© GLEASON WORKS 1970, 1972

CONIFLEX, FORMATE, HELIXFORM, REVACYCLE, and SINGLE CYCLE are registered trademarks of the Gleason Works

Foreword

This publication has been prepared by the Gleason Works as a handbook to provide a convenient reference for the axle designer in the choice of gear type, gear size, and gear tooth specifications.

Detailed instructions on the calculation of stresses, gear tooth proportions, machine settings, and cutter specifications may be found in other Gleason Works' publications to which reference is made in this book.

New empirical formulas and procedures are introduced in these pages. These reflect the design philosophy represented in a very high percentage of the passenger cars presently in use.

In certain sections, particularly Chapter I, historical background material has been provided for general reference by the new engineer. The emphasis of each description has been placed on the effect of the different concepts on the gears, As a result, the explanations may not be in strict accordance with definitions used by other organizations. There was no intent toward favoring particular types of axle designs, suspensions, bearings or other components. Any such conclusion drawn from these paragraphs is purely the responsibility of the reader.

2

3

4

5

6

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TYPES OF DRIVE AXLES.

Descrip tion of various axles, emphasizing the effects of their design differences on drive axle gear mountings

SELECTION OF DRIVE~GEAR TYPE. . . . .

Discussion of the use of hypoid or spiral bevel gears in passenger car drive axles.

SELECTION OF DRIVE~GEAR AND DIFFERENTIAL GEAR

SIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

Introduction of a new method (including revised formulas) for estimating torque loads on axle drive gears and differential gears.

GEAR SPECIFJCA TIONS

Explanation of various parameters used in axle drive-gear design.

DIFFERENTIAL GEARS . . . . . .

Discussion of parameters pertaining to the design of differential gears.

STRESS DETERMINATION AND SCORING RESISTANCE

Explanation of recommended allowable stress limits, with formulas for calculating operating stresses on axle drive gears and differential gears.

2

,

3

13

17

33

53

57

Chapter 1

TYPES OF DRIVE AXLES

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Modern passenger car designs utilize a drive axle whose purpose is to transmit power from the engine to the wheels. Nearly all drive axles employ a right angle gear drive from the propeller shaft to the axle shaft. Tn addition, the drive axle includes a set of differential gears to permit the two wheels to rotate at different speeds when turning a corner. There are a variety of drive-axle arrangements, each having particular characteristics.

A drive axle may be either the rear axle, Fig. I-I, or the front axle, Fig. 1-2. When the drive axle is the front axle, it also includes the steering mechanism in addition to the torque transmitting parts normally required.

Figure 1-1. Rear Drive Axle

Figure 1-2. Front (Steering) Drive Axle

3

Automotive drive axles may be classified as either rigid, Fig. 1-3, or independent suspension, Fig. 1-4.

,--, I \

I I

I I

r-'

I ,

I I

Figure 1-3. Rigid Axle

r-, I ,

I I

I I

r-, I ,

I I

I I

Figure 1-4. I ndependent Suspension Axle

1.2 RIGID AXLES

The rigid axle is one having a rigid housing enclosing the two axle shafts; thus a displacement of one wheel will directly result in a displacement of the opposite wheel.

There are three variations of the rigid axle, namely, full-floating, Fig. 1-5, threequarter-floating, Fig. 1-6, and semi-floating, Fig. 1-7. The difference between the three types refers to the wheel bearing arrangement. In each case the axle shaft is splined to the differential side gear.

In a full-floating axle, Fig. 1-5, the wheel is supported by two bearings located on the outside of the axle housing, and none of the wheel reaction forces are transmitted to the axle shaft. The axle shaft, therefore, transmits only torsion to the driving wheel.

In the three-quarter-floating type, Fig. 1-6, the wheel is supported by a single bearing located on the outside of the housing and is also rigidly fixed to the wheel end of the axle shaft. In this case the wheel reaction force, due to side thrust, is transmitted to the axle shaft and the shaft is subjected to both bending and torsion. This type is seldom used.

4

In the semi-floating type, Fig. 1-7, which is presently used in most passenger cars, the wheel is directly attached to one end of the axle shaft. The wheel end of the axle is supported by a bearing mounted inside the axle housing. In this case, all of the wheel reaction forces are carried by the axle shaft which is subjected to both bending and torsion.

Figure 1-5. Full-Floating Axle

Figure 1-6. Three-Quarter-Floating Axle

Figure 1-7. Semi-Floating Axle

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..

1.3 RIGID-AXLE HOUSINGS

The housings for the rigid axle are of three major types; the unitized carrier (Salisbury, Spicer), the separable carrier (banjo), and the trumpet.

UNITIZED CARRIER UNIT

.>

The unitized carrier-type, Fig. 1-8, is composed of a differential carrier unit into which two tubes are inserted to enclose the axle shafts and act as load bearing members. An opening is provided at the rear of the carrier housing to allow assembly of the parts in the unit. A sheet metal cover is used to enclose this opening after assembly. In this design, the differential bearings are enveloped by the casting, and the basic shape, formed by the tube sockets and pinion housing, is suitable for ample ribbing. The resulting carrier provides excellent axial and radial support of the drive gear.

In most designs, the differential bearings are shimmed for preload and for backlash of the drive gear, and the housing must be spread during assembly with a special tool to allow for the insertion of the shims.

The unitized carrier-type axle is economical to manufacture and may be adapted to a variety of vehicles by changing only the tubes and axle shafts, but in order to remove this axle [rom the vehicle it is necessary to disconnect the suspension system and brake lines.

\

.>.

SHEET METAL \ I

COVER '--_j

»>

TUBES INSERTED

INTO CARRIER

Figure 1-8. Unitized Carrier-Type Axle (Salisbury, Spicer)

6

The separable carrier-type, Fig. 1-9a, consists of a differential carrier unit which fits into the large opening in the center of the axle housing, Fig. 1-9b. Since the available space for the differential bearing supports is restricted by the diameter of the opening in the axle housing, the ribbing between the pinion housing and the gear bearing supports is limited, making it difficult to achieve adequate rigidity of the gear member. In this design, the carrier is subjected to only the gear and pinion forces while the axle housing supports the weight of the vehicle and controls the driving forces. Differential bearing preload and gear backlash are easily adjusted by means of internal nuts in the bearing supports. The carrier can be removed from the axle without disturbing the suspension system or brake lines. Adaption to different vehicles would require a variety of axle housings.

ADJUSTING NUT FOR CONTROL OF BACKLASH

Figure 1-9a. Separable Carrier-Type Axle (Banjo)

Figure 1-9b. Axle Housing for Separable Carrier-Type Axle

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The trumpet-type, Fig. 1-10, consists of a center section carrying the pinion and enclosing the differential housing and ring gear. Attached to this are two long tubular members with flared ends which carry the differential bearing seats. Since this design allows complete encirclement of the differential bearings by an adequately ribbed housing, it is possible to achieve a very rigid unit, but because a blind assembly results, it is relatively difficult to manufacture and service. This type is therefore not frequently used.

Figure 1-10. Trumpet-Type Axle

1.4 INDEPENDENT·SUSPENSION AXLES

An independent-suspension axle is one in which each wheel is suspended from the frame independently of the other.

There are two major types of independent-suspension axles; the swing-type and the parallel-type. Each of these types has a differential carrier unit which is fixed to the chassis, and axle shafts which are attached by universal joints to the differential side gears. Thus, the angle between the horizontal axis of the car and the axle shafts can vary.

The swing-type, Fig. 1-11, has axle shafts which attach directly to the wheels. Thus, the wheel axes are not necessarily parallel to the road.

The parallel-type, Fig. 1-12, has a second set of universal joints at each wheel and the two wheels are mounted to maintain a parallel position. Thus, when the axle shaft is at an angle to the road, the wheel remains normal to the road. There are many variations of each of these types and It is beyond the scope of this publication to describe them all.

1.5 COMBINATION AXLE

The Deliion-type axle combines features of both the rigid and independent-suspension types. It consists of a differential unit fixed to the frame with separately suspended axles. A separate beam connects the two wheels such that a displacement of one will directly affect the other.

Figure 1-11. Swing-Type I ndependent-Suspension Axle

Figure 1-12. Parallel-Type Independent-Suspension Axle

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1.6 TRANSAXLE

The term transaxle, Fig. 1-13, pertains to an axle generally independently sprung, in which the differential unit and the transmission are combined in one housing.

1.7 ADVANTAGES OF THE RIGID AXLE

1. Universal joints are not required since there is no angular movement of the axle shafts.

2. The axle housing provides a simple method for supporting the axle shafts and driving wheels.

1.8 ADVANTAGES OF INDEPENDENT·SUSPENSION AXLE

1. The unsprung weight is decreased because the differential unit is fastened directly to the frame of the car.

2. Gear forces are absorbed directly into the frame without req uiring the suspension system to transmit these forces.

10

Figure 1-13. Transaxle

1.9 TORQUE REACTIONS

When the driving torque is transmitted through the drive pinion and gear, two torque reactions occur which result in a weight transfer. One reaction causes a transfer of weight from the front axle to the rear axle in forward drive. This is a result of the reaction to the gear driving torque. The second reaction results from the pinion driving torque. This torque reaction tends to transfer weight from the right wheel to the left wheel of a conventional rigid rear axle.

When driving torque is applied to the wheels, both a torque and thrust reaction result.

Various systems are used to transmit these forces to the frame. When both torque and thrust are carried to the frame from a rigid axle through springs, the system is a Hotchkiss drive, Fig. 1-14. Another system is the torque-tube drive, Fig. 1-15, which transmits the torque reaction to the center area of the frame through a tube surrounding the drive shaft. With this system, no universal joint is required where the drive shaft joins the drive pinion. The thrust reactions mayor may not be taken through the torque tube.

When coil springs are used without a torque tube, torque arms must be employed to absorb the torque. This system may also be designed to transmit either combined thrust and torque, or pure torque.

F igu re 1-14. Hotchk iss Rear Suspension

Figure 1-15. Torque-Tube Rear Suspension

1 J

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Chapter 2

SELECTION OF DRIVE-GEAR TYPE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Spiral bevel and hypoid gears are both used for passenger car drive axles. Each type exhibits special characteristics which should be considered by the axle designer. These characteristics are listed in Table 2-1 and discussed in more detail below.

Table 2-1

Characteristics

Hypoid

Spiral Bevel

Quietness

Strength

Pitting Resistance

Scoring Resistance

SI iding Velocity

Efficiency

Lubricant

Sensitivity to Misalignment

Manufacture

Ratio

Position of Vehicle Center of Gravity

Outside Diameter of Differential Case

Bearing Reaction

Quieter

As much as 30 percent higher loads depending on offset· also better strength bal ance

As much as 175 percent higher loads depending on offset

Lower

As much as 200 percent higher depending on the offset

As high as 96 percent depending on load and ratio

EP (extreme pressure)

Varies with mounting rigidity and cutter diameter

Larger point width cutter Easier to lap

Better for high ratios

Lower drive shaft

Smaller· due to less available space as a result of drive pinion interference

Greater thrust on pinion

Quiet

Lower

Lower

As much as 200 percent higher loads

Lower

As high as 99 percent depending on load and ratio

Mild EP

Varies with mounting rigidity and cutter diameter

Smaller point width cutter More difficult to lap

Better for low ratios

Higher drive shaft

Larger - due to greater available space

Less thrust on pinion

13

One of the advantages associated with hypoid gears is the ability to more easily lap the entire tooth surface, since there is lengthwise sliding between the teeth at every point. This improved ability to lap the gears will generally result in smoother and quieter running gears.

2.2 QUIETNESS

2.3 STRENGTH

Hypoid gears, because of their offset, have different spiral angles on gear and mating pinion. This means that, for the same normal pitch on the two members, the transverse pitch will be different. With the usual arrangement, the pinion transverse diametral pitch will be coarser than the gear pitch and therefore the pinion diameter will be larger than the diameter of the corresponding spiral bevel pinion. The degree of enlargement is dependent on the amount of offset. The larger pinion diameter results in a bending fatigue life from two to ten times that of the corresponding spiral bevel gear ratio. Furthermore, this larger pillion permits the use of a large shank on the pinion memher of a high ratio.

As the gear ratio decreases, a hypoid design may result in an excessively large diameter pinion. Therefore, in these cases a spiral bevel design may prove more advantageous.

2.4 PITTING RESISTANCE

Because of the increased size of the hypoid pinion and the higher pinion spiral angle, the relative radius of curvature between the mating gear teeth is greater than for the corresponding spiral bevel pair. This results in a lower contact stress between the tooth surfaces with consequent reduction in the likelihood of pitting. Hypoid gears can carry as much as 175 percent higher loads, depending on the offset.

