution Fz Note:
F For z, the subscript denotes the direction of
of force into A A = (x)(y) the normal stress. For zx and zy, the 1st
components Fx subscript (z) denotes the orientation of the
Fy
area, while the 2nd (x or y) denotes the
x y
51 direction of the shear stress. 52

4. Stress 4. Stress
Now, if we cut the body by a plane parallel to Cutting a cube out of the
the x-z plane, we obtain the stresses on an inside of the body, we get
area _|_ to the y axis: the stresses on all faces.
Using the equations of
y
equilibrium, it can be
shown that:
- Normal stresses on
opposite faces are equal.
xy = yx & xz = zx & zy = yz
53 54
5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress
For long, slender
members that are
subjected to axial
forces at their ends,
the average normal
stress is more
important than the
actual normal
stress.
55 56

## 5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

For a bar to undergo uniform
deformation (w/o distortion), it is
necessary for: For a bar with
a) The load P to be applied at the cross-sectional
centroid of the cross-section area A subjected
b) The material to be homogeneous to an axial force
(i.e same properties throughout its P, the average
volume), and normal stress is:
c) The material to be isotropic (i.e. P
same properties in all directions). = ------------- (6)
57
A 58

## 5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

Example 5: P
P 2ftx2ft Solution:
A 10 ft-high concrete column
with 2 ft by 2 ft square cross- The weight of the column above
section is subjected to a 500 the mid-height is:
kips axial force on the top. W = con V = (0.15)(5x2x2) 5 ft
Determine the average normal 10 ft => W = 3 kips W
stress at the midd-height of the The internal axial force at the
column. Include the weight of middle of the column is:
the column in the calculations. Fy = 0 => N
Given: con = 0.150 k/ft3 N = P + W = 500 + 3 = 503 kips (C)
59 60
5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress
Example 6: a a

## Therefore, the average normal stress at A nonprismatic bar 200 mm

the middle of the column is: with constant (75 75 mm
= P/A = 503/(2x2) mm) thickness is
Section a-a
subjected to 100 1m
= 125.75 k/ft2 (873 psi) kN-axial tension at
its end. Determine 100 mm
the average normal b b 75 mm
stress at its mid- Section b-b
= 125.75 ksf height. Ignore the
weight of the bar. 100 kN
61 62

## 5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

200 mm Force at mid-height: Fy=0 => P = 100 kN (T)
Solution:
P
Extend vertical lines (200-100)/2 Cross-sectional area
c c
from the bottom to the 0.5 m at mid-height:
top. From similar A = (2X+100)(75) 2X+100=150 mm
X X 0.5 m
triangles: = (2*25+100)(75) 75 mm
= 11250 mm 2 100
X 0.5 0.5 m Section c-c
= Stress at mid-height:
50 1 100 kN
100x103
=> X = 25 mm 100 mm
= P/A = = 8.89 N/mm2
11250
63
MPa 64

## 5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

Example 7:
Solution:
A shaft is made by welding two members
together. Member AB has a 1-in diameter, Stress in member AB: P 50 k 30 k
while member BC has a 1.5 in-diameter. Cut between A and B C
B
Find the maximum normal stress in the shaft. & isolate the right side:
Fx = 0 => -P 50 + 30 = 0
1 in 50 kips 1.5 in 30 kips
A => P = -20 kips
C 20
24 in B 36 in AB = P/A = = 25.5 ksi (C)
(0.5)2
65 66
5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress
Example 8:
Stress in member BC: Determine the maximum force P that can be
Cut between B and C applied on the truss below, if the stress in
P 30 k
& isolate the right side: any member cannot exceed 150 MPa.
C C
Fx = 0 => -P + 30 = 0 P
Note:

A=10 mm2
=> P = +30 kips
3m 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
30
AB = P/A = = 17.0 ksi (T)
(0.75)2 A=15 mm2 B
A
Conclusion: Max. stress in rod is 25.5 ksi (C)
67 4m 68

## 5. Average Normal Stress 5. Average Normal Stress

Solution: Next, we find the member forces:
First, we find the support reactions in terms Joint A: FAC
of P using the equations of equilibrium: Fx = 0
Fx = 0 P
C
=> FAB = P (T) P FAB
A
=> RAx = - P Fy = 0
MA = 0 3m => FAC = 3P/4 (T) 3P/4
FBC
=> RB = +3P/4 B
Joint B: 3
RAx
Fy = 0 A Fy = 0 P
4
4m RB B
RAy => FBC = -5P/4 (C)
=> RAy = -3P/4 69
3P/470

