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Module 1 Discrete Time Signal

Historical Background:
Digital Signal Processing is distinguished from other areas in
computer science by the unique type of data it uses: signals. In
most cases, these signals originate as sensory data from the real
world: seismic vibrations, visual images, sound waves, etc. DSP is
the mathematics, the algorithms, and the techniques used to
manipulate these signals after they have been converted into a
digital form. This includes a wide variety of goals, such as:
enhancement of visual images, recognition and generation of
speech, compression of data for storage and transmission, etc.
Suppose we attach an analog-to-digital converter to a computer
and use it to acquire a chunk of real world data. DSP answers the
question: What next?

The roots of DSP are in the 1960s and 1970s when digital
computers first became available. Computers were expensive
during this era, and DSP was limited to only a few critical
applications. Pioneering efforts were made in four key areas: radar
& sonar, where national security was at risk; oil exploration, where
large amounts of money could be made; space exploration, where
the data are irreplaceable; and medical imaging, where lives could
be saved. The personal computer revolution of the 1980s and
1990s caused DSP to explode with new applications. Rather than
being motivated by military and government needs, DSP was
suddenly driven by the commercial marketplace. Anyone who
thought they could make money in the rapidly expanding field was
suddenly a DSP vender.

DSP reached the public in such products as: mobile telephones,


compact disc players, and electronic voice mail. Figure 1-1
illustrates a few of these varied applications.

This technological revolution occurred from the top-down. In the


early 1980s, DSP was taught as a graduate level course in
electrical engineering. A decade later, DSP had become a standard
part of the undergraduate curriculum. Today, DSP is a basic skill
needed by scientists and engineers

Applications of DSP:

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1. Image processing like pattern recognition, animation, robotic


vision, image enhancement.
2. Instrumentation and control like spectral analysis, noise
reduction, data compression.
3. Speech/Audio like speech recognition, speech synthesis,
equalization.
4. Biomedical like scanners ECG analysis, patient monitoring
5. Telecommunication like in echo cancellation, spread spectrum
and data communication.
6. Military like Sonar processing, radar processing, secure
communication.
7. Consumer applications like digital audio and video, power like
monitor.
8. Automotive applications like vibration analysis, voice commands
and cellular telephones.
9. Industrial applications like robotics and CNC, power line
monitors.

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Advantages of DSP

1. A digital programmable system allows flexibility in reconfiguring


the digital signal processing operations by changing the
program. In analog redesign of hardware is required.
2. In digital accuracy depends on word length, floating Vs fixed
point arithmetic etc. In analog depends on components.
3. Can be stored on disk.
4. It is very difficult to perform precise mathematical operations on

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signals in analog form but these operations can be routinely


implemented on a digital computer using software.
Limitations of DSP:
The digital signal processing systems have many advantages. Even
though there are certain disadvantages as follows:

1. Bandwidth limitations: In case of DSP, if input signal is having


wide bandwidth then it demands for high speed ADC. This is
because to avoid aliasing effect, the sampling rate should be at
least twice the bandwidth. Thus, such signals require fast digital
signal processors. But always there is a practical limitation in
the speed of processors and ADC.
2. System complexity: The digital signal processing system makes
use of converters like ADC and DAC. This increases the system
complexity compared to analog systems. Similarly, in many
applications the time required for this conversion is more.
3. Power Consumption: A typical digital signal processing chip
contains more than 4 lakh transistors. Thus, power dissipation is
more in caps systems compared to analog systems.
4. DSP systems are expensive as compared to analog system.

What is Signal Processing

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Signal
A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time,
space or another
independent variable.
System
A system is defined as a physical device that performs an
operation on a signal.
Signal Processing:
System is characterized by the type of operation that performs
on the signal. Such operations are referred to as signal
processing.

Introduction to Signal Processing

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1.1 SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION


To process a continuous signal using DSP techniques it is necessary to
convert the signal into a sequence of numbers. This is done by
sampling the Analog Signal Periodically every T seconds to produce a
discrete time signal.

i.e. x(n) = xa (n T) = x(t) |t = nT

This relationship describes the sampling process in time domain.


According to Nyquist Sampling theorem, the sampling frequency t s = 1/T
must be selected large enough such that the sampling doesnt cause
any loss of information. If the spectrum of analog signal can be
recovered from the spectrum of the discrete time signal, then there is
no loss of information.

x(t)

t
(t = nT)

n n
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
T 2T3 4T . . . .
T .

Solved Examples
Q.1 Consider an Analog Signal xa(t) = 3 cos 100 t
1. Determine minimum required sampling rate to avoid aliasing.
2. Suppose the signal is sampled at the rate F s = 200 Hz what is
the discrete time signal obtained after sampling.
3. Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate F s = 75 Hz
what is the discrete time signal obtained after sampling.
(A) 1. Since x(t) = A cos mt
m = 100 2 fm = 100 fm = 50 Hz

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

As per Nyquist theorem, minimum sampling rate to avoid


aliasing is
Fs = = 2fm = 2(50) = 100 Hz

2. If Fs = 200 Hz T = 1/Fs = 1/200


Sampling the Analog signal given
x(n T) = 3 cos 100 n T , substituting T value given
1
the discrete signal x(n T) = 3 cos 100 n
200

