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# CARNOT CYCLE

## Fig: 8 .1. Carnot cycle on T-s and p-V diagrams.

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Figure:8.1, shows a Carnot cycle on T-s and p-V diagrams. It consists of
(i) two constant pressure operations, (4-1) and (2-3) and
(ii) two frictionless adiabatics or isentropic operations, (1-2) and (3-4).

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EXAMPLE

## and for CARNOT cycle.

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RANKINE CYCLE
Rankine cycle is the theoretical cycle on which the steam turbine works.

## Fig. 1. Rankine cycle

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Fig:2. (a) p-v diagram ; (b) T-s diagram ; (c) h-s diagram for Rankine cycle

The Rankine cycle is shown in Fig: 1.It consists of the following processes :
Process 1-2 : Reversible adiabatic expansion in the turbine.
Process 2-3 : Constant-pressure transfer of heat in the condenser.
Process 3-4 : Reversible adiabatic pumping process in the feed pump.
Process 4-1 : Constant-pressure transfer of heat in the boiler.
Fig:2. shows the Rankine cycle on p-v, T-s and h-s diagrams (when the saturated steam
enters the turbine, the steam can be wet or superheated also).
Considering 1 kg of fluid

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Applying steady flow energy equation (S.F.E.E.) to boiler, turbine, condenser and pump :

## (i) For boiler (as control volume), we get

OR
(i) BOILER

OR

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OR
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Example:1. In a steam turbine steam at 20 bar, 360C is expanded to 0.08 bar. It then enters a
condenser, where it is condensed to saturated liquid water. The pump feeds back the water into
the boiler. Assume ideal processes, find per kg of steam the net work and the cycle efficiency.

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EXAMPLE:2

## and the work ratio

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Irreversible processes
Free Expansion
Consider two vessels 1 and 2 interconnected by a short pipe with a valve A, and perfectly thermally
insulated [Fig. 4.10]. Initially let the vessel 1 be filled with a fluid at a certain pressure, and let 2
be completely evacuated. When the valve A is opened the fluid in 1 will expand rapidly to fill both
vessels 1 and 2. The pressure finally will be lower than the initial pressure in vessel 1. This is
known as free or unresisted expansion. The process is highly irreversible ; since the fluid is
eddying continuously during the process. Now applying first law of thermodynamics (or nonflow
energy equation) between the initial and final states,

Q + W = (u2 u1)

## Fig: 1. Free expansion

In this process, no work is done on or by the fluid, since the boundary of the system does not move.
No heat flows to or from the fluid since the system is well lagged. The process is therefore,
i.e., u2 u1 = 0 or u2 = u1
In a free expansion, therefore, the internal energy initially equals the internal energy finally.
For a perfect gas,
u = CvT
For a free expansion of a perfect gas,
CvT1 = CvT2 i.e., T1 = T2
That is, for a perfect gas undergoing a free expansion, the initial temperature is equal to the
final temperature.

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EXAMPLE

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