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C H A P T E R 1 2

Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

C H A P T E R 1 2
Functions of Several Variables
Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

x2 y2
1. x 2z  yz  xy  10 3.   z2  1
4 9
zx 2  y  10  xy
No, z is not a function of x and y. For example,
10  xy x, y  0, 0 corresponds to both z  1.
z 2
x y
Yes, z is a function of x and y.

x
5. f x, y 
y
3 1 30
(a) f 3, 2  (b) f 1, 4   (c) f 30, 5  6
2 4 5
5 x 5
(d) f 5, y  (e) f x, 2  (f) f 5, t 
y 2 t

xy
7. f x, y  xe y 9. hx, y, z 
z
(a) f 5, 0  5e0  5
23 2
(a) h2, 3, 9  
(b) f 3, 2  3e 2 9 3
2 10
(c) f 2, 1  2e1  (b) h1, 0, 1  0
e 1
(d) f 5, y  5e y
(e) f x, 2  xe 2
(f) f t, t  tet

11. f x, y  x sin y 13. gx, y  x

y
2t  3 dt

 4   2 sin 4  2
(a) f 2,
(a) g0, 4   4

0

2t  3 dt  t 2  3t
4

0
4


(b) f 3, 1  3 sin 1 4


4
(b) g1, 4  2t  3 dt  t 2  3t 6
1 1

15. f x, y  x 2  2y
f x  x, y  f x, y
x  x2  2y  x2  2y
(a) 
x x
x 2  2xx  x2  2y  x 2  2y x2x  x
   2x  x, x  0
x x
f x, y  y  f x, y
x 2  2 y  y  x 2  2y x 2  2y  2y  x 2  2y 2y
(b)     2, y  0
y y y y

76
Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables 77

17. f x, y  4  x 2  y 2 19. f x, y  arcsinx  y 21. f x, y  ln4  x  y

Domain: 4  x2 y 0 2
Domain: Domain: 4  x  y > 0
x, y: 1 x  y 1
x y 4
2 2
xy < 4
 
x, y: x 2  y 2 4 Range:  z x, y: y < x  4
2 2
Range: 0 z 2 Range: all real numbers

xy 1
23. z  25. f x, y  e xy 27. gx, y 
xy xy
Domain: x, y: y  0
Domain: x, y: x  0 and y  0 Domain: x, y: x  0 and y  0
Range: z > 0
Range: all real numbers Range: all real numbers except zero

4x
29. f x, y 
x2  y2  1
(a) View from the positive x-axis: 20, 0, 0 (b) View where x is negative, y and z are positive:
15, 10, 20
(c) View from the first octant: 20, 15, 25 (d) View from the line y  x in the xy-plane: 20, 20, 0

31. f x, y  5 z
33. f x, y  y 2
Plane: z  5 4
Since the variable x is missing, the surface is a cylinder
with rulings parallel to the x-axis. The generating curve is
z  y 2. The domain is the entire xy-plane and the range is
z 0.
2 2 z
4 4 y
5
x
4

1 2 3 y
4
x

35. z  4  x 2  y 2 z
37. f x, y  ex
4 z
Paraboloid Since the variable y is missing, the
Domain: entire xy-plane surface is a cylinder with rulings 8

parallel to the y-axis. The generating

Range: z 4 6
curve is z  ex. The domain is the
3 4

y
entire xy-plane and the range is z > 0.
3 2 3 2
x

4 4 y
x

39. z  y 2  x 2  1 z 41. f x, y  x 2exy2

Hyperbolic paraboloid z

Domain: entire xy-plane

Range:   < z <  y

x
y
x
78 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

43. f x, y  x 2  y 2
(a) z (c) g is a horizontal translation of f two units to the right.
5 The vertex moves from 0, 0, 0 to 0, 2, 0.
4
(d) g is a reflection of f in the xy-plane followed by a ver-
tical translation 4 units upward.
z
(e) z

2 5 5
1 y
2 2
4 4
x

(b) g is a vertical translation of f two units upward

z = f (1, y) z = f (x, 1)
2
2 x
2 y 2
x y

 
2 y 2
45. z  e1x 47. z  ln y  x 2 49. z  x  y
Level curves: Level curves: Level curves are parallel lines of
the form x  y  c.
e1x y  
2 2
c c  ln y  x2
y
ln c  1  x 2  y 2 ec  y  x2 4

x 2  y 2  1  ln c y  x2 e c
2

Circles centered at 0, 0 Parabolas

x
Matches (c) Matches (b) 2 2 4 c=4

2
c=2

c = 1 c=0

51. f x, y  25  x 2  y 2 53. f x, y  xy

The level curves are of the form The level curves are hyperbolas of the form xy  c.
c  25  x 2  y 2, y

x2  y2  25  c 2. c=6
c=5
c=4
Thus, the level curves are circles of radius 5 or less, c=3
1
centered at the origin. y c=2
c=1
6 c=5 x
c=4 1 1 c = 1
c=3 c = 2
1 c = 3
c=2
2 c = 4
c = 5
x c = 6
6 2 2 6
2
c=1
c=0
6

x
55. f x, y  57. f x, y  x2  y2  2 6
x2  y2
The level curves are of the form
9 9
y
x 1
c=
c 2 2
x  y2 3 2
c= c=1 6
2
x c=2
x   y2  0
2
c x
2

x  2c1  2c1 
2 2 3
c = 2 c=
 y2  1 2
c = 1 c=
2

Thus, the level curves are circles passing through the

origin and centered at 12c, 0.
Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables 79

8
59. gx, y  61. See Definition, page 838. 63. No, The following graphs are not
1  x2  y2
hemispheres.
z  ex
4 2 y 2

6 6
z  x2  y2

1  R
 1  0.10
10
65. The surface is sloped like a saddle. The graph is not 67. VI, R  1000
1I
unique. Any vertical translation would have the same level
curves. Inflation Rate
One possible function is
Tax Rate 0 0.03 0.05
f x, y  x 2  y 2.
0 2593.74 1929.99 1592.33

69. f x, y, z  x  2y  3z 71. f x, y, z  x 2  y 2  z 2 73. f x, y, z  4x 2  4y 2  z 2

c6 c9 c0
6  x  2y  3z 9  x2  y2  z2 0  4x 2  4y 2  z 2
Plane Sphere Elliptic cone
z
z z

3 4 2

2
3
2
y 4
2 1 y
2
4 4 y x
x

6
4
x

d 4 4
2
75. Nd, L  L

22 4 4 12  243 board-feet 30 4 4 12  507 board-feet

2 2
(a) N22, 12  (b) N30, 12 

77. T  600  0.75x 2  0.75y 2 79. C  0.75xy  20.40xz  20.40yz

The level curves are of the form base  front & back  two ends
c  600  0.75x 2  0.75y 2  0.75xy  0.80xz  yz
600  c
x2  y 2  .
0.75
The level curves are circles centered at the origin.
c = 600 y c = 300 x
c = 500 c = 200 z
c = 400 30 c = 100
c=0 y

x
30 30

30
80 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

81. PV  kT, 202600  k300

202600 520
(a) k  
300 3

(b) P 
kT 520 T
V

3 V  
The level curves are of the form: c  520
3  V 
T

520
V T
3c
520
Thus, the level curves are lines through the origin with slope .
3c

83. (a) Highest pressure at C 85. (a) The boundaries between colors represent level curves
(b) Lowest pressure at A (b) No, the colors represent intervals of different lengths,
as indicated in the box
(c) Highest wind velocity at B
(c) You could use more colors, which means using
smaller intervals

87. False. Let 89. False. Let

f x, y  2xy f x, y  5.
f 1, 2  f 2, 1, but 1  2 Then, f 2x, 2y  5  22 f x, y.

Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity

1. Let  > 0 be given. We need to find  > 0 such that f x, y  L  y  b <     
whenever 0 < x  a2   y  b2 < . Take   .
Then if 0 < x  a2   y  b2 <   , we have
 y  b2 < 

y  b < .
3. lim  f x, y  gx, y  lim f x, y  lim gx, y  5  3  2
x, y a, b x, y a, b x, y a, b

5. lim
x, y a, b
 f x, ygx, y 
lim
x, y a, b

f x, y lim
x, y a, b
gx, y  53  15

xy 24
7. lim x  3y 2  2  312  5 9. lim   3
x, y 2, 1 x, y 2, 4 xy 24
Continuous everywhere Continuous for x  y

arcsinx y 1
11. lim  arcsin 0  0 13. lim e xy  e2 
x, y 0, 1 1  xy x, y 1, 2 e2
Continuous for xy  1, y  0, x y 1   Continuous everywhere

15. lim x  y  z  8  22 17. lim e xy  1

x, y, z 1, 2, 5 x, y 0, 0

Continuous for x  y  z 0 Continuous everywhere

Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity 81

x, y 0, 0

The limit does not exist.

Continuous except at 0, 0

xy
21. f x, y 
x2  y2
Continuous except at 0, 0
Path: y  0 x, y 1, 0 0.5, 0 0.1, 0 0.01, 0 0.001, 0
f x, y 0 0 0 0 0

Path: y  x x, y 1, 1 0.5, 0.5 0.1, 0.1 0.01, 0.01 0.001, 0.001
f x, y
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2

The limit does not exist because along the path y  0 the function equals 0, whereas along the path y  x
the function equals 12 .

xy 2
23. f x, y  
x2  y4
Continuous except at 0, 0
Path: x  y 2
x, y 1, 1 0.25, 0.5 0.01, 0.1 0.0001, 0.01 0.000001, 0.001
f x, y  12  12  12  12  12

Path: x  y 2 x, y 1, 1 0.25, 0.5 0.01, 0.1 0.0001, 0.01 0.000001, 0.001
f x, y
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2

The limit does not exist because along the path x  y 2 the function equals  12 , whereas along the path x  y 2
the function equals 12 .

 2xy2  y2
x 
2
25. lim f x, y  lim 27. lim sin x  sin y  0
x, y 0, 0 x, y 0, 0 x2  y2 x, y 0, 0

1  x 2xy y   1
2 z
 lim 2 2
x, y 0, 0

Thus, f is not continuous at 0, 0, whereas g is continuous x

at 0, 0.

x2y 10xy
29. lim 31. f x, y 
x, y 0, 0 x 4  4y 2 2x2  3y2
Does not exist The limit does not exist. Use the paths x  0 and x  y.
z z

x
y

x
82 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

sinx 2  y 2 sin r 2 2r cos r 2

33. lim  lim 2  lim  lim cos r 2  1
x, y 0, 0 x y
2 2 r0 r r0 2r r0

x3  y 3 r 3 cos3  sin3 
35. lim  lim  lim rcos3  sin3   0
x, y 0, 0 x  y
2 2 r0 r2 r0

1 sin z
37. f x, y, z  39. f x, y, z 
x 2  y 2  z 2 ex  ey
Continuous except at 0, 0, 0 Continuous everywhere

1
41. f t  t 2 43. f t 
t
gx, y  3x  2y
gx, y  3x  2y
f  gx, y  f 3x  2y
1
f  gx, y  f 3x  2y 
 3x  2y2 3x  2y
 9x 2  12xy  4y 2 3x
Continuous for y 
Continuous everywhere 2

45. f x, y  x 2  4y
f x 
x, y  f x, y x 
x 2  4y  x 2  4y
(a) lim  lim

x0
x
x0
x
2x
x  
x2
 lim  lim 2x 
x  2x

x0
x
x0

f x, y 
y  f x, y x 2  4 y 
y  x 2  4y
(b) lim  lim

y0
y
y0
y
4
y
 lim  lim 4  4

y0
y
y0

47. f x, y  2x  xy  3y
f x 
x, y  f x, y 2x 
x  x 
xy  3y  2x  xy  3y
(a) lim  lim

x0
x
x0
x
2
x 
xy
 lim  lim 2  y  2  y

x0
x
x0

f x, y 
y  f x, y 2x  x y 
y  3 y 
y  2x  xy  3y
(b) lim  lim

y0
y
y0
y
x
y  3
y
 lim  lim x  3  x  3

y0
y
y0

49. See the definition on page 851. 51. No.

Show that the value of lim f x, y is not the same The existence of f 2, 3 has no bearing on the existence of
x, y x0 , y0  the limit as x, y 2, 3.
for two different paths to x0, y0.
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives 83

53. Since lim

x, y a, b

f x, y  L1, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds 1 > 0 such that f x, y  L1 < 2 whenever

0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 1.