2.5 SCORING RESISTANCE

Spiral bevel gears are generally less susceptible to scoring than hypoid gears. This is due to the elimination of the lengthwise component of sliding between the teeth. However, with the normally available axle lubricants, scoring seldom presents a problem in automotive passenger car gears of either type.

2.6 SLiOING

Spiral bevel and hypoid gears both have sliding in the profile direction. In addition, hypoid gears have lengthwise sliding. The resultant increased sliding on the hypoid gear teeth results in an increase in the heat generated. Therefore, a careful study of gear lubrication and cooling must be made to assure the maintenance of a reasonable operating temperature.

2.7 EFFICIENCY

The efficiency of both hypoid and spiral bevel gears is very high. Hypoid gear efficiency is slightly less, due to the increase in gear tooth sliding. Efficiencies as high as 99 percent have been obtained with spiral bevel gears, while values of 96 percent have been obtained with hypoid gears. The efficiency will depend on the amount of hypoid offset and, more importantly, on the load transmitted, The efficiency will be highest at high loads.

Both spiral bevel and hypoid gears have combined rolling and sliding between the teeth. The rolling action has the beneficial effect of maintaining an oil film between the

2.8 LUBRICANT

14

tooth surfaces which, in large part, is a hydrodynamic film. However, with high sliding velocities the frictional heating may result in very high temperatures at the point of contact, which will cause the lubricant film to fail. For this reason, special lubricants are usually required. Under normal operation, spiral bevel gears and hypoid gears should be lubricated with an EP (extreme pressure) lubricant.

2.9 SENSITIVITY TO MISALIGNMENT

The sensitivity of either spiral bevel or hypoid gears to mounting misalignment in assembly or under load is essentially the same. It is controlled by the lengthwise curvature of the tooth (diameter of the cutter) and the tooth contact development. Rigid mountings reduce the adverse effects of gear sensitivity.

2.10 MANUFACTURE

Spiral bevel and hypoid gears are produced on the same equipment. Therefore, the actual cost of production will be approximately the same for either type. However, there are two advantages which the hypoid has over the spiral bevel. First, because of the larger pinion, the cutter point width will be larger and therefore more durable. Second, because of the lengthwise tooth sliding, the teeth may be lapped more rapidly and more uniformly.

2.11 RATIO

For high ratios, the hypoid pinion, being larger in diameter than the corresponding spiral bevel pinion, permits the use of a larger shank. This has been advantageous for ratios of 4.5 to I and higher. Therefore, the hypoid pair may be a more suitable choice for these high ratios. For moderate ratios, either spiral bevel or hypoid gears will be satisfactory. With the trend toward lower ratios, note should be made of the growth in the hypoid pinion diameter. For ratios below 2 to I, the hypoid pinion diameter may become excessive, thereby reducing the road clearance. In these cases, spiral bevel gears should be considered.

2.12 POSITION OF VEHICLE CENTER OF GRAVITY

With spiral bevel gears, the drive shaft is in the same horizontal plane as the axle shaft.

With the usual arrangement of hypoid gears, the drive shaft is below the axle shaft because of the pinion offset. This lowers the center of gravity of the vehicle and reduces the height of the tunnel inside the passenger compartment. One limitation to be considered is the reduced road clearance beneath the drive shaft.

2.13 OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF DIFFERENTIAL CASE

Spiral bevel gears permit the use of the largest differential case, when it is placed in front of the ring gear, which is the usual situation. With hypoid gears, as the offset increases, the pinion is displaced axially toward the gear center line, thereby reducing the available space for the differential gears.

2.14 BEARING REACTIONS

Considering both a spiral bevel and corresponding hypoid gear design having the same average spiral angle, the hypoid pinion will have a higher spiral angle and the hypoid gear will have a lower spiral angle than the spiral bevel pair. Because of the higher spiral angle on the hypoid pinion, the axial thrust on the pinion bearings will be greater and the axial thrust on the gear bearings will be less.

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Chapter 3 SELECTION OF DRIVE GEAR AND DIFFERENTIAL GEAR SIZE

3.1 AXLE lOADING

The selection of a gear set having the capacity to perform satisfactorily in a passenger car axle ideally should be based on a time-torque record of the vehicle under all operating conditions. Since this information frequently is not available to the designer of a new passenger car, he must resort to some method of analyzing the character of the loads which may be imposed on the gears.

In the past, the selection of gear size has been based on either the maximum engine torque through low-gear transmission ratio or the wheel-slip torque. Both of these values are limiting conditions of loading and do not represent the normal loads which the gears may transmit under operating conditions.

For most vehicles, the axle torque based on maximum engine torque through low-gear transmission ratio, is the maximum theoretical value that can be developed by the vehicle and delivered to the wheels. Unless the wheel-slip torque is equal to or greater than this value, the axle drive gears and differential gears will never be subjected to this load. Wheel slip torque varies for a given vehicle due to a change in the following road-load conditions: loaded weight on driving axle, road surface condition, coefficient of friction between wheels and road, highway grade, and rate of acceleration.

For high-performance sport cars equipped with a manual transmission, it is possible to develop instantaneous torques which are from 2 to 5 times the calculated maximum torque due to "snapping the clutch". In these cases, the weight shift will be such as to result in a very high wheel-slip torque.

A new method of analyzing the torque on the axle drive gears and differential gears, based on normal loads and overall car performance (performance torque) has resulted in a more reliable estimate of the minimum gear sizes required for vehicles other than the high-performance sports cars, mentioned in the previous paragraph. This new method is based on an extensive study of the performance of passenger car axle gears and is related to a similar study made on truck axle gearing. This study has indicated that axle gears are more dependent on the maximum sustained loads rather than the occasional peak loads which occur during the anticipated life of the vehicle. The stresses resulting from the sustained loads cannot safely exceed the endurance limit of the gear material.

The sustained loads referred to here are those resulting from operation on highway grades, together with the additional loads imposed on the gears by vehicle acceleration and road rolling resistance. Therefore, a new formula for performance torque is based on an equivalent grade, taking into account actual highway grades (highway grade factor GH), acceleration eharaetcristics of the vehicle (performance factor G p), and road conditions (road rolling resistance factor GR). The highway grade factor is based on the maximum highway grade, which will rarely exceed 8 percent. This is used as the design value. This is not to be confused with the ability of the vehicle to climb much steeper grades. it is

17

assumed, however, that these steeper grades will be encountered infrequently. The performance factor is based on the ratio of vehicle weight to engine power and hence is a measure of the ability of the vehicle to accelerate. The road rolling resistance factor is dependent on the type of road surface and its condition.

3.2 PERFORMANCE TORQUE

The axle torque based on performance is determined as follows:

~_r.;_r~

T)"

(3.1 )

where

performance torque. lb in (or Kg m)1 .

gross combination weight, lb (or kg).

This is the curb weight plus weight of passengers and luggage plus loaded weight of trailer, if the latter is to be used.

tire rolling radius, in (or m ).

highway grade factor. Use 8 for normal passenger car.

performance factor.

when

is less than 16

o

when

is greater than 16

unit conversion factor

We TE KN
lb lb ft 0.64
kg kg m 0.195 maximum net engine output torque, Ib ft (for kg m), This is the net engine torque available to the drive line.

road rolling resistance factor (See Table 3-1).

efficiency of drive axle, percent. A value of 95 for spiral bevel gears or 90 for hypoid gears is reasonable.

I Units in parenthesis refer to metric units. kg = kilograms, m = meters. mm = millimeters.

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Table 3-1. Road Rolling Resistance Factors-Percent Grades

GR Factor
Condition of Surface
Road Class Road Surface Type Good Fair Poor
I Cement concrete
Brick
Asphalt block
Alphalt plank
Granite block 1.0 1.1 1.2
Sheet Asphalt
Asphaltic concrete
Bituminous macadam (high type)
Wood block
II Bituminous macadam (low type)
Bituminous (tar) 1.2 1.6 2.0
Oil mats (oiled macadam)
Treated gravel
III Sand-clay
Gravel 1.5 2.0 2.5
Crushed stone
Cobbles
IV Earth 2.0 2.5 3.5
Sand 3.3 PRELIMINARY DRIVE-GEAR SIZE

When the performance torque (equation 3.1) has been determined, a preliminary drive-gear diameter for overhung-mounted pinions may be selected from either Figs. 3-1 or 3-2 for hypoid gears, depending on the ratio of offset to gear diameter (0.15 or 0.22) or Fig. 3-3 for spiral bevel gears. For other offsets, interpolate. Charts (a) are based on strength; charts (b) are based on surface durability. The series of curves on these charts represent various axle gear ratios. For straddle-mounted pinions, multiply the value of gear size obtained from the graphs by 0.97.

It must be noted that the preliminary drive gear diameter determined by this new method is the minimum gear size that will carry the sustained loads. Other factors, such as differential gear diameter or consolidation of axles for a number of vehicles, may require the use of a larger gear.

For high-performance sport cars equipped with a manual transmission, the drive-gear diameter cannot safely be estimated on the basis of performance torque alone. It has been estahlished that such vehicles can generate gear torques of from 2 to 5 times the maximum calculated from the engine through low gear transmission ratio as a result of "snapping the clutch". This force, coupled with the additional weight transfer to the driving wheels and the higher coefficient of friction between the tires and the road surface, results in slip

(continued on page 27)

19

Chart for selecting preliminary drive-gear pitch diameter (hypoid) based on the following:

.. gear face width approximately 30 percent of the cone distance .. pinion offset approx imatelv 15 percent of the gear diameter

• pinion spiral angle selected according to equation 4.1

.. 19 degree average pressure angle

.. cutter radius selected according to equation 4.4 .. tilted rootline taper

" maximum bending stress of 30,000 psi.

DRIVE-GFAR PITCH DIAMETER (0; MILLIMETERS

180
(fJ
w
I (f)
U
z 160 a:
ill
0 f-
w
Z :;;
0
:2 ;:;;
<
('J a:
140 "
L 0
f-~ _j
ill "
0 0
a u,
a: c,
0 120 f-
f-
ill W
U 0
Z 0
« a:
:2' 0
a: f-
0 w
-'- 100 o
:r: Z
w «
CL ;:;;
a:
0
LL
a:
80 w
CL IlRIVE-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (D) INCHES

Figure 3-1 a

20

Chart for selecting preliminary drive-gear pitch diameter (hvpoid) based on the following:

• gear face width approximately 30 percent of the cone distance

• pinion offset approximately 15 percent of the gear diameter

• pinion spiral angle selected according to equation 4.1

• 19 degree average pressure angle

• cutter radius selected according to equation 4.4

• tilted rootline taper

• maximum contact stress of 250,000 psi.

24000

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH fllAMfTER (D) MILLIMETERS

180 200 220 240

260

280

22000

20000

18000
(/)
(/) 16000 a:
w ur
I f-
U w
Z :;:
0 :;:
z «
:J 140 G
0 14000
CL 0
--'
'"' ;;;
u,
c: o
C u,
W 0-
f-
:J 12000
a w
cc :J
0 0
f- a:
ur 0
U f-
z ill
« 10000 u
:2 z
a:: «
0 :;:
U- 'Y
a:: C'
w u.
CL a:
w
8000 c, 6000

4

6

8

9

10

11

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH rJlAMETER (D) INCHES

Figure 3-1 b

21

Chart for selecting preliminary drive-gear pitch diameter (hypoid) based on the following:

• gear face width approximately 30 percent of the cone distance

• pinion offset approximately 22 percent of the gear diameter

• pinion spiral angle selected according to equation 4.1

• 19 degree average pressure angle

• cutter radius selected according to equation 4.4

• tilted rootline taper

• maximum bending stress of 30,000 psi.

co
W Ul
I
U a:
z w
f-
0 w
z 2'
::J 2'
0 «
CL a:
<.0 o
u, 0
c, ...J
C 0;:;
w CJ
::J
0 u,
a: co.
0
f- w
w ::J
U a
z a:
« 0
:;; f-
a: w
0 U
LL Z
a: «
w :;;
CL 0:
0
u..
a:
w
CL DRIVE-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (D) INCHES

Figure 3-2a

22

Chart for selecting preliminary drive-gear pitch diameter (hypoid) based on the following:

• gear face width approximately 30 percent of the cone distance

• pinion offset approximately 22 percent of the gear diameter

• pinion spiral angle selected according to equation 4.1

• 19 degree average pressure angle

• cutter radius selected according to equation 4.4

• tilted rootline taper

• maximum contact stress of 250,000 psi.

