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PEGN 423 Petroleum Reservoir Engineering I Fall 2016

HOMEWORK #1

Assignment: Tuesday, September 6, 2016


Due date: Thursday, September 15, 2016

NAME: {Your name here}

Problem #1: Using dimensional analysis, present the Darcys Law equation in
the following oil field units: (15 points)

k A
q= Dp
mL

Volumetric Permeability, Viscosity, Cross- Length, Pressure


flow rate, k sectional L drop, p
1 q area, A
ft3/s md cp ft2 ft psi

Volumetric Permeability, Viscosity, Cross- Length, Pressure


flow rate, k sectional L drop, p
2 q area, A
ft3/day md cp ft2 ft psi

Volumetric Permeability, Viscosity, Cross- Length, Pressure


flow rate, k sectional L drop, p
3 q area, A
bbl/day md cp ft2 ft psi

Useful conversion factors:

- For viscosity:
To Obtain
Multiply cp or mPas lbfs/ft2 psis lbm/fts
cp or mPas 1 2.088543E-05 1.450377E-07 6.719689E-04
lbfs/ft2 4.788026E+04 1 6.944444E-03 3.217400E+01
psis 6.894757E+06 1.440000E+02 1 4.633056E+03
lbm/fts 1.488164E+03 3.108100E-02 2.158403E-04 1

- For permeability:
1 m2 = 1013.25 md

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Problem #2: The oil-water contact of an undersaturated oil reservoir has been
located from well logging interpretation at a depth of 4,975.2 ft. During the
reservoir characterization, four types of rock where identified with different
average porosity and permeability. Table 2.1 presents the porosity and
permeability corresponding for each rock type.
Table 2.1 Data for problem 2
Porosity and Permeability Data Capillary Pressure Data
k Pc, psi
Rock
type (md) Sw Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
1 575 0.275 1 0.20 0.38 0.45 0.80
2 111 0.21 0.95 0.20 0.38 0.45 0.82
3 55 0.2 0.9 0.20 0.38 0.45 0.85
4 10 0.14 0.85 0.20 0.38 0.45 0.90
0.8 0.20 0.39 0.48 0.95
Zone-Depth Data 0.75 0.20 0.40 0.50 1.00
Top Bottom 0.7 0.20 0.42 0.55 1.04
Type (ft) (ft) 0.65 0.24 0.45 0.58 1.10
1 4,877 4,899 0.6 0.26 0.50 0.62 1.20
3 4,899 4,922 0.55 0.29 0.55 0.70 1.30
2 4,922 4,935 0.5 0.33 0.60 0.80 1.45
3 4,935 4,948 0.45 0.37 0.70 0.97 1.80
4 4,948 4,977 0.4 0.46 0.85 1.15 2.20
0.35 0.58 1.10 1.45 2.90
0.33 0.63 1.20 1.60 3.20
0.3 0.75 1.40 2.00 3.80
0.25 1.00 2.00 2.70 5.40
0.24 1.10 2.30 3.20 6.40
0.22 1.30 2.60 3.60 7.00
0.21 1.40 2.80 3.90 7.60
0.2 1.50 3.00 4.20 8.20
0.19 1.70 3.50 4.70 9.00
0.18 2.00 4.00 5.60 11.00
0.17 2.50 5.00 7.00 13.50
0.16 3.00 7.00 9.00 15.00
From a reservoir fluid analysis the water-oil interfacial tension is 55 dynes/cm,
and the wetting angle is 30.
2.1.- Determine the free-water level (depth at which Pc = 0 psi) if the oil density at
reservoir conditions is = 40 /^3 and = 64 /^3. (15 points)
2.2- Determine the initial water saturation distribution from the capillary pressure
curves presented in Table 2.1. Plot depth (vertical axis) versus water saturation
(horizontal axis). (20 points)

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Problem #3: Calculate the initial water saturation distribution in a heterogeneous
reservoir, where the J-function relationship with water saturation is known as, (20
points)

J = 0.1+1.2exp-6 ( Sw - 0.15); for Sw > 0.15

Make a plot of Depth vs. water saturation (Sw).

Table 3.1 presents the rock and fluid properties, and Table 3.2 presents the
porosity and permeability at different depth intervals.

Table 3.1 - Data of rock/fluid system


Water density, w 65 lbm/ft3
Oil density, o 42.53 lbm/ft3
Interfacial tension, 74 dynes/cm
Contact angle, 40
Free water level 4500ft

Table 3.2 - Porosity and


permeability data
Depth (ft) k (md)
4375 - 4400 0.1 35
4400 - 4415 0.15 145
4415 - 4425 0.12 68
4425 - 4450 0.18 388
4450 - 4465 0.08 10
4465 - 4480 0.14 112
4480 - 4500 0.08 10

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Problem #4: Determine the fluid distribution in a reservoir using pressure
gradient calculations.

Figure 1 shows the diagram of a reservoir where the exploration well penetrates
the reservoir near the top of the structure, observing only gas. There is no
information about the presence of oil from this well. From a wireline formation
test (Table 4.1) the reservoir pressure and temperature are measured, and a gas
sample is obtained.

Exploration
well

Gas

Figure 1. Diagram of reservoir with exploration well.

Table 4.1 - Wireline formation test info


Depth 5100 ft
Reservoir pressure 2377 psia
Reservoir temperature 170 F
Gas specific gravity, g 0.65
Gas z-factor, z 0.87

1.- Calculate the pressure at the top of the reservoir. From a geologic model the
top of the reservoir is at 5000 ft. (15 points)

2.- Assuming this is a gas reservoir at normal hydrostatic pressure, (dp/dz)w =


0.45 psi/ft, calculate the deepest possible gas-water contact. (15 points)