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Journal of

Degraded and Mining


Lands Management
http://www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id
Accredited by Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education
of the Republic of Indonesia, No. 60/E/KPT/2016, 13 November 2016

p-ISSN: 2339-076X
076X
Vol 4 No 4 (July 2017)
e-ISSN: 2502-2458
2458

International Research Centre for the Management of


Degraded and Mining Lands
http://www.ircmedmind.ub.ac.id
About the Journal
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management (JDMLM): ISSN:2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e) is
an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with aspects directed
towards the management of degraded and mining lands covering topography of a landscape, soil and water
quality, biogeochemistry, ecosystem structure and function, and environmental, economic, social and health
impacts of degraded and mining lands. Papers dealing with result of original research, and critical reviews
on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge.
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management is managed by the International Research Centre for
the Management of Degraded and Mining Lands (IRC-MEDMIND), a research collaboration between
University of Brawijaya-Indonesia, University of Mataram-Indonesia, Massey University-New Zealand and
Chinese Academy of Sciences-China in attempting to create opportunities in the management of degraded
and mining lands. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management is published in a single volume every
year. Each volume consists of four issues, normally published in October, January, April and July.
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Editorial Team
Editor-in-Chief
Eko Handayanto, International Research Centre for the Management of Degraded and Mining Lands,
University of Brawijaya, Indonesia
Associate Editor-in-Chief
Christopher W Anderson, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New
Zealand
Novi Arfarita, International Research Centre for the Management of Degraded and Mining Lands,
University of Brawijaya, and Malang Islamic University, Indonesia
Wani Hadi Utomo, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya,
Indonesia
International Editorial Board
Sri Rahayu Utami, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya,
Indonesia
Hamdan Jol, Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Malaysia
Constantinos Ehaliotis, Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural
University of Athens, Greece
B M Kumar, College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, India
Anizan Isahak, Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Environmental and Natural Resource
Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
John Bako Baon, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia
Juanxu Wang, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Guiyang, China
Suhartini S, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya,
Indonesia
Tsuyoshi Imai, Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and
Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan
Index

@IRC-MEDMIND 2017: All rights reserved


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017)

Contents

Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas 853-861
Tyas Mutiara Basuki
Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia: Olea africana and Hagenia 863-871
abysinicca in the degraded lake of Haramaya Watershed, Ethiopia
Eba Muluneh Sorecha
The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land 873-880
at West Kalimantan
Sulakhudin, Denah Suswati, Muhammad Hatta
Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in 881-889
the second season
Widowati, Astutik, Astri Sumiati, Wahyu Fikrinda
Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain model in Eastern 891-897
Hararghe, Ethiopia
Eba Muluneh Sorecha, Birhanu Bayissa
The effectiveness of Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis globulosa) as a phytoremediator 899-905
of soil contaminated with chromium of industrial waste
Pungky Ferina, Retno Rosariastuti, Supriyadi
Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural 907-918
development in Bangka Island, Indonesia
Asmarhansyah, Rodrigo B Badayos, Pearl B Sanchez, Pompe C Sta Cruz,
Leonardo M Florece
Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivated on 919-926
dryland in rainy season
Akbar Saitama, Agung Nugroho, Eko Widaryanto
Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, 927-936
Indonesia
Vivi Novianti, D N Choesin, D T Iskandar, D Suprayogo
The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on 937-943
pepper plant from the infected soil
Norma Fauziyah, Bambang Hadisutrisno, Suryanti
Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil 945-954
Abdullah Taufiq, Andy Wijanarko, Afandi Kristiono

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id i
JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 853-861
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.853

Research Article

Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land
cover areas
Tyas Mutiara Basuki*
Watershed Management Technology Center, Jl. A. Yani- PO BOX 295, Pabelan, Surakarta, Indonesia
* tmbasuki@yahoo.com
Received 28 April 2017, Accepted 23 May 2017

Abstract : Land cover and human activities affect water yield and soil erosion-sedimentation in a
catchment. Therefore, a study to obtain information of water and sediment yields from two catchments
covered by different land cover areas has been conducted in Tanjung and Bakar catchments. The
catchments are located in Tanah Laut Regency, South Kalimantan Province. The area of secondary forest
inTanjung and Bakar catchments are 31 and 10%. The water yield was obtained by measuring Stream
Water Level (SWL) and converted the data into stream water discharge using a stream water discharge
rating curve. Sediment samples were taken for every increament of SWL. The sediment concentration in
water samples were converted to sediment discharge (kg/second) using a sediment discharge rating curve.
The results showed that water and sediment yields in 2016 of Tanjung cacthment were higher than Bakar
catchment. The water and sediment yields of Tanjung were 2994 mm and 15.7 t/ha. Bakar catchment
produces water yield 2750 mm and sediment yield 7.4 t/ha. Based on the study, it shows that the
suspended sediment in stream water is not only affected by the percentage of forest cover, but it is also
influenced by the activities within the catchment such as traditional mining.
Keywords: forest area, sediment yield, water yield
To cite this article: Basuki, T.M. 2017. Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover
areas. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 853-861, DOI: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.853.

