You are on page 1of 54

C H A P T E R 1 2

Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . 76

Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Section 12.4 Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . 92

Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables . . . . . . . . . . 109

Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables . 113

Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


C H A P T E R 1 2
Functions of Several Variables
Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

x2 y2
1. x 2z  yz  xy  10 3.   z2  1
4 9
zx 2  y  10  xy
No, z is not a function of x and y. For example,
10  xy x, y  0, 0 corresponds to both z  1.
z 2
x y
Yes, z is a function of x and y.

x
5. f x, y 
y
3 1 30
(a) f 3, 2  (b) f 1, 4   (c) f 30, 5  6
2 4 5
5 x 5
(d) f 5, y  (e) f x, 2  (f) f 5, t 
y 2 t

xy
7. f x, y  xe y 9. hx, y, z 
z
(a) f 5, 0  5e0  5
23 2
(a) h2, 3, 9  
(b) f 3, 2  3e 2 9 3
2 10
(c) f 2, 1  2e1  (b) h1, 0, 1  0
e 1
(d) f 5, y  5e y
(e) f x, 2  xe 2
(f) f t, t  tet

11. f x, y  x sin y 13. gx, y  x


y
2t  3 dt

 4   2 sin 4  2
(a) f 2,
(a) g0, 4   4

0

2t  3 dt  t 2  3t
4

0
4


(b) f 3, 1  3 sin 1 4


4
(b) g1, 4  2t  3 dt  t 2  3t 6
1 1

15. f x, y  x 2  2y
f x  x, y  f x, y
x  x2  2y  x2  2y
(a) 
x x
x 2  2xx  x2  2y  x 2  2y x2x  x
   2x  x, x  0
x x
f x, y  y  f x, y
x 2  2 y  y  x 2  2y x 2  2y  2y  x 2  2y 2y
(b)     2, y  0
y y y y

76
Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables 77

17. f x, y  4  x 2  y 2 19. f x, y  arcsinx  y 21. f x, y  ln4  x  y


Domain: 4  x2 y 0 2
Domain: Domain: 4  x  y > 0
x, y: 1 x  y 1
x y 4
2 2
xy < 4
 
x, y: x 2  y 2 4 Range:  z x, y: y < x  4
2 2
Range: 0 z 2 Range: all real numbers

xy 1
23. z  25. f x, y  e xy 27. gx, y 
xy xy
Domain: x, y: y  0
Domain: x, y: x  0 and y  0 Domain: x, y: x  0 and y  0
Range: z > 0
Range: all real numbers Range: all real numbers except zero

4x
29. f x, y 
x2  y2  1
(a) View from the positive x-axis: 20, 0, 0 (b) View where x is negative, y and z are positive:
15, 10, 20
(c) View from the first octant: 20, 15, 25 (d) View from the line y  x in the xy-plane: 20, 20, 0

31. f x, y  5 z
33. f x, y  y 2
Plane: z  5 4
Since the variable x is missing, the surface is a cylinder
with rulings parallel to the x-axis. The generating curve is
z  y 2. The domain is the entire xy-plane and the range is
z 0.
2 2 z
4 4 y
5
x
4

1 2 3 y
4
x

35. z  4  x 2  y 2 z
37. f x, y  ex
4 z
Paraboloid Since the variable y is missing, the
Domain: entire xy-plane surface is a cylinder with rulings 8

parallel to the y-axis. The generating


Range: z 4 6
curve is z  ex. The domain is the
3 4

y
entire xy-plane and the range is z > 0.
3 2 3 2
x

4 4 y
x

39. z  y 2  x 2  1 z 41. f x, y  x 2exy2


Hyperbolic paraboloid z

Domain: entire xy-plane


Range:   < z <  y

x
y
x
78 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

43. f x, y  x 2  y 2
(a) z (c) g is a horizontal translation of f two units to the right.
5 The vertex moves from 0, 0, 0 to 0, 2, 0.
4
(d) g is a reflection of f in the xy-plane followed by a ver-
tical translation 4 units upward.
z
(e) z

2 5 5
1 y
2 2
4 4
x

(b) g is a vertical translation of f two units upward


z = f (1, y) z = f (x, 1)
2
2 x
2 y 2
x y

 
2 y 2
45. z  e1x 47. z  ln y  x 2 49. z  x  y
Level curves: Level curves: Level curves are parallel lines of
the form x  y  c.
e1x y  
2 2
c c  ln y  x2
y
ln c  1  x 2  y 2 ec  y  x2 4

x 2  y 2  1  ln c y  x2 e c
2

Circles centered at 0, 0 Parabolas


x
Matches (c) Matches (b) 2 2 4 c=4

2
c=2

c = 1 c=0

51. f x, y  25  x 2  y 2 53. f x, y  xy


The level curves are of the form The level curves are hyperbolas of the form xy  c.
c  25  x 2  y 2, y

x2  y2  25  c 2. c=6
c=5
c=4
Thus, the level curves are circles of radius 5 or less, c=3
1
centered at the origin. y c=2
c=1
6 c=5 x
c=4 1 1 c = 1
c=3 c = 2
1 c = 3
c=2
2 c = 4
c = 5
x c = 6
6 2 2 6
2
c=1
c=0
6

x
55. f x, y  57. f x, y  x2  y2  2 6
x2  y2
The level curves are of the form
9 9
y
x 1
c=
c 2 2
x  y2 3 2
c= c=1 6
2
x c=2
x   y2  0
2
c x
2

x  2c1  2c1 
2 2 3
c = 2 c=
 y2  1 2
c = 1 c=
2

Thus, the level curves are circles passing through the


origin and centered at 12c, 0.
Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables 79

8
59. gx, y  61. See Definition, page 838. 63. No, The following graphs are not
1  x2  y2
hemispheres.
z  ex
4 2 y 2

6 6
z  x2  y2

1  R
 1  0.10
10
65. The surface is sloped like a saddle. The graph is not 67. VI, R  1000
1I
unique. Any vertical translation would have the same level
curves. Inflation Rate
One possible function is
Tax Rate 0 0.03 0.05
f x, y  x 2  y 2.
0 2593.74 1929.99 1592.33

0.28 2004.23 1491.34 1230.42

0.35 1877.14 1396.77 1152.40

69. f x, y, z  x  2y  3z 71. f x, y, z  x 2  y 2  z 2 73. f x, y, z  4x 2  4y 2  z 2


c6 c9 c0
6  x  2y  3z 9  x2  y2  z2 0  4x 2  4y 2  z 2
Plane Sphere Elliptic cone
z
z z

3 4 2

2
3
2
y 4
2 1 y
2
4 4 y x
x

6
4
x

d 4 4
2
75. Nd, L  L

22 4 4 12  243 board-feet 30 4 4 12  507 board-feet


2 2
(a) N22, 12  (b) N30, 12 

77. T  600  0.75x 2  0.75y 2 79. C  0.75xy  20.40xz  20.40yz


The level curves are of the form base  front & back  two ends
c  600  0.75x 2  0.75y 2  0.75xy  0.80xz  yz
600  c
x2  y 2  .
0.75
The level curves are circles centered at the origin.
c = 600 y c = 300 x
c = 500 c = 200 z
c = 400 30 c = 100
c=0 y

x
30 30

30
80 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

81. PV  kT, 202600  k300


202600 520
(a) k  
300 3

(b) P 
kT 520 T
V

3 V  
The level curves are of the form: c  520
3  V 
T

520
V T
3c
520
Thus, the level curves are lines through the origin with slope .
3c

83. (a) Highest pressure at C 85. (a) The boundaries between colors represent level curves
(b) Lowest pressure at A (b) No, the colors represent intervals of different lengths,
as indicated in the box
(c) Highest wind velocity at B
(c) You could use more colors, which means using
smaller intervals

87. False. Let 89. False. Let


f x, y  2xy f x, y  5.
f 1, 2  f 2, 1, but 1  2 Then, f 2x, 2y  5  22 f x, y.

Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity

1. Let  > 0 be given. We need to find  > 0 such that f x, y  L  y  b <     
whenever 0 < x  a2   y  b2 < . Take   .
Then if 0 < x  a2   y  b2 <   , we have
 y  b2 < 

y  b < .
3. lim  f x, y  gx, y  lim f x, y  lim gx, y  5  3  2
x, y a, b x, y a, b x, y a, b

5. lim
x, y a, b
 f x, ygx, y 
lim
x, y a, b

f x, y lim
x, y a, b
gx, y  53  15

xy 24
7. lim x  3y 2  2  312  5 9. lim   3
x, y 2, 1 x, y 2, 4 xy 24
Continuous everywhere Continuous for x  y

arcsinx y 1
11. lim  arcsin 0  0 13. lim e xy  e2 
x, y 0, 1 1  xy x, y 1, 2 e2
Continuous for xy  1, y  0, x y 1   Continuous everywhere

15. lim x  y  z  8  22 17. lim e xy  1


x, y, z 1, 2, 5 x, y 0, 0

Continuous for x  y  z 0 Continuous everywhere


Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity 81

19. lim lnx2  y2  ln0   


x, y 0, 0

The limit does not exist.


Continuous except at 0, 0

xy
21. f x, y 
x2  y2
Continuous except at 0, 0
Path: y  0 x, y 1, 0 0.5, 0 0.1, 0 0.01, 0 0.001, 0
f x, y 0 0 0 0 0

Path: y  x x, y 1, 1 0.5, 0.5 0.1, 0.1 0.01, 0.01 0.001, 0.001
f x, y
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2

The limit does not exist because along the path y  0 the function equals 0, whereas along the path y  x
the function equals 12 .

xy 2
23. f x, y  
x2  y4
Continuous except at 0, 0
Path: x  y 2
x, y 1, 1 0.25, 0.5 0.01, 0.1 0.0001, 0.01 0.000001, 0.001
f x, y  12  12  12  12  12

Path: x  y 2 x, y 1, 1 0.25, 0.5 0.01, 0.1 0.0001, 0.01 0.000001, 0.001
f x, y
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2

The limit does not exist because along the path x  y 2 the function equals  12 , whereas along the path x  y 2
the function equals 12 .

 2xy2  y2
x 
2
25. lim f x, y  lim 27. lim sin x  sin y  0
x, y 0, 0 x, y 0, 0 x2  y2 x, y 0, 0

1  x 2xy y   1
2 z
 lim 2 2
x, y 0, 0

(same limit for g) y

Thus, f is not continuous at 0, 0, whereas g is continuous x

at 0, 0.

x2y 10xy
29. lim 31. f x, y 
x, y 0, 0 x 4  4y 2 2x2  3y2
Does not exist The limit does not exist. Use the paths x  0 and x  y.
z z

x
y

x
82 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

sinx 2  y 2 sin r 2 2r cos r 2


33. lim  lim 2  lim  lim cos r 2  1
x, y 0, 0 x y
2 2 r0 r r0 2r r0

x3  y 3 r 3 cos3  sin3 
35. lim  lim  lim rcos3  sin3   0
x, y 0, 0 x  y
2 2 r0 r2 r0

1 sin z
37. f x, y, z  39. f x, y, z 
x 2  y 2  z 2 ex  ey
Continuous except at 0, 0, 0 Continuous everywhere

1
41. f t  t 2 43. f t 
t
gx, y  3x  2y
gx, y  3x  2y
f  gx, y  f 3x  2y
1
f  gx, y  f 3x  2y 
 3x  2y2 3x  2y
 9x 2  12xy  4y 2 3x
Continuous for y 
Continuous everywhere 2

45. f x, y  x 2  4y
f x 
x, y  f x, y x 
x 2  4y  x 2  4y
(a) lim  lim

x0
x
x0
x
2x
x  
x2
 lim  lim 2x 
x  2x

x0
x
x0

f x, y 
y  f x, y x 2  4 y 
y  x 2  4y
(b) lim  lim

y0
y
y0
y
4
y
 lim  lim 4  4

y0
y
y0

47. f x, y  2x  xy  3y
f x 
x, y  f x, y 2x 
x  x 
xy  3y  2x  xy  3y
(a) lim  lim

x0
x
x0
x
2
x 
xy
 lim  lim 2  y  2  y

x0
x
x0

f x, y 
y  f x, y 2x  x y 
y  3 y 
y  2x  xy  3y
(b) lim  lim

y0
y
y0
y
x
y  3
y
 lim  lim x  3  x  3

y0
y
y0

49. See the definition on page 851. 51. No.


Show that the value of lim f x, y is not the same The existence of f 2, 3 has no bearing on the existence of
x, y x0 , y0  the limit as x, y 2, 3.
for two different paths to x0, y0.
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives 83

53. Since lim


x, y a, b

f x, y  L1, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds 1 > 0 such that f x, y  L1 < 2 whenever

0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 1.