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (0) MILLIMETERS

120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 300

24000 R=' ~~~~p:EE~ER~~=q=R~~~~~~~~=1~~$f~r1~~~ffffff~~~~~=F:PFE~R=~~240

18000
VJ u:
ur a:
:r: ur
U 16000 I--
z UJ
;;;
0 ;;;
z <r
:::J a:
0 0
c, 0
-" 14000 _j
u. '"
I--~ <:J
ur u,
:::J t::~
a
0:: ur
o 12000 :::J
I-- a
ur a:
U 0
Z I--
<r ur
'" U
0:: Z
0 10000 <r
LL :;:;
0:: 0::
ui 0
D.- LL
a:
UJ
c.
8000 3

4

5

8

9

10

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (D) INCHES

Figure 3-2b

23

w => o 0: o r-

Chart for selecting preliminary drive-gear pitch diameter (spiral bevel) based on the following:

• gf~ar face width approximately 30 percent of the cone distance

• 35 degree spiral angle

• 20 degree average pressure angle

• cutter radius selected according to equation 4.4

• tilted rootline taper

• maximum bending stress of 30,000 psi.

DRIVE GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (D) MILLIMETERS

22000

20000

. it--

_. j f-

'+fF

120 f::.~

8000

4000

I~i 1

2000

o

2

3

4

6

8

9

10

11

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (D) INCHES

Figure 3-3a

24

18000
(J)
w
I
u 16000
"':
0
Z
:::J
0
c,
-co 14000
u,
t::."-
w
:::J
0
a:
0 12000
f-
w
U
Z
<t
2'
a:
0 10000
LL
a::
w
c,
8000 Chart for selecting preliminary drive-qear pitch diameter (spiral bevel) based on the following:

• gear face width approximately 30 percent of the cone distance

• 35 degree spiral anqle

• 20 degree average pressure angle

• cutter radius selected according to equation 4.4

• tilted rootline taper

• maximum contact stress of 250,000 psi.

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER {DIMILLIMETERS

120 2400U

160

220

280

180

240

140

200

260

22000

~r !-±± ~~ - --t + 1'- h-t H' i ,t t+ if Fr- 4-8 ±>:j7 f+ I f=-
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~~ r I - C 1 -t
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- ~ -=-i~ + ~ jt ~~·f .+-~
.J_ ~--+- '! . ~
t- ,~ + o 17 I
~~ + +~ I I ,i ,!' 'i=
1 -~- I ! / +-;4~ 1
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r--L. + , ~ t + I ~ ~
1
::-~~ T -+ l-r+ r! H -~ '/ -~y /---- l --~=
~ +-'-- + + '-"~" I ~/ ~ ~-
p- + 1 : / ,:- -j 4 / If-J I .. l
1 I I I 1 -+ ~
I
I I - j- , , v ~ILI +tr;
_J_ __ I 1 ~-
~- f-~ c /
-I - j F ~/ ~l7-~- -
- f-- + ,
. - - ~ . ~ rr _-
~ -~~_~=tt /: 1
~~ ---:_--+- ~- -- ;._w-- -/- -/4- "'~...,.. ~ Vi;! tm
I- '. I! <§ I e,'" / )Fj,%rv ~Vf +~~ -1-
-~ - - Ii I j r!2'1
+ _J~~___ ,._ - 11 -;Till 1
0/ )I 7!r-- : '::C
- .~- '<::5- ~ I
- -~ --- 1
- , ~.
= -- - + / / I # V V V ~(jl
~
~~ / / /1
~- - ~ ~ / I v ,/ If':--+- r;t=- II II- .-] I j
_ " _1-
------;: - , / / V V' I- ~7+_ tc ~ , +2
_ / / / ~ ~ +~
I / / V - - t;/ k'~ ~ 1/ ~C--~ C----C- ~.~~.
- + / / TT
f----- f ~ V$ f- -
~ - ~ ,/ / V t;z. 'i
t - / ./ ./ / /--r- I 1
- ,
f-- :7- ~ V /V / /v V~ r. - 4-- tJ ~±
./ I / II ~~.
k V ~ v. V ,,_ V ~I P, V I ~I+~- + 1 ,
~. 1:1= ~~ . , ,t +_ ~:t
./ , ~
V:k V-r: ~ t'T1 i 7f-~- b-1'"..." r:r- ~1 ~ I I -I Lll --jl ,~ r
I I_~ J! tv
~ V -f '~ ~;.:L H=t-
.
I-""'" - ~ ~ F-~ ~~ TIl rr: ! .+1 ~
~ --=-:: ~.t
- ~ - ~ , ~- -~- 200UU

6000

4000

2000

a 2

3

4

6

DRIVE-GEAR PITCH DI."'METER {DI INCHES

9

10

Figure 3-3b

25

300 240

220

200

80

60 (/) a:: w fw

2' 2' <t 140 a::

CJ o _j

"

-

o u,

20 t::.~

w

~

c; o t-.

DA LL

u Z <t :2 a: o

LL

80 ~

o:

60

40

20

o

11

Chart for selecting preliminary differential-gear pitch diameter based on the following:

• gear face width approximately one third of the cone distance

• 22.5 degree average pressure angle

• duplex rootline taper

• maximum bending stress of 30,000 psi.

UJ LU I U Z

o z o o o._

CJ

u, n.

C

w o o a: o f-w o z « :2' a: o LL c: w cs:

3 DIFFFRENTIAL-GEAR PITCH DIAMETER (Dl INCHES

4

Figure 3-4

26

(

CJ u,

co._

w o a 0:: o f-w o z « :2' rr o LL a: w c,

(continued [rom page 19)

torques of almost equal magnitude to that from the engine. Therefore, the gear size should be checked using these extreme torque values in the stress equations in Chapter 6, to determine whether the peak stresses are within allowable limits.

3.4 PRELIMINARY DIFFERENTIAL·GEAR SIZE

Differential gearing is discussed completely in Chapter 5. The determination of the gear size is introduced here in order to consolidate the discussion of loading on all gears in the axle.

Using the performance torque determined by equation 3.1, a preliminary differentialgear diameter may be selected from Fig. 3-4. The abscissa on this graph represents the total axle torque transmitted by the two differential side gears. (Note that there are separate curves for two-pinion and four-pinion differentials.)

3.5 PRIME·MOVER TORQUE

The axle torque resulting from maximum engine output torque through low-gear transmission ratio may be determined as follows:

KoKc T E mT me 111e 7) 100

(3.2)

where

maximum prime-mover torque, lb in (or kg m).

overload factor for shock loads resulting from "snapping the clutch" on a manual transmission. Use a value of 1.0 for an automatic transmission. With manual transmissions, use a value of 3.0 for sports cars; a value of 1.0 when the performance factor (see section 3.2) is 0; or a value of 2.0 when the performance factor is greater than 0, unless experience dictates otherwise.

unit conversion factor

TE Ke
lb ft 12.0
kgm 1.0 maximum net engine output torque, Ib ft (or kg m). This is the net engine torque available to the drive line.

transmission ra tio in low gear.

m' e

automatic transmission converter stall-torque ratio.

l11c'-l

-_---

2

+ 1

automatic transmission converter ratio.

This is a method for approximating a design value. When using a manual transmission, make me = 1.

27

N

bevel or hypoid drive gear ra tio.

N

n

number of teeth in bevel or hypoid drive gear.

n

number of teeth in bevel or hypoid drive pinion.

efficiency of drive line, percent. Generally 90.

3.6 SLIP TORQUE

The axle torque resulting from wheel slip may be determined as follows:

I 0~WI2_fs r1i_

(3.3)

where

T

WSG

TI"

maximum wheel-slip torque, Ib in (or kg m).

W

o

loaded weight on driving axle, Ib (or kg).

WI) = W L (fd + ft) for passenger cars without trailers.

For vehicles pulling trailers, this formula for W D will not apply.

loaded weight of vehicle including passengers and luggage, Ib (or kg).

f d

drive-axle weight-distribution factor. This is the proportion of the loaded weight (WL) on the drive axle. If not available, a value of 0.45 to 0.55 is a reasonable assumption.

Kr ( .JGp + 2.0 ~ 0.4) = dynamic weight-transfer factor.

This factor gives the proportion of load which is shifted to or [rom the driving axle due to acceleration. When actual values are known, use these values; otherwise, use a value of K, = 0.125 for rear drive axles and a value of Kt = ~0.075 for front drive axles. A plus value indicates a shift to the drive axle; a minus value indicates a shift away from the drive axle.

f s

coefficient of friction between tires and road. Use 0.85 for conventional tires on dry pavement. For high-performance cars equipped with special or oversized tires, use 1.25.

tire rolling radius, in (or m),

efficiency of drive axle, percent. A value of 95 for spiral bevel gears or 90 for hypoid gears is reasonable.

3.7 DRIVE-PINION TORQUE

In all of the above methods, the drive-pinion torque is determined as follows:

n N

(3.4 )

where

drive-pinion torque, lb in (or kg m).

axle (drive-gear) torque (from equations 3.1,3.2, or 3.3), lb in (or kg m).

28

n

number of teeth in bevel or hypoid drive pinion.

N

number of teeth in bevel or hypoid drive gcar.

3.8 FINAL DRIVE GEAR AND DIFFERENTIAL GEAR SIZES

The values of prime-mover torque (equation 3.2) and slip torque (equation 3.3) will be used in later analyses in Chapter 6 to check the final calculations for bending stress and contact stress under the most severe service, to assure satisfactory performance of the drive gears and differential gears under these extreme loads. The final size of the gear is dependent on these calculations.

For high-performance vehicles, it is essential to consider the peak loads which may occur as a result of "snapping the clutch".

The final drive-gear and differential-gear sizes should not result in bending stresses or contact stresses above the limits listed in Chapter 6.

In addition, the final selection of the drive-gear size must take into consideration the space required for an adequate differential. This will frequently result in a ring gear which is larger than is required to transmit the loads.

3.9 EXAMPLE

To illustrate the procedure for determining the size for a passenger car axle drive gear, the following example is given:

Given data:

Loaded weight of vehicle, WL, Ib (kg)

5,420 (2,458) 210(213)

Maximum engine power, SAE hp (Metric hp)

Maximum engine speed, rpm

4,600

Maximum net engine torque, TE, lb ft (kg m)

310(42.9)

Tire Size

8.55-14

Tire rolling radius.rp , in (m)

13.60 (0.3454)

Transmission

Automatic

Torque converter with planetary gears

Torque converter (stall ratio)

Transmission ratio low

intermediate high

2.05 2.88 1.60 l.00

Desired axle ratio, m.,

2.56

29

To determine the preliminary drive gear diameter, the performance torq uc is calculated using equation 3.1.

where

WL = 5,420 lb (2,458 kg) gross combination weight of vehicle

13.60 in (0.3454 m) tire rolling radius

90 percent axle efficiency for a hypoid design. This will be conservative for a spiral bevel design.

8.0 highway grade factor

310 lb ft (42.9 kg m) engine torque

0.64 (0.195)

064 x 5.420

11.2

(0.195 x 2,458 = 11.2) < 16 42.9

310

Gl'

KN We 16.0 -

TL

16.0 - 11.2 = 4.8 performance factor.

1.0 Class 1 road in good condition. Road rolling resistance factor.

5.420 x 13.60

(4.8 + 1.0 + 8.0)

11,300 Ib in

90

= ( ) 458 9~ 0.3454 (4.8 + 1.0 + 8.0) = 130 kg m )

From Figs. 3-1, 3-2 and 3-3, tile preliminary drive-gear diameters for an overhungmounted pinion will be:

Diameter Based On
Fig. 3·1 a 8.45 in (215 mill) Strength hypoid with 15% offset
Fig. 3·1 b 7.60 in (193 mm) Durability hypoid with 15% offset
Fig. 3·2 a 8.35 in (212 mm) Strength hypoid with 22% offset
Fig. 3·2 b 7.15 In (182 mm) Durabil ity hypoid with 22% offset
Fig. 33 a 8.60 In (219 mm) Strength spiral bevel
Fig. 33 b 9.05 in (230 mm) Durability spiral bevel For either the hypoid gear or the spiral bevel gear, the larger diameter (strength vs durability) would be used in further calculations.