= 3 cos n
2

3. If Fs = 75 Hz T = 1/Fs = 1/75
1
x (n T) = 3 cos 100 nT = 3 cos 100 n
75
4
= 3 cos n
3
2
= 3cos 2 n

3
2
= 3cos n
3

Q.2 Consider an Analog Singal


x(t) = 3 cos 2000 t + 5 sin 6000 t + 10 cos 12000 t
1. What is the Nyquist rate for this signal.
2. If sampling rate is 5000 samples / sec. What is the discrete
time signal obtained after sampling.
3. What is the Analog signal that we reconstruct from the
samples if we use ideal Interpolation.
(A) 1. 1 = 2000 , 2 = 6000 , 3 = 12000
Maximum frequency m = 12000
2 fm = 12000 fm = 6000 Hz
Nyquist rate Fs = 2 fm = 2(6000) = 12000 Hz

2. If Fs = 5000 T = 1/Fs = 1/5000


x (n T) = 3 cos 2000 n T + 5 sin 6000 n T + 10 cos 12000 n
T
=
1 1 1
3cos2000 n + 5sin6000 n + 10cos12000 n
5000 5000 5000
2 6 12
= 3cos n + 5sin n + 10cos n
5 5 5

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2 2 2
= 3cos n 5sin2 n + 10cos n
5 5 5
2 4
= 13cos n 5sin n
5 5

3. t = n T n = t/T Ideal Interpolation.


2 t 4 t
x(t) = 13cos 5sin
5 T 5 T
( T = 1/5000)
= 13 cos 2000 t 5 sin 4000 t

DISCRETE TIME SIGNALS AND SYSTEM

DT_Signal

There are three ways to represent discrete time signals.

1. Functional Representation

4 for n=1,3
x(n)= -2 for n =2
0 elsewhere

2. Tabular method of representation

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

n -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(n) 0 0 0 0 0 4 -2 4 0

3. Sequence Representation

X(n) = {0 , 4 , -2 , 4 , 0 ,}

n=0

Standard DT Signal

1. Unit Impulse (n) = 1, n = 0


1
= 0, n 0
n
. . . 2 1 0 1 2. . .
.
2. Unit Step
A discrete time unit signal is denoted by U(n) Its value is unity for all
positive values of n. That means its value is one for n 0. While for
other values of n, its value is zero.

In form of sequence it can be written as

Graphically it is represented as shown below

3. Unit Ramp
A discrete time unit ramp function is denoted as Ur (n) and it is
defined as

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Figure below shows the graphical representation of a discrete unit


ramp function.

4. Exponential x(n) = an
0<a<1
1/a2
1/
a 1 a
a2
n
. . . 2 1 0 1 2. . .
.
5. Sinusoidal x(n) = A sin n

n
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Representation of DT Signal using Standard DT Signal


1. x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 4
x(n) = (n) + 2(n 1) + 3 (n 2) + 4 (n 3)

2. x(n) = 2, 3, 1, 4, 2, 1, 5

x(n) = 2(n + 3) + 3(n + 2) + 1(n + 1) + 4 (n)
2 (n 1) + 1( n 2) + 5 (n 3)
3.
x
1
(n)
n
0 1 2 3

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

x(n) = (n) + (n 1) + (n 2) + (n 3) or
x(n) = U(n) U(n 4)
Relation between Impulse, Step and Ramp sequences are
U(n) = (n) + (n 1) + . +(n )
r(n) = (n 1) + 2(n 2) + + (n )
(n) = U(n) U (n 1)
r(n) = n U(n)

Signal Manipulations:

ADT Signal can be modified by performing following operations on the


signal

(1) Shifting (2) Scalling (3)Folding

1. Shifting: This operation will shift the signal towards right or


towards left.
Example: If x(n) = 1, 2, 3, then x(n 1) shift the sequence towards
right by 1 unit, x(n 2) shift the sequence towards right by 2 units
etc.
Similarly if x(n) = 1, 2, 3, then x(n + 1) shift the sequence towards
left by 1 unit and x(x + 2) shift the sequence towards left by 2 units.

2. Scalling : This operation will compress or expand the DT sequence.


Example: If x(n) = 2,2,1 then x(2n) compress the sequence by 2
n
times and x will expand the sequence by 2 times.
2

3. Folding: This operation will convert the signal into its mirror image.
x(n) x(n)
Example: x(n) = 2, 2,1 x(n) = 1, 2, 2

3
2 Solved Examples
1
Q.3 If x(n) = 1, 2, 3, perform
n following operation.
0 1 22. x(2 n)
1. x(n/2) 3. x(n 1) 4. x(n + 1)
5. x(1 n) 6. X(1, n)
(A) x(n) 3 3 3
2 1 2
1 1
n n n
0 2 4 0 1 0 1 2 3

3 3 3
2 2 2 5
1 1 1
n n n
1 0 1
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(1) x(n/2) (2) x(2n) (3) x(n 1)

(4) x (n + 1) x(n) (5) x(1 n)

(6) x(1n)
3
2
1
n
3 1
2
Q.4 A discrete time signal is given by
x(n) = 2, 2, 1, 2, 2

Sketch the following signals
1. x(n 2) 2. x(n + 2) 3. x(3 n) 4. x(n)
(n)
(A) Signal x(n)
2 2 2 2

1
n
2 0 1 2
1
1. To sketch x(n 2) shift the Signal Right by 2 units.

2 2 2 2

1
n
0 1 2 3 4

2. To sketch x(n + 2) shift the Signal Left side by 2 units.


2 2 2 2

1
n
4 2 1 0
3

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

3. x(n) = x(n) To sketch x(3 n) shift the Signal Right by 3 units.

