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Electricity Grid System Connection Requirement of Provincial Electricity Authority

(PEA)

1. Technical Requirement

1.1 Voltage and Frequency

Voltage and frequency for electricity generation system of very small power producer
shall be compatible with Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA)'s electricity grid system and
shall be complied with PEA Regulation on Requirement for Electricity Grid System
Connection B.E. 2551.

1.2 Harmonics

The electricity generation system of very small power producer shall not generate
over rated limit of harmonic current for distributing into electricity grid system in accordance
with PEA Regulation on Requirement for Electricity Grid System Connection B.E. 2551. The
appropriate IEC standard shall be adaptable for measuring at other voltage levels apart from
above requirement by analogy.

1.3 Voltage Fluctuation

The electricity generation system of very small power producer shall not produce
voltage fluctuation over rated limit in accordance with PEA Regulation on Requirement for
Electricity Grid System Connection B.E. 2551.

1.4 DC Injection

The DC for electricity generation system of very small power producer shall not be
injected over rated limit to electricity grid system in accordance with PEA Regulation on
Requirement for Electricity Grid System Connection B.E. 2551.

1.5 Reactive Power Control

The electricity generation system of very small power producer shall enable to control
power factor or reactive power in order to maintain voltage level at PCC point to be in line
with PEA's standard criteria. The electricity generation system of the one who requests for
use of service shall meet the capacity as shown in Table 1.

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Table 1. Power factor control for electricity generation system according to voltage level
at PCC point with PEA's system.

Voltage Level at PCC Point *Capacity in Power Reactive Power Control


Factor Adjustment Method
1) Low voltage level At least 0.95 lagging At least a method is applied for
2) Moderate or high voltage to control:
level (less than 500 kW of 0.95 leading A fixed displacement factor cos
installed generating capacity)
3) Moderate or high voltage At least 0.90 lagging At least a following method is
level (higher than 500 kW of to applied for control:
installed generating capacity) 0.90 leading 1) A fixed displacement factor
cos
2) A variable reactive power
depending on the voltage Q(U)

1.6 Active Power Control

The 100% of active power for electricity generation system of very small power
producer shall be adjustable to be remained at 0% by each time of active power adjustment
for at least 10% per minute. In case of the incidence of an abnormal circumstance in
electricity grid system or any events considered by PEA as having impact on the security and
stability of electricity grid system, PEA will notify and/or direct to reduce active power as
appropriate.

1.7 Tolerance Capacity against Low Voltage Fault Ride Through

The electricity generation system of very small power producer shall not disconnect
itself from electricity grid system within specified duration time while low voltage fault ride
through is occurring. The requirement for voltage level at PCC point is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Duration time for tolerant capacity of electricity generation system against
Low Voltage Fault Ride Through

Voltage Level at PCC Point Duration Time (Sec)


1) Low voltage level Not required
2) Moderate or high voltage level (less than 500 kW of installed
generating capacity)
2) Moderate or high voltage level (higher than 500 kW of installed As Figure 1
generating capacity)

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Voltage (pu.)

Must not disconnect

May disconnect

Time (Sec)

Figure 1. The graph shows tolerance capacity against Low voltage fault Ride through

1.8 Under and Over Voltage Protection

The electricity generation system of very small power producer shall disconnect its
circuit from electricity grid system when the voltage value at PCC Point is in the range as
specified in Table 3.

Table 3. Duration time for circuit disconnection at the time not in normal range of using
voltage

Voltage Level at PCC Point Duration Time for


Circuit Disconnection (Sec)
V < 50% 0.3
50% V < 90% 2.0
90% V 110% Continuous working voltage
110% < V < 120% 1.0
V 120% 0.16

1.9 Under and Over Frequency Protection

The electricity generation system of very small power producer shall disconnect its
circuit from electricity grid system within 0.1 second when the frequency value at PCC point
is not in the range of 48 Hz - 51 Hz.