Since lim
x, y a, b

gx, y  L2, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds  2 > 0 such that gx, y  L 2 < 2 whenever

0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 2.

Let  be the smaller of  1 and 2. By the triangle inequality, whenever x  a2   y  b2 < , we have
 

f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2 

 f x, y  L 1  gx, y  L 2 

f x, y  L 1

gx, y  L 2
< 2  2  .
Therefore, lim  f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2.
x, y a, b

55. True 57. False. Let

nx2  y2, x, y  0, 0
f x, y  0,l x  0, y  0
See Exercise 19.

fx x, y  2
fy x, y  3

7. z  xy 9. z  x2  5xy  3y2 11. z  x 2e 2y

z z z
 y  2x  5y  2xe 2y
x x x
z x z z
  5x  6y  2x 2e 2y
y 2y y y

13. z  lnx 2  y 2 15. z  ln xx  yy  lnx  y  lnx  y

z 2x
 z 1 1 2y
x x 2  y 2    2
x x  y x  y x  y2
z 2y
 z 1 1 2x
y x 2  y 2   
y x  y x  y x 2  y 2

x2 4y 2
19. hx, y  ex
2 y 2
17. z 
2y x
hx x, y  2xex
2 y 2

z 2x 4y 2 x 3  4y 3
  2 
hy x, y  2yex
2 y 2
x 2y x x2y
z x2 8y x 3  16y 3
 2 
y 2y x 2xy 2

21. f x, y  x 2  y 2 23. z  tan2x  y

1 2 x z
fx x, y  x  y 212 2x   2 sec22x  y
2 x 2  y 2 x
1 2 y z
fy x, y  x  y 212 2y   sec 22x  y
2 x 2  y 2 y
84 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

25. z  e y sin xy 27. f x, y  x

y
t 2  1 dt
z
 ye y cos xy
t3  t y3  y  x3  x
3 y 3 3
x  
x
z
 ey sin xy  xey cos xy fx x, y  x  1  1  x 2
2
y
fy x, y  y 2  1
 ey x cos xy  sin xy
[You could also use the Second Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus.]

29. f x, y  2x  3y
f f x  x, y  f x, y 2x  x  3y  2x  3y 2 x
 lim  lim  lim 2
x x0 x x0 x x0 x

f f x, y  y  f x, y 2x  3 y  y  2x  3y 3 y
 lim  lim  lim 3
y y0 y y0 y y0 y

31. f x, y  x  y
f f x  x, y  f x, y x  x  y  x  y
 lim  lim
x x0 x x0 x
x  x  y  x  y x  x  y  x  y 
 lim
x0 xx  x  y  x  y 
1 1
 lim 
x0 x  x  y  x  y 2x  y
f f x, y  y  f x, y x  y  y  x  y
 lim  lim
y y0 y y0 y
x  y  y  x  y x  y  y  x  y 
 lim
y0 yx  y  y  x  y
1 1
 lim 
y0 x  y  y  x  y 2x  y

33. gx, y  4  x 2  y 2 35. z  ex cos y

gxx, y  2x z
 ex cos y
x
At 1, 1: gx 1, 1  2
z
gy x, y  2y At 0, 0:  1
x
At 1, 1: gy 1, 1  2 z
 ex sin y
y
z
At 0, 0: 0
y

y xy
37. f x, y  arctan 39. f x, y 
x xy
y yx  y  xy y 2
fx x, y 
1
1   y 2x 2  
y
 2  2
x x  y2
fx x, y 
x  y2 
x  y2
1 1
At 2, 2: fx 2, 2  At 2, 2: fx 2, 2  
4 4
xx  y  xy
fy x, y 
1

1
1   y 2x 2 x
 2
x
x  y2
fy x, y 
x  y2 
x2
x  y2
1 1
At 2, 2: fy 2, 2  At 2, 2: fy 2, 2 
4 4
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives 85

41. z  49  x2  y2, x  2, 43. z  9x2  y 2, y  3, 1, 3, 0

2, 3, 6 Intersecting curve: z  9x 2  9
Intersecting curve: z  45  y 2
z
 18x
z y x

y 45  y 2 z
At 1, 3, 0:  181  18
z 3 1 x
At 2, 3, 6:  
y 45  9 2 y=3
z z
x=2
10
160

2
3 4 y
4
x

8
x 8 y

1 1
45. fx x, y  2x  4y  4, fyx, y  4x  2y  16 47. fx x, y    y, fyx, y   2  x
x2 y
fx  fy  0: 2x  4y  4
1 1
fx  fy  0:   y  0 and  2  x  0
4x  2y  16 x2 y
Solving for x and y, 1 1
y and x  2
x  6 and y  4. x2 y
y  y4 y  1  x
Points: 1, 1

49. (a) The graph is that of fy. 51. w  x 2  y 2  z 2 53. Fx, y, z  ln x 2  y 2  z 2

(b) The graph is that of fx. w x 1
  lnx 2  y 2  z 2
x x 2  y 2  z 2 2
w y x
 Fx x, y, z 
y x 2  y 2  z 2 x2  y2  z2
w z y
 Fy x, y, z 
z x 2  y 2  z 2 x2  y2  z2
z
Fz x, y, z 
x2  y2  z2

55. Hx, y, z  sinx  2y  3z 57. z  x 2  2xy  3y 2 59. z  x 2  y 2

Hxx, y, z  cosx  2y  3z z z x
 2x  2y 
x x x 2  y 2
Hy x, y, z  2 cosx  2y  3z
2z 2z y2
Hzx, y, z  3 cosx  2y  3z 2 
x2 x2 x 2  y 2 32
2z  2z xy
 2 
yx yx x 2  y 2 32
z z y
 2x  6y 
y y x 2  y 2
2z 2z x2
6  2
y2 y2 x  y 2 32
 2z  2z xy
 2 
xy xy x 2  y 2 32
86 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

y
61. z  e x tan y 63. z  arctan
x
z
 e x tan y z y
x 
1
x 1   y 2x 2
y
 2  2
x  
x  y2
 2z
 e x tan y 2z 2xy
x2 
x2 x 2  y 2 2
2z
 e x sec2 y  2z  x2  y2  y2y y2  x2
yx   2
yx x  y 
2 2 2 x  y 22
z
 e x sec2 y z
y 
1 1
y 1   y 2x 2 x
 2
x
x  y2
 2z
 2e x sec2 y tan y 2z 2xy
y2 
y2 x 2  y 2 2
2z
 e x sec2 y 2z x 2  y 2  x2x y 2  x2
xy   2
xy x  y 
2 2 2 x  y 22

65. z  x sec y 67. z  ln x 2

x
 y2 ln x  lnx 2  y 2
z
 sec y z 1 2x y2  x2
x   2 
x x x  y 2 xx 2  y 2
2z
0 2z x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4
x2 
x2
x 2x 2  y 2 2
2z
 sec y tan y  2z 4xy
yx 
yx x2  y 2 2
z
 x sec y tan y z
y  2
2y
y x  y2
2z
 x sec ysec2 y  tan2 y
y2 2z 2 y 2  x 2
 2
y2 x  y 22
2z
 sec y tan y
xy 2z 4xy

2z 2z xy x 2  y 2 2
Therefore,  .
yx xy There are no points for which zx  zy  0.
There are no points for which zx  0  zy, because
z
 sec y  0.
x

69. f x, y, z  xyz 71. f x, y, z  ex sin yz 73. z  5xy

fxx, y, z  yz fxx, y, z  ex sin yz z
 5y
x
fy x, y, z  xz fy x, y, z  zex cos yz
 2z
fyyx, y, z  0 fyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz 0
x 2
fxyx, y, z  z fxyx, y, z  zex cos yz
z
fyxx, y, z  z fyxx, y, z  zex cos yz  5x
y
fyyxx, y, z  0 fyyxx, y, z  z2ex sin yz  2z
0
fxyyx, y, z  0 fxyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz y 2

fyxyx, y, z  0 fyxyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz  2z  2z

Therefore,   0  0  0.
x 2 y 2
Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx  0. Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx.
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives 87

75. z  e x sin y 77. z  sinx  ct

z z
 e x sin y  c cosx  ct
x t
 2z  2z
 e x sin y  c 2 sinx  ct
x 2 t 2
z z
 e x cos y  cosx  ct
y x
 2z  2z
 e x sin y  sinx  ct
y 2 x 2
 2z  2z  2z  2z
Therefore,  2  e x sin y  e x sin y  0. Therefore,  c 2 2.
x 2 y t 2 x

x
79. z  et cos 81. See the definition on page 859.
c
z x
 et cos
t c
z 1 x
  et sin
x c c
 2z 1 x
  2 et cos
x 2 c c
z  2z
Therefore,  c 2 2.
t x

83. z
(x0, y0, z 0 )
z
(x0, y0, z 0 ) 85. The plane z  x  y  f x, y satisfies
f f
> 0 and > 0.
x y
z

x y x y
y
Plane: y = y0 Plane: x = x0
8
x

f 6
denotes the slope of the surface in the x-direction.
x
f
denotes the slope of the surface in the y-direction.
y

87. (a) C  32xy  175x  205y  1050 (b) The fireplace-insert stove results in the cost
increasing at a faster rate because
C
x
 16 yx  175 C
y
>
C
x
.