30

From Figure 3-4, the preliminary differential-gear diameter assuming a two-pinion differential will be:

Diameter Based On
Fig. 3-4 3.45 in (88 mm) Strength Hevacvcle
straight bevel With a four-pinion differential the gear size will be:

Diameter Based On
Fig. 3-4 2.85 in (72.5 rnrnl Strength Revacycle
straight bevel The prime-mover torque is calculated using equation 3.2. KoKe T E mT me me 7J

100

TpMG
where Ko
Ke
TE
mT
me
me
me
17
TpMG 1.0

12.0 (1.0)

310 lb ft (42.9 kg m) engine torque

2.88 low gear transmission ratio

2.05 torque converter stall-torque ratio

m '-1 --~--

2

+1

2.05 - I

2

+1

1.53 converter ratio

2.56 axle ratio

90 percen t drive-line efficiency

l.0 x 12.0 x 310 x 2.88 x 1.53 x 2.56 x 90 100

(1.0 x 1.0 x 42.9 x 2.88 x 1.53 x 2.56 x 90 100

= 37,800 lb in = 436 kg m)

The slip torque is calculated using equation 3.3. 100 Wo fSrR

where

5,420 lb (2,458 kg) loaded weight of vehicle

0.5 drive-axle weight-distribution factor (assumed) 0.125 (.JGp + 2.0 -0.4)

0.125 (~ -0.4) = 0.276 dynamic weight-transfer factor

5,420 (0.5 + 0.276) (2,458 (0.5 + 0.276)

4,2l01b 1,910 kg)

31

0.85 coefficient of friction between tires and road

13.60 in. (0.3454 m) tire rolling radius

90 percen t ~1 xle efficiency

_1_Q0 x 4,2_1j) x 0.8~_;<_l3.60 90

(100~910 x 0.82x 0.1454 = 90

54,100 Ib in

623 kg m)

The drive-pinion torque values corresponding to the three axle (drive-gear) torque values computed on the previous page are calculated using equation 3.4.

TI' n Tc;
~-
where me N 2.56 axle ratio
'-i'l
n _J_ I 0.3906
N'- me -256 Drive-Pinion Performance Torque

0.3906 x 11,300 (0.3906 x 130

4,410 Ib in 50.8 kg m)

Drive-Pinion Prime-Mover Torque

0.3906 x 37,800 (0.3906 x 436

14,800 Ib in 170 kg m)

Drive-Pinion Wheel-Slip Torque

0.3906 x 54,100 (0.3906 x 623

21,100 lb in 243 kg m)

32

Chapter 4

GEAR SPECIFICATIONS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Being three dimensional, the characteristics of a bevel or hypoid gear tooth vary from one end to the other. It is Gleason policy to consider each of these variations in order to arrive at an optimum tooth design. No characteristic need be fixed. All can be varied and controlled to meet a particular need for any application. The Gleason tooth design system is very flexible.

This chapter has been prepared to provide assistance in the visualization, illustration, and specification of all the tooth characteristics that affect the manufacture and performance of the drive.

However, understanding cannot be achieved without effort. All of the factors are interdependent and repeated study will be necessary before all concepts are clear.

Careful selection of the gear specifications is essential to the proper design of an automotive axle. A direct relationship exists between the gear specifications and the loading.

4.2 SHAFT ANGLE

One gear specification which is normally assumed is the shaft angle. While both angular hypoid and angular spiral bevel gears can be manufactured and have been considered for passenger car drives, the usual shaft angle for both hypoid and spira I bevel passenger car gears is 90 degrees.

4.3 TOOTH NUMBERS

Table 4-1 is a list of the range of tooth numbers which are generally used for automotive drive gears. There are usually several combinations of numbers which will satisfy a particular ratio requirement. Experience has indicated that if the number of teeth is less than that listed, contact ratio (see section 4.15) is sacrificed, and the gears may not operate smoothly. Similarly, if the number of teeth exceeds the tabulated value, practical factors become unsuitable. Production times increase because of the additional machine indexes, and cutter costs increase because of the narrow point widths.

Table 4-1

Pinion Tooth Sum of Gear and Pinion
Ratio Range Numbers Tooth Numbers
2.00 - 2.11 17 - 21 50 - 65
2.12-2.31 16 - 20 50 - 65
2.32 - 2.55 15 - 19 50 - 65
2.56 - 2.83 14 - 18 50 - 65
2.84 - 3.07 13 - 16 50 - 65
3.08 - 3.27 11 - 15 45 - 65
3.28 - 3.43 10 - 14 40 - 60
3.44 - 3.99 9 - 13 40 - 60
4.00 - 4.50 8 - 12 40 - 60 33

Within the specified range, the higher numbers result in a combination which is quieter and less susceptible to surface failure, while the lower numbers provide greater bending strength.

Table 4-2 has been prepared as a convenience. The non-factorable combinations are printed in bold type to provide a quick identification of those which will lap uniformly. Such "hunting-tooth" combinations are generally preferred on the basis of improved lapping, but several factorable combinations have been satisfactorily produced.

4.4 DIAMETRAL PITCH AND METRIC MODULE

The diametral pitch (P d) or metric module (M) specified on Gleason summaries and dimension sheets is that of the gear member. The diarnetral pitch is determined by dividing the number of teeth in the gear (N) by the gear pitch diameter CD) in inches. The metric module is determined by dividing the gear pitch diameter (D) in millimeters by the number of teeth in the gear (N). For automotive passenger car axle drive gears, the range of diametred pitches is normally from 4.0 to 6.6 (6.35 to 3.85 module).

4.5 FACE WIDTH

A gear face width approximately equal to 0.30 times the gear cone distance is recommended for automotive axle applications. Since the cone distance is not readily available, a gear face width equal to 0.155 times the gear diameter will generally be sa tisfactory. Excessive face widths result in (1) narrow cutter point widths and small fillet radii, (2) smaller number of blades in the gear finishing cutter and (3) insufficient space for the differential case. It is common practice on spiral bevel gears to make the face width of the pinion (F p ] slightly wider than the face width of the gear (Fe) overlapping the latter at both ends of the tooth. This buttressing of the pinion teeth improves the pinion tooth strength, which permits thinning of the pinion teeth and thickening of the gear teeth.

This results in a manufacturing advantage, because the thinner pinion teeth allow the use of a wider pinion cutter point width, while maintaining the desired strength balance between the pinion and gear. Generally, a 10 percent increase of the pinion face width provides satisfactory buttressing.

The face width of a hypoid pinion is greater than the face width of the gear due to geometry of the hypoid.

4.6 PINION OFFSET

The direction and amount of offset of the pinion axis from the centerline of the gear is perhaps the most important factor in the design of hypoid gears. A pictorial description of the direction of offset is shown in Figs. 4-1 and 4-2.

The direction of offset, spiral angle, and hand of spiral are interrelated. Therefore, one should read the sections on spiral angle (section 4.7) and hand of spiral (section 4.8) before making a final selection.

As can be demonstrated with equation 4.3 in section 4.7, when the offset is positive (left hand pinion below center or right hand pinion above center), the hypoid pinion will be larger than the corresponding bevel pinion, whereas when the offset is negative (left hand pinion above center or right hand pinion below center), the hypoid pinion will be smaller than the corresponding bevel pinion. The negative offset reduces the contact ratio and the smoothness and quietness normally associated with hypoid gears: therefore, this arrangement is not recommended.

34

PINION TEETH

Table 4-2

RATIO

11

12

42

13

45

14

15

16

17

18

19

PINION TEETH

20

46

40

2.000 2.039

34

36

38

21

RATIO

3.2BO 3.319

32

10

33

11

12

13

42

14

43

2.040 2.079

2.080 2.119

35

41

3.320 3.359 ~-----~I.----+----4----~--~~--~----~--~ 3360 3.399

43 ----+---4----4---- 44

36

37

38

40

39

42

37

40

44

2120 2.159

2.160 2.199

34

41

43

46

35

37

39

2.200 2.239

38

40

42

44

2.240 2,279

2.280 2319

2.320 2.359

2.360 2.399

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

43

44

45

45

3.400 3.439

3.440 3479

3.480 3.519

3.520 3.559

3.560 3.599

3.600 3.639

2.400 2.439

2.440 2.479

36

37

39

41

42

44

46

47

3.640 3.679

3680 3.719

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

3.720 41 45

~3~-~15~9--+_----~-----C_---~----~----+_----(---~

~: ;~~ 34

2.480 2.519

2.520 2.559

2.560 2.599

2.600 2.639

2.640 2.679

36

38

40

41

43

44

45

46

3.800 3.839

38

42

46

31

39

40

41

42

44

45

47

3.840 3.870'1'"

3.880 3919

3.920 3.959*

35

39

43

47

2.680 I

~2~7-'~9--+---_4----~----+_-3-8_4----_+--4-3_4~46 2.710 2.759

2.760 2.799

2.800 2.839

2.840 2.879

37

39

40

42

43

45

46

47

48

3.960 3.999 *

4.000 4.039

4.040 4.079 *

4.080 4.119

36

31

2.880 2.919 *

4. I 20 4.159

33

40

41

44

45

48

4.160

4.199 46 +----

~4~.~200~-+----~--38--+--4-2--~---+---- ~

4.239 i

2.920 2.959

38

41

44

41

2.960 I

~-·-4_--~--~--_+--~----~--4_--~--_+--_+----~I---

3.000 3.039

:~~~ 34 41 I

~4-.2-8-0-4----+----+-;·-3-4----+----1~,----~--~

4.319

39

42

45

48

3.040 3.079

40

43

46

49

3.080 3.119

34

37

3.120 3.159

41

44

47

4.400 4.439 f---- 4,440

4479 e-4-.-48-0--+--3-6--~---4--4-5--~---+----~----~

_450-:'0'__-I-- __ -I- -----I----+----I----+----t----....j

3.160 3.199

35

38

3.200 3.239

3.240 3.279

36

39

48

49

--I----

4.320 4.359

4.360 4399

35

39

40

~.---~.-+----4_--~ 49

44

48

'" There are no combinations in these ratio ranges which are within recommended tooth number sums.

35

Pinion offsets normally do not exceed 40 percent of the gear cone distance (approximately 20 percent of the gear pitch diameter) although a few existing applications do exceed this value.

Figure 4-1. Hypoid Gear and Pinion

,IJ.

~ /

"-/~ .

Figure 4-2.

Offset relationship of hypoid gears. Both pinions shown in (a) and (b) are referred to as having offset "below center," while those in (c) and (d) have offset "above center". In determining direction of offset, it is customary to look at face of gear with pinion at right.

36

4.7 SPIRAL ANGLE

When low pinion tooth numbers are used, such as for automotive drive axle pinions, the amount of tooth contact due to tooth depth is reduced. To compensate for this reduction, the spiral angle is increased to give tooth overlap in the lengthwise direction. The selection of spiral angle is based on obtaining the maximum tooth overlap without having the resulting axial thrust impose excessive loads on the bearings.

The following formula can be used for both spiral bevel and hypoid gears to determine the approximate pinion mean spiral angle in degrees.

v;p 25+5 ill +90 E

-V~1- 0 (4.1)

where

E

hypoid pinion offset". in (or mm).

D

==

gear pitch diameter, in (or mrn).

N

number of teeth in drive gear.

n

number of teeth in drive pinion.

With the pinion mean spiral angle determined, the approximate gear mean spiral angle in degrees may be determined as follows:

IjJ p - E'

(4.2)

where

E

approximate value of offset angle.(tan E '

E

R'

R'

== mean gear radius, in (or mm).

2.0

gear face width, in (or mm).

From the above formulas, it can readily be seen that the gear spiral angle is directly affected by the amount and direction of offset. For the spiral bevel, which has zero offset, the gear spiral angle is equal to the pinion spiral angle. With hypoid gears, increasing the offset causes a greater difference between gear and pinion spiral angles. Offset in the positive direction, Fig. 4-2, causes the gear spiral anglc to be less than that of the pinion while offset in the negative direction (not shown in the Figure) will cause the gear spiral angle to become larger than the pinion spiral angle.

The difference between gear and pinion spiral angles results in a change in the size of the pinion to maintain the same normal pitch on both members. The approximate pinion pitch diameter in inches (or mm) is determined as follows:

o ~~ 'J;_(]_ cos if; p

d

n N

(4.3)

The advantage of using the new method for calculating the pinion spiral angle (equation 4.1) instead of using a fixed value for all conditions is most evident on low ratios (below 3: 1) and high offset designs.

2 Normally, a positive value of offset is assumed, which implies a direction of offset and hand of spiral as shown in Fig. 4-2. When the direction of offset or hand of spiral is opposite from those shown in Fig. 4-2, a negative value should be assumed for the pinion offset. See section on Hand of Spiral (4.8).

