‡ Distribute computation among nodes ‡ Coordination between processes running on different nodes ‡ Remote I/O Devices ‡ Remote Data/File Access ‡ Personal communications (e-mail, chat ) ‡ World Wide Web ‡ ... and many other uses

What is Networking?
‡ Networking means interconnection of 2 or more autonomous pc¶s in order to share the information & resources with security that they can have communication among themselves. ‡ And there are many techniques for making pc¶s networked and also there are many network hardware to make it possible.

Network requirements
There are four things that must be present in the network. ‡ two or more individual systems ‡ something to share (ex: data) ‡ a physical pathway or transmission medium ‡ rules of communication or protocols

Physical Topology
The physical layout of the network Classified in to the following. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1. Bus topology 2. Star topology 3. Ring topology 4. Mesh topology

Among these first 3 are the commonly used.

Factors to be considered in choosing topology
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Easy to install Easy to troubleshoot Easy to reconfigure. No. of systems down because of media failure

Bus Topology
‡ Bus: each node is daisy-chained (connected one right after the other) along the same backbone. Information sent from a node travels along the backbone until it reaches its destination node. Each end of a bus network must be terminated with a resistor ‡ good for a temporary, small (fewer than 10 people) network ‡ But its difficult to isolate malfunctions and if the backbone goes down, the entire network goes down.

Star Topology
‡ In a star network, each node is connected to a central device called a hub. The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes it along to all the other nodes in the network. ‡ ‡ ‡ If hub goes down, entire network goes down. If a computer goes down, the network functions normally. most scalable and reconfigurable of all topologies

Ring Topology
‡ Ring: Similar to a bus network, rings have nodes daisy chained, but the end of the network in a ring topology comes back around to the first node, creating a complete circuit. Each node takes a turn sending and receiving information through the use of a token. The token along with any data is sent from the first node to the second node which extracts the data addressed to it and adds any data it wishes to send. Then second node passes the token and data to the third node, etc. until it comes back around to the first node again. Only the node with the token is allowed to send data . All other nodes must wait for the token to come to them. relatively easy to install, requiring ;minimal hardware




Mesh Topology
Mesh - Commonly used in WAN configurations. Routers are connected to multiple links for redundancy and to give the ability to determine the quickest route to a destination.

‡ Every computer has multiple possible connection paths to the other computers on the network, so a single cable break will not stop network communications between any two computers.

Signal Transmission

‡ Baseband Transmission ± Digital ‡ Broadband Transmission -- Analog

Baseband Transmission ± Digital
‡ Baseband transmission uses digital signaling over a single frequency. ‡ Entire communication channel is used to transmit a single signal. ‡ Flow is bi-directional. Some can transmit and receive at the same time. ‡ Baseband systems use repeaters to strengthen attenuated signals.

Broadband Transmission -Analog
‡ Broadband Transmission -- Analog ‡ Broadband uses analog signaling over a range of frequencies. ‡ Signals are continuous and non-discrete. ‡ Flow is uni-directional and so two frequency channels or two separate cables must be used. ‡ Uses amplifiers for signal regeneration

Important Cabling Considerations

‡ Installation Logistics How easy is the cable to work with? ‡ Shielding Is the area "noisy"? ‡ Crosstalk Where data security is important this is a problem Power lines, motors relays and radio transmitters cause crosstalk


Transmission Speed

Transmission rates are measured in Mbps 10 Mbps is common 100 Mbps is becoming common Fiber can go well over 100 Mbps but costs and requires experts to install. ‡ Cost Distance costs you money ‡ Attenuation

Different cables can only transmit so far without causing too many errors

Connecting Network Components
The types of cabling used in 802.3/Ethernet LANs:




Nodes/ seg 100 30 1024 1024


10 Base 5 10 Base 2 10 Base±T 10 Base-F

Thick Coax Thin coax Twisted pair (STP&UTP) Fiber Optics(OFC)

500m 200m 100m 2000m

Good for back bones Cheapest systems Easy maintenance Best between buildings

Cable Specifications

10 base5 Cabling
‡ This type of cabling is popularly known as thick Ethernet which came first.It has marking for every 2.5 meters to show where the tap go. Connection to it are generally made using vampire taps, in which a pin is carefully forced halfway into the coaxial cable¶s core. The notion 10 baes5 means that it operates at 10Mbps.Uses baseband signaling can support segments of up to 500meters



10 base2 Cabling
‡ This type is known as Thin Ethernet .This in contrast to the thick Ethernet ,bends easily. Connection to it are made using industry standard BNC connectors to form T junctions ,rather than using vampire taps .These are easy to use & more reliable.