Since lim
x, y a, b

gx, y  L2, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds  2 > 0 such that gx, y  L 2 < 2 whenever

0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 2.


Let  be the smaller of  1 and 2. By the triangle inequality, whenever x  a2   y  b2 < , we have
 

f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2 

 f x, y  L 1  gx, y  L 2 

f x, y  L 1

gx, y  L 2
< 2  2  .
Therefore, lim  f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2.
x, y a, b

55. True 57. False. Let


nx2  y2, x, y  0, 0
f x, y  0,l x  0, y  0
See Exercise 19.

Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives

1. fx 4, 1 < 0 3. fy 4, 1 > 0 5. f x, y  2x  3y  5


fx x, y  2
fy x, y  3

7. z  xy 9. z  x2  5xy  3y2 11. z  x 2e 2y


z z z
 y  2x  5y  2xe 2y
x x x
z x z z
  5x  6y  2x 2e 2y
y 2y y y

13. z  lnx 2  y 2 15. z  ln xx  yy  lnx  y  lnx  y


z 2x
 z 1 1 2y
x x 2  y 2    2
x x  y x  y x  y2
z 2y
 z 1 1 2x
y x 2  y 2   
y x  y x  y x 2  y 2

x2 4y 2
19. hx, y  ex
2 y 2
17. z 
2y x
hx x, y  2xex
2 y 2

z 2x 4y 2 x 3  4y 3
  2 
hy x, y  2yex
2 y 2
x 2y x x2y
z x2 8y x 3  16y 3
 2 
y 2y x 2xy 2

21. f x, y  x 2  y 2 23. z  tan2x  y


1 2 x z
fx x, y  x  y 212 2x   2 sec22x  y
2 x 2  y 2 x
1 2 y z
fy x, y  x  y 212 2y   sec 22x  y
2 x 2  y 2 y
84 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

25. z  e y sin xy 27. f x, y  x


y
t 2  1 dt
z
 ye y cos xy
t3  t y3  y  x3  x
3 y 3 3
x  
x
z
 ey sin xy  xey cos xy fx x, y  x  1  1  x 2
2
y
fy x, y  y 2  1
 ey x cos xy  sin xy
[You could also use the Second Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus.]

29. f x, y  2x  3y
f f x  x, y  f x, y 2x  x  3y  2x  3y 2 x
 lim  lim  lim 2
x x0 x x0 x x0 x

f f x, y  y  f x, y 2x  3 y  y  2x  3y 3 y
 lim  lim  lim 3
y y0 y y0 y y0 y

31. f x, y  x  y
f f x  x, y  f x, y x  x  y  x  y
 lim  lim
x x0 x x0 x
x  x  y  x  y x  x  y  x  y 
 lim
x0 xx  x  y  x  y 
1 1
 lim 
x0 x  x  y  x  y 2x  y
f f x, y  y  f x, y x  y  y  x  y
 lim  lim
y y0 y y0 y
x  y  y  x  y x  y  y  x  y 
 lim
y0 yx  y  y  x  y
1 1
 lim 
y0 x  y  y  x  y 2x  y

33. gx, y  4  x 2  y 2 35. z  ex cos y


gxx, y  2x z
 ex cos y
x
At 1, 1: gx 1, 1  2
z
gy x, y  2y At 0, 0:  1
x
At 1, 1: gy 1, 1  2 z
 ex sin y
y
z
At 0, 0: 0
y

y xy
37. f x, y  arctan 39. f x, y 
x xy
y yx  y  xy y 2
fx x, y 
1
1   y 2x 2  
y
 2  2
x x  y2
fx x, y 
x  y2 
x  y2
1 1
At 2, 2: fx 2, 2  At 2, 2: fx 2, 2  
4 4
xx  y  xy
fy x, y 
1

1
1   y 2x 2 x
 2
x
x  y2
fy x, y 
x  y2 
x2
x  y2
1 1
At 2, 2: fy 2, 2  At 2, 2: fy 2, 2 
4 4
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives 85

41. z  49  x2  y2, x  2, 43. z  9x2  y 2, y  3, 1, 3, 0


2, 3, 6 Intersecting curve: z  9x 2  9
Intersecting curve: z  45  y 2
z
 18x
z y x

y 45  y 2 z
At 1, 3, 0:  181  18
z 3 1 x
At 2, 3, 6:  
y 45  9 2 y=3
z z
x=2
10
160

2
3 4 y
4
x

8
x 8 y

1 1
45. fx x, y  2x  4y  4, fyx, y  4x  2y  16 47. fx x, y    y, fyx, y   2  x
x2 y
fx  fy  0: 2x  4y  4
1 1
fx  fy  0:   y  0 and  2  x  0
4x  2y  16 x2 y
Solving for x and y, 1 1
y and x  2
x  6 and y  4. x2 y
y  y4 y  1  x
Points: 1, 1

49. (a) The graph is that of fy. 51. w  x 2  y 2  z 2 53. Fx, y, z  ln x 2  y 2  z 2


(b) The graph is that of fx. w x 1
  lnx 2  y 2  z 2
x x 2  y 2  z 2 2
w y x
 Fx x, y, z 
y x 2  y 2  z 2 x2  y2  z2
w z y
 Fy x, y, z 
z x 2  y 2  z 2 x2  y2  z2
z
Fz x, y, z 
x2  y2  z2

55. Hx, y, z  sinx  2y  3z 57. z  x 2  2xy  3y 2 59. z  x 2  y 2


Hxx, y, z  cosx  2y  3z z z x
 2x  2y 
x x x 2  y 2
Hy x, y, z  2 cosx  2y  3z
2z 2z y2
Hzx, y, z  3 cosx  2y  3z 2 
x2 x2 x 2  y 2 32
2z  2z xy
 2 
yx yx x 2  y 2 32
z z y
 2x  6y 
y y x 2  y 2
2z 2z x2
6  2
y2 y2 x  y 2 32
 2z  2z xy
 2 
xy xy x 2  y 2 32
86 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

y
61. z  e x tan y 63. z  arctan
x
z
 e x tan y z y
x 
1
x 1   y 2x 2
y
 2  2
x  
x  y2
 2z
 e x tan y 2z 2xy
x2 
x2 x 2  y 2 2
2z
 e x sec2 y  2z  x2  y2  y2y y2  x2
yx   2
yx x  y 
2 2 2 x  y 22
z
 e x sec2 y z
y 
1 1
y 1   y 2x 2 x
 2
x
x  y2
 2z
 2e x sec2 y tan y 2z 2xy
y2 
y2 x 2  y 2 2
2z
 e x sec2 y 2z x 2  y 2  x2x y 2  x2
xy   2
xy x  y 
2 2 2 x  y 22

65. z  x sec y 67. z  ln x 2


x
 y2 ln x  lnx 2  y 2
z
 sec y z 1 2x y2  x2
x   2 
x x x  y 2 xx 2  y 2
2z
0 2z x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4
x2 
x2
x 2x 2  y 2 2
2z
 sec y tan y  2z 4xy
yx 
yx x2  y 2 2
z
 x sec y tan y z
y  2
2y
y x  y2
2z
 x sec ysec2 y  tan2 y
y2 2z 2 y 2  x 2
 2
y2 x  y 22
2z
 sec y tan y
xy 2z 4xy

2z 2z xy x 2  y 2 2
Therefore,  .
yx xy There are no points for which zx  zy  0.
There are no points for which zx  0  zy, because
z
 sec y  0.
x

69. f x, y, z  xyz 71. f x, y, z  ex sin yz 73. z  5xy


fxx, y, z  yz fxx, y, z  ex sin yz z
 5y
x
fy x, y, z  xz fy x, y, z  zex cos yz
 2z
fyyx, y, z  0 fyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz 0
x 2
fxyx, y, z  z fxyx, y, z  zex cos yz
z
fyxx, y, z  z fyxx, y, z  zex cos yz  5x
y
fyyxx, y, z  0 fyyxx, y, z  z2ex sin yz  2z
0
fxyyx, y, z  0 fxyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz y 2

fyxyx, y, z  0 fyxyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz  2z  2z


Therefore,   0  0  0.
x 2 y 2
Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx  0. Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx.
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives 87

75. z  e x sin y 77. z  sinx  ct


z z
 e x sin y  c cosx  ct
x t
 2z  2z
 e x sin y  c 2 sinx  ct
x 2 t 2
z z
 e x cos y  cosx  ct
y x
 2z  2z
 e x sin y  sinx  ct
y 2 x 2
 2z  2z  2z  2z
Therefore,  2  e x sin y  e x sin y  0. Therefore,  c 2 2.
x 2 y t 2 x

x
79. z  et cos 81. See the definition on page 859.
c
z x
 et cos
t c
z 1 x
  et sin
x c c
 2z 1 x
  2 et cos
x 2 c c
z  2z
Therefore,  c 2 2.
t x

83. z
(x0, y0, z 0 )
z
(x0, y0, z 0 ) 85. The plane z  x  y  f x, y satisfies
f f
> 0 and > 0.
x y
z

x y x y
y
Plane: y = y0 Plane: x = x0
8
x

f 6
denotes the slope of the surface in the x-direction.
x
f
denotes the slope of the surface in the y-direction.
y

87. (a) C  32xy  175x  205y  1050 (b) The fireplace-insert stove results in the cost
increasing at a faster rate because
C
x
 16 yx  175 C
y
>
C
x
.

 16  175  183


C
x
1
4
80, 20

 16  205
C x
y y
C
y 80, 20
 164  205  237
88 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

89. An increase in either price will cause a decrease in 91. T  500  0.6x 2  1.5y 2
demand.
T T
 1.2x, 2, 3  2.4m
x x
T T
 3y  2, 3  9m
y y

z
93. PV  mRT 95. (a)  1.83
x
PV T V
T  z
mR P mR  1.09
x
mRT P mRT
P  2 (b) As the consumption of skim milk x increases,
V V V
the consumption of whole milk z decreases.
mRT V mR
V  Similarly, as the consumption of reduced-fat milk
P T P  y increases, the consumption of whole milk z
T P V decreases.
 V  T   mR  mRP
V mRT
P V2
mRT mRT
   1
VP mRT

xyx 2  y 2
97. f x, y 

0,
x2  y2
, x, y 0, 0
x, y  0, 0

x 2  y 23x 2y  y 3  x3 y  xy 32x y x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4


(a) fxx, y  
x 2  y 22 x 2  y 22
x 2  y 2x3  3xy 2  x3y  xy 32y x x 4  4x 2 y 2  y 4
fyx, y  
x 2  y 22 x 2  y 22
f x, 0  f 0, 0 0x 2  0
(b) fx0, 0  lim  lim 0
x0 x x0 x

f 0, y  f 0, 0 0y 2  0


fy0, 0  lim  lim 0
y0 y y0 y

(c) fxy0, 0 
 f
 
y x  0, 0
 lim
y0
fx0, y  fx0, 0
y
 lim
y  y4
y0 y22y
 lim 1  1
y0

 
 f fyx, 0  fy0, 0 x x4
fyx0, 0   lim  lim  lim 1  1
x y 0, 0 x0 x x0 x22x x0

(d) fyx or fxy or both are not continuous at 0, 0.