Introduction estates, and settlements will alter the natural


condition of a catchment. Those problems are
Land cover has an essential role in the global commonly faced by tropical developing countries
water balance or water cycle (Beck et al. 2013; (Aksoy and Kavvaz, 2005). These situations are
Sterling et al. 2013; Liu et al. 2015) and soil also found in Indonesia, such as in Kalimantan
erosion sedimentation (Feng et al. 2010; which is one of the big islands in Indonesia.
Defersha and Melesse 2012). Different forest The alteration of natural land use or land
cover areas lead to different soil-water response cover into other uses as mentioned above often
relationships of a catchment. Generally, high impact on dispersion of soil aggregate, nutrient
percentage of forest cover area in a watershed or balance, organic matter depletion, and destruction
catchment will produce a stable hydrological of native species (Sharma et al. 2011; Tang et al.
condition in term of quantity, quality, and 2011; Baker and Miller 2013). The decrease in
continuity. However, high population growth natural forest covers with multi layers strata in the
accompanied by rapid economic and forest ecosystem will reduce the opportunity of
infrastructure developments have caused the rainfall to infiltrate into the soil. This condition is
increase in the need of land. Consequently, land often worse when high rainfall intensity occurs on
cover or land use conversion cannot be avoided. steep slopes of headwater catchments and it
In that case, forest degradation or deforestation causes severe runoff and soil erosion (Thothong et
due to land cover conversion from forest to al., 2011), as well as flooding (Aksoy and Kavvas
minings, agricultural areas, mono species of 2005) and sedimentation at downstream areas (Shi

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 853
Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

et al. 2013). Further impact of the antropogenic have conducted direct measurement of water and
activities is not only alter water yield, but the sediment yields using catchments approach. The
activities also change landform through erosion selection of the catchments was based on the
and sedimentation processes in a watershed or a similarity of the catchment morphometries, but
catchment (Cai et al. 2012; Zhou et al. 2015). with different land cover areas, especially forest
According to (Baker and Miller, 2013), this areas. The purpose of the resaerch is to study the
hydrological shifting is caused by the differences effect of land cover areas on water and sediment
in the rate of evapotranspiration, interception, yields.
infiltration, ground water recharge as well as
surface runoff in relation to soil erosion.
Regarding to the impacts of land cover Materials and Methods
changes on water and soil erosion-sediment Description of the study area
yields, most of the previous studies were
conducted by hydrological modelling (Notebaert Two catchments with different secondary forest
et al. 2011; De Girolamo and Lo Porto 2012; Isik covers were choosen as the study sites. The first
et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014; Awotwi et al. was Tanjung catchment with an area of 31.9 km2
2015). In addition, most of those studies focussed and 30% of the areas was secondary forest. The
only on the impact of clear cutting in forest second catchment was Bakar catchment with its
harvesting on water yield and soil erosion- area was 18.4 km2 which consisted of 10%
sedimentation. Based on review literatures, it is secondary forest areas. The form of these two
hard to find a scientific published paper about the catchments was circular. The study areas were
effect of land cover on water and sediment yields located in Tanah Laut Regency, South Kalimantan
in natural forest in Indonesia. In our study, we Province. Figure 1 shows the location of the study
areas.

Figure 1. Situation map of the study areas.


Source: BPKH Banjarbaru

Data collection ETM+ with spatial resolution of 30 by 30 m.


Slope steepness classes and catchment
The map of land cover classification was obtained
morphologies were derived from DEM SRTM
from Balai Pemangkuan Kawasan Hutan (BPKH)
(Digital Elevation Model of Shutlle Radar
of South Kalimantan Regency in Banjarbaru. This
Thermal Mission). A ground check was conducted
land cover map was derived from Landsat 7
in 2016. Rainfall data were collected using an

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 854


Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

ombrometer or conventional rain gauge for every Data analysis


rainy day at 7.00 am. The first rainfall gauge was
Using Arcmap software, the land cover map was
installed in the Tanjung catchment and the second
cropped according to boundaries of Tanjung and
one was located near the outlet of the Bakar
Bakar catchmens. Afterwards, the areas of each
catchment. Stream water level was monitored in
cover type was calculated. The land cover map of
each outlet of the catchments using a tide-gauge
Tanjung and Bakar catchment are presented in
three times a day at 7.00 am, 12.00 am, and 17.00
Figure 2 and 3. The image of DEM SRTM was
pm. Water samples for suspended sediment
used to derived slope steepnes. The water samples
analysis was taken when there is an increase in
were analyzed in a laboratory to obtain
stream water level. The water samples were
concentration of suspended sediment.
analyzed in laboratory to measure sediment
concentration.