‡ Thin Ethernet is much cheaper & easier to install, but it can run for only 200 meters & can handle only 30 machines per cable segment. ‡ Major problem with above 2 types of coax cabling is the detection of cable breaks ,bad taps or loose connectors.

10base ±T Cabling
‡ The problem stated above ,has driven a system towards a different kind of wiring pattern ,in which all stations have a cable running to a central hub. ‡ The cable is twisted pairs & using a RJ-45 connectors for making connections.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

‡ Uses a copper braid jacket and a higher quality protective jacket. Also uses foil wrap between and around the wire pairs. ‡ Much less susceptible to interference and supports higher transmission rates than UTP. ‡ Shielding makes it somewhat harder to install. ‡ same 100 meter limit as UTP. ‡ harder to tap

CAT levels for UTP cables & bandwidth
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CAT 1 -CAT 2 -CAT 3 -CAT 4 -CAT 5 -CAT 5e -CAT 6 -standard phone line Data speeds up to 4Mbps Data speeds up to 16Mbps Data speeds up to 20Mbps Data speeds up to 100Mbps Data speeds up to 1Gbps Data speeds up to 10Gbps

UTP implementation

Another classification of twisted pair cables are based on the application and the pin configuration followed for making the connection and they are : ‡ 1. Straight cables ‡ 2. Cross over cables ‡ 3. Roll over cables

Straight Through cable
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

T568A T568A ‡ These is used in between dissimilar devices. e.g PC to switch, switch to router.

Cross over Cable
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 T568A ‡ 3 6 1 4 5 2 7 8 T568B

These cable is used in between similar devices. e.g switch to switch, PC to PC .

Roll Over cable
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

‡ These is used to connect router console to PC¶s communication port (can be of 10 ft)

Optical Fiber Cable
‡ The fourth cabling option for Ethernet is 10 base-F, which uses fiber optics. ‡ This alternative is expensive due to the cost of the connectors and terminators, but it has excellent noise immunity & is the method of choice when running between buildings or widely separated hubs. ‡ These are of two type multimode & single mode.

‡ Multimode fiber uses LED as the source of light & single mode uses Laser beam as the source of light. ‡ Single mode is more expensive than multimode mode ,but can be used for longer distance

Bandwidth Pipe Analogy

Bandwidth Highway Analogy

‡ A set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. These rules govern the content, format, timing, sequencing, and error control of messages exchanged among network devices. ‡ N/W protocol s/w takes the incoming data received by the NIC ,keeps it organized, sends it to the application that needs it, & then takes outgoing data from the application & hands it to the NIC to be sent out over the n/w . ‡ All n/ws uses some protocol.Top 3 are NetBEUI, IPX/SPX & TCP/IP ‡ Windows NT, Windows 2000 uses TCP/IP as a default protocol

Networking Devices

Network Interface Cards

Internal Wireless NIC for Desktop or Server

External USB Wireless NIC

Network Interface Card (NIC)
‡ Computer requires NIC to connect to the network. ‡ The NIC is a translator that works between the network and the PC. Networks transmit data in a serial data format (1 bit at a time), and the data bus of the PC moves data in a parallel format (8 bits at a time). ‡ The primary purposes of the NIC are to serve as a transceiver ² a device that transmits and receives data to and from other NICs (installed in the other networked nodes and devices) ² and to connect to the network cabling.

NIC Characteristics
‡ MAC (Media Access Control) address: Each NIC is physically encoded with a unique identifying address in HEX digit that is used to locate it on the network. This address is 48 bits (6 bytes) long. e.g AA.F0.C1.E2.77.51 ‡ System resources: A NIC is configured to the computer with an IRQ, an I/O address, and a DMA channel. A NIC commonly uses IRQ3, IRQ5, or IRQ10, and an I/O address of 300h.