99. True 101. True

Section 12.4 Differentials

1
1. z  3x 2y 3 3. z 
x2  y2
dz  6xy 3 dx  9x 2 y 2 dy
2x 2y
dz  dx  2 dy
x 2  y 2 2 x  y 2 2
2
 x dx  y dy
x 2  y 22
Section 12.4 Differentials 89

5. z  x cos y  y cos x
dz  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy

7. z  e x sin y 9. w  2z 3 y sin x
dz  e x sin y dx  e x cos y dy dw  2z 3 y cos x dx  2z3 sin x dy  6z 2 y sin x dz

11. (a) f 1, 2  4 13. (a) f 1, 2  sin 2


f 1.05, 2.1  3.4875 f 1.05, 2.1  1.05 sin 2.1
z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2  0.5125 z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2 0.00293
(b) dz  2x dx  2y dy (b) dz  sin y dx  x cos y dy
 20.05  40.1  0.5  sin 20.05  cos 20.1 0.00385

15. (a) f 1, 2  5


f 1.05, 2.1  5.25
z  0.25
(b) dz  3 dx  4 dy
 30.05  40.1 0.25

x y
17. Let z  x 2  y 2, x  5, y  3, dx  0.05, dy  0.1. Then: dz  dx  dy
x 2  y 2 x 2  y 2

5 3 0.55
5.052  3.12  52  32 0.05  0.1  0.094
52  32 52  32 34

2x 21  x 2
19. Let z  1  x 2y 2, x  3, y  6, dx  0.05, dy  0.05. Then: dz   dx  dy
y2 y3
1  3.052 1  32 23 21  32
  2 0.05  0.05 0.012
5.952
6 2
6 63

21. See the definition on page 869. 23. The tangent plane to the surface z  f x, y at the point P
is a linear approximation of z.

25. A  lh
dA  l dh  h dl

h dA A dA

h dA

l l


r 2h r h V V  dV
27. V  dV
3
0.1 0.1 4.7124 4.8391 0.1267
r3
0.1 0.1 2.8274 2.8264 0.0010
h6
0.001 0.002 0.0565 0.0566 0.0001
2
rh
r2
r
dV  dr  dh  2h dr  r dh
3 3 3 0.0001 0.0002 0.0019 0.0019 0.0000
90 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

29. (a) dz  1.83 dx  1.09 dy


z z
(b) dz  dx  dy
x y

 1.83 0.25  1.09 0.25

 0.73

Maximum propagated error: 0.73

dz 0.73 0.73
Relative error:   0.1166  11.67%
z 1.837.2  1.098.5  28.7 6.259

31. V 
r 2h  dV  2
rh dr  
r 2 dh

dV dr dh
2 
V r h

 20.04  0.02  0.10  10%

1
33. A  2 ab sin C

dA  12 b sin C da  a sin C db  ab cos C dC

 12 4sin 45 16
1
  3sin 45 161   12cos 45 0.02 0.24 in.2

1
35. (a) V  bhl b
2 2



 18 sin
2 18 cos 21612 h
18 18

 31,104 sin in.3 2

 18 sin ft3

V is maximum when sin  1 or 


2.

s2
(b) V  sin l
2

s2 s2
dV  ssin l ds  l cos  d  sin  dl
2 2

   182
 90
  182 sin
2 12
2
1
 18 sin 1612  1612 cos
2 2 2 2

 1809 in3 1.047 ft3

E2
37. P
R

2E E2
dP  dE  2 dR
R R

dP dE dR
2   20.02  0.03  0.07  7%
P E R
Section 12.4 Differentials 91

39. L  0.00021 ln  2h
r
 0.75 
 1100  116
h  
dh dr
dL  0.00021   0.00021   6.6 106
r 100 2
L  0.00021ln 100  0.75 8.096 104 dL  8.096 104 6.6 106 microhenrys

41. z  f x, y  x2  2x  y
z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2  2x  2x  y  y  x2  2x  y
 2xx  x2  2x  y
 2x  2 x  y  xx  0y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  x and 2  0.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

43. z  f x, y  x2y


z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2 y  y  x2y
 2xyx  yx2  x2y  2xxy  x2 y
 2xyx  x2y   yx x  2xx  x2 y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  yx and 2  2xx  x2.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

3x2y , x, y 0, 0


45. f x, y  x4  y2
0, x, y  0, 0
0
0
f x, 0  f 0, 0 x4
(a) fx0, 0  lim  lim 0
x0 x x0 x
0
0
f 0, y  f 0, 0 y2
fy0, 0  lim  lim 0
y0 y y0 y
Thus, the partial derivatives exist at 0, 0.
3x3 3x
(b) Along the line y  x: lim f x, y  lim  lim 0
x, y 0, 0 x 0 x 4  x2 x 0 x2  1
3x 4 3
Along the curve y  x2: lim f x, y  
x, y 0, 0 2x 4 2
f is not continuous at 0, 0. Therefore, f is not differentiable at 0, 0. (See Theroem 12.5)

47. Essay. For example, we can use the equation F  ma:


F F
dF  dm  da  a dm  m da.
m a
92 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

1. w  x2  y2 3. w  x sec y
x  et x  et
y  et yt
dw dw
 2xet  2yet   2e2t  e2t   sec yet   x sec y tan y1
dt dt
 et sec  t1  tan  t
 et sec t  sec t tan t

5. w  xy, x  2 sin t, y  cos t


dw
(a)  2y cos t  xsin t  2y cos t  x sin t
dt
 2cos2 t  sin2 t  2 cos 2t
dw
(b) w  2 sin t cos t  sin 2t,  2 cos 2t
dt

7. w  x2  y2  z2
x  et cos t
y  et sin t
z  et

dw
(a)  2xet sin t  et cos t  2yet cos t  et sin t  2zet  4e2t
dt
dw
(b) w  2e2t,  4e2t
dt

9. w  xy  xz  yz, x  t  1, y  t 2  1, z  t
dw
(a)  y  z  x  z2t  x  y
dt
 t 2  1  t  t  1  12t  t  1  t 2  1  32t 2  1
(b) w  t  1t 2  1  t  1t  t 2  1t
dw
 2tt  1  t 2  1  2t  1  3t 2  1  32t 2  1
dt

11. Distance  f t  x1  x22   y1  y2 2  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t2
1
ft  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t212
2
210 cos 2t  7 cos t20 sin 2t  7 sin t  26 sin 2t  4 sin t12 cos 2t  4 cos t

f 2
 21 10
2  42122107  2412

1 22 1129
 1161244    2.04
2 229 20
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables 93

13. w  arctan2xy, x  cos t, y  sin t, t  0

dw w dx w dy
 
dt x dt y dt

2y 2x
 sin t  cos t
1  4x2y2 1  4x2y2

2 sin t 2 cos t
 sin t  cos t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t

1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

d 2w 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t8 cos t sin t  2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t8 cos3 t sin t  8 sin3 t cos t

dt 2 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

8 cos t sin t1  2 sin4 t  2 cos 4 t



1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

d 2w
At t  0,  0.
dt 2

15. w  x2  y2 17. w  x2  y2
xst x  s cos t

yst y  s sin t
w w
 2x  2y  2x  y  4s  2x cos t  2y sin t
s s
w  2s cos2 t  2s sin2 t  2s cos 2t
 2x  2y1  2x  y  4t
t
w
 2xs sin t  2ys cos t  2s2 sin 2t
When s  2 and t  1, t
w w  w w
 8 and  4. When s  3 and t  ,  0 and  18.
s t 4 s t

19. w  x2  2xy  y2, x  r  , y  r  

w
(a)  2x  2y1  2x  2y1  0
r

w
 2x  2y1  2x  2y1


 4x  4y  4x  y

 4r    r    8

(b) w  r  2  2r  r    r  2

 r 2  2r  2  2r 2  2  r 2  2r  2


 4 2

w
0
r

w
 8

94 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

y
21. w  arctan , x  r cos , y  r sin 
x
w y x r sin  cos  r cos  sin 
(a)  2 cos   2 sin    0
r x  y2 x  y2 r2 r2
w y x  r sin r sin  r cos r cos 
 2 r sin   2 r cos    1
 x  y2 x  y2 r2 r2
r sin 
(b) w  arctan  arctantan   
r cos 
w
0
r
w
1


23. w  xyz, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st2 25. w  ze xy, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st


w w z zx
 yz1  xz1  xyt2  e xy1   2 e xy1  e xyt
s s y y
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  tt2
s st t  ss  ttst  t
 estst 2
 2s2t2  s2t2  t4  3s2t2  t4  t23s2  t2

sts  t  sst  tst


 ts  t2

2 2
w  estst
 yz1  xz1  xy2st 2
t
ts2  4st  t2
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  t2st  estst
s  t2
 2st3  2s3t  2st3  2s3t  4st3  2sts2  2t2
w z zx
 e xy1   2 e xy1  e xys
t y y
sts  t

st
 estst   s
st s  t2
sts  t  sts  t  ss  t2

 estst
s  t2
ss2  t2
 estst
s  t2

27. x2  3xy  y2  2x  y  5  0 29. ln x2  y2  xy  4


dy Fxx, y 2x  3y  2 1
  lnx2  y2  xy  4  0
dx Fyx, y 3x  2y  1 2
3y  2x  2 x
 y
2y  3x  1 dy Fxx, y x2  y2 x  x2y  y3
  
dx Fyx, y y y  xy2  x3
x
x y
2 2

31. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  25 33. Fx, y, z  tanx  y  tan y  z  1


Fx  2x Fx  sec2x  y
Fy  2y Fy  sec2x  y  sec2 y  z
Fz  2z Fz  sec2 y  z
z Fx x z Fx sec2x  y
    2
x Fz z x Fz sec  y  z
z Fy y z Fy sec2x  y  sec2 y  z
   
y Fz z y Fz sec2 y  z
sec x  y
sec  1

2

 y  z
2
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables 95

35. x 2  2yz  z2  1  0 37. exz  xy  0


z z z x z Fxx, y, z zexz  y
(i) 2x  2y  2z  0 implies  .  
x x x yz x Fzx, y, z xexz
z z z z z Fyx, y, z x 1
(ii) 2y  2z  2z  0 implies  .   xz  xz  exz
y y y yz y Fzx, y, z xe e

39. Fx, y, z, w  xyz  xzw  yzw  w2  5 41. Fx, y, z, w  cos xy  sin yz  wz  20


Fx  yz  zw w Fx y sin xy
 
Fy  xz  zw x Fw z

Fz  xy  xw  yw w Fy x sin xy  z cos yz


 
y Fw z
Fw  xz  yz  2w
w Fz y cos zy  w
w Fx zy  w  
  z Fw z
x Fw xz  yz  2w
w Fy zx  w
 
y Fw xz  yz  2w
w Fz xy  xw  yw
 
z Fw xz  yz  2w

xy
43. f x, y 
x2  y2

f tx, ty 
txty
tx2  ty2
t xy
x2  y2
 tf x, y
Degree: 1

x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x x2


y3
 y232
y 2

x3
x  y232

xy
  1 f x, y
x2  y2

dw w dx w dy
45. f x, y  exy 47.   (Page 876)
dt x dt y dt
f tx, ty  etxty  exy  f x, y
Degree: 0

x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x 1y e
 y  yx e
 0
xy
2
xy

49. w  f x, y is the explicit form of a function of two variables, as in z  x2  y2.