Figure 2. Land cover map of Tanjung catchment


Source: BPKH Banjarbaru

Figure 3. Land cover map of Bakar catchment


Source: BPKH Banjarbaru

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 855


Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

Data of stream water level from the three time Note:


measurements a day were averaged and were Qs = Sediment discharge (kg/second)
converted into stream water discharge using the Q = Water discharge (m3/second)
equations below. In this paper, water yield is
expressed as stream water discharge. Bakar catchment:

Tanjung catchment: Qs =0,257Q^1,242............................................(4)

Q = 4,3H^2,47....................................................(1) Note:
Qs = Sediment discharge (kg/second)
Note : Q = Water discharge (m3/second)
Q = Water discharge (m3/second)
H = The average of stream water level (m) For comparison of water yield between the two
catchments, the sediment discharge in kg/second
Bakar catchment: was converted into ton/ha by dividing the Qs with
the area of each catchment.
Q = 3.693H^1,78................................................(2)

Note: Results and Discussion


Q = Water discharge (m3/second)
H = The average of stream water level (m) Land cover and slope steepness of the
catchments
For comparison of water yield between the two Based on the analysis, it shows that Tanjung
catchments, the stream water discharge in catchment has 3 types of land cover, while Bakar
m3/second was converted into mm by dividing the catchment has 4 types of land cover. As illustrated
Q with the area of each catchment. in Figure 4, the area of secondary forest is wider
To obtain the amount of suspended in Tanjung (31%) than in Bakar catchment (10%).
sediment, a sediment rating curve was develop Slope steepness was divided into five classess and
based on a regression equation between sediment the result is provided in Table 1. The flat,
concentration for every stream water level and undulating, and very steep slope classess are
discharge at the coresponding stream water level. similar between Tanjung and Bakar catchments.
The regression for each catchment is as follow, However, for 8-15% slope steepness, Tanjung
Tanjung catchment: catchment has double perecentage area than Bakar
catchment, conversely at 25-45% gradient, Bakar
Qs = 0,505Q^1,021.............................................(3) catchment has wider area than Tanjung
catchment.

60
Tanjung
Percentage of land cover

Bakar
40

20

0
Dry Land Dry Land Secondary Shrubs
Agriculture Agriculture Forest
Mixed Shrubs

Figure 4. The percentage of land cover at each catchment

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 856


Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

Table 1. Slope classes of the study areas Tanjung catchment, mean monthly water yield in
Bakar cacthment was not always higher than in
Slope Tanjung Bakar Tanjung catchment as shown in Figure 8. During
classes catchment catchment March to June and in December the stream water
(%) Area % Area % discharge in Tanjung catchment was higher than
(ha) (ha) in Bakar catchment, for the rest of the months the
0-8 1036.9 32.5 590.2 32.1 stream water discharge was higher in Bakar
8 - 15 557.6 17.5 157 8.5 catchment. Based on Paired T-test between
monthly stream water discharge of Tanjung and
15-25 503.6 15.8 270.8 14.7
Bakar catchments, it reveals that statistically there
25 - 45 746.9 23.4 573.6 31.2 is no significant differences between monthly
>45 344.6 10.8 249.2 13.5 stream discharge between Tanjung and Bakar
Total 3189.6 100 1840.8 100 catchments. At 95% confidence interval, the p
value is 0.54 In total, the stream water discharge
of Tanjung catchment in 2016 was 2994 mm and
Rainfall and stream water discharge Bakar catchment was 2750 mm.
Mean monthly rainfall in 2016 of Bakar The higher annual water yield in Tanjung
catchment was higher than Tanjung catchment catchment could be caused by wider size of
which were 338 and 264 mm/month. The highest Tanjung catchment as compared to Bakar. The
monthly rainfall for the both catchments occurs in area of Tanjung catchment (31.9 km2) is almost
December. The total amount of rainfall in 2016 double compared to Bakar catchment (18.4 km2).
for Bakar catchment was 4052 mm and for This finding is in line with a research finding
Tanjung catchment was 2971 mm. The conducted by Basuki et al. (2017) in teak
comparison of the monthly rainfall is graphed in catchments. Basuki et al. (2017) found that annual
Figure 5. water yield from teak catchment with area 13.5
Rainfall is the input for a water balance km2 was higher than that from teak cacthment
system in a catchment and the output is the water with area of 3.4 km2. In addition, Gallo et al.
yield or the stream water discharge. The (2015) found that the size of catchment has more
relationship between monthly rainfall and influence on water yield than land cover and
monthly discharge are presented in Figures 6 and rainfall in their research using 78 catchments with
7 for Tanjung and Bakar catchments, respectively. various sizes from small (0.1 ha) to very large
The coefficient of determination between monthly (>10,000 km2). However, according to Blschl et
rainfall and mean monthly discharge is higher in al. (2007), hydrologycal response of a small
Bakar (0.60) than in Tanjung (0.54). The scatter catchment is more affected by land cover
plot of Tanjung and bakar catchments are condition and for a large cacthment or watershed,
illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. Although monthly it is more influenced by climate.
rainfall at Bakar catchment was higher than in