1.10 Anti-Islanding

The circuit shall be disconnected from electricity grid system within two seconds
while none electricity available in electricity grid system is distributed to electricity
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generation system of very small power producer in order to prevent for anti-islanding
incidence.

1.11 Response to Utility Recovery

After the electricity generation system of very small power producer disconnects itself
from electricity grid system due to power failure or non-rated range voltage/frequency, the
electricity generation system of very small power producer shall delay the connection back to
the electricity grid system for at least 20 seconds to 5 minutes when the electricity grid
system returns to be normal.

2. Other Specifications

2.1 Earthing, Short circuit protection, and Isolation and switching shall be complied
with the standard of IEC 60364-7-712.

2.2 According to the supply and installation of Power Quality Meter (PQM) pursuant
to PEA Regulation on Requirement for Electricity Grid System Connection B.E. 2551, very
small power producer shall supply, design and install the Monitoring Systems for power
quality so hat PEA can access to view real-time power generation data such as the data of
voltage, electric current, frequency, electric power, power factor, THDv, THDi, Pst, and Plt,
etc., through Internet System or other applications. In addition, the report on power quality
measurement from PQM in the form or the format regulated by the PEA shall be routinely
submitted for each six month.

2.3 Very small power producer with installation for over than 56 kW electricity
generation system shall supply, design, and install the Monitoring Systems so that PEA can
access to view the real-time data of power generation such as Electric Power, Electric
Energy, Sunlight Intensity, Wind Speed, etc. through Internet System or other applications.

2.4 Connection within Low Voltage of 380/220 KV Distribution System

2.4.1 In case of connection with 1-Phase low voltage distribution transformer,


total installed generating capacity shall not be over than 25% of rated
transformer.

2.4.2 In case of connection with 3 Phase low voltage distribution transformer,


total installed generating capacity shall be less than 75% of rated transformer.

2.5 Any very small power producers who do not meet the technical requirements for
using of service shall study and improve the occurred effect. If it is necessary for
improvement on electricity grid system, the very small power producer must be responsible
for expenses occurred. Anyhow, PEA will reserve their right to consider for case by case the
permission on electricity grid system connection.

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2.6 PEA will reserve their right to amend the technical requirements as appropriate
mainly for security and reliability of electricity grid system and for common benefits.

3. Testing

3.1 Testing Institute or Agency

1. Electricity generation system shall pass the tests from local independent
testing agency/institute and/or those acceptable by PEA.

2. Laboratory must be certified according to Laboratory Standard of ISO/IEC


17025:2005 or pass the inspection from local independent
agency/institute or those acceptable by PEA.

3. The electricity generation system that has been passed from the test of foreign
agency must be firstly tested and certified for testing result from local
independent agency/institute or those acceptable by PEA.

3.2 Types of Tests

3.2.1 Laboratory Test

The test shall be conducted by the agency pursuant to Clause 3.1 for only
one set per one model in order to confirm that if it is installed for real use, it must be capable
for power quality control and response to electric system according to PEA Regulation by
following the tests in below items.

(1) Harmonics

(2) Voltage Fluctuation

(3) DC Injection

(4) Reactive Power Control and Reactive Power Control Method

(5) Active Power Control

(6) Tolerance Capacity against Low Voltage Fault RideThrough

(7) Under/Over Voltage Protection

(8) Under/Over Frequency Protection

(9) Anti-Islanding

(10) Response to Utility Recovery

3.2.2 Power Quality Measurement and Field Test

Field test for inverter and power quality measurement shall be conducted
by PEA as followings.

1) Field test for inverter includes following items required for testing.

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(1) Anti-Islanding

(2) Response to Utility Recovery

(3) Load Rejection Test

2) Power quality measurement includes following items required for


testing.

(1) Voltage Level

(2) Frequency

(3) Harmonics

(4) Voltage Fluctuation

4. Test Procedure and Method

4.1 Harmonics Test

This test refers to the test procedure and method according to proper IEEE
or IEC Standard by analogy.