## 5. Average Normal Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

After that, we equate the actual stress to the Shear stress is the
allowable stress for each member and solve stress component that
for P. Finally, we select the smallest P: acts in the plane of the
Member AB: cross-section, defined
()max = FAB/A => P/15 = 150 or P = 2250 N by:
Member AC: V A
= ---------- (7) C A C

D B
D

## Member BC: where V = shear force,

()max = FBC/A => (5P/4)/20 = 150 or P = 2400 N and A = cross-sectional area.
71 72
6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress
Here you can see a plank A scissors, paper cutter and paper puncher
of wood with 3 forces acting are all examples of the action of shearing.
on it. The forces are not in
line with each other and so
if the material is not strong
enough it will shear off.
This is the same principle
as that of make a hole in a
plate.
73 74

## 6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

a) Single Shear: It occurs when a member is
subjected to one shear force, as shown below:
V P
= A = P
A
P
where A = area of bolt or glue.

75 76

## 6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

b) Double Shear: It occurs when a member is
subjected to two shear forces in the same
direction, as shown below:
P/2
V P/2 V P
= A = = 2A
A P/2

## Double shear failure

77 78
6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress
The bolt below is in double shear. If the Example 9:
diameter of the bolt is 6 mm, then the average Determine the average normal and shear
shear stress in the bolt is: stresses acting on a plane defined by an
V F/2 V 1000 angle for the rod shown below.
= A = = 2A = 2xx32 = 17.7 MPa
A

F F

79 80

## 6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

Solution: Now, cut along the inclined plane and isolate
the left side as FBD:
The cross-sectional area along the cut is: N

A
F

F F
V
Fx = 0 => N (sin ) + V (cos ) = F
Fy = 0 => N (cos ) = V (sin )
sin = A/A => A = A/(sin ) A
A Solving the above 2 Eqs., we get:

N = F sin and V = F cos
81 82

## 6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

Therefore, the average normal stress along Example 10: 20 mm-diam. each
C D
the inclined plane is: A 100-kN load is 20mm x 60 mm
= N/A = (F sin )/[A/(sin )] supported by the 0.6 m each
= [F (sin )2]/A system shown.
and the average shear stress along the Find the normal B 25 mm-diam.

## inclined plane is: stresses in the 0.4 m 50mm x 60 mm

rods, and the
= V/A = (F cos )/[A/(sin )] A
shear stresses
= [F (cos )(sin )]/A in the bolts.
83 100 kN 84
6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress
Solution:
Normal stress in rod AB: Shear Stress in Bolt B: 50 50
P P
AB = P/A = 100x103/(50x60) Bolt is in double shear, V = 50 kN
= 33.3 MPa (T) => = V/A = 50x103/[25/2)2]
B 100
Normal stress in rod BC or BD: = 102 MPa
Fy = 0 => 2P = 100 Shear Stress in Bolt C or D:
50
or P = 50 kN A Bolt is in single shear, V = 50 kN
BC = BD = P/A => = V/A = 50x103/[(20/2)2]
= 50x103/(20x60) 100 kN
= 159.2 MPa 50
= 41.7 MPa (T) 85 86

## 6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

C Solution:
Example 11: P C
Determine the force MB = 0 => P

## P needed to hold the 16 in P(16) (4)(12) = 0

16 in
4-kips load in the or P = 3 kips
position shown. A
12 in The reactions are obtained A RBx
Also, find the shear B from: 12 in B
4 kips
stress in the bolt at B Fx = 0 => RBx = -3 kips 4 kips RBy
if the diameter of the Elevation Side view Fy = 0 => RBy = +4 kips
bolt 0.5 inches.
87 88

## 6. Average Shear Stress 6. Average Shear Stress

Therefore, the total resultant reaction at
support is: The bolt is in double shear: RB
RB = RBx + RBy = (3)2 + (4)2 = 5 kips => V = RB/2 = 5/2 = 2.5 kips
The shear stress in the bolt is: RB/2
3 kips 3 kips = V/A = V/(D2/4) RB/2
= 2.5/(3.14x0.52/4) = 12.8 ksi

3 kips B
B
4 kips 4 kips 4 kips 5 kips 89 90
7. Factor of Safety 7. Factor of Safety
In the design of structural members or
The important reasons why we limit the
machines, the stress in the material must be
stress to an allowable value are:
kept below an allowable stress, defined as:
1. Applied load may not be certain
all = fail/(F.S.) ----------- (8) 2. Material properties may not be certain
all = fail/(F.S.) ----------- (9) 3. Cross-section dimensions may not be exact
where all, all = allowable normal/shear stress 4. Accidental loading such as impact, vibration
fail, fail = normal/shear stress at failure 5. Unexpected decay of material
and F.S. = factor of safety (>1) 6. Human errors in design and construction
91 92