Figure 5. Monthly rainfall of Tanjung and Bakar catchments in 2016

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 857


Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

Figure 6. Scatter plot of monthly rainfall vs mean monthly stream water discharge at Tanjung catchment

Figure 7. Scatter plot of monthly rainfall vs mean monthly stream water discharge at Bakar catchment

Figure 8. The comparison of monthly rainfall and mean monthly water yield at Tanjung catchment

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 858


Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

Sediment of the studied catchments However, the slope of the equation is higher for
Tanjung catchment, it means that the equation for
The relationship between rainfall and suspended
Tanjung catchment is more sensitive than Bakar
sediment of the catchments are presented in
catchment. In other words, the increase in rainfall
Figures 9 and 10. The coeficient of determination
will cause higher increase in sediment at Tanjung
between rainfall and sediment for Tanjung
catchment than in Bakar catchment.
catchment is lower than Bakar catchment.

Figure 9. Scatter plot of monthly rainfall vs monthly sediment discharge of Tanjung catchment

Figure 10. Scatter plot of monthly rainfall vs sediment discharge of Bakar catchment

To compare sediment between the catchments, the t/ha and from Bakar catchment was 7.4 t/ha. This
unit of sediment (kg/second) was converted into difference is statistically significant at 95%
ton/ha by dividing the area of each catchment. confidence interval and the p value is 0.000.
The comparison of sediment between the two Based on the field observation, the high sediment
catchments is shown in Figure 11. This figure concentration in the Tanjung river was from gold
shows that alhtough Bakar catchment had higher mining activities. Some of the areas in Tanjung
rainfall and lower forest cover area than Tanjung cacthment are used for traditional gold mining.
cacthment, however its sediment yield was lower The local people sift and wash soil which contents
than Tanjung catchment. In 2016, the total raw material of gold in the river and it causes high
sediment yield from Tanjung catchments was 15.7 sediment concentration.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 859


Water and sediment yields from two catchments with different land cover areas

Figure 11. The comparison of rainfall and sediment between Tanjung and Bakar catcmenths

The other possible reason for low sediment References


concentration in Bakar catchment is the high
Aksoy, H. and Kavvas, M.L. 2005. A review of
shrub cover. Although Bakar catchment has low
hillslope and watershed scale erosion and sediment
forest cover (10%), however, it is dominated by transport models. Catena 64(2-3): 247-271.
shrub which occupies 43% of its area. In this Awotwi, A., Yeboah, F. and Kumi, M. 2015. Assessing
regards, shrub also has a role to protect soil from the impact of land cover changes on water balance
mechanic energy of raindrops and prevent components of White Volta Basin in West Africa.
dispersion of soil agregate. Therefore less soil Water and Environment Journal 29(2): 259-267.
erosion and sediment concentration in the river. A Baker, T.J. and Miller, S.N. 2013. Using the Soil and
research conducted in Loess Plateau in China has Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess land use
concluded that the best soil protection from impact on water resources in an East African
watershed. Journal of Hydrology 486:100-111.
erosion has been found under forest, shrub, and
Basuki, T.M., Adi, R.N., and Sulasmiko, E. 2017. Hasil
dense grass covers (Sun et al., 2014). air hutan jati dari dua sub daerah aliran sungai
dengan luas berbeda. Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan
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Conclusion Beck, H.E., Bruijnzeel, L.A., van Dijk, A.I.J.M.,
Total water and sediment yields in 2016 from McVicar, T.R., Scatena, F.N. and J. Schellekens,
Tanjung catchment with 32% secondary forest J.2013. The impact of forest regeneration on
streamflow in 12 mesoscale humid tropical
area were higher than from Bakar cacthment
catchments. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
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percentage of forest cover area, but it is also M., Goodrich, D., Gutknecht, D., Matamoros, D.,
influenced by other land uses or activities such as Merz, B., Shand, P. and Szolgay, J. 2007. At what
mining in the catchment. Furher studies related to scales do climate variability and land cover change
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upper Huaihe River basin, China. Physics and
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64.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 860