4.2 Voltage Fluctuation Test

This test refers to the test procedure and method according to proper IEEE or
IEC Standard by analogy.

4.3 DC Injection Test

This test refers to the test procedure and method according to proper IEEE
or IEC Standard by analogy.

4.4 Reactive Power Control Test

Reactive Power Control is tested in order to confirm which maximum


capacity for electricity generation system on control of reactive power input or
distribution with at least the following testing procedures.

a) To install and connect electricity generation system instrument according


to the guidance and technical specification from that instrument producer.

b) To inspect all parameters of power supply to be in normal operating


condition of electricity generation instrument.

c) To start testing by specifying the electricity generation system to


distribute the electricity at 0% of rated power input, then adjust the
electricity generation system to inject reactive power into the system until
reaching peak value, and record the values of reactive power and power
factor gained.

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d) To conduct the test like Item C) by specifying the electricity generation
system at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of rated power input
respectively, and then record the values of reactive power and power factor
gained.

e) To stipulate the electricity generation system to start distributing the


electricity at 0% of rated power input, then adjust the electricity generation
system to input reactive power into the system until reaching peak value,
and record the values of reactive power and power factor gained.

f) To conduct the test like Item e) by specifying the electricity generation


system at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of rated power input,
and then record the values of reactive power values and power factor
gained.

g) From Item C) to Item F), the testing results can be recorded at least the
values gained shown in following table.

Table 4. Testing Result Record Table

P P Q PF.
(Electricity (Measurable) (Maximally (Measurable)
Generation System) Measurable)
0%
10 %
20 %
30 %
40 %
50 %
60 %
70 %
80 %
90 %
100 %

Anyhow, the test procedure and method according to other standards which have been proven
for input or distribution of maximum reactive power pursuant to this requirement can be
referred by analogy.

4.4.1) A Fixed Displacement Factor COS Test

The test is conducted to confirm that the capability to control electrical


distribution in Stable Power Factor Mode by following test procedure and method as per
below.

a) To install and connect the electricity generation system instrument


pursuant to the guideline and technical specifications from that instrument
producer.

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b) To inspect all parameters of power supply to be in normal operating
condition for electricity generation instrument.

c) To set the value for electricity generation system to distribute electricity


at Power Factor Set Point equivalent to 0.90 Lagging (or 0.95 Lagging),
and the electricity distributed by the system is at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60,
70, 80, 90, and 100% of rated power input respectively.

d) To start testing and record at least the values shown in Table 5.

e) To set the value for electricity generation system to distribute electricity at


Power Factor Setpoint equivalent to 0.90 Leading (or 0.95 Leading), and the electricity
distributed by the system is at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of rated power
input respectively.

f) To start testing and record at last the values derived as shown in Table 5.

g) To set the value for the electricity generation system to distribute


electricity at Power Factor Setpoint equivalent to 1.0 and the electricity distributed by the
system is at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% of rated power input respectively.

h) To start testing and record at least the values shown in Table 5.

Table 5. Sample for Testing Result Record

P PF. P Q PF.
(Electricity (Determined) (Measurable) (Maximally (Measurable)
Generation Measurable)
System)
0% 0.90 lagging
10 % 0.90 lagging
20 % 0.90 lagging
30 % 0.90 lagging
40 % 0.90 lagging
50 % 0.90 lagging
60 % 0.90 lagging
70 % 0.90 lagging
80 % 0.90 lagging
90 % 0.90 lagging
100 % 0.90 lagging

Table 6. Sample for Testing Result Record Table

P PF. P Q PF.
(Electricity (Determined) (Measurable) (Maximally (Measurable)
Generation Measurable)
System)
0% 0.90 leading

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10 % 0.90 leading
20 % 0.90 leading
30 % 0.90 leading
40 % 0.90 leading
50 % 0.90 leading
60 % 0.90 leading
70 % 0.90 leading
80 % 0.90 leading
90 % 0.90 leading
100 % 0.90 leading
Anyhow, it can refer the test procedure and method according to other standards which can
be proven for their controlling capabilities on electricity distribution in Stable Power Factor
Mode pursuant to this requirement by analogy.