2 2 2 2

1
n
1 0 1 2 3

4. x(n) (n) = 1, 2, 2
2 2
Multiply the Signal by unit step function.
1
n
0 1 2

Q.5 x(n) = 2n for 2 n 2


Sketch 1. y(n) = 2x(n) + (n)
2. y(n) = x(n) . U(2 n)

(A) x(n) = 2n for 2 n 2


x(2) = 22 = 1/4
x(1) = 21 = 1/2
x(0) = 20 = 1
x(1) = 21 = 2
x(2) = 22 = 4

1. y(n) = 2x(n) + 2(n)


8

4 +
2
1/2 1 2
n
2 0 1 2 n
1 0
8
y(n
)
= 4 4

1/2 1
n 5
2 0 1 2
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2. y(n) = x(n) . U(2 n)


4
x(n
) U(2
2
n)
1
1/2 1 1 1 1
1/4
n n
2 0 1 2 . . 0 1 2
1 .
4
y(n
)
2
1
1/2
1/4
n
2 0 1 2
1

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS
Periodic and Non-Periodic Signals

Periodic Signal: A signal which repeats itself after a fixed time period is
known as periodic signal. Mathematically it is expressed as x(n) = x(n
N) where N is the period of the signal.

Example : If x(n) = 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, ..
Since the signal is repeating after every 3 samples the signal is
periodic with period 3.
Non-Periodic Signal: A signal is not repeating any time interval then the
signal is known as Non-Periodic Signal Mathematically it is expressed
x(n) x(n N)
Example: x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4 or x(n) = Exponential Signal

Condition for Periodicity : A discrete signal is periodic only if its


frequency is rational.
Proof :x(n + N) = x(n)

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Let x(n) = A cos (2 fn + )


then x(n + N) = A cos [2 f (n + N) + ]
A cos (2 fn + ) = A cos [2 fn + 2 fn + ]
2 + N = 2 k where k is an Integer.
k = f/N

Solved Example
Q.6 Show that the following signal are periodic or not.
1. x(n) = cos (0.1 n)
2. x(n) = 4 cos 4 n
3. x(n) = sin 3 n
n n
4. x(n) = cos cos
8 8
(A) 1. x(n) = cos (0.1 n)
0.1 1 K
Here w = 0.1 2 f = 0.1 or f = = =
2 20 N
Which is ratio of two integers. Hence signal is periodic with
period N = 20
2. x(n) = 4 cos 4 n
Here w = 4 2 f = 4 or f = 1/2 = K/N
Hence signal is periodic with period N = 2.
3. x(n) = sin 3n
Here w = 3 2 f = 3 or f = 3/2 K/N
Hence signal is non-periodic.
1 n
4. x(n) = cos cos
8 8
Here w1 = 1/8and w2 = /8
1
f1 = and f2 = 1/16
16
Here f1 is n of periodic and f 2 is periodic. Since the signal is
multiplication of these two. So it is a non-periodic signal.

Even and Odd Signal


Even Signal : A signal is said to be even if it is symmetric i.e. x(n) =
x(n)
Example :x(n) = 1, 2, 1

Odd Signal : A signal is said to be odd if it is AntiSymmetric i.e x(n) =
x(n)
Example :x(n) = 1, 2, 0, 2, 1

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If signal is neither even nor odd then the signal Even and Odd
components can be calculated by formulas.
x(n) + x(n) x(n) x(n)
xeven(n) = , xodd(n) =
2 2

Solved Examples
Q.7 Find Even and Odd Components of the signal x(n) = 1, 2, 2.
(A) From given x(n) prepare its minor image x (n) is x(n) = 1, 2, 2
x(n) = 2, 2, 1
x(n 2 2 x(n) 2 2
) 1 1
n n
0 1 2 2 1 0

x(n) + x(n)
Even part is calculated as follows xe(n) =
2
0+ 2
at n = 2 xe(n) = = 1
2
0+ 2
at n = 1 xe(n) = = 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
1+ 1
at n = 0 xe(n) = = 1 n
2 2 0 2
1
2+ 0 1
at n = 1 xe(n) = = 1
2
2+ 0
at n = 2 xe(n) = = 1
2
x(n) x(n)
Odd part is calculated as follows x0(n) =
2
0 2 1 1
at n = 2 x0(n) = = 1
2
0 2 n
at n = 1 x0(n) = = 1 2 0 1 2
2
1
2 2 1 1
at n = 0 x0(n) = = 0
0
2 0
at n = 1 x0(n) = = 1
2
2 0
at n = 2 x0(n) = = 1
2

Q.8 Find Even and Odd Components of the signal


x(n) = U(n) U(n 4)
(A) x(n) x(n)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4
n n
3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

x(n) + x(n)
Xe(n) =
2
0+ 1 1
at n = 3 xe(n) = =
2 2
0+ 1 1
at n = 2 xe(n) = = xe(n)
2 2
0+ 1 1 1
at n = 1 xe(n) = =
2 2
1+ 1
at n = 0 xe(n) = = 1 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1+ 0 1
at n = 1 xe(n) = = n
2 2
3 1 1 2 3
0
1+ 0 1 2
at n = 2 xe(n) = =
2 2
1+ 0 1
at n = 3 xe(n) = =
2 2

x( n) x(n)
x0 (n) =
2
0 1 1
at n = 3 x0(n) = =
2 2
0 1 1
n = 2 x0(n) = =
2 2
0 1 1
n = 1 x0(n) = =
2 2
1 1
n =0 x0(n) = =0
2
1 0 1
n =1 x0(n) = =
2 2
1 0 1
n =2 x0(n) = =
2 2
1 0 1
n =3 x0(n) = =
2 2

x0(n) 1/2 1/2 1/2

2 1 x
0 1 2 3
5

1/2 1/2 1/2


Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

Q.9 Show that 1. xe(n) xe(n) = xe(n)


2. xe(n) x0(n) = x0(n)
x0(n) x0(n) = xe(n)