The implicit form is of the form F x, y, z  0, as in z  x2  y2  0.



x cos 2
 x2 sin 
1 2
51. A  bh  x sin b
2 2 2

dA dx x2 d
 x sin   cos 
dt dt 2 dt h
x x

   32 2 2

 6 sin
4

1
2

62
2
cos 4

90

2

10
m hr
2
96 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

1
53. (a) V   r 2h
3
dV 1
dt
dr

  2rh  r 2
3 dt
dh
dt
1

  212366  1224  1536 in.3min


3
(b) S   rr 2  h2   r 2 (Surface area includes base.)
dS
dt
 r 2  h2 

r2
r 2  h2
 2r
dr
dt

rh dh
r 2  h2 dt

  12  36   212
6  4
144 3612
 2 2
12  36  2 2 12  36  2 2

  12 10 
10

4
12 36
 6  144 
 10 

648 36
  144 in.2min 
5
 20  910  in.2min
10

1
55. I mr12  r22
2


dI 1 dr1 dr2
 m 2r1  2r2  m62  82  28m cm2sec
dt 2 dt dt

2
57. (a) tan 
x 8

4 6
tan   
x 4

tan   tan 4

1  tan  tan x x

tan   2x 4

1  2xtan  x
8
x tan   2  4  tan 
x
x2 tan   2x  8 tan   0
(b) Fx,   x2  8tan   2x  0
d Fx 2x tan   2 2 cos2   2x sin  cos 
  2 
dx F sec x  8
2
x2  8
d 1
(c)  0 2 cos2   2x sin  cos  cos   x sin  tan  
dx x

Thus, x2 1x
 2x  8 1x
 0 8x  x x  22 ft.
59. w  f x, y
xuv
yvu
w w dx w dy w w
   
u x du y du x y
w w dx w dy w w
   
v x dv y dv x y
w w
 0
u v
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables 97

61. w  f x, y, x  r cos , y  r sin 


w w w
 cos   sin 
r x y
w w w
 r sin   r cos 
 x y
w w w
(a) r cos   r cos2   r sin  cos 
r x y
w w w
sin   r sin2   r sin  cos 
 x x
w w w
r cos   sin   r cos2   r sin2 
r  x
w w w
r  r cos   sin 
x r 
w w w sin 
 cos  
x r  r
w w w
r sin   r sin  cos   r sin2 
r x y
w w w
cos   r sin  cos   r cos2 
 x y
w w w
r sin   cos   r sin2   r cos2 
r  y
w w w
r  r sin   cos 
y r 
w w w cos 
 sin  
y r  r

w
r

1 w

 w
x

w w w

w
x

2 2 2 2 2
(b)  cos 2 2 sin  cos   sin2   sin2  
r 2  x y y
w w w

cos w
x

w


2 2 2
2 sin  cos   2 
x y y y

u v u v
63. Given  and   , x  r cos  and y  r sin .
x y y x
u u u v v
 cos   sin   cos   sin 
r x y y x
v v v v v
 r sin  
 x y
r cos   r
y
cos  
x
sin 
u 1 v
Therefore,  .
r r 
v v v u u
 cos   sin    cos   sin 
r x y y x
u u u u u

 r sin   r cos   r  cos  
x y y x
sin 
v 1 u
Therefore,  .
r r 
98 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients

1. f x, y  3x  4xy  5y 3. f x, y  xy


1 vij
v
2
 i  3 j
f x, y  yi  xj
f x, y  3  4yi  4x  5j
f 2, 3  3i  2j
f 1, 2  5i  j
v 2 2
u  i j
v 1 3 v 2 2
u  i j
v 2 2
52
Du f 2, 3  f 2, 3  u 
1 2
Du f 1, 2  f 1, 2  u 
2
 5  3 

5. gx, y  x2  y2 7. hx, y  e x sin y


v  3i  4j v  i

x y h  e x sin yi  e x cos yj
g  i j
x  y
2 2 x  y2
2

3 4  2   ei
h 1,
g3, 4  i j
5 5 v
u  i
v 3 4 v
u  i j
v 5 5
7  2   h1, 2   u  e
Duh 1,
Du g3, 4  g3, 4  u  
25

9. f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz 11. hx, y, z  x arctan yz


v  2i  j  k v 
1, 2, 1
f x, y, z   y  zi  x  zj  x  yk xz xy
hx, y, z  arctan yz i  j k
1   yz2 1   yz2
f 1, 1, 1  2i  2j  2k

v 6 6 6 h4, 1, 1  i  2j  2k
u  i j k 4
v 3 6 6

Du f 1, 1, 1  f 1, 1, 1  u 
26
3
u
v
v

1

,
6 6
2
,
1
6
  8   86
Du h4, 1, 1  h4, 1, 1  u  
46 24

13. f x, y  x2  y2 15. f x, y  sin2x  y


1 1 1 3
u i j u i j
2 2 2 2
f  2x i  2y j f  2 cos2x  y i  cos2x  y j
2 2 3
Du f  f  u  x y  2 x  y Du f  f  u  cos2x  y  cos2x  y
2 2 2

 2 2 3 cos2x  y

Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients 99

17. f x, y  x2  4y2 19. hx, y, z  lnx  y  z


v  2i  2j v  3i  3j  k
f  2x i  8yj 1
h  i  j  k
xyz
v 1 1
u  i j
v 2 2 At 1, 0, 0, h  i  j  k.
2 8 v 1
Du f   x y   2x  4y u  3i  3j  k
2 2 v 19
At P  3, 1, Du f  72. 7 719
Du h  h  u  
19 19

21. f x, y  3x  5y2  10 23. z  cosx2  y2

f x, y  3i  10yj zx, y  2x sinx2  y2i  2y sinx2  y2j

f 2, 1  3i  10j z3, 4  6 sin 25i  8 sin 25j 0.7941i  1.0588j

\ 1 2
25. w  3x2y  5yz  z2 27. PQ  2i  4j, u  i j
5 5
wx, y, z  6xyi  3x2  5zj  2z  5yk
gx, y  2xi  2yj, g1, 2  2i  4j
w1, 1, 2  6i  13j  9k
2 8 10
Du g  g  u     25
5 5 5

\ 2 1
29. PQ  2i  j, u  i j 31. hx, y  x tan y
5 5
hx, y  tan yi  x sec2 yj
f x, y  ex cos yi  ex sin yj
f 0, 0  i  4   i  4j
h 2,
2 25
Du f  f  u  
 h2, 4   

5 5 17

1
33. gx, y  ln 
3 x2  y2  lnx2  y2 35. f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2
3
1
f x, y, z  xi  yj  zk
gx, y 
1
2x
3 x2  y2
i 2
2y
x  y2
j  x2  y2  z2

1
f 1, 4, 2  i  4j  2k
g1, 2 
1 2
3 5  4
i j 
5
2
15 
i  2j 21

f 1, 4, 2  1


25
g1, 2 
15

37. f x, y, z  xeyz


f x, y, z  eyz i  xzeyz j  xyeyz k
f 2, 0, 4  i  8j
f 2, 0, 4  65
100 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

For Exercises 3945, f x, y  3 


x y
 and D f x, y  
3 2 
1
3
cos  
1
2 
sin .

13 21  12 23 


x y 
39. f x, y  3   41. (a) D43 f 3, 2  
3 2
z
(3, 2, 1) 2  33

3

12
6

13 23   12 21


y

9
(b) D6 f 3, 2  
x

3  23

12

43. (a) v  3i  4j (b) v  i  3j


v  9  16  5 v  10
3 4 1 3
u i j u i j
5 5 10 10
1 2 1
Du f  f  u     11 1110
5 5 5 Du f  f  u  

6 10 60

45. f   19  14  1613

For Exercises 47 and 49, f x, y  9  x2  y2 and D f x, y  2x cos   2y sin   2x cos   y sin .

47. f x, y  9  x2  y2 49. f 1, 2  2i  4j


z
f 1, 2  4  16  20  25
9

(1, 2, 4)

3 y
3
x

51. (a) In the direction of the vector 4i  j.


(b) f  10 2x  3yi  10 3x  2yj
1 1

f 1, 2  10
1
4i  10
1
1j   25 i  10
1
j
(Same direction as in part (a).)
2 1
(c) f  5 i  10 j, the direction opposite that of the gradient.

53. f x, y  x2  y2, 4, 3, 7


z
(a)

CONTINUED
Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients 101

53. CONTINUED
(b) Du f x, y  f x, y  u  2x cos  2y sin
Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin
y

12

x
2
4

12

Generated by Mathematica

(c) Zeros: 2.21, 5.36


These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 equals zero.

(d) g   Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin


g
   8 sin  6 cos
Critical numbers: 0.64, 3.79
These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 is a maximum 0.64 and minimum 3.79.
(e) f 4, 3  24i  23j  64  36  10, the maximum value of Du f 4, 3, at  0.64.
(f ) f x, y  x2  y2  7 y

f 4, 3  8i  6j is perpendicular to the level curve at 4, 3.


6

x
6 4 2 4 6
2

Generated by Mathematica

x
55. f x, y  x2  y2 57. f x, y 
x2  y2
c  25, P  3, 4 1
c  , P  1, 1
f x, y  2xi  2yj 2
y2  x2 2xy
x2  y2  25 f x, y  i 2 j
x2  y22 x  y22
f 3, 4  6i  8j x 1

x2  y2 2
x2  y2  2x  0
1
f 1, 1   j
2

59. 4x2  y  6 y 61. 9x2  4y2  40 y

f x, y  4x2  y f x, y  9x2  4y2


4
12

2
f x, y  8xi  j 8 f x, y  18xi  8yj
x
f 2, 10  16i  j f 2, 1  36i  8j 4 4

2
f 2, 10 1 f 2, 1 1
 16i  j  9i  2j
f 2, 10 257 4 4
x
f 2, 1 85 4

257 85
 16i  j  9i  2j
257 85
102 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

x
63. T  65. See the definition, page 885.
x2  y2
y2  x2 2xy
T  i 2 j
x2  y22 x  y22
7 24 1
T3, 4  i j 7i  24j
625 625 625

67. Let f x, y be a function of two variables and 69. z

u  cos i  sin j a unit vector. 3

f
(a) If  0 , then Du f  .
x
f
(b) If  90 , then Du f  . 3
y x y
5
P

71. 73. T x, y  400  2x2  y2, P  10, 10


dx dy
 4x  2y
1671
18
00
dt dt
B
xt  C1e4t yt  C2e2t
1994

A
10  x0  C1 10  y0  C2
00
18
xt  10e4t yt  10e2t
y2
x y2t  100e4t
10
y2  10x

75. (a) D (b) The graph of D  250  30x2  50 sin y2


400 would model the ocean floor.
300

1
2
x 1

2
y

 D D
(c) D1, 0.5  250  301  50 sin 315.4 ft (d)  60x and 1, 0.5  60
4 x x

(e)
D
y
 25 cos
y
2
and
D
y

1, 0.5  25 cos 55.5
4
(f ) D  60x i  25 cos 2yj
D1, 0.5  60i  55.5j

77. True 79. True

z2
81. Let f x, y, z  ex cos y   C. Then f x, y, z  ex cos yi  ex sin yj  zk.
2
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines 103

Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

1. Fx, y, z  3x  5y  3z  15  0 3. Fx, y, z  4x2  9y2  4z2  0


3x  5y  3z  15 Plane 4x2  9y2  4z2 Elliptic cone

5. Fx, y, z  x  y  z  4 7. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z


F  i  j  k x y
Fx, y, z  i jk
F 1 x2 y2 x  y2
2

n  i  j  k
F  3 3 4
F3, 4, 5  i  j  k
5 5
3
 i  j  k
F
 
3 5 3 4
n  i jk
F  52 5 5
1
 3i  4j  5k
52
2
 3i  4j  5k
10

9. Fx, y, z  x2y4  z 11. Fx, y, z  ln y x z  ln x  ln y  z


Fx, y, z  2xy4 i  4x2y3j  k
1 1 1
Fx, y, z  i  j k
F1, 2, 16  32i  32j  k x yz yz
F 1 F1, 4, 3  i  j  k
n  32i  32j  k
F  2049
F 1
n  i  j  k
2049 F  3
 32i  32j  k
2049
3
 i  j  k
3