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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 862


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 863-871
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.863

Research Article

Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia: Olea africana


and Hagenia abysinicca in the degraded lake of Haramaya Watershed,
Ethiopia
Eba Muluneh Sorecha*
School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O.Box. 138 Dire
Dawa, Ethiopia
*
ebamule1@gmail.com
Received 21 April 2017, Accepted 16 May 2017

Abstract: The study was conducted to explore the growth and survival rate of the native tree species of
Ethiopia, Olea africana and Hagenia abysinicca in the degraded Lake Haramaya Watershed, eastern
Ethiopia. Three sub watersheds of Lake Haramaya Watershed, namely: Bachake, Damota, and Tinike
were selected purposefully on the basis of their extreme degradation and nearby vanished Lake
Haramaya. In each sub watersheds, a total of about 12 main standard quadrats have been applied and the
required data has been recorded. The result of the study indicated that Olea africana performs well at
Damota sub watershed, accounting 38% of survival rate followed by Tinike sub watershed having a
survival rate of 37%. Only 29% of the total planted Olea africana were survived at Bachake sub
watershed. Furthermore, it has been revealed via this study that about 55.6% of Hagenia abysinicca were
survived at Damota sub watershed. Comparing the survival rate of the two species, Hagenia abysinicca
were better withstand and grow under an extreme pressure of local peoples intervention at all sub
watersheds. Therefore, the study indicated that growing and maintaining of these two endemic trees in all
sub watersheds were difficult task unless much awareness will be made at grass root level. Lastly, the
study encourages mega projects on growth and survival rate of other native trees species in the degraded
areas of Ethiopia.
Keywords: endemic trees, Hagenia abysinicca, Olea africana, sub watershed, survival rate
To cite this article: Sorecha, E.M. 2017. Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia : Olea africana and
Hagenia abysinicca in the degraded lake of Haramaya Watershed, Ethiopia. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4):
863-871, DOI: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.863.

Introduction population Ethiopia is living in the rural areas,


their livelihood system is either directly or
Ethiopia is very known by its heterogeneous indirectly depends on agriculture, which provides
higher plant species estimated to be around 6500 about 52% of the countrys GDP (World Bank,
7000, of which more than 1219 % are native 2000; CIA, 2001).
(WCMC, 1992; Teketay, 2001; Hurni, 2007; The speedy decline of forest resources in
CBD, 2008). This is due the fact that the country Ethiopia has resulted in reduction of their
has a wide variety of ecological characteristics biodiversity and on the verge of extinction of
associated with ample diversity of plant and certain tree species (Tekle and Hedlund, 2000;
animal species (Alemayehu, 2002). However, a WRI, 2001; Alemayehu, 2002a). Olea africana
number of studies indicated that almost all of the and Hagenia abysinicca is the major endemic tree
natural vegetation of Ethiopia is under an extreme species mainly found in Ethiopia, basically on the
pressure of anthropogenic threats (Yirdaw, 1996; highland areas of the country. Currently, these
Million, 2001; Tesfaye, 2015; Newton and tree species are under a big threat of human
Cantarello 2015). Given about 85% of the influences. The local name of Olea africana is

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 863
Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

Ejersa in Afan Oromo and Weyirain Amharic. watersheds. This is for the sake of maintaining the
This species is well known by the local people for species in to the environment though it was a
its traditional medicine preparation, tooth brush challenging task. Therefore, this study was
and sometimes for charcoal production. undertaken to explore the growth and survival rate
Moreover, Hagenia abysinicca is locally known of the endemic tree species of Olea africana and
as Muka Heexoo in Afan Oromo and Yekoso Zaf Hagenia abysinicca, so as to put baseline
in Amharic and well known for its medicinal information about the status of the two tree
value. The climate of Ethiopia has been changing species in the watershed.
as a result of global and local effects of vegetation
degradation. Loss of forest cover and biodiversity
owing to human-induced activities is a growing Materials and Methods
arena of many parts of the world including our Description of the study area
country, Ethiopia (Sebsebe, 1980).Thus, frequent
drought, crop failure and famine are becoming Lake Haramaya Watershed is located in
common events in the highlands, like eastern Haramaya and partly in Kombolcha districts,
Hararghe which are the symbols of desertification Eastern Hararghe Zone, Oromia National Region
(Teketay, 2001). In line with this, Haramaya State, and East Ethiopia (Figure 1). The
University, Ethiopia via Lake Haramaya Watershed lies between 92312.27- 9319.85
Watershed project has given deep attention to N and 415828.02- 428h10.26 E (UTM
these endemic trees and grows the seedlings to Zone 38) and covers an area of 15,329.96 ha. The
use them as a main rehabilitation tree of the elevation ranges from 1800 to 2345 meters above
degraded lands of Lake Haramaya sub sea level.