 16  175  183

C
x
1
4
80, 20

 16  205
C x
y y
C
y 80, 20
 164  205  237
88 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

89. An increase in either price will cause a decrease in 91. T  500  0.6x 2  1.5y 2
demand.
T T
 1.2x, 2, 3  2.4m
x x
T T
 3y  2, 3  9m
y y

z
93. PV  mRT 95. (a)  1.83
x
PV T V
T  z
mR P mR  1.09
x
mRT P mRT
P  2 (b) As the consumption of skim milk x increases,
V V V
the consumption of whole milk z decreases.
mRT V mR
V  Similarly, as the consumption of reduced-fat milk
P T P  y increases, the consumption of whole milk z
T P V decreases.
 V  T   mR  mRP
V mRT
P V2
mRT mRT
   1
VP mRT

xyx 2  y 2
97. f x, y 

0,
x2  y2
, x, y 0, 0
x, y  0, 0

x 2  y 23x 2y  y 3  x3 y  xy 32x y x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4

(a) fxx, y  
x 2  y 22 x 2  y 22
x 2  y 2x3  3xy 2  x3y  xy 32y x x 4  4x 2 y 2  y 4
fyx, y  
x 2  y 22 x 2  y 22
f x, 0  f 0, 0 0x 2  0
(b) fx0, 0  lim  lim 0
x0 x x0 x

f 0, y  f 0, 0 0y 2  0

fy0, 0  lim  lim 0
y0 y y0 y

(c) fxy0, 0 
 f
 
y x  0, 0
 lim
y0
fx0, y  fx0, 0
y
 lim
y  y4
y0 y22y
 lim 1  1
y0

 
 f fyx, 0  fy0, 0 x x4
fyx0, 0   lim  lim  lim 1  1
x y 0, 0 x0 x x0 x22x x0

Section 12.4 Differentials

1
1. z  3x 2y 3 3. z 
x2  y2
dz  6xy 3 dx  9x 2 y 2 dy
2x 2y
dz  dx  2 dy
x 2  y 2 2 x  y 2 2
2
 x dx  y dy
x 2  y 22
Section 12.4 Differentials 89

5. z  x cos y  y cos x
dz  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy

7. z  e x sin y 9. w  2z 3 y sin x
dz  e x sin y dx  e x cos y dy dw  2z 3 y cos x dx  2z3 sin x dy  6z 2 y sin x dz

11. (a) f 1, 2  4 13. (a) f 1, 2  sin 2

f 1.05, 2.1  3.4875 f 1.05, 2.1  1.05 sin 2.1
z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2  0.5125 z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2 0.00293
(b) dz  2x dx  2y dy (b) dz  sin y dx  x cos y dy
 20.05  40.1  0.5  sin 20.05  cos 20.1 0.00385

15. (a) f 1, 2  5

f 1.05, 2.1  5.25
z  0.25
(b) dz  3 dx  4 dy
 30.05  40.1 0.25

x y
17. Let z  x 2  y 2, x  5, y  3, dx  0.05, dy  0.1. Then: dz  dx  dy
x 2  y 2 x 2  y 2

5 3 0.55
5.052  3.12  52  32 0.05  0.1  0.094
52  32 52  32 34

2x 21  x 2
19. Let z  1  x 2y 2, x  3, y  6, dx  0.05, dy  0.05. Then: dz   dx  dy
y2 y3
1  3.052 1  32 23 21  32
  2 0.05  0.05 0.012
5.952
6 2
6 63

21. See the definition on page 869. 23. The tangent plane to the surface z  f x, y at the point P
is a linear approximation of z.

25. A  lh
dA  l dh  h dl

h dA A dA

h dA

l l

r 2h r h V V  dV
27. V  dV
3
0.1 0.1 4.7124 4.8391 0.1267
r3
0.1 0.1 2.8274 2.8264 0.0010
h6
0.001 0.002 0.0565 0.0566 0.0001
2
rh
r2
r
dV  dr  dh  2h dr  r dh
3 3 3 0.0001 0.0002 0.0019 0.0019 0.0000
90 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

z z
(b) dz  dx  dy
x y

 0.73

Maximum propagated error: 0.73

dz 0.73 0.73
Relative error:   0.1166  11.67%
z 1.837.2  1.098.5  28.7 6.259

31. V 
r 2h  dV  2
rh dr  
r 2 dh

dV dr dh
2 
V r h

 20.04  0.02  0.10  10%

1
33. A  2 ab sin C

dA  12 b sin C da  a sin C db  ab cos C dC

 12 4sin 45 16
1
  3sin 45 161   12cos 45 0.02 0.24 in.2

1
35. (a) V  bhl b
2 2


 18 sin
2 18 cos 21612 h
18 18

 31,104 sin in.3 2

 18 sin ft3

V is maximum when sin  1 or 

2.

s2
(b) V  sin l
2

s2 s2
dV  ssin l ds  l cos  d  sin  dl
2 2

   182
 90
  182 sin
2 12
2
1
 18 sin 1612  1612 cos
2 2 2 2

 1809 in3 1.047 ft3

E2
37. P
R

2E E2
dP  dE  2 dR
R R

dP dE dR
2   20.02  0.03  0.07  7%
P E R
Section 12.4 Differentials 91

39. L  0.00021 ln  2h
r
 0.75 
 1100  116
h  
dh dr
dL  0.00021   0.00021   6.6 106
r 100 2
L  0.00021ln 100  0.75 8.096 104 dL  8.096 104 6.6 106 microhenrys

41. z  f x, y  x2  2x  y
z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2  2x  2x  y  y  x2  2x  y
 2xx  x2  2x  y
 2x  2 x  y  xx  0y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  x and 2  0.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

43. z  f x, y  x2y

z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2 y  y  x2y
 2xyx  yx2  x2y  2xxy  x2 y
 2xyx  x2y   yx x  2xx  x2 y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  yx and 2  2xx  x2.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

3x2y , x, y 0, 0

45. f x, y  x4  y2
0, x, y  0, 0
0
0
f x, 0  f 0, 0 x4
(a) fx0, 0  lim  lim 0
x0 x x0 x
0
0
f 0, y  f 0, 0 y2
fy0, 0  lim  lim 0
y0 y y0 y
Thus, the partial derivatives exist at 0, 0.
3x3 3x
(b) Along the line y  x: lim f x, y  lim  lim 0
x, y 0, 0 x 0 x 4  x2 x 0 x2  1
3x 4 3
Along the curve y  x2: lim f x, y  
x, y 0, 0 2x 4 2
f is not continuous at 0, 0. Therefore, f is not differentiable at 0, 0. (See Theroem 12.5)

47. Essay. For example, we can use the equation F  ma:

F F
dF  dm  da  a dm  m da.
m a
92 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

1. w  x2  y2 3. w  x sec y
x  et x  et
y  et yt
dw dw
 2xet  2yet   2e2t  e2t   sec yet   x sec y tan y1
dt dt
 et sec  t1  tan  t
 et sec t  sec t tan t

5. w  xy, x  2 sin t, y  cos t

dw
(a)  2y cos t  xsin t  2y cos t  x sin t
dt
 2cos2 t  sin2 t  2 cos 2t
dw
(b) w  2 sin t cos t  sin 2t,  2 cos 2t
dt

7. w  x2  y2  z2
x  et cos t
y  et sin t
z  et

dw
(a)  2xet sin t  et cos t  2yet cos t  et sin t  2zet  4e2t
dt
dw
(b) w  2e2t,  4e2t
dt

9. w  xy  xz  yz, x  t  1, y  t 2  1, z  t
dw
(a)  y  z  x  z2t  x  y
dt
 t 2  1  t  t  1  12t  t  1  t 2  1  32t 2  1
(b) w  t  1t 2  1  t  1t  t 2  1t
dw
 2tt  1  t 2  1  2t  1  3t 2  1  32t 2  1
dt

11. Distance  f t  x1  x22   y1  y2 2  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t2
1
ft  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t212
2
210 cos 2t  7 cos t20 sin 2t  7 sin t  26 sin 2t  4 sin t12 cos 2t  4 cos t

f 2
 21 10
2  42122107  2412

1 22 1129
 1161244    2.04
2 229 20
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables 93

13. w  arctan2xy, x  cos t, y  sin t, t  0

dw w dx w dy
 
dt x dt y dt

2y 2x
 sin t  cos t
1  4x2y2 1  4x2y2

2 sin t 2 cos t
 sin t  cos t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t

1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

d 2w 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t8 cos t sin t  2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t8 cos3 t sin t  8 sin3 t cos t

dt 2 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

8 cos t sin t1  2 sin4 t  2 cos 4 t


1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

d 2w
At t  0,  0.
dt 2

15. w  x2  y2 17. w  x2  y2
xst x  s cos t

yst y  s sin t
w w
 2x  2y  2x  y  4s  2x cos t  2y sin t
s s
w  2s cos2 t  2s sin2 t  2s cos 2t
 2x  2y1  2x  y  4t
t
w
 2xs sin t  2ys cos t  2s2 sin 2t
When s  2 and t  1, t
w w  w w
 8 and  4. When s  3 and t  ,  0 and  18.
s t 4 s t

19. w  x2  2xy  y2, x  r  , y  r  

w
(a)  2x  2y1  2x  2y1  0
r

w
 2x  2y1  2x  2y1


 4x  4y  4x  y

 4r    r    8

 r 2  2r  2  2r 2  2  r 2  2r  2

 4 2

w
0
r

w
 8

94 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

y
21. w  arctan , x  r cos , y  r sin 
x
w y x r sin  cos  r cos  sin 
(a)  2 cos   2 sin    0
r x  y2 x  y2 r2 r2
w y x  r sin r sin  r cos r cos 
 2 r sin   2 r cos    1
 x  y2 x  y2 r2 r2
r sin 
(b) w  arctan  arctantan   
r cos 
w
0
r
w
1


23. w  xyz, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st2 25. w  ze xy, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st

w w z zx
 yz1  xz1  xyt2  e xy1   2 e xy1  e xyt
s s y y
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  tt2
s st t  ss  ttst  t
 estst 2
 2s2t2  s2t2  t4  3s2t2  t4  t23s2  t2

sts  t  sst  tst

 ts  t2

2 2
w  estst
 yz1  xz1  xy2st 2
t
ts2  4st  t2
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  t2st  estst
s  t2
 2st3  2s3t  2st3  2s3t  4st3  2sts2  2t2
w z zx
 e xy1   2 e xy1  e xys
t y y
sts  t

st
 estst   s
st s  t2
sts  t  sts  t  ss  t2

 estst
s  t2
ss2  t2
 estst
s  t2

27. x2  3xy  y2  2x  y  5  0 29. ln x2  y2  xy  4

dy Fxx, y 2x  3y  2 1
  lnx2  y2  xy  4  0
dx Fyx, y 3x  2y  1 2
3y  2x  2 x
 y
2y  3x  1 dy Fxx, y x2  y2 x  x2y  y3
  
dx Fyx, y y y  xy2  x3
x
x y
2 2

31. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  25 33. Fx, y, z  tanx  y  tan y  z  1

Fx  2x Fx  sec2x  y
Fy  2y Fy  sec2x  y  sec2 y  z
Fz  2z Fz  sec2 y  z
z Fx x z Fx sec2x  y
    2
x Fz z x Fz sec  y  z
z Fy y z Fy sec2x  y  sec2 y  z
   
y Fz z y Fz sec2 y  z
sec x  y
sec  1

2

 y  z
2
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables 95

35. x 2  2yz  z2  1  0 37. exz  xy  0

z z z x z Fxx, y, z zexz  y
(i) 2x  2y  2z  0 implies  .  
x x x yz x Fzx, y, z xexz
z z z z z Fyx, y, z x 1
(ii) 2y  2z  2z  0 implies  .   xz  xz  exz
y y y yz y Fzx, y, z xe e

39. Fx, y, z, w  xyz  xzw  yzw  w2  5 41. Fx, y, z, w  cos xy  sin yz  wz  20

Fx  yz  zw w Fx y sin xy
 
Fy  xz  zw x Fw z

Fz  xy  xw  yw w Fy x sin xy  z cos yz

 
y Fw z
Fw  xz  yz  2w
w Fz y cos zy  w
w Fx zy  w  
  z Fw z
x Fw xz  yz  2w
w Fy zx  w
 
y Fw xz  yz  2w
w Fz xy  xw  yw
 
z Fw xz  yz  2w

xy
43. f x, y 
x2  y2

f tx, ty 
txty
tx2  ty2
t xy
x2  y2
 tf x, y
Degree: 1

x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x x2

y3
 y232
y 2

x3
x  y232

xy
  1 f x, y
x2  y2

dw w dx w dy
45. f x, y  exy 47.   (Page 876)
dt x dt y dt
f tx, ty  etxty  exy  f x, y
Degree: 0

x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x 1y e
 y  yx e
 0
xy
2
xy

49. w  f x, y is the explicit form of a function of two variables, as in z  x2  y2.