4.4.2) A Variable Reactive Power Depending on the Voltage Q(U) Test

This test is conducted to confirm the capability of the electricity generation


system to control electricity distribution in Stable Voltage Control Mode by
following at least below test procedure and method.

a) To install and connect the electricity generation instrument complied with


guidance and technical specification from that instrument
producer.

b) To inspect all parameters of power supply to be in normal operating


condition for electricity generation system instrument.

c) To set up the values for electricity generation system to distribute


electricity at Voltage Setpoint as shown in Table 7.

d) To start testing and record the values derived as shown in Table 7.

e) To set up the electricity generation system to distribute the electricity at


Voltage Setpoint as shown in Table 8.

f) To start testing and record the values derived as shown in Table 8.

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Table 7. Sample for Testing Result Record Table

P, V, P VL1 VL2 VL3 Q Expected Shifting


setpoint setpoint (Measurable) (VAC) (Vac) (Vac) (Measurable) Q Q (dQ)
(%) (Vac) (Var) (Var)

Lower Limits
<20 0.93Vn
<20 0.91Vn
20-30 0.91Vn
40 0.91Vn
50 0.91Vn
60 0.91Vn
70 0.91Vn
80 0.91Vn
90 0.91Vn
100 0.91Vn
100 0.90Vn
100-10 0.90Vn
10-<5 0.90Vn

Table 8. Sample for Testing Result Record Table

P, V, P VL1 VL2 VL3 Q Expected Shifting


setpoint setpoint (Measurable) (VAC) (Vac) (Vac) (Measurable) Q Q (dQ)
(%) (Vac) (Var) (Var)

Lower Limits
<20 1.07Vn
<20 1.09Vn
20-30 1.09Vn
40 1.09Vn
50 1.09Vn
60 1.09Vn
70 1.09Vn
80 1.09Vn
90 1.09Vn
100 1.09Vn
100 1.10Vn
100-10 1.10Vn
10-<5 1.10Vn
Anyhow, it can refer test procedure and method according to other standards which can be
proven for their controlling capabilities on electricity distribution in Stable Voltage Control
Mode pursuant to this requirement by analogy.

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4.4 Active Power Control Test

Active Power Control Test is conducted to inspect the capability of the electricity
generation system on active power control as followings.

1. To enable to reduce active power to be at least 10% per minute each time.

2. To enable to reduce active power at each 10% of rated input power without
disconnection with electricity grid system for electricity generation system.

3. To follow below procedure and method.

a) To install and connect the electricity generation system instrument


according to guidance and technical specification from that instrument producer.

b) To inspect all power supply parameters to be in normal operating


condition for electricity generation system instrument.

c) To set the reduction of active power control value for 10% each from
100% of rated power input until remaining to 0%, and set other operating values of the
electricity generation system at operating value in normal condition.

d) To start testing by making the electricity generation system distribute the


electricity at 100% of rated input power, then reduce active power pursuant to Item C), and
record the power factor value and time for each time that the electricity generation system
can reduce active power.

Anyhow, it can refer the test procedure and method according to other standards that can be
proven in their capabilities on controlling active power pursuant to this Requirement by
analogy.

4.5 Test for Tolerance Capacity on Low Voltage Fault Ride Through

The test for tolerance capacity on Low Voltage Fault Ride Through follows
below test procedure.

a) To install and connect the electricity generation system instrument


according to the guideline and technical specification from that instrument
producer.

b) To inspect all power supply parameters to be in normal operating condition


for electricity generation system instrument.

c) To set the values of tolerance capability on Low Voltage Fault Ride


Through of the inverter according to the Requirements, and set other operating values of the
inverter at normal operating value.

d) To record the setting values.