13. Fx, y, z  x sin y  z  4


Fx, y, z  sin yi  x cos yj  k

  1
F 6, , 7   i  33 j  k
6 2
F
n 
2
F  113
1

 i  33 j  k
2 
1
  i  63 j  2k
113

113

113
 i  63 j  2k

15. f x, y  25  x2  y2, 3, 1, 15


Fx, y, z  25  x2  y2  z
Fxx, y, z  2x Fyx, y, z  2y Fzx, y, z  1
Fx3, 1, 15  6 Fy3, 1, 15  2 Fz3, 1, 15  1
6x  3  2 y  1  z  15  0
0  6x  2y  z  35
6x  2y  z  35
104 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

17. f x, y  x2  y2, 3, 4, 5


Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z
x y
Fxx, y, z  Fyx, y, z  Fzx, y, z  1
x2  y2 x2  y2

3 4
Fx3, 4, 5  Fy3, 4, 5  Fz3, 4, 5  1
5 5
3 4
x  3   y  4  z  5  0
5 5
3x  3  4 y  4  5z  5  0
3x  4y  5z  0

19. gx, y  x2  y2, 5, 4, 9


Gx, y, z  x2  y2  z
Gxx, y, z  2x Gyx, y, z  2y Gzx, y, z  1
Gx5, 4, 9  10 Gy5, 4, 9  8 Gz5, 4, 9  1
10x  5  8y  4  z  9  0
10x  8y  z  9

21. z  exsin y  1, 0, 2 , 2


Fx, y, z  exsin y  1  z
Fxx, y, z  exsin y  1 Fyx, y, z  ex cos y Fzx, y, z  1
  
 
Fx 0, , 2  2
2 
Fy 0, , 2  0
2   
Fz 0, , 2  1
2
2x  z  2

23. hx, y  ln x2  y2, 3, 4, ln 5


1
Hx, y, z  ln x2  y2  z  lnx2  y2  z
2
x y
Hxx, y, z  Hyx, y, z  Hzx, y, z  1
x2  y2 x2  y2
3 4
Hx3, 4, ln 5  Hy3, 4, ln 5  Hz3, 4, ln 5  1
25 25
3 4
x  3   y  4  z  ln 5  0
25 25
3x  3  4 y  4  25z  ln 5  0
3x  4y  25z  251  ln 5

25. x2  4y2  z2  36, 2, 2, 4


Fx, y, z  x2  4y2  z2  36
Fxx, y, z  2x Fyx, y, z  8y Fzx, y, z  2z
Fx2, 2, 4  4 Fy2, 2, 4  16 Fz2, 2, 4  8
4x  2  16 y  2  8z  4  0
x  2  4 y  2  2z  4  0
x  4y  2z  18
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines 105

27. xy2  3x  z2  4, 2, 1, 2


Fx, y, z  xy2  3x  z2  4
Fxx, y, z  y2  3 Fyx, y, z  2xy Fzx, y, z  2z
Fx2, 1, 2  4 Fy2, 1, 2  4 FZ2, 1, 2  4
4x  2  4 y  1  4z  2  0
xyz1

29. x2  y2  z  9, 1, 2, 4
Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z  9
Fxx, y, z  2x Fyx, y, z  2y Fzx, y, z  1
Fx1, 2, 4  2 Fy1, 2, 4  4 Fz1, 2, 4  1
Direction numbers: 2, 4, 1
Plane: 2x  1  4 y  2  z  4  0, 2x  4y  z  14
x1 y2 z4
Line:  
2 4 1

31. xy  z  0, 2, 3, 6


Fx, y, z  xy  z
Fxx, y, z  y Fyx, y, z  x Fzx, y, z  1
Fx2, 3, 6  3 Fy2, 3, 6  2 Fz2, 3, 6  1
Direction numbers: 3, 2, 1
Plane: 3x  2  2 y  3  z  6  0, 3x  2y  z  6
x2 y3 z6
Line:  
3 2 1

y
33. z  arctan ,
x 1, 1, 4 
y
Fx, y, z  arctan z
x
y x
Fxx, y, z  Fyx, y, z  Fzx, y, z  1
x2  y2 x2  y2
  

Fx 1, 1,
4
1
2 
Fy 1, 1,
4
1
2 
Fz 1, 1,
4 
 1

Direction numbers: 1, 1, 2


 
Plane: x  1   y  1  2 z   4 0, x  y  2z 
2
x  1 y  1 z  4
Line:  
1 1 2
106 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

4xy
35. z  f x, y  , 2 x z, 0 y 3
x2  1 y2  1
4xy
(a) Let Fx, y, z  z
x2  1 y2  1
4y x2  1  2x2 4x y2  1  2y2
Fx, y, z 
y2 
 1 x  1
2 2
i 2 
x  1  y2  12
jk  
4y1  x2 4x1  y2
 i 2 jk
 y2  1x  1
2 2 x  1 y2  12
F1, 1, 1  k.
Direction numbers: 0, 0, 1.
Line: x  1, y  1, z  1  t
Tangent plane: 0x  1  0 y  1  1z  1  0 z  1
43

(b) F 1, 2, 
4
5 
 0i 
252
jk
6
25
jk

6 4
Line: x  1, y  2  t, z    t
25 5

Plane: 0x  1 
6
25
y  2  1 z 
4
5 
0 
6y  12  25z  20  0
6y  25z  32  0
(c) z z
(d) At 1, 1, 1, the tangent plane is parallel to the xy-plane,
1 1 2
implying that the surface is level there. At  1, 2,  45 ,
3 2 2
the function does not change in the x-direction.
2
y x 3
x
1 1
y

37. Fxx0, y0, z0x  x0  Fyx0, y0, z0y  y0  F2x0, y0, z0z  z0  0
(Theorem 12.13)

39. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  5 Gx, y, z  x  z


Fx, y, z  2x i  2y j Gx, y, z  i  k
F2, 1, 2  4i  2j G2, 1, 2  i  k
i
(a) F G  4
1
Direction numbers: 1, 2, 1,
j
2
0
k
0  2i  4j  2k  2i  2j  k
1
x2 y1 z2
 
1 2 1

(b) cos   F  G

4
 2

10
; not orthogonal
F  G 202 10 5

41. Fx, y, z  x2  z2  25 Gx, y, z  y2  z2  25


F  2x i  2z k G  2yj  2zk
F3, 3, 4  6i  8k G3, 3, 4  6j  8k

CONTINUED
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines 107


41. CONTINUED
i j k
(a) F G  6 0 8  48i  48j  36k  124i  4j  3k
0 6 8
x3 y3 z4
Direction numbers: 4, 4, 3,  
4 4 3

(b) cos   F  G

64
16
 ; not orthogonal
F  G 1010 25

43. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  6 Gx, y, z  x  y  z


Fx, y, z  2x i  2yj  2zk Gx, y, z  i  j  k
F2, 1, 1  4i  2j  2k G2, 1, 1  i  j  k
i
(a) F G  4
1 j
2
1

Direction numbers: 0, 1, 1, x  2,


k
2  6j  6k  6 j  k
1
y1 z1
1

1
(b) cos   F  G
F  G

 0; orthogonal

y2
45. f x, y  6  x2  , gx, y  2x  y
4
y2
(a) Fx, y, z  z  x2  6
4
Gx, y, z  z  2x  y
1
Fx, y, z  2x i  yj  k
2 Gx, y, z  2i  j  k
F1, 2, 4  2i  j  k G1, 2, 4  2i  j  k


The cross product of these gradients is parallel to the curve of intersection.
i j k
F1, 2, 4 G1, 2, 4  2 1 1  2i  4j
2 1 1
Using direction numbers 1, 2, 0, you get x  1  t, y  2  2t, z  4.

F  G 4  1  1 4
cos     
48.2

F G 6 6 6

(b) z

8
(1, 2, 4)

6
8 y
x

47. Fx, y, z  3x2  2y2  z  15, 2, 2, 5 49. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z, 1, 2, 3


Fx, y, z  6xi  4yj  k Fx, y, z  2xi  2yj  k
F2, 2, 5  12i  8j  k F1, 2, 3  2i  4j  k

cos   F2, 2, 5  k  1
cos   F1, 2, 3  k  1
F2, 2, 5 209 F1, 2, 3 21

  arccos  1
209 

86.03
  arccos
1
21

77.40

108 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

51. Fx, y, z  3  x2  y2  6y  z 53. Tx, y, z  400  2x2  y2  4z2, 4, 3, 10


Fx, y, z  2xi  2y  6j  k dx dy dz
 4kx  2ky  8kz
dt dt dt
2x  0, x  0 z

xt  C1e4kt yt  C2e2kt zt  C3e8kt


2y  6  0, y  3
8 x0  C1  4 y0  C2  3 z0  C3  10
z  3  02  32  63  12
x  4e4kt y  3e2kt z  10e8kt
0, 3, 12 (vertex of paraboloid)
8 6
x
8
y

x2 y2 z2
55. Fx, y, z  2  2 21 57. Fx, y, z  a2x2  b2y2  z2
a b c
Fxx, y, z  2a2x
2x
Fxx, y, z  2
a Fyx, y, z  2b2y
2y Fzx, y, z  2z
Fyx, y, z 
b2
Plane: 2a2x0x  x0  2b2y0 y  y0  2z0z  z0  0
2z
Fzx, y, z  2 a2x0x  b2y0y  z0z  a2x02  b2y02  z02  0
c
2x0 2y 2z Hence, the plane passes through the origin.
Plane: x  x0  20  y  y0  20 z  z0  0
a2 b c
x0x y0 y z0z x02 y02 z02
 2  2  2  2  2 1
a2 b c a b c

59. f x, y  exy


fxx, y  exy, fyx, y  exy
fxxx, y  exy, fyyx, y  exy, fxyx, y  exy
(a) P1x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0, 0y  1  x  y
(b) P2x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0,0y  2 fxx0, 0x2  fxy0, 0xy  2 fyy0, 0y2
1 1

 1  x  y  12 x2  xy  12 y2
(c) If x  0, P20, y  1  y  2 y2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ey.
1

If y  0, P2x, 0  1  x  2 x2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ex.


1

(d) (e) f
x y f x, y P1x, y P2x, y z
P2
0 0 1 1 1 P1 4

2 2
0 0 0.9048 0.9000 0.9050
1
0.2 0.1 1.1052 1.1000 1.1050 2
x 2
2
0.2 0.5 0.7408 0.7000 0.7450 4 y

1 0.5 1.6487 1.5000 1.6250

61. Given w  Fx, y, z where F is differentiable at


x0, y0, z0 and Fx0, y0, z0 0,
the level surface of F at x0, y0, z0 is of the form Fx, y, z  C for some constant C. Let
Gx, y, z  Fx, y, z  C  0.
Then Gx0, y0, z0  Fx0, y0, z0 where Gx0, y0, z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C  0.
Therefore, Fx0, y0z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C.
Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 109

Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

1. gx, y  x  12   y  32 0 z

Relative minimum: 1, 3, 0 5

gx  2x  1  0 x  1
gy  2 y  3  0 y  3 1
2 1
3
x 4 y
(1, 3, 0)

3. f x, y  x2  y2  1 1 z

5
Relative minimum: 0, 0, 1
x
Check: fx  0 x0
x2  y2  1
3
2 (0, 0, 1)
y 3
0 y0
2
fy  x 3 y

x2  y2  1

y2  1 x2  1 xy
fxx  , f  , f 
x2  y2  132 yy x2  y2  132 xy x2  y2  132
At the critical point 0, 0, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 1 is a relative minimum.

5. f x, y  x2  y2  2x  6y  6  x  12   y  32  4 4 z

2
Relative minimum: 1, 3, 4 1
2 1
1
Check: fx  2x  2  0 x  1
x
1
2 7 y
3
fy  2y  6  0 y  3 4
(1, 3, 4)
fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  0
At the critical point 1, 3, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 3, 4 is a relative minimum.