The implicit form is of the form F x, y, z  0, as in z  x2  y2  0.



x cos 2
 x2 sin 
1 2
51. A  bh  x sin b
2 2 2

dA dx x2 d
 x sin   cos 
dt dt 2 dt h
x x

   32 2 2

 6 sin
4

1
2

62
2
cos 4

90

2

10
m hr
2
96 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

1
53. (a) V   r 2h
3
dV 1
dt
dr

  2rh  r 2
3 dt
dh
dt
1

  212366  1224  1536 in.3min

3
(b) S   rr 2  h2   r 2 (Surface area includes base.)
dS
dt
 r 2  h2 

r2
r 2  h2
 2r
dr
dt

rh dh
r 2  h2 dt

  12  36   212
6  4
144 3612
 2 2
12  36  2 2 12  36  2 2

  12 10 
10

4
12 36
 6  144 
 10 

648 36
  144 in.2min 
5
 20  910  in.2min
10

1
55. I mr12  r22
2

dI 1 dr1 dr2
 m 2r1  2r2  m62  82  28m cm2sec
dt 2 dt dt

2
57. (a) tan 
x 8

4 6
tan   
x 4

tan   tan 4

1  tan  tan x x

tan   2x 4

1  2xtan  x
8
x tan   2  4  tan 
x
x2 tan   2x  8 tan   0
(b) Fx,   x2  8tan   2x  0
d Fx 2x tan   2 2 cos2   2x sin  cos 
  2 
dx F sec x  8
2
x2  8
d 1
(c)  0 2 cos2   2x sin  cos  cos   x sin  tan  
dx x

Thus, x2 1x
 2x  8 1x
 0 8x  x x  22 ft.
59. w  f x, y
xuv
yvu
w w dx w dy w w
   
u x du y du x y
w w dx w dy w w
   
v x dv y dv x y
w w
 0
u v
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables 97

61. w  f x, y, x  r cos , y  r sin 

w w w
 cos   sin 
r x y
w w w
 r sin   r cos 
 x y
w w w
(a) r cos   r cos2   r sin  cos 
r x y
w w w
sin   r sin2   r sin  cos 
 x x
w w w
r cos   sin   r cos2   r sin2 
r  x
w w w
r  r cos   sin 
x r 
w w w sin 
 cos  
x r  r
w w w
r sin   r sin  cos   r sin2 
r x y
w w w
cos   r sin  cos   r cos2 
 x y
w w w
r sin   cos   r sin2   r cos2 
r  y
w w w
r  r sin   cos 
y r 
w w w cos 
 sin  
y r  r

w
r

1 w

 w
x

w w w

w
x

2 2 2 2 2
(b)  cos 2 2 sin  cos   sin2   sin2  
r 2  x y y
w w w

cos w
x

w


2 2 2
2 sin  cos   2 
x y y y

u v u v
63. Given  and   , x  r cos  and y  r sin .
x y y x
u u u v v
 cos   sin   cos   sin 
r x y y x
v v v v v
 r sin  
 x y
r cos   r
y
cos  
x
sin 
u 1 v
Therefore,  .
r r 
v v v u u
 cos   sin    cos   sin 
r x y y x
u u u u u

 r sin   r cos   r  cos  
x y y x
sin 
v 1 u
Therefore,  .
r r 
98 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

1. f x, y  3x  4xy  5y 3. f x, y  xy

1 vij
v
2
 i  3 j
f x, y  yi  xj
f x, y  3  4yi  4x  5j
f 2, 3  3i  2j
f 1, 2  5i  j
v 2 2
u  i j
v 1 3 v 2 2
u  i j
v 2 2
52
Du f 2, 3  f 2, 3  u 
1 2
Du f 1, 2  f 1, 2  u 
2
 5  3 

5. gx, y  x2  y2 7. hx, y  e x sin y

v  3i  4j v  i

x y h  e x sin yi  e x cos yj
g  i j
x  y
2 2 x  y2
2

3 4  2   ei
h 1,
g3, 4  i j
5 5 v
u  i
v 3 4 v
u  i j
v 5 5
7  2   h1, 2   u  e
Duh 1,
Du g3, 4  g3, 4  u  
25

9. f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz 11. hx, y, z  x arctan yz

v  2i  j  k v 
1, 2, 1
f x, y, z   y  zi  x  zj  x  yk xz xy
hx, y, z  arctan yz i  j k
1   yz2 1   yz2
f 1, 1, 1  2i  2j  2k

v 6 6 6 h4, 1, 1  i  2j  2k
u  i j k 4
v 3 6 6

Du f 1, 1, 1  f 1, 1, 1  u 
26
3
u
v
v

1

,
6 6
2
,
1
6
  8   86
Du h4, 1, 1  h4, 1, 1  u  
46 24

13. f x, y  x2  y2 15. f x, y  sin2x  y

1 1 1 3
u i j u i j
2 2 2 2
f  2x i  2y j f  2 cos2x  y i  cos2x  y j
2 2 3
Du f  f  u  x y  2 x  y Du f  f  u  cos2x  y  cos2x  y
2 2 2

 2 2 3 cos2x  y

Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients 99

17. f x, y  x2  4y2 19. hx, y, z  lnx  y  z

v  2i  2j v  3i  3j  k
f  2x i  8yj 1
h  i  j  k
xyz
v 1 1
u  i j
v 2 2 At 1, 0, 0, h  i  j  k.
2 8 v 1
Du f   x y   2x  4y u  3i  3j  k
2 2 v 19
At P  3, 1, Du f  72. 7 719
Du h  h  u  
19 19

f x, y  3i  10yj zx, y  2x sinx2  y2i  2y sinx2  y2j

f 2, 1  3i  10j z3, 4  6 sin 25i  8 sin 25j 0.7941i  1.0588j

\ 1 2
25. w  3x2y  5yz  z2 27. PQ  2i  4j, u  i j
5 5
wx, y, z  6xyi  3x2  5zj  2z  5yk
gx, y  2xi  2yj, g1, 2  2i  4j
w1, 1, 2  6i  13j  9k
2 8 10
Du g  g  u     25
5 5 5

\ 2 1
29. PQ  2i  j, u  i j 31. hx, y  x tan y
5 5
hx, y  tan yi  x sec2 yj
f x, y  ex cos yi  ex sin yj
f 0, 0  i  4   i  4j
h 2,
2 25
Du f  f  u  
 h2, 4   

5 5 17

1
33. gx, y  ln 
3 x2  y2  lnx2  y2 35. f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2
3
1
f x, y, z  xi  yj  zk
gx, y 
1
2x
3 x2  y2
i 2
2y
x  y2
j  x2  y2  z2

1
f 1, 4, 2  i  4j  2k
g1, 2 
1 2
3 5  4
i j 
5
2
15 
i  2j 21

25
g1, 2 
15

37. f x, y, z  xeyz

f x, y, z  eyz i  xzeyz j  xyeyz k
f 2, 0, 4  i  8j
f 2, 0, 4  65
100 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

For Exercises 3945, f x, y  3 

x y
 and D f x, y  
3 2 
1
3
cos  
1
2 
sin .

13 21  12 23 

x y 
39. f x, y  3   41. (a) D43 f 3, 2  
3 2
z
(3, 2, 1) 2  33

3

12
6

13 23   12 21

y

9
(b) D6 f 3, 2  
x

3  23

12

43. (a) v  3i  4j (b) v  i  3j

v  9  16  5 v  10
3 4 1 3
u i j u i j
5 5 10 10
1 2 1
Du f  f  u     11 1110
5 5 5 Du f  f  u  

6 10 60

45. f   19  14  1613

For Exercises 47 and 49, f x, y  9  x2  y2 and D f x, y  2x cos   2y sin   2x cos   y sin .

47. f x, y  9  x2  y2 49. f 1, 2  2i  4j

z
f 1, 2  4  16  20  25
9

(1, 2, 4)

3 y
3
x

51. (a) In the direction of the vector 4i  j.

(b) f  10 2x  3yi  10 3x  2yj
1 1

f 1, 2  10
1
4i  10
1
1j   25 i  10
1
j
(Same direction as in part (a).)
2 1
(c) f  5 i  10 j, the direction opposite that of the gradient.

53. f x, y  x2  y2, 4, 3, 7

z
(a)

CONTINUED
Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients 101

53. CONTINUED
(b) Du f x, y  f x, y  u  2x cos  2y sin
Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin
y

12

x
2
4

12

Generated by Mathematica

(c) Zeros: 2.21, 5.36

These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 equals zero.

(d) g   Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin

g
   8 sin  6 cos
Critical numbers: 0.64, 3.79
These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 is a maximum 0.64 and minimum 3.79.
(e) f 4, 3  24i  23j  64  36  10, the maximum value of Du f 4, 3, at  0.64.
(f ) f x, y  x2  y2  7 y

f 4, 3  8i  6j is perpendicular to the level curve at 4, 3.

6

x
6 4 2 4 6
2

Generated by Mathematica

x
55. f x, y  x2  y2 57. f x, y 
x2  y2
c  25, P  3, 4 1
c  , P  1, 1
f x, y  2xi  2yj 2
y2  x2 2xy
x2  y2  25 f x, y  i 2 j
x2  y22 x  y22
f 3, 4  6i  8j x 1

x2  y2 2
x2  y2  2x  0
1
f 1, 1   j
2

f x, y  4x2  y f x, y  9x2  4y2

4
12

2
f x, y  8xi  j 8 f x, y  18xi  8yj
x
f 2, 10  16i  j f 2, 1  36i  8j 4 4

2
f 2, 10 1 f 2, 1 1
 16i  j  9i  2j
f 2, 10 257 4 4
x
f 2, 1 85 4

257 85
 16i  j  9i  2j
257 85
102 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

x
63. T  65. See the definition, page 885.
x2  y2
y2  x2 2xy
T  i 2 j
x2  y22 x  y22
7 24 1
T3, 4  i j 7i  24j
625 625 625

u  cos i  sin j a unit vector. 3

f
(a) If  0 , then Du f  .
x
f
(b) If  90 , then Du f  . 3
y x y
5
P

71. 73. T x, y  400  2x2  y2, P  10, 10

dx dy
 4x  2y
1671
18
00
dt dt
B
xt  C1e4t yt  C2e2t
1994

A
10  x0  C1 10  y0  C2
00
18
xt  10e4t yt  10e2t
y2
x y2t  100e4t
10
y2  10x

75. (a) D (b) The graph of D  250  30x2  50 sin y2

400 would model the ocean floor.
300

1
2
x 1

2
y

 D D
(c) D1, 0.5  250  301  50 sin 315.4 ft (d)  60x and 1, 0.5  60
4 x x

(e)
D
y
 25 cos
y
2
and
D
y

1, 0.5  25 cos 55.5
4
(f ) D  60x i  25 cos 2yj
D1, 0.5  60i  55.5j

77. True 79. True

z2
81. Let f x, y, z  ex cos y   C. Then f x, y, z  ex cos yi  ex sin yj  zk.
2
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines 103

1. Fx, y, z  3x  5y  3z  15  0 3. Fx, y, z  4x2  9y2  4z2  0

3x  5y  3z  15 Plane 4x2  9y2  4z2 Elliptic cone

5. Fx, y, z  x  y  z  4 7. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z

F  i  j  k x y
Fx, y, z  i jk
F 1 x2 y2 x  y2
2

n  i  j  k
F  3 3 4
F3, 4, 5  i  j  k
5 5
3
 i  j  k
F
 
3 5 3 4
n  i jk
F  52 5 5
1
 3i  4j  5k
52
2
 3i  4j  5k
10

9. Fx, y, z  x2y4  z 11. Fx, y, z  ln y x z  ln x  ln y  z

Fx, y, z  2xy4 i  4x2y3j  k
1 1 1
Fx, y, z  i  j k
F1, 2, 16  32i  32j  k x yz yz
F 1 F1, 4, 3  i  j  k
n  32i  32j  k
F  2049
F 1
n  i  j  k
2049 F  3
 32i  32j  k
2049
3
 i  j  k
3