(A) 1. x(n) = x1(n) x2(n) , x1(n) and x2(n) are Even


x(n) = x1(n) x2(n)
Since x1(n) and x2(n) are even x1(n) = x1(n)
x(n) = x1(n) x2(n) x2(n) = x2(n)
x(n) + x(n) = 2x1(n) x2(n) = 2x(n)
x(n) + x(n)
x(n) = = Even
2

2. x(n) = x1(n) x2(n) where x1(n) is even x2(n) is odd


x(n) = x1(n) x2(n) = x1(n) x2(n)
x(n) x(n) = 2x1(n) x2(n) = 2x(n)
x(n) x(n)
x(n) = = Odd
2

3. x(n) = x1(n) x2(n) where x1(n) is even x2(n) is odd


x(n) = x1(n) x2(n) = +x1(n) x2(n)
x(n) + x(n) = 2x1(n) x2(n) = 2x(n)
x(n) + x(n)
x(n) = = Even
2

ENERGY AND POWER SIGNALS


Energy Signal : Normally non-periodic signals are Energy Signals.

Energy of a non- periodic signal is defined as E = x2(n) provided 0 <
n =
E < .
Example : x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 4 find energy of the signal.
3
E = x2(n) = x2(n) = x (0) + x (1) + x (2) + x (3)
2 2 2 2

n = n= 0
= (1)2 + (2)2 + (3)2 + (4)2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 =
30 J

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Power Signal: Normally periodic signals are power signals. Average


power of a periodic signal is defined as
1 N 1 2
Pav = lim
N 2N + 1
x (n) provided 0 < Pav < .
n= 0

Example
x(n) = U(n) find average power of the signal.
1 N 1 2 1
Pav = lim
N 2N + 1
U (n) = Nlim
2N +1
[1+ 1+ ....,0toNTimes]
n= 0
1 1+ 1/ N 1
= lim N+ 1 = lim =
N 2N + 1 N 2 + 1/ N 2

Compare Energy and Power Signals

Energy Power
1. Two signals having finite non- The signal having finite non-zero
zero energy is called Energy power is called Power Signal.
Signal.
2. Energy Signals are generally Non- Power Signals are generally
Periodic periodic.
3. Energy signals can Exist over Power signals can exist over
finite time. infinite time.
4. Power of an Energy Signal is Energy of a power signal is
zero infinite.

Energy_and_power of dt signal

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Solved Examples
Q.10 Determine whether the given signals is Energy/Power.
n
1
x(n) =
(n)
2
(A) Since signal is non-periodic it can be Energy Signal.
2n n
1 1
E = x2(n) =
2
=
4
n = n= 0 n= 0

1
Since an = 1 + a + a2 + . a =
1 a
.
n= 0
1 4
E = =
1 1 / 4 3

Q.11 Determine whether the given signal is Energy/Power


n
1
x(n) = for n 0
3
= 3n for n < 0

(A) Since signal is non-periodic it can be Energy Signal


1
E = x2(n) = x2(n) + x2(n)
n = n = n= 0
1 2n n
1 1
= (3)2n +
3
= (a)n +
a
n = n= 0 n = 1 n= 0
n n
1 1
= +
a a
n= 1 n= 0
1/ a 1 1 9 10
= + = + =
1 1/ a 1 1/ 9 8 8 8
= 1.25
Q.12 Show that x(n) = n U(n) is neither Energy nor Power.

(A) Since Signal is non-periodic it cant be power signal.

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Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal


E = x2(n) = n2 U2 (n) = n2
n = n = n= 0
= 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + . =
2 2 2 2 2

Signal is neither finite energy nor finite power.

CLASSIFICATION OF DISCRETE TIME SYSTEMS

1) STATIC v/s DYNAMIC

Sr STATIC DYNAMIC
No (Dynamicity property)
1 Static systems are those systems Dynamic systems output
whose output at any instance of depends upon past or future
time depends at most on input samples of input.
sample at same time.
2 Static systems are memory less They have memories for
systems. memorize all samples.

It is very easy to find out that given system is static or dynamic. Just
check that output of the system solely depends upon present input
only, not dependent upon past or future.

Sr No System [y(n)] Static / Dynamic


1 x(n) Static
2 A(n-2) Dynamic
3 X2(n) Static
4 X(n2) Dynamic
5 n x(n) + x2(n) Static
6 X(n)+ x(n-2) +x(n+2) Dynamic

2) TIME INVARIANT v/s TIME VARIANT SYSTEMS

Sr TIME INVARIANT (TIV) / TIME VARIANT SYSTEMS /


No SHIFT INVARIANT SHIFT VARIANT SYSTEMS
(Shift Invariance property)
1 A System is time invariant if its A System is time variant if its
input output characteristic do not input output characteristic
change with shift of time. changes with time.
2 Linear TIV systems can be No Mathematical analysis can
uniquely characterized by be performed.
Impulse response, frequency

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Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

response or transfer function.


3 a. Thermal Noise in Electronic a. Rainfall per month
components b. Noise Effect
b. Printing documents by a printer

It is very easy to find out that given system is Shift Invariant or Shift
Variant.
Suppose if the system produces output y(n) by taking input x(n)
x(n) y(n)

If we delay same input by k units x(n-k) and apply it to same systems,


the system produces output y(n-k)

x(n-k) y(n-k)

3) LINEAR v/s NON-LINEAR SYSTEMS

Sr LINEAR NON-LINEAR
No (Linearity Property)
1 A System is linear if it satisfies A System is Non-linear if it
superposition theorem. does not satisfies
superposition theorem.
2 Let x1(n) and x2(n) are two input
sequences, then the system is said to
be linear if and only if T[a1x1(n) +
a2x2(n)]=a1T[x1(n)]+a2T[x2(n)]
a1
x1(n)
SYSTEM
y(n)= T[a1x1[n] = a1x1(n)+
a2x2(n) ]
x2(n)
a2

SYSTEM
4 ANALOG
SYSTEM
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

x1(n) a1

x2(n a2 SYSTEM
y(n)=T[a1x1(n)+a2x2(n)]

hence T [ a1 x1(n) + a2 x2(n) ] = T [ a1 x1(n) ] + T [ a2 x2(n) ]

It is very easy to find out that given system is Linear or Non-Linear.