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e) To start testing by modeling voltage drop (modeling short circuit in
electricity grid system) in electricity grid system to remain at between 70-80%, 30-50% and
less than 5% of normal operating voltage.

f) To record maximum duration time the electricity generation system is still


able to connect with electricity grid system as shown in Table 9.

g) To divide the test into cases as shown in Table 9.

Table 9. Sample for Testing Result Record Table

Test List V (V/Vn) Duration Time


(Sec)
Three-Phase Faults 0.7-0.8 Vn
0.3-0.5 Vn
0-0.049 Vn
Phase-Phase Faults 0.7-0.8 Vn
0.3-0.5 Vn
0-0.049 Vn
Single Line to 0.7-0.8 Vn
Ground Faults 0.3-0.5 Vn
0-0.049 Vn
Anyhow, it can refer procedure and method according to other standards that can be proven
for their tolerance capacities against temporary voltage drop state as specified in this
Requirement by analogy.

4.7 Under and Over Voltage Protection Test

The test procedure and method for Overvoltage Test and Undervoltage Test must
at least follow the test for Trip Time Test as following table.

Table 10. Response to Over Voltage Testing Process

Test Testing Testing Process


Items Frequency
(1) Install and connect the electricity generation system
instrument according to guidance and technical specification
from that instrument producer.
(2) To inspect all power supply parameters to be in normal
operating condition for electricity generation system
instrument.
(3) To set the value of Overvoltage Trip Setting at testing
voltage value (see Remark, m), and set the setting values for
other operations at normal operating values.
Trip Time (m) (4) To record the setting values.
Test (5) To increase AC power supply voltage (modeling of Utility

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System) to be close to the voltage value for Overvoltage
Trip Setting in the range of higher than 90% of Overvoltage
Trip Setting capacity but not higher and maintain for 2 times
of setting Time Delay duration time or longer than that.
(6) To increase voltage for at least over than 110% of
Overvoltage Trip Setting and maintain until the electricity
generation system instrument stops distributing the
electricity into the system.
(7) To record the duration time that electricity generation
system instrument stop distributing the electricity into the
system.
Remark : m is numbers of overvoltage required for double tests.
Remark: It can refer test procedure and method according to appropriate IEEE or IEC
standard by analogy.

Table 11. Process for Response to Under Voltage Test

Test Items Testing Testing Process


Frequency
(1) Install and connect the electricity generation system
instrument according to guidance and technical
specification from that instrument producer.
(2) To inspect all power supply parameters to be in
normal operating condition for electricity generation
system instrument.
(3) To set the value of Under Voltage Trip Setting for
electricity generation system instrument at testing
voltage value (see Remark, m), and set the setting
values for other operations at normal operating values
Trip Time Test (m) (4) To record the setting values.
(5) To increase AC power supply voltage (modeling of
Utility System) to be reduced and close to voltage
value of Under Voltage Trip Setting within the range
of lower than 110% of Under Voltage Trip Setting
capacity but not lower, and maintain duration time for
two times of setting Time Delay or longer than that.
(6) To adjust the voltage for at least lower than 90% of
Under Voltage Trip Setting and maintain until the
electricity generation system instrument stops
distributing the electricity into the system.
(7) To record the duration time that electricity generation
system instrument stops distributing the electricity into
the system.
Remark : m is Numbers of Under Voltage required for double tests.
Remark : It can refer the test procedure and method according to appropriate IEEE or IEC
Standard by analogy.

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4.8 Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection Test

The test for Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection shall follow at least
the following Trip Time Test as shown in below table.