13. Fx, y, z  x sin y  z  4

Fx, y, z  sin yi  x cos yj  k

  1
F 6, , 7   i  33 j  k
6 2
F
n 
2
F  113
1

 i  33 j  k
2 
1
  i  63 j  2k
113

113

113
 i  63 j  2k

15. f x, y  25  x2  y2, 3, 1, 15

Fx, y, z  25  x2  y2  z
Fxx, y, z  2x Fyx, y, z  2y Fzx, y, z  1
Fx3, 1, 15  6 Fy3, 1, 15  2 Fz3, 1, 15  1
6x  3  2 y  1  z  15  0
0  6x  2y  z  35
6x  2y  z  35
104 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

17. f x, y  x2  y2, 3, 4, 5

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z
x y
Fxx, y, z  Fyx, y, z  Fzx, y, z  1
x2  y2 x2  y2

3 4
Fx3, 4, 5  Fy3, 4, 5  Fz3, 4, 5  1
5 5
3 4
x  3   y  4  z  5  0
5 5
3x  3  4 y  4  5z  5  0
3x  4y  5z  0

19. gx, y  x2  y2, 5, 4, 9

Gx, y, z  x2  y2  z
Gxx, y, z  2x Gyx, y, z  2y Gzx, y, z  1
Gx5, 4, 9  10 Gy5, 4, 9  8 Gz5, 4, 9  1
10x  5  8y  4  z  9  0
10x  8y  z  9

21. z  exsin y  1, 0, 2 , 2

Fx, y, z  exsin y  1  z
Fxx, y, z  exsin y  1 Fyx, y, z  ex cos y Fzx, y, z  1
  
 
Fx 0, , 2  2
2 
Fy 0, , 2  0
2   
Fz 0, , 2  1
2
2x  z  2

23. hx, y  ln x2  y2, 3, 4, ln 5

1
Hx, y, z  ln x2  y2  z  lnx2  y2  z
2
x y
Hxx, y, z  Hyx, y, z  Hzx, y, z  1
x2  y2 x2  y2
3 4
Hx3, 4, ln 5  Hy3, 4, ln 5  Hz3, 4, ln 5  1
25 25
3 4
x  3   y  4  z  ln 5  0
25 25
3x  3  4 y  4  25z  ln 5  0
3x  4y  25z  251  ln 5

25. x2  4y2  z2  36, 2, 2, 4

Fx, y, z  x2  4y2  z2  36
Fxx, y, z  2x Fyx, y, z  8y Fzx, y, z  2z
Fx2, 2, 4  4 Fy2, 2, 4  16 Fz2, 2, 4  8
4x  2  16 y  2  8z  4  0
x  2  4 y  2  2z  4  0
x  4y  2z  18
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines 105

27. xy2  3x  z2  4, 2, 1, 2

Fx, y, z  xy2  3x  z2  4
Fxx, y, z  y2  3 Fyx, y, z  2xy Fzx, y, z  2z
Fx2, 1, 2  4 Fy2, 1, 2  4 FZ2, 1, 2  4
4x  2  4 y  1  4z  2  0
xyz1

29. x2  y2  z  9, 1, 2, 4
Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z  9
Fxx, y, z  2x Fyx, y, z  2y Fzx, y, z  1
Fx1, 2, 4  2 Fy1, 2, 4  4 Fz1, 2, 4  1
Direction numbers: 2, 4, 1
Plane: 2x  1  4 y  2  z  4  0, 2x  4y  z  14
x1 y2 z4
Line:  
2 4 1

31. xy  z  0, 2, 3, 6

Fx, y, z  xy  z
Fxx, y, z  y Fyx, y, z  x Fzx, y, z  1
Fx2, 3, 6  3 Fy2, 3, 6  2 Fz2, 3, 6  1
Direction numbers: 3, 2, 1
Plane: 3x  2  2 y  3  z  6  0, 3x  2y  z  6
x2 y3 z6
Line:  
3 2 1

y
33. z  arctan ,
x 1, 1, 4 
y
Fx, y, z  arctan z
x
y x
Fxx, y, z  Fyx, y, z  Fzx, y, z  1
x2  y2 x2  y2
  

Fx 1, 1,
4
1
2 
Fy 1, 1,
4
1
2 
Fz 1, 1,
4 
 1

Direction numbers: 1, 1, 2

 
Plane: x  1   y  1  2 z   4 0, x  y  2z 
2
x  1 y  1 z  4
Line:  
1 1 2
106 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

4xy
35. z  f x, y  , 2 x z, 0 y 3
x2  1 y2  1
4xy
(a) Let Fx, y, z  z
x2  1 y2  1
4y x2  1  2x2 4x y2  1  2y2
Fx, y, z 
y2 
 1 x  1
2 2
i 2 
x  1  y2  12
jk  
4y1  x2 4x1  y2
 i 2 jk
 y2  1x  1
2 2 x  1 y2  12
F1, 1, 1  k.
Direction numbers: 0, 0, 1.
Line: x  1, y  1, z  1  t
Tangent plane: 0x  1  0 y  1  1z  1  0 z  1
43

(b) F 1, 2, 
4
5 
 0i 
252
jk
6
25
jk

6 4
Line: x  1, y  2  t, z    t
25 5

Plane: 0x  1 
6
25
y  2  1 z 
4
5 
0 
6y  12  25z  20  0
6y  25z  32  0
(c) z z
(d) At 1, 1, 1, the tangent plane is parallel to the xy-plane,
1 1 2
implying that the surface is level there. At  1, 2,  45 ,
3 2 2
the function does not change in the x-direction.
2
y x 3
x
1 1
y

37. Fxx0, y0, z0x  x0  Fyx0, y0, z0y  y0  F2x0, y0, z0z  z0  0
(Theorem 12.13)

39. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  5 Gx, y, z  x  z

Fx, y, z  2x i  2y j Gx, y, z  i  k
F2, 1, 2  4i  2j G2, 1, 2  i  k
i
(a) F G  4
1
Direction numbers: 1, 2, 1,
j
2
0
k
0  2i  4j  2k  2i  2j  k
1
x2 y1 z2
 
1 2 1

(b) cos   F  G

4
 2

10
; not orthogonal
F  G 202 10 5

41. Fx, y, z  x2  z2  25 Gx, y, z  y2  z2  25

F  2x i  2z k G  2yj  2zk
F3, 3, 4  6i  8k G3, 3, 4  6j  8k

CONTINUED
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines 107

41. CONTINUED
i j k
(a) F G  6 0 8  48i  48j  36k  124i  4j  3k
0 6 8
x3 y3 z4
Direction numbers: 4, 4, 3,  
4 4 3

(b) cos   F  G

64
16
 ; not orthogonal
F  G 1010 25

43. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  6 Gx, y, z  x  y  z

Fx, y, z  2x i  2yj  2zk Gx, y, z  i  j  k
F2, 1, 1  4i  2j  2k G2, 1, 1  i  j  k
i
(a) F G  4
1 j
2
1

Direction numbers: 0, 1, 1, x  2,

k
2  6j  6k  6 j  k
1
y1 z1
1

1
(b) cos   F  G
F  G

 0; orthogonal

y2
45. f x, y  6  x2  , gx, y  2x  y
4
y2
(a) Fx, y, z  z  x2  6
4
Gx, y, z  z  2x  y
1
Fx, y, z  2x i  yj  k
2 Gx, y, z  2i  j  k
F1, 2, 4  2i  j  k G1, 2, 4  2i  j  k

The cross product of these gradients is parallel to the curve of intersection.
i j k
F1, 2, 4 G1, 2, 4  2 1 1  2i  4j
2 1 1
Using direction numbers 1, 2, 0, you get x  1  t, y  2  2t, z  4.

F  G 4  1  1 4
cos     
48.2

F G 6 6 6

(b) z

8
(1, 2, 4)

6
8 y
x

47. Fx, y, z  3x2  2y2  z  15, 2, 2, 5 49. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z, 1, 2, 3

Fx, y, z  6xi  4yj  k Fx, y, z  2xi  2yj  k
F2, 2, 5  12i  8j  k F1, 2, 3  2i  4j  k

cos   F2, 2, 5  k  1
cos   F1, 2, 3  k  1
F2, 2, 5 209 F1, 2, 3 21

  arccos  1
209 

86.03
  arccos
1
21

77.40

51. Fx, y, z  3  x2  y2  6y  z 53. Tx, y, z  400  2x2  y2  4z2, 4, 3, 10

Fx, y, z  2xi  2y  6j  k dx dy dz
 4kx  2ky  8kz
dt dt dt
2x  0, x  0 z

xt  C1e4kt yt  C2e2kt zt  C3e8kt

2y  6  0, y  3
8 x0  C1  4 y0  C2  3 z0  C3  10
z  3  02  32  63  12
x  4e4kt y  3e2kt z  10e8kt
0, 3, 12 (vertex of paraboloid)
8 6
x
8
y

x2 y2 z2
55. Fx, y, z  2  2 21 57. Fx, y, z  a2x2  b2y2  z2
a b c
Fxx, y, z  2a2x
2x
Fxx, y, z  2
a Fyx, y, z  2b2y
2y Fzx, y, z  2z
Fyx, y, z 
b2
Plane: 2a2x0x  x0  2b2y0 y  y0  2z0z  z0  0
2z
Fzx, y, z  2 a2x0x  b2y0y  z0z  a2x02  b2y02  z02  0
c
2x0 2y 2z Hence, the plane passes through the origin.
Plane: x  x0  20  y  y0  20 z  z0  0
a2 b c
x0x y0 y z0z x02 y02 z02
 2  2  2  2  2 1
a2 b c a b c

59. f x, y  exy

fxx, y  exy, fyx, y  exy
fxxx, y  exy, fyyx, y  exy, fxyx, y  exy
(a) P1x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0, 0y  1  x  y
(b) P2x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0,0y  2 fxx0, 0x2  fxy0, 0xy  2 fyy0, 0y2
1 1

 1  x  y  12 x2  xy  12 y2
(c) If x  0, P20, y  1  y  2 y2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ey.
1

If y  0, P2x, 0  1  x  2 x2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ex.

1

(d) (e) f
x y f x, y P1x, y P2x, y z
P2
0 0 1 1 1 P1 4

2 2
0 0 0.9048 0.9000 0.9050
1
0.2 0.1 1.1052 1.1000 1.1050 2
x 2
2
0.2 0.5 0.7408 0.7000 0.7450 4 y

61. Given w  Fx, y, z where F is differentiable at

x0, y0, z0 and Fx0, y0, z0 0,
the level surface of F at x0, y0, z0 is of the form Fx, y, z  C for some constant C. Let
Gx, y, z  Fx, y, z  C  0.
Then Gx0, y0, z0  Fx0, y0, z0 where Gx0, y0, z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C  0.
Therefore, Fx0, y0z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C.
Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 109

Relative minimum: 1, 3, 0 5

gx  2x  1  0 x  1
gy  2 y  3  0 y  3 1
2 1
3
x 4 y
(1, 3, 0)

3. f x, y  x2  y2  1 1 z

5
Relative minimum: 0, 0, 1
x
Check: fx  0 x0
x2  y2  1
3
2 (0, 0, 1)
y 3
0 y0
2
fy  x 3 y

x2  y2  1

y2  1 x2  1 xy
fxx  , f  , f 
x2  y2  132 yy x2  y2  132 xy x2  y2  132
At the critical point 0, 0, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 1 is a relative minimum.

5. f x, y  x2  y2  2x  6y  6  x  12   y  32  4 4 z

2
Relative minimum: 1, 3, 4 1
2 1
1
Check: fx  2x  2  0 x  1
x
1
2 7 y
3
fy  2y  6  0 y  3 4
(1, 3, 4)
fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  0
At the critical point 1, 3, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 3, 4 is a relative minimum.