37

Low ratios designed with the conventional 50-degree pinion spiral angle result in pinion diameters which are excessive and which would require an oversize axle housing. High pinion offsets will cause the gear spiral angle to decrease to a point where inward thrust may be experienced. This new formula will overcome both of these difficulties.

4.8 HAND OF SPIRAL

The hand of spiral on spiral bevel and hypoid gears is denoted by the direction in which the teeth curve; that is, left-hand teeth incline away from the axis in the counterclockwise direction when an observer looks at the face of the gear, and right-hand teeth incline away from the axis in the clockwise direction. The hand of spiral of one member of a pair is always opposite to that of its mate. It is customary to lise the hand of spiral of the pinion to identify the combination. That is, a left-hand combination is one with a left-hand spiral on the pinion and a right-hand spiral on the gear.

The hand of spira I should be selected to give an axial thrust that tends to move both the gear and pinion out of mesh in normal drive rotation, when the ratio, pressure angle, and spiral angle arc such that it is possible. If this is not possible, the hand of spiral should be selected to give an outward thrust on the pinion. Bearing reactions are discussed more thoroughly in the Gleason manual "Bevel and Hypoid Gear Design."

4.9 PRESSURE ANGLE

The general acceptance of the :20-degree average pressure angle for hevel gear designs has led to its adoption for automotive passenger car axle drive gears. This average pressure angle usually gives the best balance between tooth strength and adequate cutter point widths.

In recent years, it has been shown that the selection of pressure angles for passenger car hypoid gears is more dependent on smoothness and quietness than on strength. When hypoids are designed according to the "Gleason Method [or Designing Hypoid Gear Blanks", a natural unbalance between pinion concave (drive side) and convex (coast side) pressure angles will result. When pressure angles other than these calculated values arc used, an artificial unbalance results. The natural unbalance provides equal lengths of action for both directions of rotation while the artificial unbalance yields unequal lengths of action. In recent years, the trend has been to reduce the drive side pressure angle to obtain an increase in the path of action on this side of the tooth. This practice increases the contact ratio which leads to an improvement in the smoothness of motion transmission of the gears. Normally, a change from the natural unbalance of minus 2 degrees on pinion concave side provides a sufficient improvement without resulting in appreciable undercut. In no case should the drive-side pressure angle be reduced to the point where the separating component of the radial load on the pinion becomes attraction. A 10 degree drive-side pressure angle is considered the minimum. In order to avoid extremely high coast-side pressure angles, the present practice is to use an average pressure angle of 19 degrees for hypoid gears.

For normal designs, undercut is seldom a limiting condition. However, when any of the following situations exist, undercut may be a problem and an undercut check should be made:

I. Pressure angle more than :2 degrees different from natural unbalance on hypoids or more than 2 degrees of unbalance on bevel gears.

38

2. Percent of offset to gear diameter is high (generally over 20 percent).

3. Extra depth tooth proportions are used (working depth constant greater than those listed in "Gleason Method for Designing Hypoid Gear Blanks" or "Gleason Spiral Bevel Gear System").

4. Non-generated ratios lower than 3: I.

5. Number of pinion teeth less than those recommended in Table 4-1.

4.10 CUTTER DIAMETER

The relation between cutter diameter and spiral angle influences tooth taper. As an aid in the explanations, it has been necessary to adapt the following definitions for the four basic types of tooth tapers in a bevel or hypoid tooth. (See Fig. 4-3 which has been prepared for reference. Straight bevel teeth are illustrated for simplicity).

1. Depthwise taper refers to a change in tooth depth along the tooth length, measured perpendicular to the pitch plane.

2. Thickness taper refers to the change in tooth thickness along the tooth length.

Unless otherwise stated, it is measured in the pitch plane.

3. Space-width taper refers to a change in the tooth space width along the tooth length. Unless otherwise stated, it is measured in the pitch plane.

4. Point-width taper (frequently called slot-width taper) refers to the change in the maximum (limit) point width (slot-width) of a V-shaped cutting tool of nominal pressure angle whose sides are tangent to the two sides of a tooth space and whose tip is tangent to the root cone along the tooth length. It is measured in the root plane.

The cutter diameter selected is generally a compromise between the optimum lengthwise tooth curvature for gear design and performance, and the optimum cutter diameter for economical manufacture. The following are important points to consider:

GEAR DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CORRESPONDING
CHARACTER ISTIC MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATION
1. Depthwise tooth taper which affects undercut 1. Number of cutter blades as affected by cutter
and contact ratio. diameter.
2. Tooth thickness and topland taper which affect 2. Slot-width taper which affects cutter point
tooth strength. width and uniformity of stoc k d istri buti on.
3. Tooth contact shift due to misalignment result- 3. Lapping.
ing from gear assembly or deflections under
load. 39

Until recently the cutter diameter was chosen by the rule that the cutter radius is approximately equal to the gear cone distance. A more thorough analysis can be made for the optimum selection of cutter diameter. This will result in a smaller cutter diameter which has the following effects:

GEAR DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CORRESPONDING
CHARACTERISTIC MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATION
1. Standard or reduced depthwise tooth taper 1. Adequate number of cutter blades.
coupled with uniform gear and pinion slot-
width taper.
2. Normal or nearly normal tooth thickness taper 2. Maximum cutter point widths and minimum
(tooth thickness varying approximately in pro- stock variation coupled with good depth wise
portion to cone distance). and thickness taper.
3. Tooth contacts which are less sensitive to 3. Efficient lapping.
lengthwise shift. DEPTH WISE TAPER

Figure 4-3. Tooth Tapers

40

This smaller cutter is selected using the following formula:

where

0.5 [ V 2AxC2 - AC 2 (2 - sin-' 1/!C ) + AC sin 1/! C ] K AoG

value between 0.9 and 1.1 such that r will be a standard value. c

(4.4)

K

gear outer cone distance, in.

AG

gear mean cone distance, in.

cutter radius for involute lengthwise tooth curvature at cone distance AxG, in.

The actual value of a cutter radius, Ie' should be chosen from the following list for automotive passenger cars:

2.25,250,3.00,3.125,3.75,4.50 in.

As a guide in the evaluation of roughing cutter point widths the following minimum values have been established:

GEAR DIAMETRAL METRIC MINIMUM PINION ROUGHING
PITCH MODULE POINT WIDTH
3 -- 6 4.2 - 8.5 0.040 in
6-8 3.2 - 4.2 0.030 in 4.11 TOOTH PROPORTIONS

Most passenger car axle drive gears are designed with a small number of pinion teeth as listed in Table 4-1. In order to avoid undercut in the pinion roots and narrow toplands on the pinion tips, special tooth addendums and tooth depth proportions arc recommended.

The latest editions of the "Gleason Spiral Bevel Gear System" and the "Gleason Method for Designing Hy poid Gear Blanks" give the recommended special addendum and depth proportions, as well as the formulas for the gear blank design for automotive passenger car spiral bevel and hypoid gears, when designed for standard depthwise taper. In general, satisfactory tooth designs can be established from the information contained in these publications.

In order to design an optimum pair of gears, a proper balance among economy of manufacture, strength and durability of the teeth, and smoothness and quietness of roll is essential. This may require some modifications in the tooth design. These modifications can best be made by resorting to computer design programs. However, it seems desirable to ela borate 0 n the tooth design choices a vaila ble to the gear engineer in order to gain a bet ter understanding of the procedures used.

41

The 1110st natural design for bevel and hypoid gear teeth provides for a tapering depth of the teeth from the outer end to the inner end. For "standard" taper the tooth depth and tooth thickness dimensions will be proportional to the distance of a given section from the pitch apex. Therefore, the pitch and root cone apexes will coincide and the tooth sides will converge at the pitch apex. Both the depthwise ta per and the tooth thickness taper will be standard.

For reasons or economy it is nearly universal practice to cut the gear member of a bevel or hypoid gear pair with zero point-width taper (spread-blade taper). When this is done, the tooth thickness taper on the gear member may depart from standard, depending on the selection of spiral anglc and cutter diameter. In practice, the actual thickness taper of the gear is given little or no consideration, unless the tooth toplands become too narrow at one end of the tooth. However, the point-width taper (slot-width taper) on the mating pinion may become excessive with standard d epthwise taper. If maximum cutter life is to be attained, it is frequently the practice to design the pair of gears to achieve zero pointwid th taper (spread-blade taper) on both the gear and pinion sim ultaneously. When this is accomplished, the pair is said to have d1l17/CX taper.

Duplex taper can be achieved with standard depthwise taper, zero dept hwise taper, or any other specified depthwise taper by proper choice of the spiral angle and/or cutter diameter. Occasionally, the spiral angle and cutter diameter have been established by other considerations as indicated in the previous sections. When this is the case, extreme depthwise taper may result. In order to avoid extreme depthwise taper, which will result in a reduction in the transverse contact ratio at the inner end of the teeth, full duplex taper should not be used, and a compromise is made by arbitrarily limiting the depthwise taper. Any change in depthwise taper is accomplished by tilting the root lines of pinion and gear.

Tilted-root-line taper refers to any depthwise taper other than standard. When the root lines are tilted, they may be tilted about the root at any point along the tooth length. In general, tilting is done about the outer end of the tooth or about the mean point. Tilting about the outer end of the tooth results in a change in tooth depth and in transverse contact ratio toward the inner end of the tooth. Tilting about the mean point results in a lesser change in tooth depth and contact ratio at the inner end of the tooth, together with an approximately equal and opposite change in tooth depth and contact ratio at the outer end of the tooth. Whether the tooth depth is increased or decreased is dependent on the cutler radius employed.

When the cutter radius, re, is greater than the value of re D in inches given by the following formula, the tooth depth and contact ratio will he reduced at the inner end of the tooth as a result of tilting the root line:

10,800 AG sin lj; G

r cD

10.800 - Nc2:8s tan ¢ cos lj;G

(4.5)

where

N sin r

number of teeth in crown gear.

r

gear pitch angle] .

IS p' + IS G ' sum of dederidum angles of pinion and gear for

standard depthwise taper, minutes.

3 These values may be determined for spiral bevel gears from the "Gleason Spiral Bevel Gear System" and for hypoids from the "Gleason Method for Designing Hypoid Gear Blanks".

2:8

s

42

o ' r

pinion dedendum angle for standard depthwise taper, minutes. (For hypoids, use gear cddendum angle.):'

o r

G

gear dede ndum angle [or standard depthwise taper, minutes."

normal pressure angle. (For hypoids. use average pressure angle.) '

When tilting the root lines, any increase ill tooth depth at either the inner or outer end of the tooth will increase the danger of undercut and will reduce the width of the tooth topland. Therefore, when the standard depthwise taper, as represented by the standard pinion dedcndurn angle, is close to the undercut limit, it may be advisable to make a more detailed study of undercut and toplands. (See foot note4on page 44 .) When the danger of undercut is minimal, it is recommended that the root lines be tilted about the mean point. The general procedure currently used at the Gleason Works for tilting root lines about the mean point is:

___ J_Q_,80_Q_

Nc tan ¢ cos lj; c

( 46)

sum of dedendurn angles for duplex taper, minutes

2:0

mx

1.302:0

s

n ;? 12

(1.06 + 0.02n) 2:8 s

n < 12

maximum sum of dedendum angles for satisfactory depthwise taper, minutes.

2:0 t
ae
a
p
£tG
8c;
where r
c
a 01'
a ,
aG'
h ,
oP
b ,
oG
b 2:D 0 or 2:0 III X ' whichever is smaller

sum of dedendum angles for tilted-root-line taper, minutes.

aOG' - 0.5Fc tan 81: (for bevels) }

gear mean addendum, in. given value (for hypoids) '

ao I: - 0.5FG tan 8 G ' (for bevels) }

pinion mean addendum, in. h - aG (for hypoids):'

aG

2:0 t -------- gear addendum angle, minutes. ap + ac

ap

2:8 t ~-+~-- gear dedendum angle, minutes.

P G

cutter radius, in.

pinion outer addendum for standard taper, in.

gear outer addendum for standard taper, in.

pinion outer dedendurn for standard taper, in.

gear outer dedendurn for standard taper, in.

mean working depth, in (for hypoids):' .

43

Having determined the gear addendum angle and gear dedendum angle for tilted root lines above, the remaining tooth proportions for spiral bevel gears can be calculated using the following formulas:

bp bo p' - O.5F G tan s p' pinion mean dedendurn, in.

boG' -- O.5FG tan 0G' gear mean dcderidum, in.