‡ Data bus compatibility:
‡ NICs are designed with compatibility to a particular data bus architecture. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) and PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) cards are the most common.

‡ Data speed:
‡ The NIC must be compatible with the data speed of the network. A NIC designated as a 10/100 NIC has the ability to autosense between a 10-Mbps and a 100-Mbps network. Newer systems now support data speeds of 1,000 Mbps (or 1 Gbps), and newer NICs now support an autosensing 10/100/1000 port.

Situations that require NIC installation
‡ Adding a NIC to a PC that does not already have a one . ‡ Replacing a bad or damaged NIC. ‡ Upgrading from a 10-Mbps NIC to a 10/100 ± Mbps NIC


‡ A HUB is a passive, non intelligent networking device provide common point for connection for network devices.

‡ It broadcast information to all pc¶s regardless of the actual destination. ‡ N/w Bandwidth is shared by the no. of pc connected . ‡ Hub is the old style device used in star networks.


‡ A bridge is an intelligent repeater. It acts like a filter, separating the traffic that can be isolated on either side & only allows data to pass through which ought to be seen on the other side. Bridges are mostly used in LANs. ‡ Bridges learn about devices by examining the source MAC address and filter network traffic by only looking at the destination MAC address.


‡ A SWITCH is sometimes described as a multiport bridge,while typical bridge have just 2 ports(linking only 2 network segments), the switch can have multiple ports depending on how many network segments are to be linked. ‡ .In switch each pc gets 100% bandwidth & each port is a collision domain unlike hub as a whole considered as one single large collision domain. ‡ A switch is a device that segments a network. ‡ The primary difference between a hub and a switch is that a switch does not broadcast an incoming message to all ports, but instead sends the message out only to the port on which the addressee workstation exists based on a MAC table that is created by listening to the nodes on the network.



‡ It is used to interconnect 2 or more separate networks. Seperate means that the networks are administratively separate but using similar protocols. ‡ They contain software & can take decisions to choose best path for data transmission. ‡ Routers are mostly used in internetworking or WAN.

Router Connects Two Networks

Types of Networks:
Based on the geographical area of network it is been classified into 3 types ‡ LAN. (Local Area Network) ‡ MAN.(Metropolitan Area Network) ‡ WAN.(Wide Area Network)

Types of Networks ?

Local-area Networks (LANs)

Wide-area Networks (WANs)

Metropolitan-Area Network (MANs)

Storage-Area Networks (SANS)
‡ SAN is a dedicated ,high performance network that moves data between servers and storage resources.because it is a separate dedicated network, it avoids any traffic conflict between clients and servers ,& it also avoids any problems associated with existing network connectivity

Basic network Models




‡ The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1983 to provide a conceptual model on which networks could be based. ‡ In the process of developing this framework, the ISO established a vocabulary that assisted engineers worldwide by giving them a common set of words to use to describe concepts they already understood and took for granted.

‡ They allow vendors and software engineers to work on one piece of the communication model at a time, following clear-cut guidelines.

‡ Each layer of the OSI model has a simple task to perform±to provide services for the layer directly above it. ‡ Each layer is aware that the layer below is at its disposal, eagerly awaiting a command. Each layer receives data from the layer above, in a standardized way, and must provide all the services assigned to it. ‡ According to this model, each layer behaves as if it could communicate directly with the corresponding layer on the remote computer.

Network Protocols

Network Protocols

Physical Layer Functions
‡ Physical Characteristics of interfaces & media (deals with electrical & mechanical specifications) ‡ Representation of bits (electromagnetic or optical) ‡ Data Rate (bits per sec.) ‡ Synchronisation (Sender & Reciever clock) ‡ Physical Topology (Star,Bus«.) ‡ Transmission Mode (directionof transmission between 2
devices; e.g Half, Full between devices)

Data Link Layer Functions
‡ Framing ‡ Physical addressing (MAC of sender/reciever as Header) ‡ Flow Control (Matching the Speed) ‡ Error Control (FCS Trailor ) ‡ Access control ( Which device uses the media)

Network Player Functions
‡ Logical Addressing (IP addressing used for the communication out of the network) ‡ Routing (Packets are routed in the internetwork to the final destination)