7. f x, y  2x2  2xy  y2  2x  3

fx  4x  2y  2  0
fy  2x  2y  0  Solving simultaneously yields x  1 and y  1.

fxx  4, fyy  2, fxy  2

At the critical point 1, 1, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 4 is a relative minimum.

9. f x, y  5x2  4xy  y2  16x  10

fx  10x  4y  16  0
fy  4x  2y  0  Solving simultaneously yields x  8 and y  16.

fxx  10, fyy  2, fxy  4

At the critical point 8, 16, fxx < 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 8, 16, 74 is a relative maximum.

11. f x, y  2x2  3y2  4x  12y  13 13. f x, y  2x2  y2  3

fx  4x  4  4x  1  0 when x  1.


fx  2x 0 x  0, y  0
fy  6y  12  6 y  2  0 when y  2. x2  y2

fxx  4, fyy  6, fxy  0 2y

fy  0
x2  y2
At the critical point 1, 2, fxx > 0 and
Since f x, y 3 for all x, y, 0, 0, 3 is relative minimum.
fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a relative
minimum.
110 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

15. gx, y  4  x  y  
0, 0 is the only critical point. Since gx, y 4 for all x, y, 0, 0, 4 is relative maximum.

4x
19. z  x2  4y2e1x
2 y2
17. z 
x2  y2  1
Relative minimum: 0, 0, 0
Relative minimum: 1, 0, 2
Relative maxima: 0, 1, 4
Relative maximum: 1, 0, 2
Saddle points:  1, 0, 1
z
z
4
6
5
4

4 y
4 4
5
x
4

4 4
x y

21. hx, y  x2  y2  2x  4y  4
hx  2x  2  2x  1  0 when x  1.
hy  2y  4  2 y  2  0 when y  2.
hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  0
At the critical point 1, 2, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a saddle point.

23. hx, y  x2  3xy  y2

hx  2x  3y  0
hy  3x  2y  0  Solving simultaneously yields x  0 and y  0.

hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  3

At the critical point 0, 0, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.

25. f x, y  x3  3xy  y3

fx  3x2  y  0
fy  3x  y2  0  Solving by substitution yields two critical points 0, 0 and 1, 1.

fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  3

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point. At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  6 > 0 and
fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 1 is a relative minimum.

27. f x, y  ex sin y

fx  ex sin y  0
fy  ex cos y  0  Since ex > 0 for all x and sin y and cos y are never both zero for a
given value of y, there are no critical points.

x  y4
29. z  0. z  0 if x  y  0. z
x2  y2
60
Relative minimum at all points x, x, x  0.
40

3
x 3 y
Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 111

31. fxx fyy   fxy2  94  62  0 33. fxx fyy   fxy2  96  102 < 0
Insufficient information. f has a saddle point at x0, y0.

35. (a) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative minimum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(b) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative maximum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(c) A saddle point is a critical point which is not a relative extremum.
(d) See definition page 906.

z z
37. No extrema 39. Saddle point 41. The point A will be a saddle point.
75 7 The function could be
6
60

45
f x, y  x2  y2.
30

6 3 y
2 x
x
2 3
y

43. d  fxx fyy  fxy2  28  fxy2  16  fxy2 > 0 45. f x, y  x3  y3
fxy2 < 16 4 < fxy < 4 fx  3x2  0
fy  3y2  0  Solving yields x  y  0
fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  0
At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails. 0, 0, 0

47. f x, y  x  12 y  42 0

fx  2x  1 y  42  0
fy  2x  12y  4  0  Solving yields the critical points 1, a and b, 4.
fxx  2 y  42, fyy  2x  12, fxy  4x  1 y  4
At both 1, a and b, 4, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails.
Absolute minima: 1, a, 0 and b, 4, 0

49. f x, y  x23  y23 0


2
fx 
3
3 x
fx and fy are undefined at x  0, y  0. The critical point is 0, 0.
2
fy 
3
3 y

2 2
fxx   ,f 
3 3 yy
,f 0
9x  3 y xy
9y 
At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 is undefined and the test fails.
Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 0

51. f x, y, z  x2   y  32  z  12 0

fx  2x  0
fy  2 y  3  0
fz  2z  1  0
 Solving yields the critical point 0, 3, 1.

Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 3, 1

112 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

f x, y  f x  12  3x  2x  1  5x  10 3

and the maximum is 10, the minimum is 5. On the line y  2x  4, 1 x 2, y=x+1
2 (1, 2)
f x, y  f x  12  3x  22x  4  x  4
y = 2x + 4
and the maximum is 6, the minimum is 5. On the line y   12 x  1, 0 x 2, 1 (0, 1)

f x, y  f x  12  3x  2  12 x  1  2x  10 (2, 0)

x
1 2 3
and the maximum is 10, the minimum is 6. y= 1x +1
2
Absolute maximum: 10 at 0, 1
Absolute minimum: 5 at 1, 2

55. f x, y  3x2  2y2  4y y

(2, 4) (2, 4)
fx  6x  0 x0
fy  4y  4  0 y  1  f 0, 1  2
3

On the line y  4, 2 x 2, 2

f x, y  f x  3x  32  16  3x  16
2 2
1

and the maximum is 28, the minimum is 16. On the curve y  x2, 2 x 2, x
2 1 1 2
f x, y  f x  3x2  2  x2 2 4x2  2x4  x2  x2 2x2  1
and the maximum is 28, the minimum is  18 .
Absolute maximum: 28 at  2, 4
Absolute minimum: 2 at 0, 1

57. f x, y  x2  xy, R  x, y: x 2, y 1   y

fx  2x  y  0
xy0
2

fy  x  0
f 0, 0  0 x
1 1
Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x   2 .
1

Thus, f 2, 1  2, f   2 , 1   4 and f 2, 1  6.

1 1
2

Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x  2 .
1

Thus, f 2, 1  6, f  2 , 1   4 , f 2, 1  2.

1 1

Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.
Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.
Thus, the maxima are f 2, 1  6 and f 2, 1  6 and the minima are f   2 , 1   4 and f  2 , 1   4 .
1 1 1 1

59. f x, y  x2  2xy  y2, R  x, y: x2  y2 8 y

fx  2x  2y  0
 y  x
4

fy  2x  2y  0 2

f x, x  x2  2x2  x2 0 x

4 2 2 4
On the boundary x2  y2  8, we have y2  8  x2 and y  8  x2. Thus, 2

f  x2 2x8  x2  8  x2  8 2x8  x2 4

16  4x2
f  8  x2122x  28  x212  .
8  x2

Then, f  0 implies 16  4x2 or x  2.

f 2, 2  f 2, 2  16 and f 2, 2  f 2, 2  0
Thus, the maxima are f 2, 2  16 and f 2, 2  16, and the minima are f x, x  0, x 2. 
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 113

4xy
61. f x, y  , R  x, y: 0 x 1, 0 y 1 y
x2  1 y2  1
41  x2y
fx   0 x  1 or y  0 1
  1x2  1
y2
R
41  y2x
fy  x  0 or y  1
x  1 y2  12
2
1
x

For x  0, y  0, also, and f 0, 0  0.

For x  1, y  1, f 1, 1  1.
The absolute maximum is 1  f 1, 1.
The absolute minimum is 0  f 0, 0. In fact, f 0, y  f x, 0  0

63. False

Let f x, y  1  x  y . 
0, 0, 1 is a relative maximum, but fx0, 0 and fy0, 0 do not exist.

Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

1. A point on the plane is given by x, y, 12  2x  3y. The 3. A point on the paraboloid is given by x, y, x2  y2. The
square of the distance from the origin to this point is square of the distance from 5, 5, 0 to a point on the
paraboloid is given by
S  x2  y2  12  2x  3y2
S  x  52   y  52  x2  y22
Sx  2x  212  2x  3y2
Sx  2x  5  4xx2  y2  0
Sy  2y  212  2x  3y3
Sy  2 y  5  4yx2  y2  0.
From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system
5x  6y  24
2x3  2xy2  x  5  0
3x  5y  18.
12 18 2y3  2x2y  y  5  0
Solving simultaneously, we have x  7 , y 7
z  12  24 54 6 Multiply the first equation by y and the second equation
7  7  7 . Therefore, the distance from
by x, and subtract to obtain x  y. Then, we have x  1,
the origin to  12 18 6
7 , 7 ,7  is y  1, z  2 and the distance is

127  187  67 614

2 2 2
 . 1  52  1  52  2  02  6.
7

5. Let x, y and z be the numbers. Since x  y  z  30, z  30  x  y.

P  xyz  30xy  x2y  xy2
Px  30y  2xy  y2  y30  2x  y  0 2x  y  30
Py  30x  x2  2xy  x30  x  2y  0 x  2y  30

Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.

7. Let x, y, and z be the numbers and let S  x2  y2  z2. Since x  y  z  30, we have
S  x2  y2  30  x  y2
Sx  2x  230  x  y1  0 2x  y  30
Sy  2y  230  x  y1  0 x  2y  30.

Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.

114 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

9. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height, respectively. Then the sum of the length and girth is given by
x  2y  2z  108 or x  108  2y  2z. The volume is given by
V  xyz  108zy  2zy2  2yz2
Vy  108z  4yz  2z2  z108  4y  2z  0
Vz  108y  2y2  4yz  y108  2y  4z  0.
Solving the system 4y  2z  108 and 2y  4z  108, we obtain the solution x  36 inches, y  18 inches, and z  18 inches.

11. Let a  b  c  k. Then 13. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height,
respectively and let V0 be the given volume.
4 abc 4
V   abk  a  b Then V0  xyz and z  V0 xy. The surface area is
3 3


4 V0 V0
  kab  a2b  ab2 S  2xy  2yz  2xz  2 xy  
3 x y

4 V0

Va  kb  2ab  b2  0 kb  2ab  b2  0 Sx  2 y   0 x2y  V0  0

3 x2


4 V0
Vb  ka  a2  2ab  0 ka  a2  2ab  0. Sy  2 x   0 xy2  V0  0.
3 y2

Solving this system simultaneously yields a  b and

3 V ,y  
Solving simultaneously yields x   0
3 V ,
0

substitution yields b  k 3. Therefore, the solution is and z  3 V .

0

a  b  c  k 3.

15. The distance from P to Q is x2  4. The distance from Q to R is y  x2  1 . The distance from R to S is 10  y.
C  3kx2  4  2k y  x2  1  k10  y


Cx  3k
x2
x
4 
 2k

  y  x
 y  x2  1
0

C  2k
yx yx 1
y k0 
 y  x  1
 2
 y  x  1 2  2

x  4
3k  2k  0
x 1
 2 2
x 1

x2  4 3
3x  x2  4
9x2  x2  4
1
x2 
2
2
x
2
2 y  x   y  x2  1
4 y  x2   y  x2  1
1
 y  x2 
3

y
1 1 23  32
 
3 2 6
2 23  32
Therefore, x  0.707 km and y  1.284 kms.
2 6
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 115

17. Let h be the height of the trough and r the length of the slanted sides. We observe that the area of a trapezoidal cross section is
given by

Ah w  2r  2w  2r  2x  w  2r  xh

where x  r cos  and h  r sin . Substituting these expressions for x and h, we have

Now

Ar,   wr cos   2r 2 cos   r 2 cos 2  0.

Substituting the expression for w from Arr,   0 into the equation Ar,   0, we have

r 24  2 cos cos   2r 2 cos   r 22 cos2   1  0

1
r 22 cos   1  0 or cos   .
2

Therefore, the first partial derivatives are zero when    3 and r  w 3. (Ignore the solution r    0.) Thus, the
trapezoid of maximum area occurs when each edge of width w 3 is turned up 60 from the horizontal.