Response to the system to the sum of signal = sum of individual
responses of the system.

Sr No System y(n) Linear or Non-Linear


1 ex(n) Non-Linear
2 x2 (n) Non-Linear
3 m x(n) + c Non-Linear
4 cos [ x(n)] Non-Linear
5 X(-n) Linear
6 Log 10 (|x(n)|) Non-Linear

4) CAUSAL v/s NON-CAUSAL SYSTEMS

Sr CAUSAL NON-CAUSAL
No (Causality Property)
1 A System is causal if output of A System is Non causal if
system at any time depends only output of system at any time
past and present inputs. depends on future inputs.
2 In Causal systems the output is In Non-Causal System the
the function of x(n), x(n-1), x(n-2) output is the function of
.. and so on. future inputs also. X(n+1)
x(n+2) .. and so on
3 Example Real time DSP Systems Offline Systems

It is very easy to find out that given system is causal or non-causal.


Just check that output of the system depends upon present or past
inputs only, not dependent upon future.

Sr No System [y(n)] Causal /Non-Causal


1 x(n) + x(n-3) Causal

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Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

2 X(n) Causal
3 X(n) + x(n+3) Non-Causal
4 2 x(n) Causal
5 X(2n) Non-Causal
6 X(n)+ x(n-2) +x(n+2) Non-Causal

5) STABLE v/s UNSTABLE SYSTEMS

Sr STABLE UNSTABLE
No (Stability Property)
1 A System is BIBO stable if every A System is unstable if any
bounded input produces a bounded input produces a
bounded output. unbounded output.
2 The input x(n) is said to bounded
if there exists some finite number
Mx such that |x(n)| Mx <
The output y(n) is said to
bounded if there exists some
finite number My such that |y(n)|
My <

STABILITY FOR LTI SYSTEM

It is very easy to find out that given system is stable or unstable. Just
check that by providing input signal check that output should not rise
to .
The condition for stability is given by

| h( k ) | <
k= -

Sr No System [y(n)] Stable / Unstable


1 Cos [ x(n) ] Stable
2 x(-n+2) Stable
3 |x(n)| Stable
4 x(n) u(n) Stable
5 X(n) + n x(n+1) Unstable

Linear Convolution

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Interaction between two non-periodic signals is known as Linear


Convolution symbol of linear convolution is x(n) * h(n)

Formula for Linear Convolution is



y(k) = x(n) h(k n) = x(n) * h(n)
n =
Total no. of possible convolutions are l + m 1
Where l is No. of samples of x and m is No. of samples of h .

Q.13 Find convolution between two signals


x(n) = 2, 2, 1 and h(n) = 1, 2, 3

(A) To find out convolution between signals the procedure is


1. Keep one signal constant and prepare mirror image of 2 nd
signal.
2. By applying different value of K shift the mirror image signal
towards right or left. Find all possible combination.
3. Possible Ranges of k are add starting point of x(n) and
starting point of h(n) which gives starting point of y(k).
Similarly add ending point of x(n) and ending point of h(n)
which gives last possible convolution on of y(k). From
starting point of k to ending point of k substitute all integers
and find the output convolutions.
4. Output y(k) can be computed as multiply each value of x and
each value of h and add all multiplied values.
5. Draw a graph for all output of y(k) w.r.t. k.

x(n) = 2, 2, 1, h(n) = 1, 2, 3 plot the signals

3 h(n 3
2 2 2 ) 2
x(n h(n
) 1 ) 1 1
n n n
0 1 2 0 1 2 2 1 0
2
y(0) = x(n)h(n) = x(n)h(n) = 2
n = n= 2

y(1) = x(n)h(1 n) = 4 + 2 = 6 h(1
n = n) 3
2
1
n
1 0 1

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Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP


y(2) = x(n)h(2 n) = 6 + 4 + 1 = 11
h(2
n = n) 3
2
1
n
0 1 2

y(3) = x(n)h(3 n) = 6 + 2 = 8 h(3
n =
n) 3
2
1
n
1 2 3

y(4) = x(n) h(4 n) =3 h(4
n =
n) 3
2
1
n
Convolution Graph 2 3 4
11
8
y(k)
6
3
2
k
0 1 2 3 4

Q.14 x(n) = (n + 1) + 2 (n) + 3(n 1) + (n 2)


h(n) = 2n [(n) (n 3)] find x(n) h(n)

(A) Plot x(n) and h(n)


h(n 4 h(n 4
x(n
3 ) 2 ) 2
) 2
1 1 1 1
n n n
1 0 1 2 0 1 2 2 1 0

Starting point of x is 1 and starting point of h is 0.