Table 12. Process for Response to Overfrequency Test

Test Items Testing Testing Process


Frequency
(1) Install and connect the electricity generation system
instrument according to guidance and technical
specification from that instrument producer.
(2) To inspect all power supply parameters to be in
normal operating condition for electricity generation
system instrument.
(3) To set the value of Overfrequency Trip Setting for
electricity generation system instrument at 51.1 Hz,
and set the setting value of other operations for
electricity generation instrument at normal operating
Trip Time Test 1 Time value.
(4) To record the setting values.
(5) To increase AC power supply frequency (modeling of
Utility System) to be close to frequency value of
Overfrequency Trip Setting within the range of 90%
of Overfrequency Trip Setting and higher but not over,
and maintain the duration time for two times of setting
Time Delay until inverter stops distributing the
electricity into system. .
(6) To adjust the frequency for at least higher than 101%
of Overfrequency Trip Setting, and maintain until
inverter stops distributing the electricity into system.
(7) To record the time that the inverter stops distributing
the electricity into system.
Remark: It can refer the test procedure and method according to appropriate IEEE or IEC
Standard by analogy.

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Table 13. Process for Response to Underfrequency Test

Test Items Testing Testing Process


Frequency
(1) To Install and connect the electricity generation
system instrument according to guidance and technical
specification from that instrument producer.
(2) To inspect all power supply parameters to be in
normal operating condition for electricity generation
system instrument.
(3) To set the value of Underfrequency Trip Setting for
electricity generation system instrument at 47.9 Hz,
and set the setting value of other operations for
electricity generation instrument at normal operating
Trip Time Test 1 Time value.
(4) To record the setting values.
(5) To reduce AC power supply frequency (modeling of
Utility System) to be close to frequency value of
Underfrequency Trip Setting within the range of 110%
of Underfrequency Trip Setting but not lower, and
maintain duration time for two times of setting Time
Delay or longer than that.
(6) To adjust the frequency for at least lower than 99% of
Underfrequency Trip Setting and maintain until
electricity generation system instrument stops
distributing the electricity into system.
(7) To record the time that electricity generation system
instrument stops distributing the electricity into system.
Remark: It can refer the appropriate test procedure and method according to appropriate
IEEE or IEC standard by analogy.

4.9 Anti-Islanding Protection Test

The appropriate test procedure and method according to IEEE or IEC Standard by
analogy.

4.10 Response to Utility Recovery Test

The appropriate test procedure and method according to IEEE or IEC Standard
by analogy.

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5. Connection Platform with PEA Electricity Grid System

Platform 1: Standard platform for electric connection standard (Meter of


electric user is low voltage meter)

Remark

1. M1 means meter that electric user bought from PEA.


2. M2 means meter for calculating the electric power unit generated from Solar Rooftop electricity generation system.
3. In case of individual transformer, the property at high voltage instrument will be broken off for allocation.
4. In case of installation of over than 250 kW Solar Cell electricity generation system, one set of power quality
measurement must be installed.
5. The power energy retention/reserve system for electricity selling to PEA shall not be installed for generation system
from Solar Cell.

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Remark

1. M1 means meter that electric user bought from PEA.


2. M2 means meter for calculating the electric power unit generated from Solar Rooftop
electricity generation system.
3. Power purchase fee of the electric user shall be calculated from M2+M1 units (power
input from PEA) M1 (power sales to PEA).
4. In case of the installation of over than 250 kW Solar Cell electricity generation
system, one set of power quality measurement must be installed.
5. The Solar Rooftop generation system shall not install power energy retention/reserve
system for power sold to PEA.

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Remark

1. M1 means meter that the electric user bought from PEA.


2. M2 means meter for calculating the electric power unit generated from Solar Rooftop
electricity generation system.
3. In case of the installation of over than 250 kW Solar Cell electricity generation
system, one set of power quality measurement must be installed.
4. The Solar Rooftop generation system shall not install power energy retention/reserve
system for power sold to PEA.

In case of non-platform for suitable connection and protection instrument for very small
power producer, PEA shall reserve their right to case by case consider suitable connection
platform.

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