Rx2  16x2  2x1  102  0, x1  8x2  51

Solving this system yields x1  3 and x2  6.

Rx1x1  10

Rx1x2  2

Rx2x2  16

Rx1x1 < 0 and Rx1x1 Rx2x2  Rx1x22 > 0

Thus, revenue is maximized when x1  3 and x2  6.

21. Px1, x2  15x1  x2  C1  C2

 15x1  15x2  0.02x12  4x1  500  0.05x22  4x2  275

Px1x1  0.04

Px1x2  0

Px2x2  0.10

Therefore, profit is maximized when x1  275 and x2  110.

116 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

 x2  y2  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22

From the graph we see that the surface has a minimum. S

24
x x2 x4
(b) Sxx, y    20
x2  y2 x  22   y  22 x  42   y  22

y y2 y2
Syx, y   
x2  y2 x  22   y  22 x  42   y  22 4
2
4 2


6 4 6
8
1 1 2 8 y
(c) S1, 1  Sx1, 1i  Sy1, 1j   i  j x
2 2 10

tan  
 2 10    1 2   1  2
 186.027
1 2 5

(d) x2, y2  x1  Sxx1, y1t, y1  Syx1, y1t  1   2

1
t, 1   2
10

1
2 t

S 1
2
1
t, 1   2
10
 2 t  2  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t
1



 2

 10  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t


 2

 10  2 510  4 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t


 2

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.344. Thus, x2, y2 0.05, 0.90.

(e) x3, y3  x2  Sxx2, y2t, y2  Syx2, y2t 0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t
S0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t  0.05  0.03t2  0.90  0.26t2  2.05  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2

 3.95  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.78. Thus x3, y3 0.10, 0.44.
x4, y4  x3  Sxx3, y3t, y3  Syx3, y3t 0.10  0.09t, 0.44  0.01t
S0.10  0.09t, 0.45  0.01t  0.10  0.09t2  0.45  0.01t2  2.10  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2

 3.90  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 0.44. Thus, x4, y4 0.06, 0.44.

Note: The minimum occurs at x, y  0.0555, 0.3992

(f) Sx, y points in the direction that S decreases most rapidly. You would use Sx, y for maximization problems.

25. Write the equation to be maximized or minimized as a function of two variables. Set the partial derivatives
equal to zero (or undefined) to obtain the critical points. Use the Second Partials Test to test for relative extrema
using the critical points. Check the boundary points, too.
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables 117

27. (a) 29. (a)

x y xy x2 x y xy x2

2 0 0 4 0 4 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 3 3 1

2 3 6 4 1 1 1 1

x  0  y  4  xy  6  x
i i i i i
2 8 2 0 0 4

36  04 3
x  4 y  8 xy  4 x
i i i i i
2 6


1 3 4
a  , b 4  0  ,
38  02 4 3 4 3 44  48 1
a  2, b  8  24  4,
3 4 46  42 4
y x
4 3
y  2x  4

  
2 2 2
3 4 4 3 4
(b) S     0  1   3
2 3 3 2 3 (b) S  4  42  2  32  2  12  0  02  2

1

6

31. 0, 0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 4, 2, 5, 5 33. 0, 6, 4, 3, 5, 0, 8, 4, 10, 5

 x  13,
i  y  12,i  x  27,
i  y  0,
i

x y  46,
i i x  51 i
2
 x y  70,
i i  x  205
i
2

546  1312 74 37 570  270 350 175

a   a  
551  132 86 43 5205  272 296 148

b
1
5
12 
37
43
13 
7
43  b
1
5
0 
175
148
27 945
148 
37 7 175 945
y x y x
43 43 148 148
8
y = 37
43
7
x + 43
7 (0, 6)
(5, 5) (4, 3)
(3, 4) 4 18
(5, 0)
(4, 2)
(1, 1) (8, 4) (10, 5)
2 10
(0, 0) 6
1
y = 175
148
x + 945
148

35. (a) y  1.7236x  79.7334 37. 1.0, 32, 1.5, 41, 2.0, 48, 2.5, 53
(b) 240
 x  7,  y  174,  x y  322,  x
i i i i i
2  13.5
a  14, b  19, y  14x  19
When x  1.6, y  41.4 bushels per acre.
0 100
100

(c) For each one-year increase in age, the pressure

changes by 1.7236 (slope of line).
118 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

n
39. Sa, b, c    y  ax
i1
i i
2  bxi  c2 41. 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 5
S

n


2xi2 yi  axi2  bxi  c  0 x 0 i
8

a i1
S n y 8 i (1, 0)
(2, 5)


b i1 
2xi yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
 x  10 i
2 9
(2, 0)
(1, 2)

(0, 1)
6

S
x  0
n 2


3
 2  yi  axi2  bxi  c  0 i
c i1

n n n n  x  34 i
4

a
i1
 xi4 b 
i1
xi3 c 
i1
xi2  
i1
xi2yi
 x y  12 i i

 x y  22
n n n n

x x x  x y
2
a i
3 b i
2 c i i i i i
i1 i1 i1 i1

n n n 34a  10c  22, 10b  12, 10a  5c  8

a x
i1
i
2 b  x  cn   y
i1
i
i1
i
a  37 , b  65 , c  26 3 2 6 26
35 , y  7 x  5 x  35

43. 0, 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 4, 12 45. 0, 0, 2, 15, 4, 30, 6, 50, 8, 65, 10, 70

x 9 i  x  30, i

 y  20 i  y  230, i

 x  29 i
2
 x  220, i
2

 x  99 i
3
 x  1,800,i
3

x  353 i
4
 x  15,664,
i
4

 x y  70 i i
 x y  1,670,
i i

 x y  2542
i i
 x y  13,500
2
i i

353a  99b  29c  254

15,664a  1,800b  220c  13,500
99a  29b  9c  70
1,800a  220b  30c  1,670
29a  9b  4c  20
220a  30b  6c  230
a  1, b  1, c  0, y  x2  x 25 2 541 25
y  112 x  56 x 14 0.22x 2  9.66x  1.79
14
120
(4, 12)

(3, 6)
(2, 2)
5 7
(0, 0) 1 14
2
20

47. (a) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018

(b) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018
P  e0.1499h9.3018  10,957.7e0.1499h
(c) 14,000

2 24

2,000

Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers 119

Constraint: x  y  10 12 Constraint: x  y  4 4 constraint

10
f  g 8 level curves f  g
y i  xj  i  j 6
2x i  2yj   i   j 4 4
x
4
y 2x  
x   x  y
2
xy constraint

2 4 6 8 10 12
x
2y   4
level curves

x  y  10  x  y  5 xy4 xy2
f 5, 5  25 f 2, 2  8

5. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2. 7. Maximize f x, y  2x  2xy  y.

Constraint: x  2y  6 Constraint: 2x  y  100
f  g f  g
2x i  2yj   i  2 j 2  2y i  2x  1j  2 i   j
 2  2y  2 y    1
2x  

2y  2 y  
x
2
2x  1   x
2

  1 y  2x

3 2x  y  100 4x  100
x  2y  6    6
2 x  25, y  50
  4, x  2, y  4 f 25, 50  2600
f 2, 4  12

9. Note: f x, y  6  x2  y 2 is maximum when gx, y 11. Maximize f x, y  e xy.

is maximum. Constraint: x2  y 2  8
Maximize gx, y  6  x2  y 2.
ye xy  2x
Constraint: x  y  2
xe xy  2y xy
 2x  
2y   xy x2  y 2  8 2x2  8
xy2
xy2 xy1
f 2, 2  e4
f 1, 1  g1, 1  2

13. Maximize or minimize f x, y  x 2  3xy  y 2. Case 2: Inside the circle

 1 fx  2x  3y  0
xy0
Constraint: x2 y2
Case 1: On the circle x2  y2 1 fy  3x  2y  0

2x  3y  2x fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  3, fxx fyy   fxy2 0

3x  2y  2y  x2  y 2
Saddle point: f 0, 0  0
5
2 2 By combining these two cases, we have a maximum of 2 at
x2  y2  1 x  ,y
2 2
 
2 2
,
 2 
2 2 5 2 2
Maxima: f ,  1
2 2 and a minimum of  2 at

    12
2 2
 .
2 2
Minima: f , ,
2 2 2 2
120 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

15. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2. 17. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2.

Constraint: x  y  z  6 Constraint: x  y  z  1

2x   2x  

2z  

2y   x  y  z

2y   x  y  z
2z  
xyz6 xyz2 x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13
f 2, 2, 2  12 f  13 , 13 , 13   13

19. Maximize f x, y, z  xyz. 21. Maximize f x, y, z  xy  yz.

Constraints: x  y  z  32 Constraints: x  2y  6
xyz0 x  3z  0
f  g  h f  g  h
yz i  xz j  xyk  i  j  k   i  j  k y i  x  z j  yk  i  2j   i  3k

yz     y

xy    

xz     yz  xy x  z x  z  2
y  3
3 8
y  xz y
4 3 
x  y  z  32
xyz0 
x
2x  2z  32 x  z  8 x  2y  6 y  3 
2

y  16 x  3z  0 z 
x
3
f 8, 16, 8  1024
x
x 8
 3
3 3
x
2 
3
x  3, y  , z  1
2

 3
f 3, , 1  6
2 

23. Minimize the square of the distance f x, y  x2  y 2 25. Minimize the square of the distance
subject to the constraint 2x  3y  1.
f x, y, z  x  22   y  12  z  12
2x  2
2y  3  y  3x2 subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.

2x  2  
2
2x  3y  1 x   , y  
13
3
13
2z  1  

2 y  1   y  z and y  x  1

The point on the line is   13 ,  13  and the desired

2 3
x  y  z  1 x  2x  1  1
distance is
x  1, y  z  0
    13
2 2 3 2
d     .
13 13 13 The point on the plane is 1, 0, 0 and the desired
distance is
d  1  22  0  12  0  12  3.
Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers 121

27. Maximize f x, y, z  z subject to the constraints 29. Optimization problems that have restrictions or contstraints
x2  y 2  z2  36 and 2x  y  z  2. on the values that can be used to produce the optimal
solution are called contrained optimization problems.
0  2x  2
0  2y   x  2y
1  2z  

x2  y 2  z 2  36
2x  y  z  2 z  2x  y  2  5y  2
2y2  y 2  5y  22  36
30y 2  20y  32  0
15y 2  10y  16  0
5 265
y
15
Choosing the positive value for y we have the point

10  152
265 5  265 1  265
,
15
,
3 .
31. Maximize Vx, y, z  xyz subject to the constraint 33. Minimize Cx, y, z  5xy  32xz  2yz  xy subject
x  2y  2z  108. to the constraint x yz  480.
yz   8y  6z  yz 

xy  2

xz  2 y  z and x  2y

8x  6z  xz  x  y, 4y  3z
6x  6y  xy
x  2y  2z  108 6y  108, y  18 xyz  480 43 y 3  480
x  36, y  z  18 3 360, z  4 
x  y  3 360
3
Volume is maximum when the dimensions are Dimensions:  3 360 4 
3 360  3 360
feet
3
36 18 18 inches

z z x

x
y y

x2 y2 z2
35. Maximize Vx, y, z  2x2y2z  8xyz subject to the constraint 2  2  2  1.
a b c


2x
8yz  
a2
2y x2 y2 z2
8xz   2  2  2
b2 a b c
2z
8xy  
c2
x2 y2 z2 3x2 3y 2 3z 2
   1 2  1, 2  1, 2  1
a2 b 2 c 2 a b c
a b c
x ,y ,z
3 3 3