° G pinion addendum angle, minutes.

aG pinion dedendurn angle, minutes.

bp + O.5Fc tan 0r pinion outer dedendum, in.

bG + O.5F G tan 8 G gear outer dedendum, in.

a or

ap +O.5FG tan8e, pinion outer addendum, in.

aG + O.5F G tan 0 p gear outer addendum, in.

ao p + aoG outer working depth, in.

ao l' + b () p outer whole depth, in.

c

h, - hk outer clearance, in.

Face angles, root angles, ou tside diameters, and crown to hack dim ension s can be determined using the standard formulas In the "Gleason Spiral Bevel Gear System".

Having determined the gear addendum angle and gear dedendurn angle for tilted root lines above, the remaining tooth proportions and blank dimensions for hypoid gears may be calculated using the "Gleason Method for Designing Hypoid Gear Blanks". The new values of gear addendum angle and gear dedendurn angle should replace these items on the hypoid calculation sheets.

4.12 TOOTH THICKNESS

Tooth thickness proportions for spiral bevel gears are given in the "Gleason Spiral Bevel Gear System" for approximately equal fatigue life of pinion and mating gear based on zero point-width taper (spread-blade taper) on the gear. They can also be obtained for both spiral bevel and hypoid gears using the procedure outlined in the Gleason pu blication "Strength of Bevel and Hypoid Gears" for any specific point-width taper and any desired strength balance. Computer programs" are also available for determining the tooth proportions and blank dimensions for spiral bevel and hypoid gears.

For automotive passenger car drive gears it has been the accepted practice to design for approximately equal fatigue life for pinion and mating gear. This implies that when the gears are operating at stresses above the endurance limit, the two members will have approximately equal life in hours (not cycles). This is the usual condition of operation sought in laboratory testing.

4 In addition, these same computer programs are capable of making a thorough analysis of the gear design including basic cutter specifications, tooth bending strength, surface durability, sliding velocities, contact ratios, depth wise taper, tooth thickness taper, tooth toplands, radial and axial force components, and other pertinent design information. Other computer programs are available for obtaining the machine settings for cutting the gears, for analyzing the tooth contact pattern, and for determining the likelihood of wider cut existing in a given pinion.

44

As noted in Chapter 3, gear size is established on the basis of stresses below the endurance limit based on the maximum sustained loads. IL is questionable, therefore, whether the attainment of equal life on gear and pinion in laboratory testing is a valid design criterion since most automotive gears operate below the endurance limit in actual service. It is, therefore, considered good design practice to favor equal stress rather than equal life on gear and pinion. This also permits the use of maximum pinion cutter point widths and the resulting economy in manufacturing.

Frequently, because of manufacturing considerations such as minimum practical pinion cutter point width or excessively narrow toplands on one member of the pair, it is not possible to obtain the desired strength balance. In these cases one must accept a compromise strength balance. Such a compromise appears on the dimension sheet computed for the sample problem (see section 6.8).

4.13 TOPLAND

Before leaving the subject of tooth proportions, it would be well to make further mention of tooth toplands. An adequate top land is a practical necessity to avoid the possibility of case crushing all carburized gears at the tooth tip. In general, the topland width would be a minimum of 0.250/Pd inches (0250 M mrn ). In order to attain an optimum design, the toplands on gear and pinion should be fairly well balanced. Generally, a topland ratio between the two members of 1.5 to I at the mean poin t will be satisfactory, and Gleason computer programs are arranged to design all gears to this ratio. With some applications having an extremely high pressure angle at the tip of the tooth (average pressure angle on the two sides of the tooth at the tip of 40 degrees or higher) [he topland width may be nearly zero without causing case crushing problems. This condition may be encountered with high gear reduction ratios or tooth depths greater than standard.

4.14 FILLET CURVATURE

The size of the fillet in the root of the tooth should be as large as practical to minimize bending stresses. Since the fillet curve is frequently non-circular, it is impractical to specify the actual fillet radius. Instead, it is common to specify the edge radius on the cutter blades. This should be as large as possible without causing fillet interference. Generally, values of approximately 0.120/Pd inches (0.120 M mrn) for the pinion cutter and 0.240/Pd inches (0.240 M mrn) for the gear cutter have proven satisfactory. Larger radii may be practical in some cases, but must be analyzed for each design."

4.15 CONTACT RATIO

Tooth design, which includes all of the parameters discussed in this chapter, is primarily important because it affects the strength and durability of the gears and the quality of the motion transmission. This latter quality is measured by a parameter known as a contact ratio. Mathematically expressed, contact ratio is the ratio of the total arc of action through which one pair or gear teeth are in continuous contact, to the circular pitch. The ratio is meaningful because the integer to the left of the decimal point signifies the number of teeth

5 The Gleason G-sheets or the computer program [or blank dimensions can be used for determining the maximum cutter edge radius.

45

in continuous contact. while the digits to the right of the decimal point signify the proportion of time one additional pair of teeth is in contact. Thus, the contact ratio, which is an approximate measure of the number of teeth in contact, serves to tell the designer how smoothly and quietly the gears will perform.

There are several measures of contact ratio each one of which has its own specific meaning. These are listed and defined below.

4.16 TRANSVERSE (PROFILE) CONTACT RATl06 (mp)

The transverse contact ratio is a measure of the total contact ratio on spur gears and straight bevel gears. It is the ratio of the arc of action in the mean transverse plane to the mean circular pitch. For straight bevel gears the transverse contact ratio must a Iways be greater than 1.0, if the gears are to transmit uniform motion. When the transverse contact ratio is less than 1.0. the gears cannot transmit uniform motion, and the contact stresses at the ends of the arc of action for each tooth pair will approach infinity. A transverse contact ratio of 1.1 is the minimum recommended for differential gears.

For other straight bevel gears the transverse contact ratio should be 1.5 or higher. The value of transverse contact ratio may be increased by (a) increasing the tooth depth or (b) decreasing the pressure angle. The tooth dept h should not be increased nor the pressure angle decreased to the point where undercut will reduce the actual working depth. When undercut exists. the reduction in contact ratio due to undercut is not accounted for in Gleason formulas.

Because transverse contact ratio is merely a component of the total contact ratio on helical gears and spiral bevel gears, it has relatively little meaning on these types of gears. It has been used in the past as a convenience in determining the total contact ratio.

4.17 NORMAL CONTACT RATIO 7 (mn)

The normal contact ratio is a new term recently introduced to the gearing field for a better evaluation of the contact ratio provided by the working profile of' spiral bevel and hypoid gears. It can also be used in the evaluation of helical gears with crowned teeth. It is approximately a measure of the total contact ratio under the light loads prevailing in automotive passenger car axles under normal opera ting loads on a level highway. The normal

6 Transverse contact ratio may be determined from the Gleason publication, "Strength of Bevel and Hypoid Gears".

7 Normal contact ratio can be obtained approximately by the formula:

-~_j---

P d PII cos dJ

Values used in this formula may be determined from the Gleason publication "Strength of Bevel and Hypoid Gears".

46

contact ratio is the ratio of the arc of action in the mean normal plane to the mean normal circular pitch. A norma I contact ratio of 1.3 is the minimum recommended for passenger car drive gears and a higher value is desirable. If the normal contact ratio is less than 1.3, the gears will be noisy under light tooth loads, a condition which generally cannot be tolerated in a passenger car. The values of normal contact ratio can be increased by (a) increasing the tooth depth, (b) decreasing the pressure angle, or (c) increasing the spiral angle. The tooth depth should not be increased nor the pressure angle decreased to the point where undercut will reduce the actual working depth. When undercut exists, the reduction in contact ratio due to undercut is not accounted for in Gleason formulas.

4.18 FACE CONTACT RATIO (mF)

This is the component of the contact ratio measured along the instantaneous axis of a helical gear, spiral bevel gear, or hypoid gear. It is the ratio of the face advance to the circular pitch. The face contact ratio, whose numerical value becomes important only under heavy loads, is a component of the total contact ratio. It should be sufficiently large to insure a modified contact ratio (explained later) of 2.0. Normally, the minimum face COI1- tact ratio will be between 1.5 and 1.8 to insure a satisfactory modified contact ratio. Fig. 4-4 gives approximate values for the face contact ratio. The average of pinion and gear spiral angles, the gear face width, and the gear diarnetral pitch are used with this chart. The value of the face contact ratio can be increased by (a) increasing the spiral angle, (b) increasing the gear face width, or (c) increasing the gear diametral pitch (finer pitch).

4.19 MODIFIED CONTACT RATIO (mo)

The modified contact ratio is the most important measure of the overall contact ratio under full load on modified tooth surfaces; that is, on tooth surfaces which have been developed with a localized tooth bearing. This ratio is the contact ratio within the boundaries of an ellipse tangent to the extremities of the zone of action". It may be determined by the following formula:

m o

../m 2+m 2

Z F

(4.7)

where

m o

modified contact ratio.

m cos? «; contact ratio in a plane normal to the instantaneous

n

axis. This is approximately equal to the contact ratio when the

path of contact in the tangent plane lies along the gear cutter element.

face contact ratio.

m Jl

normal contact ratio.

tjI

b

base spiral angle (sin tj; b "'" sin tj; p cos ¢)

pinion mean spiral angle.

normal pressure angle.

8 Zone of action: - the imaginary surface created by all the instantaneous theoretical lines of contact between two mating gear teeth.

47

1.0

FACE CONTACT RATIO (mF,

1.5 2.0 2.5

3.0

13

12

"0
c,
o :;:
!:Io -.z:,
I !:Io 9
u
>- w
c;: __J
__J ::J
« 0
a: 0
I-- :;:
ur '.:2
:;;
« a: 8
I--
0 LU
»: ;;;; 0.5
I I
I-- I--
0 0
;;: ;;:
W LU
U U
« «
LL LL
a: a:
« «
w w
0 0 25° 30° 0.5 35°

MEAN SPIRAL ANGLE (wi

FG

Figure 4-4. Face Contact Ratio Based on --- = 0.3

AoG

48

Since bevel and hypoid gears are produced with modified tooth surfaces, this value has special significance on these gears. Experience has shown that the modified contact ratio should be equal to or greater than 2.0 for maximum smoothness and quietness. The value of modified contact ratio may be increased by (a) increasing the face contact ratio or (b) increasing the normal contact ratio.

4.20 TOTAL CONTACT RATIO (mt)

The total contact ratio is a measure of the overall contact ratio on unmodified tooth surfaces; that is, on tooth surfaces which are fully matched. The total contact ratio is the contact ratio within the boundaries of the zone of action. It may be determined by the following formula:

( 4.8)

where

total contact ratio.

Since bevel and hypoid gears arc produced with modified tooth surfaces, this value has relatively little meaning and is, therefore, rarely used.

4.21 INTERPRETATION OF CONTACT RATIO

The total tooth overlapping action is composed of the normal contact ratio and the facc contact ratio, which have been explained in detail above. The normal contact ratio is a constant of tooth design and has the same effect on tooth overlapping action for both light loads and heavy loads. The effect of face contact ratio depends on the lengthwise mismatch or the teeth and on the load. It has little effect on tooth overlap at light loads, but has a substantial effect under heavy loads, which cause the entire lengthwise tooth surface to be in contact. The normal contact ratio therefore is a measure of the smoothness of action under relatively light loads, whereas the modified contact ratio, which is the result of the normal and face contact ratios, is a measure of the smoothness of action under heavy loads.

4.22 EXAMPlE9

To illustrate the procedure for selecting the specifications for the axle drive gears, the example given in Chapter 3 (Section 3.9) will be continued. For the following procedure the hypoid gear of 8.45 in (215 mrn) diameter is assumed.

From Table 4-1 the preferred number of teeth in the pinion for the required 2.56 ratio varies from 14 to 18. A 16 x 41 combination is selected from Table 4-2. The basis of the selection is that higher tooth numbers result in quieter gearing. While an 18 x 46 combination would better satisfy this condition, the higher production cost due to the larger tooth number sum would not justify its usc.

The diarnetral pitch will be:

P d

N D

41 8.45

4.852

9 Due to rounding [he English and metric values independently of one another. there is not a strict conversion between the English and metric values ill the example given in this publication.

49

The module will be:

M

D N

215 _

5.244

41

+ 90 x 0.15

= 46.50°

The gear face width will be:

0.155D = 0.155x~.45

1.31 in, use 1.30 in.

=(0.155x215

33.3 mrn, use 33.0 mrn)

The hypoid offset will be 15 percent of the gear diameter.