Output start at y(1) i.e. k = 1
Ending point of x is 2 and Ending point of h is 2
Output end at y(4) i.e. k = 4

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

h(1n
y(k) = x(n)h(k n)
n = 4)
2

y(1) = x(n)h(1 n) =1 1
n =
n
3 2 1


y(0) = x(n)h(0 n) = 2+2=4 h(1n)
n =
4
2

1
y(1) = x(n)h(1 n) = 4 + 4 + 3 = 11 n
n =
1 0 1

y(2) = x(n)h(2 n) = 8 + 6 + 1 = 15 h(2n)
n =

4
2

1
n
0 1 2

y(3) = x(n)h(3 n) = 12 + 2 = 14 h(3n)
n =
4
2

1
n
1 2 3

y(4) = x(n) h(4 n) =4
h(4n)
n=

4
2

1
n
2 3 4
y(k 15
) 14

y(k) = 1, 4, 11, 15, 14, 4 11


4 4
1 5
k
1 0 1 2 3 4
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

Q.15 If x(n) = an (n) and h(n) = bn (n). Find x(n) h(n)



(A) y(k) = x(n) h(k n)
n =

= an (n) bk n (k n)
n =
k n k
k
a 1
= an bk bn = bk x =
b
n
1 xk + 1
n= 0 n= 0 n= 0

1 bk
bk k+ 1 b2k + 1
k+ 1
= a = a =
1 1 bk + 1 ak + 1
b b

Circular Convolution
Convolution between two periodic signals is known as Circular or
Periodic convolution. In circular convolution, total no. of convolution to
be calculated equal to order of period N.
N 1
y(k) = x(n)h(k n) = x(n) N h(n)
n= 0
Method:

1. Prepare two circles and one signal is applied clockwise on one


Convolution
circle and another signal is applied anticlockwise on other signal.
2. Multiply signal values in each location and add them.
3. Keep clockwise circle constant and rotate anticlockwise circle in
clockwise direction by one unit. Then multiply signal values in each
location and add them.
4. Repeat the procedure and find output n in one period.

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Solved Example
Q.16 Two periodic signals
x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 4 and h(n) = 1, 1, 2, 2
find circular convolution between the signals.
3 1
(A) y(k) = x(n) h(k n) since period N = 4
n= 0 4
3 3 1 1
y(0) = x(n) h(n) 2
n= 0
2
= 1.1 + 2.2 + 3.2 + 4.1
= 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 = 15 2

3
y(1) = x(n) h(1 n) 2
n= 0
4
= 1.1 + 2.1 + 3.2 + 4.2
3 1 1
= 1 + 2 + 6 + 8 = 17 2

2
1

3 2
y(2) = x(n) h(2 n) 4
n= 0
1 3 1
= 1.2 + 2.1 + 3.1 + 4.2 2

2
1 5
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

= 2 + 2 + 3 + 8 = 15

3
y(3) = x(n) h(3 n) 1
n= 0
= 1.2 + 2.2 + 3.1 + 4.1 4
= 2 + 4 + 3 + 4 = 13 1 3 1
2

2
2

Matrix Representation of Circular Convolution

Let x(n) and h(n) are periodic sequences with period 4. Then the
3
circular convolution is represented by y(k) = x(n) h(k n)
n= 0
3
For k = 0 y (0) = x(n) h( n)
n= 0
=
x(0) h(0) + x(1) h(1) + x(2) h(2) + x(3) h(3)
Since N = 4 h(n) = h(4 + n)
h(1) = h(4 1) = h(3)
h(2) = h(4 2) = h(2)
h(3) = h(4 3) = h(1)
y(0) = x(0) h(0) + x(1) h(3) + x(2) h(2) + x(3) h(1) (1)
3
For k = 1 y(1) = x(n) h(1 n)
n= 0
= x(0) h(1) + x(1) h(0) + x(2) h(1) + x(3) h(2)
y(1) = x(0) h(1) + x(1) h(0) + x(2) h(3) + x(3) h(2) (2)
3
For k = 2 y(2) = x(n) h(2 n)
n= 0
= x(0) h(2) + x(1) h(1) + x(2) h(0) + x(3) h(1)
y(2) = x(0) h(2) + x(1) h(1) + x(2) h(0) + x(3) h(3) (3)
3
For k = 3 y(3) = x(n) h(3 n)
n= 0
= x(0) h(3) + x(1) h(2) + x(2) h(1) + x(3) h(0) (4)

Putting these 4 equations in Matrix

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

y(0) h(0)
h(3) h(2) h(1) x(0)
y(1)
h(1) h(0) h(3) h(2)x(1)

=
y(2)
h(2) h(1) h(0) h(3) x(2)

y(3) h(3)
h(2) h(1) h(0) x(3)

Solved Example
Q.17 x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 4 and h(n) = 1, 1, 2, 2 find x(n) N h(n)
y(0)
1 2 2 1 1
1.1+ 2.2 + 2.3 + 1.4 = 15
y(1)
1 1 2 2
2 1.1+ 1.2 + 2.3 + 2.4 = 17
(A) = =
y(2) 2 1 1 2 3 2.1+ 1.2 + 1.3 + 2.4 = 15

y(3) 2 2 1 1 4 2.1+ 2.2 + 1.3 + 1.4 = 13

y(n) = 15, 17, 15, 13

Linear by Circular Convolution


To convolve non-periodic (finite duration on sequences, using circular
method is known as Linear by Circular Convolution).
Solved Example
Q.18 Two finite duration on sequences
x(n) = 1, 2, 3 and h(n) = 2, 1
Find convolution between them using circular method.
(A) Since signals are non periodic total no. of convolutions = L + m
1
As L = 3, m = 2 3 + 2 1 = 4
To apply circular method x and h should have 4 values. By
padding zero x and h make them into 4 samples.
x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 0 and h(n) = 2, 1, 0, 0

y(0) 2 0 0 1
1 2 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 2

y(1) 1 2 0
0
2
1+ 4 + 0 + 0 = 5
= =
y(2) 0 1 2 0
3
0 + 2 + 6 + 0 = 8

y(3) 0 0 1 2
0 0 + 0 + 3 + 0 = 3

y(n) = 2, 5, 8, 3
The answer can be cross checked by Linear Convolution.