7. f x, y  2x2  2xy  y2  2x  3


fx  4x  2y  2  0
fy  2x  2y  0  Solving simultaneously yields x  1 and y  1.

fxx  4, fyy  2, fxy  2


At the critical point 1, 1, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 4 is a relative minimum.

9. f x, y  5x2  4xy  y2  16x  10


fx  10x  4y  16  0
fy  4x  2y  0  Solving simultaneously yields x  8 and y  16.

fxx  10, fyy  2, fxy  4


At the critical point 8, 16, fxx < 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 8, 16, 74 is a relative maximum.

11. f x, y  2x2  3y2  4x  12y  13 13. f x, y  2x2  y2  3


fx  4x  4  4x  1  0 when x  1.


fx  2x 0 x  0, y  0
fy  6y  12  6 y  2  0 when y  2. x2  y2

fxx  4, fyy  6, fxy  0 2y


fy  0
x2  y2
At the critical point 1, 2, fxx > 0 and
Since f x, y 3 for all x, y, 0, 0, 3 is relative minimum.
fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a relative
minimum.
110 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

15. gx, y  4  x  y  
0, 0 is the only critical point. Since gx, y 4 for all x, y, 0, 0, 4 is relative maximum.

4x
19. z  x2  4y2e1x
2 y2
17. z 
x2  y2  1
Relative minimum: 0, 0, 0
Relative minimum: 1, 0, 2
Relative maxima: 0, 1, 4
Relative maximum: 1, 0, 2
Saddle points:  1, 0, 1
z
z
4
6
5
4

4 y
4 4
5
x
4

4 4
x y

21. hx, y  x2  y2  2x  4y  4
hx  2x  2  2x  1  0 when x  1.
hy  2y  4  2 y  2  0 when y  2.
hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  0
At the critical point 1, 2, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a saddle point.

23. hx, y  x2  3xy  y2


hx  2x  3y  0
hy  3x  2y  0  Solving simultaneously yields x  0 and y  0.

hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  3


At the critical point 0, 0, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.

25. f x, y  x3  3xy  y3


fx  3x2  y  0
fy  3x  y2  0  Solving by substitution yields two critical points 0, 0 and 1, 1.

fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  3


At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point. At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  6 > 0 and
fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 1 is a relative minimum.

27. f x, y  ex sin y


fx  ex sin y  0
fy  ex cos y  0  Since ex > 0 for all x and sin y and cos y are never both zero for a
given value of y, there are no critical points.

x  y4
29. z  0. z  0 if x  y  0. z
x2  y2
60
Relative minimum at all points x, x, x  0.
40

3
x 3 y
Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 111

31. fxx fyy   fxy2  94  62  0 33. fxx fyy   fxy2  96  102 < 0
Insufficient information. f has a saddle point at x0, y0.

35. (a) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative minimum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(b) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative maximum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(c) A saddle point is a critical point which is not a relative extremum.
(d) See definition page 906.

z z
37. No extrema 39. Saddle point 41. The point A will be a saddle point.
75 7 The function could be
6
60

45
f x, y  x2  y2.
30

6 3 y
2 x
x
2 3
y

43. d  fxx fyy  fxy2  28  fxy2  16  fxy2 > 0 45. f x, y  x3  y3
fxy2 < 16 4 < fxy < 4 fx  3x2  0
fy  3y2  0  Solving yields x  y  0
fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  0
At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails. 0, 0, 0
is a saddle point.

47. f x, y  x  12 y  42 0


fx  2x  1 y  42  0
fy  2x  12y  4  0  Solving yields the critical points 1, a and b, 4.
fxx  2 y  42, fyy  2x  12, fxy  4x  1 y  4
At both 1, a and b, 4, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails.
Absolute minima: 1, a, 0 and b, 4, 0

49. f x, y  x23  y23 0


2
fx 
3
3 x
fx and fy are undefined at x  0, y  0. The critical point is 0, 0.
2
fy 
3
3 y

2 2
fxx   ,f 
3 3 yy
,f 0
9x  3 y xy
9y 
At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 is undefined and the test fails.
Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 0

51. f x, y, z  x2   y  32  z  12 0


fx  2x  0
fy  2 y  3  0
fz  2z  1  0
 Solving yields the critical point 0, 3, 1.

Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 3, 1


112 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

53. f x, y  12  3x  2y has no critical points. On the line y  x  1, 0 x 1, y

f x, y  f x  12  3x  2x  1  5x  10 3

and the maximum is 10, the minimum is 5. On the line y  2x  4, 1 x 2, y=x+1
2 (1, 2)
f x, y  f x  12  3x  22x  4  x  4
y = 2x + 4
and the maximum is 6, the minimum is 5. On the line y   12 x  1, 0 x 2, 1 (0, 1)

f x, y  f x  12  3x  2  12 x  1  2x  10 (2, 0)


x
1 2 3
and the maximum is 10, the minimum is 6. y= 1x +1
2
Absolute maximum: 10 at 0, 1
Absolute minimum: 5 at 1, 2

55. f x, y  3x2  2y2  4y y


(2, 4) (2, 4)
fx  6x  0 x0
fy  4y  4  0 y  1  f 0, 1  2
3

On the line y  4, 2 x 2, 2

f x, y  f x  3x  32  16  3x  16
2 2
1

and the maximum is 28, the minimum is 16. On the curve y  x2, 2 x 2, x
2 1 1 2
f x, y  f x  3x2  2  x2 2 4x2  2x4  x2  x2 2x2  1
and the maximum is 28, the minimum is  18 .
Absolute maximum: 28 at  2, 4
Absolute minimum: 2 at 0, 1

57. f x, y  x2  xy, R  x, y: x 2, y 1   y

fx  2x  y  0
xy0
2

fy  x  0
f 0, 0  0 x
1 1
Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x   2 .
1

Thus, f 2, 1  2, f   2 , 1   4 and f 2, 1  6.


1 1
2

Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x  2 .
1

Thus, f 2, 1  6, f  2 , 1   4 , f 2, 1  2.


1 1

Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.
Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.
Thus, the maxima are f 2, 1  6 and f 2, 1  6 and the minima are f   2 , 1   4 and f  2 , 1   4 .
1 1 1 1

59. f x, y  x2  2xy  y2, R  x, y: x2  y2 8 y

fx  2x  2y  0
 y  x
4

fy  2x  2y  0 2

f x, x  x2  2x2  x2 0 x


4 2 2 4
On the boundary x2  y2  8, we have y2  8  x2 and y  8  x2. Thus, 2

f  x2 2x8  x2  8  x2  8 2x8  x2 4

16  4x2
f  8  x2122x  28  x212  .
8  x2

Then, f  0 implies 16  4x2 or x  2.


f 2, 2  f 2, 2  16 and f 2, 2  f 2, 2  0
Thus, the maxima are f 2, 2  16 and f 2, 2  16, and the minima are f x, x  0, x 2. 
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 113

4xy
61. f x, y  , R  x, y: 0 x 1, 0 y 1 y
x2  1 y2  1
41  x2y
fx   0 x  1 or y  0 1
  1x2  1
y2
R
41  y2x
fy  x  0 or y  1
x  1 y2  12
2
1
x

For x  0, y  0, also, and f 0, 0  0.


For x  1, y  1, f 1, 1  1.
The absolute maximum is 1  f 1, 1.
The absolute minimum is 0  f 0, 0. In fact, f 0, y  f x, 0  0

63. False

Let f x, y  1  x  y . 
0, 0, 1 is a relative maximum, but fx0, 0 and fy0, 0 do not exist.

Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

1. A point on the plane is given by x, y, 12  2x  3y. The 3. A point on the paraboloid is given by x, y, x2  y2. The
square of the distance from the origin to this point is square of the distance from 5, 5, 0 to a point on the
paraboloid is given by
S  x2  y2  12  2x  3y2
S  x  52   y  52  x2  y22
Sx  2x  212  2x  3y2
Sx  2x  5  4xx2  y2  0
Sy  2y  212  2x  3y3
Sy  2 y  5  4yx2  y2  0.
From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system
5x  6y  24
2x3  2xy2  x  5  0
3x  5y  18.
12 18 2y3  2x2y  y  5  0
Solving simultaneously, we have x  7 , y 7
z  12  24 54 6 Multiply the first equation by y and the second equation
7  7  7 . Therefore, the distance from
by x, and subtract to obtain x  y. Then, we have x  1,
the origin to  12 18 6
7 , 7 ,7  is y  1, z  2 and the distance is

127  187  67 614


2 2 2
 . 1  52  1  52  2  02  6.
7

5. Let x, y and z be the numbers. Since x  y  z  30, z  30  x  y.


P  xyz  30xy  x2y  xy2
Px  30y  2xy  y2  y30  2x  y  0 2x  y  30
Py  30x  x2  2xy  x30  x  2y  0 x  2y  30

Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.

7. Let x, y, and z be the numbers and let S  x2  y2  z2. Since x  y  z  30, we have
S  x2  y2  30  x  y2
Sx  2x  230  x  y1  0 2x  y  30
Sy  2y  230  x  y1  0 x  2y  30.

Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.


114 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

9. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height, respectively. Then the sum of the length and girth is given by
x  2y  2z  108 or x  108  2y  2z. The volume is given by
V  xyz  108zy  2zy2  2yz2
Vy  108z  4yz  2z2  z108  4y  2z  0
Vz  108y  2y2  4yz  y108  2y  4z  0.
Solving the system 4y  2z  108 and 2y  4z  108, we obtain the solution x  36 inches, y  18 inches, and z  18 inches.

11. Let a  b  c  k. Then 13. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height,
respectively and let V0 be the given volume.
4 abc 4
V   abk  a  b Then V0  xyz and z  V0 xy. The surface area is
3 3


4 V0 V0
  kab  a2b  ab2 S  2xy  2yz  2xz  2 xy  
3 x y

4 V0

Va  kb  2ab  b2  0 kb  2ab  b2  0 Sx  2 y   0 x2y  V0  0


3 x2


4 V0
Vb  ka  a2  2ab  0 ka  a2  2ab  0. Sy  2 x   0 xy2  V0  0.
3 y2

Solving this system simultaneously yields a  b and


3 V ,y  
Solving simultaneously yields x   0
3 V ,
0

substitution yields b  k 3. Therefore, the solution is and z  3 V .


0

a  b  c  k 3.

15. The distance from P to Q is x2  4. The distance from Q to R is y  x2  1 . The distance from R to S is 10  y.
C  3kx2  4  2k y  x2  1  k10  y


Cx  3k
x2
x
4 
 2k

  y  x
 y  x2  1
0

C  2k
yx yx 1
y k0 
 y  x  1
 2
 y  x  1 2  2

x  4
3k  2k  0
x 1
 2 2
x 1

x2  4 3
3x  x2  4
9x2  x2  4
1
x2 
2
2
x
2
2 y  x   y  x2  1
4 y  x2   y  x2  1
1
 y  x2 
3

y
1 1 23  32
 
3 2 6
2 23  32
Therefore, x  0.707 km and y  1.284 kms.
2 6
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 115

17. Let h be the height of the trough and r the length of the slanted sides. We observe that the area of a trapezoidal cross section is
given by

Ah w  2r  2w  2r  2x  w  2r  xh


where x  r cos  and h  r sin . Substituting these expressions for x and h, we have

Ar,   w  2r  r cos r sin   wr sin   2r 2 sin   r 2 sin  cos 


Now

Arr,   w sin   4r sin   2r sin  cos   sin w  4r  2r cos   0 w  r 4  2 cos 

Ar,   wr cos   2r 2 cos   r 2 cos 2  0.


Substituting the expression for w from Arr,   0 into the equation Ar,   0, we have

r 24  2 cos cos   2r 2 cos   r 22 cos2   1  0

1
r 22 cos   1  0 or cos   .
2

Therefore, the first partial derivatives are zero when    3 and r  w 3. (Ignore the solution r    0.) Thus, the
trapezoid of maximum area occurs when each edge of width w 3 is turned up 60 from the horizontal.