Transport Layer Functions
‡ Service- Point or Port addressing( Port no. as header to segment) ‡ Segmentation & re-assembly (sequence no. to segments when sending & replace the missing packets when recieves) ‡ Connection control ( connectionless or connection oriented) ‡ Flow & error control( applied over entire message & error correction is through retransmission)

Session Layer Function
‡ Dialog Control (half duplex or full duplex between application processes) ‡ Synchronization (incertion of checkpoints in the stream of data for recovery)

Presentation Layer Funtions
‡ Translation(sender dependent format common format ± Receiver dependent format) ‡ Encryption & decryption ‡ Compression & decompression(for multimedia information)

Application Layer Functions
‡ when you use your Web browser, that actual software is an application running on your PC .It doesn't really ³reside´ at the application layer. Rather, it makes use of the services offered by a protocol that operates at the application layer, which is called the HTTP Other e.g FTP, E-Mail etc

Peer-to-Peer Communication


N/W Devices Vs Layar
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Repeater Bridge Router Brouter Gateway Physical Data Link Network Data Link and Network Transport, Session, Presentation and Application Physical Data Link

‡ Multiplexer ‡ Switch

IP Addressing Format

TCP/IP Description and Configuration

Testing Connectivity with Ping

Binary Number System

Bits and Bytes

Base 10 Numbers

Converting Decimal numbers to 8bit Binary Numbers

Converting 8-bit Binary Numbers to Decimal Numbers

Four-Octet Dotted-decimal Representation of 32-Bit Binary Numbers


Decimal to Binary Conversion

Binary to Decimal Conversion

IP Address Classes

Identifying Address Classes

Address Class Prefixes

Network and Host Division

Class A Address

Class B Address

Class C Address

Class D Address Architecture

Class E Address Architecture

IP Address Range

Network Address

Broadcast Address

Addressing with Subnets

IPv4 Address Allocation

Assigning IP Addresses

TCPIP/IP Configuration for Windows 98

Subnet Mask
‡ In TCP/IP, the parts of the IP address that are used as the network and host addresses are not fixed, so the network and host addresses above cannot be determined unless you have more information. ‡ This information is supplied in another 32-bit number called a subnet mask , used to distinguish the network and host portions of an IP address.

‡ E.g ‡ IP address ( 11000000.10101000.01111011.10000100 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 -Subnet mask ( By AND-ing we get 11000000.10101000.01111011.00000000 -Network address ( 00000000.00000000.00000000.10000100 ± Host address (

Subnet or Subnetwork
‡ A smaller network created by dividing a larger network into equal parts.

Network Access Methods
‡ CSMA/CD - Collision Detection; listens to cable prior to sending data. (Ethernet) ‡ CSMA/CA - Collision Avoidance; Announces intention to send data. (AppleTalk) ‡ Token-Passing - Token revolves around ring, computer which has token is permitted to data. (Token Ring)One device designated media administrator. Secondary device waits to be polled by primary device to check if it has data to be sent.

IEEE 802 Specifications
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 802.1 802.2 802.3 802.4 802.5 802.6 802.7 802.8 802.9 802.10 802.11 802.12 Internetworking LLC (Logical Link Control) CSMA/CD - Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber-Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN, 100 Base VG - AnyLAN

Multiple Disk Sets
‡ Fault Tolerant Systems protect data by duplicating data or by placing data in different physical sources. RAID Function ‡ Level 0 Disk Striping -Divides data into 64k blocks and spreads it equally among all disks in the array. Is not fault tolerant. ‡ Level 1 Disk Mirroring -Duplicates a partition on another physical disk. ‡ Level 1 Disk Duplexing -Duplicates a partition on another physical disk that is connected to another Hard Drive Controller. -

‡ Level3 Disk Striping with ECC stored as parity -Data blocks are broken up and distributed across all drives in array with one drive dedicated to storing parity data. ‡ Level 5 Disk Striping with parity -Distributes data and parity information across all disks in the array. A parity stripe block exists for each row across the disk. The parity stripe is used for disk reconstruction in case of a failed disk. Supports a minimum of three disks and a maximum of thirty-two disks.

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