Correlation

Correlation is nothing but comparing two sequences or signals. If the


signals are generated by same source then the correlation is known as
Auto Correlation and it can be expressed by mathematical expression.

5
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP


x, n (k) = x(n) x(n k) or x(n+ k) x(n)
n = n =
If the signals are generated by different sources then the correlation is
known as Cross- Correlation and it can be expressed by
mathematical expression.

x, h (k) = x(n)h(n k)
n =
Solved Examples
Q.19 Determine AutoCorrelation of the sequence
x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 4.

(A) xx (k) = x(n) x(n k)
n =
3
xx(0) = x(n) x(n)
n= 0

= x(0) x(0) + x(1) x(1) + x(2) x(2) + x(3) x(4)


= 1.1 + 2.2 + 3.3 + 4.4 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30
3
xx (1) = x(n) x(n 1)
n= 0

= x(0) x(1) + x(1) x(0) + x(2) x(1) + x(3) x(2)


= 0 + 2.1 + 3.2 + 4.3 = 2 + 6 + 12 = 20
3
xx (2) = x(n) x(n 2)
n= 0

= x(0) x(2) + x(1) x(1) + x(2) x(0) + x(3) x(1)


= 0 + 0 + 3.1 + 4.2 = 11
3
xx (3) = x(n) x(n 3) = x(0) x(3) + x(1) x(2) + x(2) x(1) + x(3) x(0)
n= 0

= 0 + 0 + 0 + 4.1 = 4
3
xx (1) = x(n) x(n+ 1)
n= 0

= x(0) x(1) + x(1) x(2) + x(2) x(3) + x(3) x(4)


= 1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + 4.0 = 2 + 6 + 12 = 20
3
xx (2) = x(n) x(n+ 2)
n= 0

= x(0) x(2) + x(1) x(3) + x(2) x(4) + x(3) x(5)


= 1.3 + 2.4 + 3.0 + 0 = 3 + 8 + 0 + 0 = 11

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

3
xx (3) = x(n) x(n+ 3)
n= 0

= x(0) x(3) + x(1) x(4) + x(2) x(5) + x(3) x(6)


= 1.4 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 4
xx (k) = 4, 11,20, 30, 20,11, 4

Properties of Auto Correlation


1. Auto correlation is maximum value at zero lag is xx (0) is highest
value.
2. Auto correlation is symmetric is xx (k) = xx (k)

Q.20 Determine cross correlation of following sequences


x(n) = 2,1, 1 and h(n) = 1, 2, 3

(A) Cross correlation formula is xh(k) = x(n)h(n k)
n =
2
xh(0) = x(n) h(n)
n= 0
= x(0) h(0) + x(1) h (1) + x(2) h(2)
= 2.1 + 1.2 + 1.3 = 2 + 2 + 3 = 7

2
xh(1) = x(n) h(n 1)
n= 0
= x(0) h (1) + x(1) h(0) + x(2) h(1)
= 0 + 1.1 + 1.2 = 3

2
xh(2) = x(n) h(n 2)
n= 0
= x(0) h(2) + x(1) h(1) + x(2) h(0)
= 0 + 0 + 1.3 = 1.3

2
xh(1) = x(n) h(n + 1)
n= 0
= x(0) h(1) + x(1) h(2) + x(2) h(3)
= 2.2 + 1.3 + 0 = 4 + 3 = 7

2
x(2) = x(n) h(n + 2)
n= 0
= x(0) h(2) + x(1) h(3) + x(2) h(4)

5
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

= 2.3 + 0 + 0 = 6

xh(k) = 6, 7, 7, 3, 3

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

General Questions

1. Explain relation between Impulse, step and Ramp signals.


2. Plot the signal x(n) = (n) + 2(n 1) + 3(n 2) + (n 4) + 2(n 5) +
3(n 6)
3. Plot the signal x(n) = 2n [(n) (n 4)].
4. Express the sequence x(n) = 1,2,3,4,5,06 interms of Impulse

functions.
5. x(n) = 2,2,1,1
sketch the following signals

n
(i) x(n + 2) (ii) x(2n 2) (iii) x + 1
2
n
2
(iv) x (v) x(3 3n)
2
6. x(n) = 3, 2, 1,1

,1,2,3

sketch the following signals.


(i) x(n) (n) (ii) x(n) (n) (iii)x(n + 3) (n 1)
7. Pl of the signal
x(n) = 2, 4 n 1
= 1, 0 n 1
= 2, 2 n 4
=0 otherwise
Convert the above signal into
(i) Causal signal (ii) Anti-Causal signal
8. Define Even and odd signals with suitable examples.
9. x(n) = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
find xe(n) and xo (n)
10. x(n) = (n + 1) + 2(n) + (n 1) + (n 2) + (n 2) 2(n 4) find xe
(n) and x0(n).
11. Show that xe(n) xe(n) = xe(n)
12. Show that x0(n) xo(n) = xe(n)
13. Show that xe(n) xo(n) = xo(n)
14. x(n) = n + 1, 0 n 6
= 0, otherwise
find Even and Odd components of the signal.
15. x(n) = (n + 2) (n 2) + (n 2)
find even and odd components of the signal.
16. Explain periodic and non periodic signals with suitable examples.

17. x(n) = sin n + determine whether signal is periodic or not.
4 2

5
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

18. x(n) = 2 cos(0.001 n) determine whether signal is periodic or not if


periodic what is fundamental period.