E

0.15D

=0.15x8.45

1.27 in, use 125 in

= (0 15 x 215

32.3 mrn, use 32.0 nun)

It is assumed that the pinion will be rotating clockwise (CW) for forward direction of movement of the vehicle. Also, it is assumed that the pinion axis will be below the gear axis.

Based on the above assumptions, a left hand (LH) pinion spiral and a below center pinion offse t is selected.

The pinion spiral angle will be determined from Eq. 4.1.

25+5 ~ y ~-

/4l 25 + 5y 16-

+ 90E D

Use 47.0°

The gear spiral angle will be determined from Eq 4.2.

R'

(8.45 - 130) 2

( 215-33) 2

3.58 in

(91.0111111)

tan e '

E R'

1.25 3.58

0.3492

32

03516)

91.0

6'

19.25°

(1937° )

'!I YG

47.0- 19.25

(47.0- 1937)

27.75°

(27.630 )

50

The approximate pinion pitch diameter will be determined from Eq. 4.3 cos !f; G

D - ----

cos l/; I'

d

n

N

16 x 8.45 x Q._~il±99__ 4.28 in

41 0.68200

(Iii x 215 x 0.88596 = 109.0 mm)

41 0.68200

The average pressure angle will be selected ~IS 19 degrees.

The cutter diameter will be determined from Eq . 4.4. To eliminate the need of referring to the hypoid leaflet, for this example the gear cone distance may be closely approximated by determining the dimensions of an equivalent bevel gear.

tan r

41 16

= 2 5625

r

0.5D sin r

0.5 x 8.45

4.535 In

0.93156

0.5F G = 4.535-- 0.5 x 1.30 = 3.885

C1SSLlme K

1.1

KAoG = 1.1 x 4535

4.989 in

0.5 [./2AxG2 - AG2 (2 - sin2V;c) + Ac sin We; J

0.5 [ ./2(4.989)2 - (3885)2 {2 -- (0.46561)2}+ 3.885 x 0.46561J 3.295 in

A 6.250 in diameter (3.125 in radius) cutter will be selected,

The recommended addendum and depth proportions for automotive passenger car hy poid gears will be used.

Tilted-root line dcpthwise taper will be requested for largest cutter point width. An undercut check should be made since the combination of small cutter and tilted root line will increase the toe depth of the tooth.

To verify the selection of pinion spiral angle. the face contact ratio will be estimated using Fig. 4-4.

Average lj;

2

47.0 + 27 .75

37.38" ( 4_7_:Q_:+::22·63 2

37.32° )

51

F __ ll_= 6.29)
FG x Pd 1.30 X 4.852 6.31 ( ___Q_
1\1 5.244
mF 1.81 (mF = 1.81 ) The value of the face contact ratio is within acceptable limits; therefore the pinion spiral angle is adequate.

S2

Chapter 5 DIFFERENTIAL GEARS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

In order to permit the two driving wheels to turn at different speeds, a straight bevel d i Iferen tial is e 111 ployed. The differen tial consists of two stra igh t bevel side gears, each of which is attached to the inner end of one of the two driving axle shafts so that they face each other. Meshed between the side gears are two or more differential pinions. The differential pinions are mounted on a solid shaft or spider which is supported by the differential case. The driving ring gear is rigidly mounted to the differential case. Fig 5-1 illustrates a co nvcn ( io na I d iffcre n tial.

5.2 ACTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL

The torque delivered to the differential case by the spiral bevel or hypoid drive gear is transmitted through the differential spider and the differential pinions lo the side gears and the axle shaf ts. When the two rear wheels revolve at the SLime speed, the differential pinions do not rotate about their a xes ane! the differential acts as a solid unit. The pinions act as balance levers between the two side gears. dividing the torque from the ring gear equally between thc two driving wheels under normal road conditions. Only when one wheel must turn faster than the other is there rotation of the differential pinions about their own axes.

Figure 5-1. Conventional Differential

53

5.3 GENERAL TOOTH DESIGN

REVACYClE Gears

The Revacycle process is a special process developed to meet the high production requirements of the automotive industry. It is the fastest method for generating straight bevel gears with conjugate tooth surfaces. The tooth profiles resemble circular arcs. Unlike the involute, the circular-arc profile has no severe curvature in the vicinity of the root. Therefore, the contact stress is less. In addition, the Rcvacycle tooth is free from undercut, and the tooth is therefore strong in the roo t section. The tooth surfaces are modified to accommodate assembly tolerances and deflections under load.

The generation of the Circular-arc profile is accomplished with a cutler which resembles a circular broach. lt is designed to suit the specific geometric characteristics of the tooth as designated by such factors as ratio, diame tral pitch. pressure angle, and tooth proportions.

A coarse-pitch stubbed tooth is used in the design of differential gears to increase the beam strength under static loading because the gears operate at high torque and low speed.

The recommended number 01' teeth is 9 or 1110re in the pinion LII1c1 14 to 25 ill the gear, the final selection being dictated by space requirements. The sum of the numbers of teeth ill the two side gears in any diffcrcn tial must be evenly divisible by the number of pinions ill order to have pinions equally spaced around the gear axis.

In general, a 22.S-degree pressure :lngll' is used to obtain the maximum strength consistent with practical gear cutting and .ulcqua tc transverse contact ratio. The tooth thicknesses of the pinion and sick gear ,IlT generally proportioned for equal stress. The face width measured along the pitch clement should be limited to one-third the cone distance. The Lice width measured along the root line is limited by the cutting machine on which the gears arc lo be produced. If the root-line face width differs on gear and mating pinion, as is frequently the case. this should be considered when balancing the stresses 011 the two members, since the root-line face Width has a significant effect on tooth strength. Following usual bevel gear practice, the face angle is made parallel to the root angle of the mating gear. This results in uniform clearance along t hc tooth and permits a larger fillet radius without interference at the small end. Because the curter specificu tions arc directly related to the tooth design, any design changes will usually require a modification to the cutter. For example, d change ill the tooth thickness will alter the shape of the cutter blades and also necessitate a change in the dcdendurn angle of the part being cut If uniform clearance is to be maintained. the face angle of the mate must also be changed.

Two general procedures for Revacycle tooth design are available: one is by usc of the Gleason leaflet "F ormulas for Revacycle Bcve I Gear D i mensions and Static Bend i ng Stresses", the other is by use of a computer program.

A t h ird procedure to simplify the determination of Revacycle blank proportions has been devised as explained in the Gleason publication "Revacyclc Standard Series Design Data for Differential Gears". This procedure gives design data for a series of specific differential gear ratios.

CONIFlEX Gears

For experimental automotive passenger car differentials. Conitlcx gears are sometimes used to simulate Revacycle tooth designs. The simulation is done quickly and

54

economically because of the flexibility and relative simplicity of the Coniflex process. It should be noted, however. that undercut may develop in generating the simulated tooth form and, therefore, tests for strength and durability will not relate directly to Revacycle performance.

5.4 LlMITED·SlIP DIFFERENTIALS

Various types of differentials, such as limited-slip differentials, have been used to overcome the slipping of one wheel due to insufficient traction. When one driving wheel does not have sufficient traction due to the road surface. the wheel on the slippery surface will spin at twice the speed it would otherwise turn on a dry surface, while the other wheel will remain stationary and the vehicle will remain immobile. A limited-slip differential is a device which permits the driving axle to transmit some of the driving force to the wheel with the better traction and prevents a vehicle from remaining immobile when one driving wheel loses traction It must be kept in mind. when designing a limited-slip differential. that the total ring gear torque may, under certain conditions, be transmitted by one axle shaft and the differential gears should be made stronger to sustain these loads. Of course, the torque load all the gears is still limited by the slipping of the wheels. Figure S-2 shows an assembly of a limited-slip differential.

,)

.. __...,

Figure 52. Gleason Limited-Slip Differential

5S

5.5 EXAMPLE

To illustrate the procedure for selecting the specifications for the differential gears, the example given in Chapter 3 (Section 3.9) will be continued. The two-pinion differential gear diameter of 3.45 in (88 mm) will be used in the following procedures.

The general tooth design selected will be Revacycle. The actual com hi na tion is determined by space requirements of the axle. For this example a lOx 16 combination has been arbitrarily selected. To check whether the selected tooth numbers will allow the pinions to he assembled diametrically opposite each other the following formula is used

integer

where

number of differen tial pinions

2 x 1('] :2

16 which is an integer

The diarne tral pitch will be:

P

d

N D

16 3.45

4.638

The module will be:

M

o N

88 16

= 5.500

To check the spacial requirements of the differential design against the allowable space in the axle, both the gear pitch angle and outer cone distance must be determined.

tan r N If, = Ui
n 10
r 58.0° gear pitch angle
A 0.50 0.5 x 3.45 2.034 111 "\
----
() SIJ1 r 0.84805
) out" cone distance
=( 0.5 x 88 = 51.88 mm)
084805
The gear pitch-line face width is equal to one-third the outer cone distance. A

o

3

2.034

--_

3

= ( 5188 3

0.678 in;

usc 0.670 in

= 17.29 rnrn ; lise 17.00 mill)

A 22.5-degree pressure angle will be used for this design.

Based on the above calculations a computer dimension sheet was run, Figs. (']-5 and f,-6, to obtain the final blank design. This completes the procedure for design of the differential gears, except for a fi nal check of the tooth stresses, which is covered in Chapter 6.

5h

Chapter 6

STRESS DETERMINATION AND SCORING RESISTANCE

6.1 INTRODUCTION

The load capacity or a pair of gears is dependent upon its resistance to tooth breakage and surface failure. Resistance to tooth breakage is normally dependent 011 the bending stress occurring in the root area of the tooth. Resistance to surface failure is normally dependent 011 the contact stress occurring on the tooth surface and the scoring resistance as measured by the critical temperature at the point of contact of the gear teeth.

6.2 DRIVE-GEAR BENDING STRESSES

The basic equation for the dynamic bending stress in a bevel or hypoid drive-gear tooth made of steel is given as follows:

K TQK K

CJ () m

(6.1 )

K

v

WhC:IT

S r

calculated d yn.uuic tensile stress at the root or the tooth, psi (or kg/rnm? ).

uru t conversion factor

'lorq uc. T [(Q
Ib in 1_0
f--.
kg 111 0.0610 T

transmitted torque, lb in (or kg 111) from Eq .. 1.1,32,33. or 3.4.

Q

strength factor obtained from computer dimension sheet or calculated by the method outlined in "Strength of Bevel and Hypoid Gears".

K

()

overload factor. For passenger car axle-drive gears this is usually assumed as 1.0.

K

III

load distribution factor. For straddle-mounted pinions, lise a value of 1.0, for overhung-mounted pinions use a value of 1.1.

K

v

dynamic factor. For passenger car axle-drive gears this is usually assumed as 1.0.

The dynamic tensile stress should be calculated for both the gear ami pinion using the corresponding values of torque and strength factor in the above equation. All other terms in the above equation are common to both the gear ami pinion.

For proper proportioning of stresses on drive gear and pinion, refer to Section 4.12 on tooth thickness in Chapter 4. The stress-cycle curve for life is shown in Fig. 6-1. Here the slope of the 95 percent line is approximately 5.7.

6.3 DIFFERENTlAl·GEAR BENDING STRESSES

The load capacity of differential gears is best indicated by their resistance to tooth breakage. Resistance to tooth breakage is norma Ily depcnden t on t he bend i ng stress occurring in the root area of the tooth. The basic equation for the static bending stress in a differential-gear tooth made of steel is given as follows:

s s

(6.2)

where

s s

2[ (N p-2)kn + 2]

calculated tensile stress under static load at the root of the tooth psi (or kg/rnm ").

unit conversion factor (see explanation for equation 6.1).

transmitted ring-gear torque. Ib in (or kg rn ) from Eq 3.1.32. or 33.

static strength factor. This factor is given for standard series differential gears in the Gleason publication "Revacyclc Standard Series Design Data for Differential Gears". For all other cases Os is determined by the following formulas:

OsP Qp ( _ n ) for the pinion:
K ON
I
Qsc QG for the gear.
K
I strength factors of pinion and gear, respectively. These factors for Revacycle gears may be determined by either of the two general Revacycle design procedures or may be taken from a Gleason Revacvcle Dimension Sheet. For Conillex ue ars these factors may be determined by the method outlined in ?":Strength of Bevel and Hypoid Gears" or may he taken from a Gleason Coninex Straight Bevel Dimension Sheet.

K

I

inertia factor found on the Gleason Revacycle Dimension Sheet or Gleason Coniflex Dimension Sheet. It may also be determined by either of the two general Revacycle design procedures for Revacycle gears, or by the method outlined in "Strength of Bevel and Hypoid Gears", for Coniflex gears.