19. Rx1, x2  5x12  8x22  2x1x2  42x1  102x2

Rx1  10x1  2x2  42  0, 5x1  x2  21

Rx2  16x2  2x1  102  0, x1  8x2  51


Solving this system yields x1  3 and x2  6.

Rx1x1  10

Rx1x2  2

Rx2x2  16

Rx1x1 < 0 and Rx1x1 Rx2x2  Rx1x22 > 0


Thus, revenue is maximized when x1  3 and x2  6.

21. Px1, x2  15x1  x2  C1  C2


 15x1  15x2  0.02x12  4x1  500  0.05x22  4x2  275

 0.02x12  0.05x22  11x1  11x2  775

Px1  0.04x1  11  0, x1  275

Px2  0.10x2  11  0, x2  110

Px1x1  0.04

Px1x2  0

Px2x2  0.10

Px1x1 < 0 and Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0

Therefore, profit is maximized when x1  275 and x2  110.


116 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

23. (a) Sx, y  d1  d2  d3

 x  02   y  02  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22

 x2  y2  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22


From the graph we see that the surface has a minimum. S

24
x x2 x4
(b) Sxx, y    20
x2  y2 x  22   y  22 x  42   y  22

y y2 y2
Syx, y   
x2  y2 x  22   y  22 x  42   y  22 4
2
4 2


6 4 6
8
1 1 2 8 y
(c) S1, 1  Sx1, 1i  Sy1, 1j   i  j x
2 2 10

tan  
 2 10    1 2   1  2
 186.027
1 2 5

(d) x2, y2  x1  Sxx1, y1t, y1  Syx1, y1t  1   2


1
t, 1   2
10

1
2 t

S 1
2
1
t, 1   2
10
 2 t  2  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t
1



 2

 10  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t


 2

 10  2 510  4 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t


 2

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.344. Thus, x2, y2 0.05, 0.90.

(e) x3, y3  x2  Sxx2, y2t, y2  Syx2, y2t 0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t
S0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t  0.05  0.03t2  0.90  0.26t2  2.05  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2

 3.95  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.78. Thus x3, y3 0.10, 0.44.
x4, y4  x3  Sxx3, y3t, y3  Syx3, y3t 0.10  0.09t, 0.44  0.01t
S0.10  0.09t, 0.45  0.01t  0.10  0.09t2  0.45  0.01t2  2.10  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2

 3.90  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 0.44. Thus, x4, y4 0.06, 0.44.

Note: The minimum occurs at x, y  0.0555, 0.3992

(f) Sx, y points in the direction that S decreases most rapidly. You would use Sx, y for maximization problems.

25. Write the equation to be maximized or minimized as a function of two variables. Set the partial derivatives
equal to zero (or undefined) to obtain the critical points. Use the Second Partials Test to test for relative extrema
using the critical points. Check the boundary points, too.
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 117

27. (a) 29. (a)


x y xy x2 x y xy x2

2 0 0 4 0 4 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 3 3 1

2 3 6 4 1 1 1 1

x  0  y  4  xy  6  x
i i i i i
2 8 2 0 0 4

36  04 3
x  4 y  8 xy  4 x
i i i i i
2 6


1 3 4
a  , b 4  0  ,
38  02 4 3 4 3 44  48 1
a  2, b  8  24  4,
3 4 46  42 4
y x
4 3
y  2x  4

  
2 2 2
3 4 4 3 4
(b) S     0  1   3
2 3 3 2 3 (b) S  4  42  2  32  2  12  0  02  2

1

6

31. 0, 0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 4, 2, 5, 5 33. 0, 6, 4, 3, 5, 0, 8, 4, 10, 5

 x  13,
i  y  12,i  x  27,
i  y  0,
i

x y  46,
i i x  51 i
2
 x y  70,
i i  x  205
i
2

546  1312 74 37 570  270 350 175


a   a  
551  132 86 43 5205  272 296 148

b
1
5
12 
37
43
13 
7
43  b
1
5
0 
175
148
27 945
148 
37 7 175 945
y x y x
43 43 148 148
8
y = 37
43
7
x + 43
7 (0, 6)
(5, 5) (4, 3)
(3, 4) 4 18
(5, 0)
(4, 2)
(1, 1) (8, 4) (10, 5)
2 10
(0, 0) 6
1
y = 175
148
x + 945
148

35. (a) y  1.7236x  79.7334 37. 1.0, 32, 1.5, 41, 2.0, 48, 2.5, 53
(b) 240
 x  7,  y  174,  x y  322,  x
i i i i i
2  13.5
a  14, b  19, y  14x  19
When x  1.6, y  41.4 bushels per acre.
0 100
100

(c) For each one-year increase in age, the pressure


changes by 1.7236 (slope of line).
118 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

n
39. Sa, b, c    y  ax
i1
i i
2  bxi  c2 41. 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 5
S

n


2xi2 yi  axi2  bxi  c  0 x 0 i
8

a i1
S n y 8 i (1, 0)
(2, 5)


b i1 
2xi yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
 x  10 i
2 9
(2, 0)
(1, 2)

(0, 1)
6

S
x  0
n 2


3
 2  yi  axi2  bxi  c  0 i
c i1

n n n n  x  34 i
4

a
i1
 xi4 b 
i1
xi3 c 
i1
xi2  
i1
xi2yi
 x y  12 i i

 x y  22
n n n n

x x x  x y
2
a i
3 b i
2 c i i i i i
i1 i1 i1 i1

n n n 34a  10c  22, 10b  12, 10a  5c  8


a x
i1
i
2 b  x  cn   y
i1
i
i1
i
a  37 , b  65 , c  26 3 2 6 26
35 , y  7 x  5 x  35

43. 0, 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 4, 12 45. 0, 0, 2, 15, 4, 30, 6, 50, 8, 65, 10, 70

x 9 i  x  30, i

 y  20 i  y  230, i

 x  29 i
2
 x  220, i
2

 x  99 i
3
 x  1,800,i
3

x  353 i
4
 x  15,664,
i
4

 x y  70 i i
 x y  1,670,
i i

 x y  2542
i i
 x y  13,500
2
i i

353a  99b  29c  254


15,664a  1,800b  220c  13,500
99a  29b  9c  70
1,800a  220b  30c  1,670
29a  9b  4c  20
220a  30b  6c  230
a  1, b  1, c  0, y  x2  x 25 2 541 25
y  112 x  56 x 14 0.22x 2  9.66x  1.79
14
120
(4, 12)

(3, 6)
(2, 2)
5 7
(0, 0) 1 14
2
20

47. (a) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018


(b) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018
P  e0.1499h9.3018  10,957.7e0.1499h
(c) 14,000

2 24

2,000

(d) Same answers.


Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers 119

Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers

1. Maximize f x, y  xy. y 3. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2. y

Constraint: x  y  10 12 Constraint: x  y  4 4 constraint


10
f  g 8 level curves f  g
y i  xj  i  j 6
2x i  2yj   i   j 4 4
x
4
y 2x  
x   x  y
2
xy constraint

2 4 6 8 10 12
x
2y   4
level curves

x  y  10  x  y  5 xy4 xy2
f 5, 5  25 f 2, 2  8

5. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2. 7. Maximize f x, y  2x  2xy  y.


Constraint: x  2y  6 Constraint: 2x  y  100
f  g f  g
2x i  2yj   i  2 j 2  2y i  2x  1j  2 i   j
 2  2y  2 y    1
2x  

2y  2 y  
x
2
2x  1   x
2

  1 y  2x

3 2x  y  100 4x  100
x  2y  6    6
2 x  25, y  50
  4, x  2, y  4 f 25, 50  2600
f 2, 4  12

9. Note: f x, y  6  x2  y 2 is maximum when gx, y 11. Maximize f x, y  e xy.


is maximum. Constraint: x2  y 2  8
Maximize gx, y  6  x2  y 2.
ye xy  2x
Constraint: x  y  2
xe xy  2y xy
 2x  
2y   xy x2  y 2  8 2x2  8
xy2
xy2 xy1
f 2, 2  e4
f 1, 1  g1, 1  2

13. Maximize or minimize f x, y  x 2  3xy  y 2. Case 2: Inside the circle


 1 fx  2x  3y  0
xy0
Constraint: x2 y2
Case 1: On the circle x2  y2 1 fy  3x  2y  0

2x  3y  2x fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  3, fxx fyy   fxy2 0


3x  2y  2y  x2  y 2
Saddle point: f 0, 0  0
5
2 2 By combining these two cases, we have a maximum of 2 at
x2  y2  1 x  ,y
2 2
 
2 2
,
 2 
2 2 5 2 2
Maxima: f ,  1
2 2 and a minimum of  2 at

    12
2 2
 .
2 2
Minima: f , ,
2 2 2 2
120 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

15. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2. 17. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2.


Constraint: x  y  z  6 Constraint: x  y  z  1

2x   2x  

2z  

2y   x  y  z

2y   x  y  z
2z  
xyz6 xyz2 x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13
f 2, 2, 2  12 f  13 , 13 , 13   13

19. Maximize f x, y, z  xyz. 21. Maximize f x, y, z  xy  yz.


Constraints: x  y  z  32 Constraints: x  2y  6
xyz0 x  3z  0
f  g  h f  g  h
yz i  xz j  xyk  i  j  k   i  j  k y i  x  z j  yk  i  2j   i  3k

yz     y

xy    

xz     yz  xy x  z x  z  2
y  3
3 8
y  xz y
4 3 
x  y  z  32
xyz0 
x
2x  2z  32 x  z  8 x  2y  6 y  3 
2

y  16 x  3z  0 z 
x
3
f 8, 16, 8  1024
x
x 8
 3
3 3
x
2 
3
x  3, y  , z  1
2

 3
f 3, , 1  6
2 

23. Minimize the square of the distance f x, y  x2  y 2 25. Minimize the square of the distance
subject to the constraint 2x  3y  1.
f x, y, z  x  22   y  12  z  12
2x  2
2y  3  y  3x2 subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.

2x  2  
2
2x  3y  1 x   , y  
13
3
13
2z  1  

2 y  1   y  z and y  x  1

The point on the line is   13 ,  13  and the desired


2 3
x  y  z  1 x  2x  1  1
distance is
x  1, y  z  0
    13
2 2 3 2
d     .
13 13 13 The point on the plane is 1, 0, 0 and the desired
distance is
d  1  22  0  12  0  12  3.
Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers 121

27. Maximize f x, y, z  z subject to the constraints 29. Optimization problems that have restrictions or contstraints
x2  y 2  z2  36 and 2x  y  z  2. on the values that can be used to produce the optimal
solution are called contrained optimization problems.
0  2x  2
0  2y   x  2y
1  2z  

x2  y 2  z 2  36
2x  y  z  2 z  2x  y  2  5y  2
2y2  y 2  5y  22  36
30y 2  20y  32  0
15y 2  10y  16  0
5 265
y
15
Choosing the positive value for y we have the point

10  152
265 5  265 1  265
,
15
,
3 .
31. Maximize Vx, y, z  xyz subject to the constraint 33. Minimize Cx, y, z  5xy  32xz  2yz  xy subject
x  2y  2z  108. to the constraint x yz  480.
yz   8y  6z  yz 

xy  2

xz  2 y  z and x  2y

8x  6z  xz  x  y, 4y  3z
6x  6y  xy
x  2y  2z  108 6y  108, y  18 xyz  480 43 y 3  480
x  36, y  z  18 3 360, z  4 
x  y  3 360
3
Volume is maximum when the dimensions are Dimensions:  3 360 4 
3 360  3 360
feet
3
36 18 18 inches

z z x

x
y y

x2 y2 z2
35. Maximize Vx, y, z  2x2y2z  8xyz subject to the constraint 2  2  2  1.
a b c