19. x(n) = 5sin n+ 2cos n. Is the signal periodic or not. If periodic
4 3
what is fundamental period.

20. x(n) = A cos n what is period of the signal plot the signal in one
4
period.
21. Define Energy and power signals with suitable examples.
22. Determine Energy of the signal x(n) = 1, 2, 3, 4.
23. If x(n) = (n) determine whether signal is Energy / power.
n
1
24. x(n) = (n) + 2n (n 1) find Energy of the signal.
2
25. x(t) = 10 cos (200 t)
Calculate :
(i) Nyquist sampling rate.
(ii) What is the descrete signal if sampling rate is 300 Hz.
(iii)What is the descrete signal if sampling rate is 100 Hz.
26. The Analog signal x(t) is given by
x(t) = 2 cos (2000 t) + 3 sin (6000 t) + cos (12000 t)
Calculate :
(i) Nyquist sampling rate
(ii) If x(t) is sampled at the rate F s = 5KHz. what is the descrete
signal obtained after sampling.
(iii)What is the Analog signal y(t) we can reconstruct from the
samples If ideal Imterpolation is used.
27. The Analog signal x(t) = 2 sin 480 t + 3 sin 720 t. [D-13]
Calculate :
(i) Minimum sampling rate to avoid aliasing.
(ii) If the signal is sampled at F s = 200 MHz what is the descrete signal
after sampling.
(iii)If the signal is sampled at F s = 75 Hz. What is the descrete signal
after sampling.

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

Exam Questions

1. Find the Energy of the signal [Dec-15]

2. Find the cross correlation of the sequences x(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4} and


h(n) = {2, 4, 6} [Dec-15]

3. Determine whether or not the following signals are periodic. If


periodic specify its fundamental period. [Dec-15]
a.
b.

4. Find circular convolution and linear using circular convolution for


the following sequences using
time domain formula method. [Dec-15]

5. For the given causal sequences x(n) = {8, 9, 2, 3} and h(n) = {4, 3, 6}
find the cross correlation. [May-16]

6. For x(n) = { 2 3 4 5 1 3}, plot the following discrete time signals:


[May-16]

i. x(n-1) ii. x(n)u(-n)


iii. x(n-1)u(-n-1) iv. x(-n)u(n)
v. x(2n)

7. Determine whether or not the following signals are periodic. If


periodic specify its fundamental period. [May-16]
i. a.

ii.

5
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

8. Perform linear convolution operation between given function in time


domain if [Dec-16]

9. Find whether the given signal is energy signal or not : [Dec-16]

10. Consider the following analog signal

The signal x(t) is sampled with a sampling rate Fs = 50Hz.


Determine the discrete time signal. Plot the discrete time signal.
And also calculate total number of samples. [Dec-16]

11. For x(n) = { 8, 5, 2, 4, 2, 1 }, plot the following discrete time signals:


[Dec-16]

i. x(n+2) ii. x(n)u(-n)


iii. x(n-1)u(-n-2) iv. x(-n-1)u(n)
v. x(2n-1)

12. State whether is an energy or power signal with


proper justification. [May-17]

13. If x[n] = {1, 2, 2, 1, 3, 1 } is a periodic signal. Plot it in circular


representation for : [May-17]
i. x[-n] ii. x[n-2] iii. x[n+2]
iv. x[-(n-2)] v. x[-(n+2)]

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

14. Check the periodicity of the following signals and if periodic, find
their fundamental period [May-17]

a.

b.

15. If a continuous time signal


is sampled at 8000 samples/sec. Find out the 4-point DFT of it.
Sketch the phase and magnitude spectrum. [May-17]
Multiple Choice Questions

1. Is the function y[n] = sin(x[n]) periodic or not?


a) Periodic
b) Aperiodic

2. What is the time period of the function x[n] = exp(jwn)?


a) pi/2w
b) pi/w
c) 2pi/w
d) 4pi/w

3. The even part of a signal x(t) is:


a) x(t)+x(-t)
b) x(t)-x(-t)
c) (1/2)*(x(t)+x(-t))
d) (1/2)*(x(t)-x(-t))

4. Which of the following is the odd component of the signal


x(t)=e(jt)?
a) cost
b) j*sint
c) j*cost
d) sint
5. For a continuous time signal x(t) to be periodic with a period T,
then x(t+mT) should be equal to:
a) x(-t)
b) x(mT)
c) x(mt)
d) x(t)

5
Vidyalankar : B.E. DSP

6. Let x1(t) and x2(t) be periodic signals with fundamental periods


T1 and T2 respectively. Which of the following must be a rational
number for x(t)=x1(t)+x2(t) to be periodic?
a) T1+T2
b) T1-T2
c) T1/T2
d) T1*T2

7. Let x1(t) and x2(t) be periodic signals with fundamental periods


T1 and T2 respectively. Then the fundamental period of x(t)=x1(t)
+x2(t) is:
a) LCM of T1 and T2
b) HCF of T1and T2
c) Product of T1 and T2
d) Ratio of T1 to T2

8. All energy signals will have an average power of:


a) Infinite
b) Zero
c) Positive
d) Cannot be calculated

9. x(t) or x(n) is defined to be an energy signal, if and only if the


total energy content of the signal is a:
a) Finite quantity
b) Infinite
c) Zero
d) None of the mentioned

10. What is the period of cos2t+sin3t?


a) pi
b) 2*pi
c) 3*pi
d) 4*pi

Answer:

1. B 6. C
2. C 7. A
3. C 8. B
4. B 9. A

4
Module 1 : Discrete Time Signal

5. D 10. B