This factor is indicative of dynamic loads on rotating gears. All Gleason bending-stress calculations incorporate this factor in the Q-factor. On a coarse-pitch stubbed tooth, however, the low over- 1,IP produces a very high dynamic effect on the rotating gears. This is not realistic for differential gears in which at maximum torque there is very little rotation. Therefore, the K, factor is calculated separately on Gleason Revacycle Dimension Sheets and Gleason Conitlex Dimension Sheets and is used in the denominator of the equation to cancel its effect in the Q-factor.

58

ISd'SS3IHS

Figure 6-1. Fatigue Life Stress-Cycle Chart

59

n

number of teeth in differential pinion.

N

number of teeth in differential side gear.

K

m

load distribution factor; use 1.1 for differential gears.

number of differential pinions, normally either 2 or 4

k

n

derating factor for more than two differential pinions; use 0,75.

The static tensile stress should be calculated for both the gear and pinion using the corresponding values of strength factor in the above equation. All other terms in the above equation are common to both the gear and pinion.

6.4 CONTACT STRESS

The basic equation for the contact stress in a bevel or hypoid drive gear or differential gear made of steel is given as follows:

s K Z ~

c Z pV' I~CO __ "2..

v

(6.3)

where

s c

calculated contact stress, psi (or kg/mm ").

unit conversion factor

Torque, T Kz
lb in 1.0
kg m 0.00655 pinion durability factor obtained from computer dimension sheet.

maximum pinion torque for which the tooth contact pattern was developed, lb in (or kg m ) from Eq. 3.4,

c

o

overload factor, For passenger car axle-drive gears or differential gears this is usually assumed as I ,0.

C

rn

load distribution factor. For straddle-mounted pinions this is usually assumed as 1.0; for overhung-mounted pinions or differential gears use a value of 1.1,

c

v

dynamic factor. For passenger car axle-drive gears this is usually assumed as 1,().

operating pinion torque, Ib in (or kg m). This is equal to or less than T1"

The above formula (6,3) for the contact stress for bevel and hypoid gears is based on the assumption that the tooth contact pattern covers the full working profile without concentration at any point when the gears arc assembled in the final mountings under full load (maximum torque), The cube root term in the formula adjusts for operating loads less than the full load ,

6()

Since the contact stress is equal on gear and pinion, it is only necessary to compute the pinion value.

Tooth contact stresses for differential gears may be calculated using the above equation. These calculated stresses are much higher than for the drive gears. Allowable limits are not given in Table 6-1, since they have not been established.

6.5 ALLOIIVABLE STRESS LIMITS

Under ideal conditions of operation, bevel and hypoid gears have a tooth contact which utilizes the full working profile of the tooth without load concentration in any area and with gradual fading of the tooth contact at the tips and ends of the teeth. Under these conditions, the gears have the greatest 10(]cI capacity and will function 1110St smoothly and quietly.

In practice. however, it is not possible to obtain this ideal tooth contact under all operating conditions. If the gears operate within a very narrow range of conditions of load, speed, temperature, etc., it is possible to approach this ideal. Automotive passenger car axledrive gears, however, arc called upon to operate over a wide range of conditions, and the design and manufacture of the mountings and gears must be a compromise. Manufacturing and assembly tolerances limit the usable length and width of the tooth contact. Considerations of weight, cost, and space often influence the design of both the gears and mountings.

The recommendations and rating formulas given here are designed specifically for bevel and hypoid gears in which the tooth contact has been developed to give the correct pattern in the final mountings under full load. Application of these rating formulas to gears in which this condition is not fulfilled requires a modification in the ratings. This modification has been included in the above formula by a load correction term

The allowable stress limits for passenger car axle-drive gears and differential gears (Table 6-1) are based on the use of case-hardened steel. Either maximum prime-mover torq ue or wheel-slip torq Lie, whichever is the smaller, is used for determining the peak torque for a gear design. The performance torque is based on grade ability and ability of the vehicle to accelerate on a grade.

Table 6-1

psi I

400,000 I 250,000 I

psi

98 21

Peak Torque Performance Torque

Allowable Bending Stress for Drive Gears

70 21

Allowable

Co ntact Stress for Drive Gears

280 175

Allowable Bending Stress for Differential Gears

psi I I

100,000 I 30,000

140,000 30,000

6.6 DRIVE-G EAR SCORING RESISTANCE

The scoring resistance of a bevel or hy poid gear is determined by calculating the scoring index (critical temperature at the point of contact).

The basic equation for the scoring index for bevel or hypoid gears made from steel is given as follows:

T +l>T

I x

61

where

where

calculated scoring index (critical temperature at point of contact). dcg F (or dcg C).

T

I

gear blank temperature, dcg F (or deg C). This is the temperature of the gear at its surface .IL1st prior to actual tooth contact. For sump-lubricated gears, the gear blank temperature will usually be slightly higher than the sump temperature.

(6.5 )

6.T

x

K X

x

L

v

maximum calculated temperature rise at the critical point of contact. deg F (or deg C)

K

x

unit conversion factor

Torque, T K
x
II! ill 1.0
kg In 16.769 x

scoring factor fro m computer dimension sheet.

maximum pinion torque for which the tooth contact pattern was developed. lb in (or kg m).

L

o

overload factor. For passenger car axle-drive gears use 1.0.

L

OJ

load distribution factor. Use 1.0 for straddle-mounted pinions: use 1.1 for overhung-mounted pinions.

L

v

dynamic factor. For passenger GIl' axle-drive gears lise J .0.

k

x

Lin i l conversion factor

Surface finish, s k I
x
micro inches 1.0
microns 0.0254 s

surface finish, micro inches (microns)

pinion speed, rpm, corresponding to the operating pinion torque, Tps' See Fig. 6-2 for nl' 0 3125

operating pinion torque. Ib in (or kg m ).

62

"' 0'

M

o

o ~'_J".q==- 25 ri.; Ll.] I j-

O~. ;.

S~---I----t : i

1!C~ _:_i :-

"' N

M o

c. c

Figure 6- 2. Speed Factor

63

assumed pinion torque used ill computer program for obtaining value of X_ lb in (or kg 111). Since the torque value is not listed 011 the computer dimension sheet.

30,QQ_Q_ KQ OJ'

whichever is smaller.

NOTE: The formula (6.4) for the scoring Index Or) for bevel and hypoid gears is based on the assumption that the tooth cOIlLICt pattern covers the Iull working profile without concentration at any point when the gears are assembled in the final mountings under full load (maximum torque). The cube root term in the formula adjusts for operating loads less than the full load.

6.7 ALLOWABLE SCORING INDEX - T a

The nWXlll1L1111 allowable scoring index has not yet been clearly established. It is based upon the properties of the gear materials and the lubricant. Research tests indicate that it varies with the marerial. heat treatment, surface treatment, type of lubricant, bulk lubricant tcmperatu rc. method of application of the lubricant, and means of cooling the system. Relatively few passenger car applications have developed serious scoring problems and therefore an evaluation of mute rials and lubricants for these drives has not been given adequate study to date.

The formulas for scoring index given above, provide a means for measuring the relative resistance of a given pair of gears to scoring. The user will find it necessary to determine his own allowable scoring index for his particular gear material and lubricant combination. This can best be done by calculating the scoring index for successful and unsuccessful applications to determine the limit above which scoring is most likely to occur.

Despite the extensive qualification tests performed on lubricants, the usual testing does not involve a specific test for scoring. Most lubricant wear tests arc based on wear due to pure sliding, whereas most gears operate with combined rolling and sliding, which combination generally produces more favorable lubricating conditions. The above formula for the scoring index considers the effects of both rolling and sliding between the gear teeth.

6.8 EXAMPLES

Example I (Drive Gears):

To illustrate the procedure for determining the stresses in a passenger car axle-drive gear, the example given in Chapters 3 and 4 will be used:

Design Torques from example in Chapter 3.

11,300 lb in (130 kg m)

TPFP = 4,410 Ib in (50.8 kg m)

37,800 Ib in (436 kg m )

TpMP =14,ROOlhin(170kgm)

54, 100 Ib in (623 kg Ill)

Twsp = 21,100 lb in (243 kg m)

Gear Specifications from example in Chapter 4.

D

R45in(215mm)

64

n 16

N 41

PCI 4.852 (M = 5.244)

F 1.300 in (330 111m)

(;

E 1.250in(32.0mm)

Direction of offset below center

Hand or pinion spiral - left hand

if; I' 47.0"

27.7S" (27G3())

J

4.28 in (109.0 mrn)

¢avg.

!9°

r c

3125 ill.

11\ 1.8! (1.81)

Tilted root-line dcpthwisc t aper

Automotive passenger eLI[ tooth-depth proportions

Equal stress tooth-thickness balance

The above gear specifications are required input data for the dimension sheet computer program. The geometry factors necessary for determining the stresses. are obtained from the computer calculated dimension sheets.

Dimension Sheet No. 345.755

English units (Fig. 6-3)

Dimension Sheet No. M345.756

Metric units (Fig. 6-4)

A more detailed discussion of the dimension sheet appears in the Gleason leaflet "Explanations for Dimension Sheets".

The calculated bending stresses arc determined using equation (i.L:

K9_ TQK" K", K

v

based on performance torq ue (T PF)

_l_~11_30() x_2.3Q2_~_LQ_KJ'"-L 1.0

29,700 psi

65

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25,200 psi

(0.061 Ox 59·8 ;~/018_~_x 1_.0_~_I_J = 17.7 kg/mm2)

It IS not necessary to calculate the stresses based on both prime-mover torque and slip torque. The torque having the lower value is used in the following calculations:

based un prime-mover torque (T )

PM

99,400 psi

((;9.8 kg/rnm")

R4.600 psi

The calculated contact stresses ~lIe determined using equation 6.3:

Tee ~

K 7 I' () In 3 -T-l'_pC_

\ 7. 'p C

v

based of performance torque (TpFP)

10 "'40) /1!~OO_~J~O_~l.l

. XL, 0_ V

1.0

~ / 170 x 1.0 x 11

0.00655 x 2,478 v'

1.0

~ = 212,000 psi 14,800

s

c

based un prime-mover torque (TpM 1')

s c

317,000 psi

(222 kg! 111m2 )

68

Comparing the calculated stresses with the allowable stresses ,IS given in Table 6-1, it is noted that the calculated stresses based on performance torque and prime mover torque are both within allowable limits.

At this point the engineer would have to take into account other considcrat ions as to whether the prelirninary gear size is adequate or whether ,I larger gear should be used.

For the vehicle used in the example problem, the loaded weight would indicate a fairly larue car. If this vehicle is to be marketed as a family-type car. it would be extremely unlikely that the gears would be subjected to the calculated prime-mover torque, therefore the preliminary gear si7..e would be adequate However, for consolidation of gear sizes in a given axle, it would be quite likely that these gears would also be used in a sports car where the gears could be subjected to the calculated prime-mover torque. In this case ~I larger gear size should be used.

Example 2 (Differential Gears):

D 3.45 ill (88.0 !TIm)
11 10
N 16
P 4.G38 (M = 5.500)
d Fe 0.670in(17.0mm)

Standard depth Revacycle tooth proportions

Equal stress tooth thickness balance

The geometry factors necessary for determining the stresses are obtained from the computer calculated dimension sheets based on the above data.

Dimension Sheet No. 645.758

English units (Fig. 6-5)

Dimension Sheet No. M 645.759 Metric units (Fig. 6-6)

The calculated bending stresses are determined using eq uation 6.2:

s s

~ TCQsKm 2[(~p -2)kn + 2]

based on performance torque (T PFC)

= 1 x 11,300 x 16.0576 x 1.1 2 x 2 x 1.6910

=( Q_·_QQlQ~130x 15.8835 x 1.[ = 20.5 kg/mm2) 2x2xl.6S>IO

29,500 psi

= l-,-'S__lL~QQ~_2i·il2_2L~_lQ_~l.J = 29,500 psi 2 x 2 x 1.6910 x 16

( Q:961 0 x 130 x 25 .41J.2_X_1Q_.:~ .. J._1_ = 20.5 kg/rnm? ) 2x2x1.6910x16

based on prime-mover torque (T PM)

S sG

98,700 psi

98,700 psi

(687 kg/rnrn+)

Comparing the calculated stresses with the allowable stresses as given in Table 6-1, it is noted that the calculated stresses for both performance torque and prime-mover torque are within the allowable limits.

69

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SD 4084B/MLJ/April 72

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~) Armando Busseti M8qJinas Ltda

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