## 7. Factor of Safety 8. Applications

For example, if the crushing (a) Cross-sectional area of axially loaded
load on a 150x300 mm member:
concrete cylinder is 500 kN
and a factor of safety of 3 is
used, then:
fail = P/A = 500x103/[(150/2)2] = 28.3 MPa
all = fail/(F.S.) = 28.3/3 = 9.43 MPa The required cross-sectional area of an axially
Therefore, in the design of a concrete loaded member based on a given all is
column, the compressive stress may not obtained from:
exceed 9.43 MPa. 93
Areqd = P/all -------------- (10) 94

8. Applications 8. Applications
(b) Cross-sectional area of a pin subjected to
shear: (c) Area to resist bearing:
The required bearing
area of a base plate
based on a given
bearing stress (b)all
is obtained from:
The required cross-sectional area of a pin Areqd = P/(b)all -------- (12)
based on a given all is obtained from:
Areqd = V/all -------------- (11) 95 96
8. Applications 8. Applications
(d) Area to provide bond:
The required surface area
of a rod subjected to
shear bond caused by an
axial load is:
Areqd = P/(all)bond ------- (13)
If the rods diameter d is
given, the embedment:
l = Areqd/(d) 97 98

450 k
8. Applications 8. Applications
Example 12: D
A column with circular cross- Solution:
t
section is supported on a There are 3 modes of failure for this
square footing. Find the Elevation column-footing system:
diameter of the column and b
1. The column may fail in compression,
dimensions of the footing if it is
2. The soil may fail in bearing, and
subjected to 450 kip axial load.
b 3. The footing may fail in punching
Given: (all)col = 1000 psi
shear.
[(b)all]ftg = 5 ksf &
(all)ftg = 300 psi Plan 99 100

8. Applications 8. Applications
Compression in Column:
450 k 450 k
450 k Acol = P/all 450 k 450 k
=> Acol = 450/1 = 450 in2
But Acol = D2/4 D
all

=> D = 4 Acol/
Compression Soil Bearing Punching Shear

## = 4(450)/ = 24.0 in.

101 102
450 k 450 k
8. Applications 8. Applications
Bearing in Soil: Punching Shear:
Aftg = P/(ball P = Acol(ball + A all
=> Aftg = 450/5 = 90 ft2 where A = surface area of
b
But Aftg = b2 (D x t) cylinder
450 k
450 k => t = [P - Acol(ball] /( D all)
=> b = Aftg D
{450 [(2)2/4](5)}
or t = = 19.2 in all t
= 90 = 9.5 ft ball (24) 0.3 ball
103 104

8. Applications 8. Applications
Example 13: Solution:
A hanger is fixed into the a) Diameter of bolt A: Bolt A
support by 3 bolts, as The bolt is in double shear
shown. Determine the: Bolt B
=> V = F/2 = 60/2 = 30 kips
a) Diameter of bolt A Bolt A F=60 kips
Areqd = V/All = 30/10 = 3 in2
b) Diameter of bolt B 30 30
which results in a diameter:
c) Embedment of bolt B
D = 4(3)/ = 1.95 in
Given: all = 18 ksi
Practically, 2 in-diameter is specified. 60
all = 10 ksi & (all)bond = 1 ksi 60 kips 105 106

P P
8. Applications 8. Applications
Bolt B
l
b) Diameter of bolt B: c) Embedment of bolt B: Bolt B
The diameter of this bolt The embedment of this
is obtained based on the bolt is obtained based on
allowable tension: the allowable bond shear:
=> P/bolt = 60/2 = 30 kips 60 kips => V/bolt = 60/2 = 30 kips 60 kips
Areqd = P/All = 30/18 = 1.67 in2 Areqd = P/(All)bond = 30/1 = 30 in2

## and diameter D = 4(1.67)/ = 1.46 in & embedment l = 30/[ (1.5)] = 6.37 in

Practically, a 1.5 in-bolt is specified. Practically, a 6.5 in-embedment is specified.
107 108
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
Mecmovie
v=coRgpxG2pyY

109 110

http://www.youtube.com/watch? http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=WA64uhHmiXk v=KFal96skKwE

111 112

Exercise
Determine the D
normal stress in
the cable BDE and 4 5
3 E
shear stress in the A B C
pin at support A
2m 2m 1.5 m
(double shear).
Assume that the 80Kg

diameter of the
cable and pin is 10
mm. Bracket at support A 113 114