Figure 1. Map of the study area

Information obtained from Ethiopian National extreme pressure of anthropogenic factors; local
Meteorology Agency indicates that the mean communities were using these lands as a common
annual rainfall and mean maximum and minimum grazing lands, expansion of agriculture to plant
temperatures of Haramaya watershed are 847.9 cash crops like Khat (Catha edulis) and to lesser
mm, 24.7 C, and 11.5 C, respectively (Fgure 2). extent Coffee (Coffee arabica). Generally, many
The area received bimodal pattern of rainfall. socio-economic activities were well notified as
This study was conducted in particular at per the preliminary field observation of this study
Bachake (3 ha), Damota (2.75 ha) and Tinike (3 and key informant informal interview (not
ha) sub-watersheds, which are among the 28 sub presented in this paper). Furthermore, of the 28
watersheds of Lake Haramaya watershed. The sub-watersheds, three of them are very nearby
reason for choosing the three of the sub- vanished Lake Haramaya, (on average 5 km away
watersheds were due to their presence under the from the lake).

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 864


Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

RF Tmax. Tmin.
140 30

Temperatures (0C)
120 25

Rainfall (mm)
100 20
80
15
60
40 10
20 5
0 0

Oct

Dec
Jan

May
Jun

Nov
Jul
Mar
Apr
Feb

Aug
Sep
Months

Figure 2. Monthly rainfall and temperature during 1980-2013 in Lake Haramaya Watershed

Seedlings preparation techniques holding capacity, nutrient content, and aeration


for plant growth and development. Therefore, the
Seedling preparation has been conducted at Rare
pot-planted seedlings were stayed on nursery site
Nursery site, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. In
for at least six months begging from their planting
the processes of seedlings preparation, forest soil,
time and all the required management were
compost /farm yard manure, sand, and local top
undertaken till plantation time. Then after, the
soil were used by mixing all the substrates at
seedlings of both Olea africana and Hagenia
different ratios. The most used ratio is 3 local top
abysinicca were taken to the field via tractor-
soils: 2forest soil/compost/farm yard manure: 1
vehicle used for transportation of seedlings. The
sand. The mixed up media were added in to a pot
height of Olea africana at the time of planting
having a diameter size of 8cm to support the sown
was estimated to be 35 cm and that of Hagenia
seeds. Most potting mixes were soilless to avoid
abysinicca was estimated to be about 45 cm, just
soil borne diseases and promote good drainage
the height above the ground.
and suitable environment with sufficient water-

Sand Compost Forest soil

Site preparation techniques for plantation work of constructing the physical structure was
better in Damota sub watershed. Finally, pits
All the selected sub watersheds have been
having an average depth of 30 cm and width of 40
delineated and to lesser extent area closure has
cm were prepared along the physical structures
been done accordingly, though not effective.
across the slope within 2 m distance from one
Additionally, physical soil and water conservation
another. Majority of the pits were prepared by the
structures have been built by the local people with
respective farmers of the sub watersheds and
the coordination of Lake Haramaya Watershed
seedlings plantation campaign was made by the
Project, early before the main rainy season of
local people in collaboration with Lake Haramaya
Ethiopia (June, July, August, and September). The

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 865


Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

Watershed Project run under Haramaya m radius. The operation has been multiplied 12
University. times with same transects size and design for all
specific study sites at an interval of 50 m.
Transect establishment, data collection and Therefore, a total of about 12 main quadrats have
analysis been laid out for each sub watersheds and the
required data has been recorded (Figure 4).
For each specific study site (Bachake, Damota,
Mortality rate and survival rate were calculated
and Tinike), four subplots has been established
for both endemic tree species at all sub
systematically across the slope, one with its center watersheds in the study area. The formulas used
located at the center of the spoke and the were:
remaining three located at 20.5 m away from the
center subplots (Figure 3). Each subplot has a 7.5

Number of saplings recorded dead during a given year


Mortality rate x 100 (Megan, 2013)
Total number of saplings in a given year

Survival Rate = 100 Mortality Rate

Figure 3. Sample data collection design


Source: (USDA Forest Service, 2003; Schulz et al., 2009)

Figure 4. Sampling spot design for each sub watersheds

Results and Discussion rate of Olea africanahas been recorded, only 29%
(Table 1). The reasons for the variation of survival
The results of the study depicted that of the rate at all sub watersheds were due to high
transects established at all sub watersheds, Olea interference of local peoples. However, some
africana performs well at Damota, accounting studies are indicating that conservation and
about 38%of survival rate, followed by Tinike sub management of plants dominated by farming
watershed having a survival rate of 37%. communities are getting attention nowadays
However, at Bachake sub watershed little survival (Garrity and Verchot, 2008; Lemenih and Kassa,