2x
8yz  
a2
2y x2 y2 z2
8xz   2  2  2
b2 a b c
2z
8xy  
c2
x2 y2 z2 3x2 3y 2 3z 2
   1 2  1, 2  1, 2  1
a2 b 2 c 2 a b c
a b c
x ,y ,z
3 3 3

23a 23b 23c


Therefore, the dimensions of the box are .
3 3 3
122 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

Distance d12  x2 d22  y 2


37. Using the formula Time  , minimize Tx, y   subject to the constraint x  y  a.
Rate v1 v2
x



v1d22  x 2 x y
 P Medium 1
y v1d12  x2 v2d22  y 2

v2d22  y 2
d1
xya 1
y
x y
Since sin
1  and sin
2  , we have x
2
d2
d12  x2 d22  y 2
Q
a
Medium 2
xd1  2 x2 yd2  2 y2 sin
1 sin
2
 or  .
v1 v2 v1 v2

39. Maximize P p, q, r  2pq  2pr  2qr. 41. Maximize Px, y  100x 0.25y 0.75
Constraint: p  q  r  1 subject to the constraint 48x  36y  100,000.
P  g 48
yx
0.75
25x0.75y0.75  48 
2q  2r  


25
2p  2r   3  4 p  q  r  41 36
xy
0.25
75x0.25y0.25  36 
2p  2q    4 75
3

yx yx 48253675


0.75 0.25
pqr1 

pqr1
q  r  23
 p 1
3, q  13 , r  13 y
4
x
P 13 , 13 , 13   2 13  13   2 13  13   2 13  13   23 .
y  4x
48x  36y  100,000 192x  100,000
3125 6250
x ,y
6 3
Therefore, P  147,314.
3125 6250
6 , 3

43. Minimize Cx, y  48x  36y subject to the constraint 100x0.25y0.75  20,000.

yx
0.75
48
48  25x0.75y0.75 
25

xy
0.25 36
36  75x0.25y0.25 
75

yx yx 25487536


0.75 0.25


y
 4 y  4x
x
100x0.25y0.75  20,000 x0.254x0.75  200
200 200
x   502
40.75 22
y  4x  2002
Therefore, C 502, 2002  $13,576.45.
Review Exercises for Chapter 12 123

45. (a) Maximize g, ,   cos  cos  cos  subject to the constraint       .
 sin  cos  cos  

cos  sin  cos   tan   tan   tan      
cos  cos  sin  

 
3

g 3 , 3 . 3   81

(b)               2

g    cos  cos  cos     


3 3
 cos  cos cos  cos    sin  sin  
 cos  cos  cos  

Review Exercises for Chapter 12

1. No, it is not the graph of a function.

3. f x, y  ex 5. f x, y  x2  y 2
2 y 2

The level curves are of the form The level curves are of the form
c ex y c  x2  y 2
2 2

ln c  x2  y 2. x2 y 2
1  .
The level curves are circles centered at the origin. c c
y The level curves are hyperbolas.
y
2 c = 10 c = 12 c = 2
c=2
4
c=1
c = 12
x
2 2 1
x
4 1 4
1
2

Generated by Mathematica
4
Generated by Mathematica

7. f x, y  ex y 2
9. f x, y, z  x2  y  z2  1
2 z

z
y  x2  z2  1 3

3
3 Elliptic paraboloid
3
2
3 y
x

3 3 y
x
3

xy 1 4x2y
11. lim  13. lim
x, y 1, 1 x  y 2 2
2 x, y 0, 0 x4  y2
Continuous except at 0, 0. 4x 2y 4x 4
For y  x 2,  4  2, for x
0
x y
4 2 x  x4
4x 2y
For y  0,  0, for x
0
x4  y 2
Thus, the limit does not exist. Continuous except at 0, 0.
124 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

15. f x, y  ex cos y 17. z  xey  yex


fx  ex cos y z
 ey  yex
x
fy  e sin y x

z
 xey  ex
y

xy y
19. gx, y  21. f x, y, z  z arctan
x2  y 2 x
yx2  y 2  xy2x y y2  x2 yz
gx 
x2  y 22
 2
x  y 22
fx 
z

y
1   y2 x2 x2
 2  
x  y2
xx2  y 2
gy 
x2  y 22
fy 
z 1
1   y 2 x2 x
 2 
xz
x  y2
y
fz  arctan
x

23. ux, t  cen t sinnx


2 z
25.
u
3

 cnen t cosnx
2

x
u
 cn2en t sinnx
2

t 1
y
3
3

27. f x, y  3x2  xy  2y 3 29. hx, y  x sin y  y cos x 31. z  x2  y2


fx  6x  y hx  sin y  y sin x z
 2x
fy  x  6y 2 hy  x cos y  cos x x

fxx  6 hxx  y cos x 2z


2
x2
fyy  12y hyy  x sin y
z
fxy  1 hxy  cos y  sin x  2y
y
fyx  1 hyx  cos y  sin x 2z
 2
y 2
2z 2z
Therefore,  2  0.
x 2 y

y y
33. z 35. z  x sin
x2  y 2 x
z 2xy z z

x x2  y 22
dz 
x
dx 
y
y y y
 y
dy  sin  cos dx  cos dy
x x x x   
2z 4x2 3x2  y 2
x2
 2y 2

1
x  y 23 x2  y 22
 2y 2
x  y 23
z x2  y 2  2y x2  y2
  2
y x2  y 22 x  y 22
2z x2  y 222y  2x2  y 2x2  y 22y

y 2
x2  y 24
3x2  y 2
 2y
x2  y 23
2z 2z
Therefore,  2  0.
x 2 y
Review Exercises for Chapter 12 125

37. z2  x2  y 2 39. V  13 r 2h


2z dx  2x dx  2y dy dV  23 rh dr  13 r 2 dh  23 25 18   13 22 18 
5 1
 6 6   in.3
dz 
x
z
y
dx  dy 
z
5 1
13 2
 
12 1
13 2

17
26 
0.654 cm

dz 17 26
Percentage error:  0.0503 5%
z 13

41. w  lnx2  y2, x  2t  3, y  4  t


dw w dx w dy
Chain Rule:  
dt x dt y dt
2x 2y
 2  2 1
x2  y2 x  y2
22t  32 24  t
 
2t  32  4  t2 2t  32  4  t2
10t  4

5t2  4t  25
Substitution: w  lnx2  y2  ln2t  32  4  t2
dw 22t  32  24  t 10t  4
  2
dt 2t  32  4  t2 5t  4t  25

43. u  x2  y 2  z2, x  r cos t, y  r sin t, z  t


u u x u y u z
Chain Rule:   
r x r y r z r
 2x cos t  2y sin t  2z0
 2r cos2 t  r sin2 t  2r
u u x u y u z
  
t x t y t z t
 2xr sin t  2yr cos t  2z
 2r 2 sin t cos t  r 2 sin t cos t  2t
 2t
Substitution: ur, t  r 2 cos2 t  r 2 sin2 t  t 2  r 2  t 2
u
 2r
r
u
 2t
t

45. x2y  2yz  xz  z2  0


z z z
2xy  2y x  z  2z 0
x x x
z 2xy  z 2xy  z
 
x 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z
z z z
x2  2y  2z  x  2z 0
y y y
z x2  2z x2  2z
 
y 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z
126 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

47. f x, y  x2y 49. w  y 2  xz


f  2xyi  x 2j w  z i  2yj  xk
f 2, 1  4 i  4j w1, 2, 2  2i  4 j  k
1 2 2 1 2 1 2
u v i j u v i j k
2 2 2 3 3 3 3
4 4 2 2
Du f 2, 1  f 2, 1 u  2 2  2 2  0 Duw1, 2, 2  w1, 2, 2 u    
3 3 3 3

y
51. z 53. z  ex cos y
x2  y 2
z  ex cos yi  ex sin y j
2xy x2  y 2
z   2 i 2 j
x  y 22 x  y 22
 4    22 i 
z 0,
2
2 
j 
2
2
,
2
2 
1 1
z1, 1   i   , 0  
2
1
2
 z0, 4    1
 z1, 1 
2

55. 9x2  4y2  65 57. Fx, y, z  x2y  z  0


f x, y  9x2  4y2 F  2xy i  x 2j  k
f x, y  18xi  8yj F2, 1, 4  4i  4j  k
f 3, 2  54i  16j Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is
54i  16j 1 4x  2  4 y  1  z  4  0 or
Unit normal:  27i  8j
54i  16j 793 4x  4y  z  8,
and the equation of the normal line is
x2 y1 z4
  .
4 4 1

59. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  4x  6y  z  9  0 61. Fx, y, z  x2  y 2  z  0


F  2x  4i  2y  6j  k Gx, y, z  3  z  0
F2, 3, 4  k F  2x i  2yj  k
Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is G  k
z  4  0 or z  4, F2, 1, 3  4i  2j  k
and the equation of the normal line is
x  2, y  3, z  4  t.
i
F  G  4
0   j
2
0
k
1  2i  2j
1
Therefore, the equation of the tangent line is
x2 y1
 , z  3.
1 2

63. f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2  14
f x, y, z  2xi  2yj  2zk
f 2, 1, 3  4i  2j  6k Normal vector to plane.

cos   n k  6

3 14
n 56 14
  36.7
Review Exercises for Chapter 12 127

65. f x, y  x3  3xy  y 2 z

fx  3x2  3y  3x2  y  0
30

fy  3x  2y  0
x 2
y
fxx  6x 30

fyy  2
fxy  3

From fx  0, we have y  x2. Substituting this into fy  0, we have 3x  2x2  x2x  3  0. Thus, x  0 or 2 .
3

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.
At the critical point  2 , 4 , fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0 and fxx > 0. Therefore,  2 , 4 ,  16  is a relative minimum.
3 9 3 9 27

1 1
67. f x, y  xy   z
x y
20
1
fx  y   0, x2y  1
x2
1
fy  x   0, xy 2  1
y2 3 4 y
4
20 (1, 1, 3)
Thus, x2y  xy2 or x  y and substitution yields the critical point 1, 1. x 24

2
fxx 
x3
fxy  1
2
fyy 
y3
At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  2 > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2  3 > 0. Thus, 1, 1, 3 is a relative minimum.

69. The level curves are hyperbolas. There is a critical point at 0, 0, but there are no relative extrema. The gradient is normal to the
level curve at any given point at x0, y0.

71. Px1, x2  R  C1  C2


 225  0.4x1  x2x1  x2  0.05x12  15x1  5400  0.03x22  15x2  6100
 0.45x12  0.43x22  0.8x1x2  210x1  210x2  11,500
Px1  0.9x1  0.8x2  210  0
0.9x1  0.8x2  210
Px2  0.86x2  0.8x1  210  0
0.8x1  0.86x2  210
Solving this system yields x1 94 and x2 157.
Px1x1  0.9
Px1x2  0.8
Px2x2  0.86
Px1x1 < 0
Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0
Therefore, profit is maximum when x1 94 and x2 157.
128 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

73. Maximize f x, y  4x  xy  2y subject to the 75. (a) y  2.29t  2.34


constraint 20x  4y  2000. 30

4  y  20
x  2  4  5x  y  6
20x  4y  2000 5x  y  500 2 11

5
5x  y  6
(b) 20
10x  494
x  49.4
y  253 1 3

f 49.4, 253  13,201.8 5

Yes, the data appears more linear.


(c) y  8.37 ln t  1.54
(d) 25

1 10

The logarithmic model is a better fit.

77. Optimize f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.

yz
xz xyz
xy

x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13
Maximum: f  13 , 13 , 13   13

79. PQ  x2  4, QR  y2  1, RS  z; x  y  z  10
C  3 x2  4  2 y2  1  2
Constraint: x  y  z  10
C  g
3x 2y
i j  k  i  j  k
x2  4 y2  1

3x  x2  4
2y  y2  1
1
1
9x2  x2  4 x2 
2
1
4y2  y2  1 y2 
3
2 3 2 3
Hence, x  ,y , z  10   8.716 m.
2 3 2 3