23a 23b 23c

Therefore, the dimensions of the box are .
3 3 3
122 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

Distance d12  x2 d22  y 2

37. Using the formula Time  , minimize Tx, y   subject to the constraint x  y  a.
Rate v1 v2
x



v1d22  x 2 x y
 P Medium 1
y v1d12  x2 v2d22  y 2

v2d22  y 2
d1
xya 1
y
x y
Since sin
1  and sin
2  , we have x
2
d2
d12  x2 d22  y 2
Q
a
Medium 2
xd1  2 x2 yd2  2 y2 sin
1 sin
2
 or  .
v1 v2 v1 v2

39. Maximize P p, q, r  2pq  2pr  2qr. 41. Maximize Px, y  100x 0.25y 0.75
Constraint: p  q  r  1 subject to the constraint 48x  36y  100,000.
P  g 48
yx
0.75
25x0.75y0.75  48 
2q  2r  


25
2p  2r   3  4 p  q  r  41 36
xy
0.25
75x0.25y0.25  36 
2p  2q    4 75
3

yx yx 48253675

0.75 0.25
pqr1 

pqr1
q  r  23
 p 1
3, q  13 , r  13 y
4
x
P 13 , 13 , 13   2 13  13   2 13  13   2 13  13   23 .
y  4x
48x  36y  100,000 192x  100,000
3125 6250
x ,y
6 3
Therefore, P  147,314.
3125 6250
6 , 3

43. Minimize Cx, y  48x  36y subject to the constraint 100x0.25y0.75  20,000.

yx
0.75
48
48  25x0.75y0.75 
25

xy
0.25 36
36  75x0.25y0.25 
75

yx yx 25487536

0.75 0.25


y
 4 y  4x
x
100x0.25y0.75  20,000 x0.254x0.75  200
200 200
x   502
40.75 22
y  4x  2002
Therefore, C 502, 2002  \$13,576.45.
Review Exercises for Chapter 12 123

45. (a) Maximize g, ,   cos  cos  cos  subject to the constraint       .
 sin  cos  cos  

cos  sin  cos   tan   tan   tan      
cos  cos  sin  

 
3

g 3 , 3 . 3   81

(b)               2

g    cos  cos  cos     

3 3
 cos  cos cos  cos    sin  sin  
 cos  cos  cos  

1. No, it is not the graph of a function.

3. f x, y  ex 5. f x, y  x2  y 2
2 y 2

The level curves are of the form The level curves are of the form
c ex y c  x2  y 2
2 2

ln c  x2  y 2. x2 y 2
1  .
The level curves are circles centered at the origin. c c
y The level curves are hyperbolas.
y
2 c = 10 c = 12 c = 2
c=2
4
c=1
c = 12
x
2 2 1
x
4 1 4
1
2

Generated by Mathematica
4
Generated by Mathematica

7. f x, y  ex y 2
9. f x, y, z  x2  y  z2  1
2 z

z
y  x2  z2  1 3

3
3 Elliptic paraboloid
3
2
3 y
x

3 3 y
x
3

xy 1 4x2y
11. lim  13. lim
x, y 1, 1 x  y 2 2
2 x, y 0, 0 x4  y2
Continuous except at 0, 0. 4x 2y 4x 4
For y  x 2,  4  2, for x
0
x y
4 2 x  x4
4x 2y
For y  0,  0, for x
0
x4  y 2
Thus, the limit does not exist. Continuous except at 0, 0.
124 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

15. f x, y  ex cos y 17. z  xey  yex

fx  ex cos y z
 ey  yex
x
fy  e sin y x

z
 xey  ex
y

xy y
19. gx, y  21. f x, y, z  z arctan
x2  y 2 x
yx2  y 2  xy2x y y2  x2 yz
gx 
x2  y 22
 2
x  y 22
fx 
z

y
1   y2 x2 x2
 2  
x  y2
xx2  y 2
gy 
x2  y 22
fy 
z 1
1   y 2 x2 x
 2 
xz
x  y2
y
fz  arctan
x

23. ux, t  cen t sinnx

2 z
25.
u
3

 cnen t cosnx
2

x
u
 cn2en t sinnx
2

t 1
y
3
3

27. f x, y  3x2  xy  2y 3 29. hx, y  x sin y  y cos x 31. z  x2  y2

fx  6x  y hx  sin y  y sin x z
 2x
fy  x  6y 2 hy  x cos y  cos x x

fxx  6 hxx  y cos x 2z

2
x2
fyy  12y hyy  x sin y
z
fxy  1 hxy  cos y  sin x  2y
y
fyx  1 hyx  cos y  sin x 2z
 2
y 2
2z 2z
Therefore,  2  0.
x 2 y

y y
33. z 35. z  x sin
x2  y 2 x
z 2xy z z

x x2  y 22
dz 
x
dx 
y
y y y
 y
dy  sin  cos dx  cos dy
x x x x   
2z 4x2 3x2  y 2
x2
 2y 2

1
x  y 23 x2  y 22
 2y 2
x  y 23
z x2  y 2  2y x2  y2
  2
y x2  y 22 x  y 22
2z x2  y 222y  2x2  y 2x2  y 22y

y 2
x2  y 24
3x2  y 2
 2y
x2  y 23
2z 2z
Therefore,  2  0.
x 2 y
Review Exercises for Chapter 12 125

37. z2  x2  y 2 39. V  13 r 2h

2z dx  2x dx  2y dy dV  23 rh dr  13 r 2 dh  23 25 18   13 22 18 
5 1
 6 6   in.3
dz 
x
z
y
dx  dy 
z
5 1
13 2
 
12 1
13 2

17
26 
0.654 cm

dz 17 26
Percentage error:  0.0503 5%
z 13

41. w  lnx2  y2, x  2t  3, y  4  t

dw w dx w dy
Chain Rule:  
dt x dt y dt
2x 2y
 2  2 1
x2  y2 x  y2
22t  32 24  t
 
2t  32  4  t2 2t  32  4  t2
10t  4

5t2  4t  25
Substitution: w  lnx2  y2  ln2t  32  4  t2
dw 22t  32  24  t 10t  4
  2
dt 2t  32  4  t2 5t  4t  25

43. u  x2  y 2  z2, x  r cos t, y  r sin t, z  t

u u x u y u z
Chain Rule:   
r x r y r z r
 2x cos t  2y sin t  2z0
 2r cos2 t  r sin2 t  2r
u u x u y u z
  
t x t y t z t
 2xr sin t  2yr cos t  2z
 2r 2 sin t cos t  r 2 sin t cos t  2t
 2t
Substitution: ur, t  r 2 cos2 t  r 2 sin2 t  t 2  r 2  t 2
u
 2r
r
u
 2t
t

45. x2y  2yz  xz  z2  0

z z z
2xy  2y x  z  2z 0
x x x
z 2xy  z 2xy  z
 
x 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z
z z z
x2  2y  2z  x  2z 0
y y y
z x2  2z x2  2z
 
y 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z
126 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

47. f x, y  x2y 49. w  y 2  xz

f  2xyi  x 2j w  z i  2yj  xk
f 2, 1  4 i  4j w1, 2, 2  2i  4 j  k
1 2 2 1 2 1 2
u v i j u v i j k
2 2 2 3 3 3 3
4 4 2 2
Du f 2, 1  f 2, 1 u  2 2  2 2  0 Duw1, 2, 2  w1, 2, 2 u    
3 3 3 3

y
51. z 53. z  ex cos y
x2  y 2
z  ex cos yi  ex sin y j
2xy x2  y 2
z   2 i 2 j
x  y 22 x  y 22
 4    22 i 
z 0,
2
2 
j 
2
2
,
2
2 
1 1
z1, 1   i   , 0  
2
1
2
 z0, 4    1
 z1, 1 
2

55. 9x2  4y2  65 57. Fx, y, z  x2y  z  0

f x, y  9x2  4y2 F  2xy i  x 2j  k
f x, y  18xi  8yj F2, 1, 4  4i  4j  k
f 3, 2  54i  16j Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is
54i  16j 1 4x  2  4 y  1  z  4  0 or
Unit normal:  27i  8j
54i  16j 793 4x  4y  z  8,
and the equation of the normal line is
x2 y1 z4
  .
4 4 1

59. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  4x  6y  z  9  0 61. Fx, y, z  x2  y 2  z  0

F  2x  4i  2y  6j  k Gx, y, z  3  z  0
F2, 3, 4  k F  2x i  2yj  k
Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is G  k
z  4  0 or z  4, F2, 1, 3  4i  2j  k
and the equation of the normal line is
x  2, y  3, z  4  t.
i
F  G  4
0   j
2
0
k
1  2i  2j
1
Therefore, the equation of the tangent line is
x2 y1
 , z  3.
1 2

63. f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2  14
f x, y, z  2xi  2yj  2zk
f 2, 1, 3  4i  2j  6k Normal vector to plane.

cos   n k  6

3 14
n 56 14
  36.7
Review Exercises for Chapter 12 127

65. f x, y  x3  3xy  y 2 z

fx  3x2  3y  3x2  y  0
30

fy  3x  2y  0
x 2
y
fxx  6x 30

fyy  2
fxy  3

From fx  0, we have y  x2. Substituting this into fy  0, we have 3x  2x2  x2x  3  0. Thus, x  0 or 2 .
3

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.
At the critical point  2 , 4 , fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0 and fxx > 0. Therefore,  2 , 4 ,  16  is a relative minimum.
3 9 3 9 27

1 1
67. f x, y  xy   z
x y
20
1
fx  y   0, x2y  1
x2
1
fy  x   0, xy 2  1
y2 3 4 y
4
20 (1, 1, 3)
Thus, x2y  xy2 or x  y and substitution yields the critical point 1, 1. x 24

2
fxx 
x3
fxy  1
2
fyy 
y3
At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  2 > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2  3 > 0. Thus, 1, 1, 3 is a relative minimum.

69. The level curves are hyperbolas. There is a critical point at 0, 0, but there are no relative extrema. The gradient is normal to the
level curve at any given point at x0, y0.

71. Px1, x2  R  C1  C2

 225  0.4x1  x2x1  x2  0.05x12  15x1  5400  0.03x22  15x2  6100
 0.45x12  0.43x22  0.8x1x2  210x1  210x2  11,500
Px1  0.9x1  0.8x2  210  0
0.9x1  0.8x2  210
Px2  0.86x2  0.8x1  210  0
0.8x1  0.86x2  210
Solving this system yields x1 94 and x2 157.
Px1x1  0.9
Px1x2  0.8
Px2x2  0.86
Px1x1 < 0
Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0
Therefore, profit is maximum when x1 94 and x2 157.
128 Chapter 12 Functions of Several Variables

73. Maximize f x, y  4x  xy  2y subject to the 75. (a) y  2.29t  2.34

constraint 20x  4y  2000. 30

4  y  20
x  2  4  5x  y  6
20x  4y  2000 5x  y  500 2 11

5
5x  y  6
(b) 20
10x  494
x  49.4
y  253 1 3

Yes, the data appears more linear.

(c) y  8.37 ln t  1.54
(d) 25

1 10

77. Optimize f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.

yz
xz xyz
xy

x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13
Maximum: f  13 , 13 , 13   13

79. PQ  x2  4, QR  y2  1, RS  z; x  y  z  10
C  3 x2  4  2 y2  1  2
Constraint: x  y  z  10
C  g
3x 2y
i j  k  i  j  k
x2  4 y2  1

3x  x2  4
2y  y2  1
1
1
9x2  x2  4 x2 
2
1
4y2  y2  1 y2 
3
2 3 2 3
Hence, x  ,y , z  10   8.716 m.
2 3 2 3