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 866


Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

2014). Furthermore, it has been noticed during the like, Eucalyptus species, Grevillea robust and
study that the perception of local people in all sub fruit trees are also another factor. Soil as a factor
watersheds, particularly, in Bachake sub of seedlings growth has been kept constant in this
watersheds, towards the growth of considered particular work. The other negligible challengesof
endemic tree species was so poor though they use seedlings plantation in this work was those
these trees for traditional and other purposes seedlings die or at risk while transportation for
(Table 2). Rather, they need to use the lands for plantation. The above constraints are similar to
free grazing. Thus, of the total number of those facing the forest development in Ethiopia as
seedlings planted during 2015/16 rainfall season, noted by Derero et al., (2011) which include:
majority of them have been died. Late plantation Transportation of seedlings, poor seedling quality
due to late onset of rainfall and early cessation, and inappropriate silviculture, poor research
poor ways of plantation, little commitment by extension linkage and poor coordination in the
local people in monitoring after plantation, sector.
farmers preferences of other commercial trees

Table 1. Total number of seedlings planted, number of saplings dead, mortality and survival rate of Olea
africana and Hagenia abysinicca at Bachake, Damota and Tinike during 2015/16
Olea africana
Site Total tree seedlings planted Number of saplings Mortality rate Survival rate
during 2015/16 dead (%) (%)
Bachake 4500 3200 71.0 29.0
Damota 4700 2900 61.7 38.3
Tinike 4500 2960 63.0 37.0
Hagenia abysinicca
Bachake 3000 1760 58.7 41.3
Damota 2700 1200 44.4 55.6
Tinike 2500 1320 52.8 47.2

On the other hand, the study indicated that of the average value for saplings dead at Damota sub
total Hagenia abysinicca planted 3000 seedlings watershed was estimated to be lower than the
during 2015 rainfall season , about 41% were other two sub watersheds, accounting about 241.7
survived at Bachake sub watershed. Whereas, it saplings of the planted 4700 (Table 2). The same
was 55.6 and 47.2% for Damota and Tinike sub pattern has been noticed for Hagenia abysinicca
watersheds, respectively. Comparing the two tree where the average saplings dead at Damota sub
endemic species, Hagenia abysinicca performed watershed were less, about 100 saplings followed
well at all sub watersheds. This could be due the by Tinike sub watershed which is about 110
reason that Hagenia abysinicca has a natural saplings (Table 3). The reason for this could be
ability to withstand and grow under an extreme due a bit commitment of the local people towards
pressure of human influence. Furthermore, the management of the respective sub watersheds.
(Negash et al. 2012; Tadesse et al. 2014) It has been recognized via this study that of
suggested that it may be the result of socio- planted saplings of Olea africana 13700 at all sub
culture, land use and management intensities, and watersheds considered in this paper, about 9060
farmers perceptions on the specified tree in the have been already died due to many reasons in the
area that leads the allowance of trees to grow. areas (Table 4). The average value of dead
Furthermore, Table 2 shows a simple descriptive saplings of Olea africana at all sub watersheds
statistics of number of saplings dead for Olea has been estimated to be 3020 (Table 4).
africana at all sub watersheds considered for this Moreover, of the total of planted saplings at all
study. sub watersheds of Hagenia abysinicca 8200,
In all quadrats established at all sub about 4280 saplings were died. The dead saplings
watersheds, Bachake sub watershed shows the at all sub watersheds considered ranges from 1200
highest number of saplings dead, about 400 to 1760 having the mean value of 1427 saplings
plants. However, the study revealed that the (Table 5).

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 867


Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

Table 2.Descriptive statistics of number of saplings dead of Olea africana


Qua1 Qua2 Qua3 Qua4 Qua5 Qua6 Qua7 Qua8 Qua9 Qua10 Qua11 Qua12 Mean Min. Max. SDE
Bachake 300 400 266 250 351 240 305 275 294 169 150 200 266.7 150 400 71.90
Damota 277 350 266 230 300 231 235 275 320 169 127 120 241.7 120 350 72.46
Tinike 200 234 342 230 329 231 321 275 248 270 170 110 246.7 110 342 67.53
Qua is Quadrat

Table 3. Descriptive statistics of number of saplings dead of Hagenia abysinicca at all sub watersheds in all quadrats established
Qua1 Qua2 Qua3 Qua4 Qua5 Qua6 Qua7 Qua8 Qua9 Qua10 Qua11 Qua12 Mean Min. Max. SDE
Bachake 130 134 218 222 245 17 130 129 190 129 116 100 146.7 17 245 62.9
Damota 100 145 111 100 145 123 123 40 145 100 23 45 100 23 145 42.4
Tinike 200 190 56 100 160 123 90 40 120 100 59 82 110 40 200 51.4
Qua is Quadrat

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 868


Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

Table 4. Descriptive statistics of number of saplings dead at a composite of three sub watersheds of Lake Haramaya watersheds for Olea africana
Qua1 Qua2 Qua3 Qua4 Qua5 Qua6 Qua7 Qua8 Qua9 Qua10 Qua11 Qua12 Total
Bachake 300 400 266 250 351 240 305 275 294 169 150 200 3200
Damota 277 350 266 230 300 231 235 275 320 169 127 120 2900
Tinike 200 234 342 230 329 231 321 275 248 270 170 110 2960
Mean 259 328 291 237 327 234 287 275 287 203 149 143 3020
Min. 200 234 266 230 300 231 235 275 248 169 127 110 2900
Max. 300 400 342 250 351 240 321 275 320 270 170 200 3200
SDE 52.4 85.2 43.9 11.6 25.6 5.2 45.7 0 36.5 58.3 21.5 49.3 158.7
Sum 777 984 874 710 980 702 861 825 862 608 447 430 9060
Qua is Quadrat

Table 5. Descriptive statistics of number of saplings dead at a composite of three sub watersheds of Lake Haramaya watersheds for Hagenia abysinicca
Qua1 Qua2 Qua3 Qua4 Qua5 Qua6 Qua7 Qua8 Qua9 Qua10 Qua11 Qua12 Total
Bachake 130 134 218 222 245 17 130 129 190 129 116 100 1760
Damota 100 145 111 100 145 123 123 40 145 100 23 45 1200
Tinike 200 190 56 100 160 123 90 40 120 100 59 82 1320
Mean 143 156 128 141 183 87.7 114 70 152 110 66 76 1427
Min. 100 134 56 100 145 17 90 40 120 100 23 45 1200
Max. 200 190 218 222 245 123 130 129 190 129 116 100 1760
SDE 51 30 82.4 70.4 54 61 21.4 51.4 36 16.7 47 28 294
Sum 430 469 385 422 550 263 343 209 455 329 198 227 4280
Qua is Quadrat

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 869


Growth and survival rate of endemic trees of Ethiopia

Conclusion and Recommendation http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications


/factbook/geos/et.html.
It could be generalized from the results of the Derero, A. 2012. Evaluation of tree seeds and seedling
study that the growth and survival of endemic tree system in Ethiopia with focus in Wolaita and Arsi.
species, Olea africana and Hagenia abysinicca Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
have been widely intervened by the human Garrity, D. and Verchot, L. 2008. Meeting challenges of
activities at all sub watersheds. Of three sub climate change and poverty through agroforestry.
World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi.
watersheds, both trees perform well at Damota,
Hurni, H. 2007. Challenges for sustainable rural
survival rate about 38 and 55.6% for Olea development in Ethiopia.Faculty of Technology,
africana and Hagenia abysinicca, respectively. In Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba.
contrast, little survival rate for both tree species Lemenih, M. and Kassa, H. 2014. Re-greening
have been observed at Bachake sub watershed. In Ethiopia: history, challenges and lessons. Forests
line with this, much has to be done on the local 5:18961909.
communities awareness creation about the Megan, K. 2013. Assessing the Plant Species, Mortality
importance of these endemic trees. Training and Rates and Water Availability under the Canopies
participatory nursery development is proven in the MillionTrees
NYC Plots. http://www.nybg.org/press/files/forest/
methods of building farmers awareness,
MeganSummer2013ResearchPaper pdf.
leadership and technical skills (Carandang et al., Million, B. 2001.Forestry outlook study in Africa.
2006). Efforts by Haramaya University via Lake Regional, sub Regional and Countries Report,
Haramaya Watershed project to rehabilitate these opportunities and challenges towards 2020; FAO
degraded watershed using Endemic trees has been forestry paper No. 141. Synthesis Africa Forests
done, however, little attention has been given by View to 2020. Rome, Italy.
woreda administrative. Therefore, the study Negash, M., Yirdaw, E. and Luukkanen, O.
encourages strong linkage between the woreda 2012.Potential of endemic multistrata agroforests
administrative and University, one to rehabilitate for maintaining native floristic diversity in the
south-eastern Rift Valley escarpment, Ethiopia.
the degraded watersheds, two to maintain such an
Agroforestry Systems 85:928. doi:10.1007/
endemic tree species with the watershed in s10457-011-9408-1.
specific and with the country in general. Newton, A.C. and Cantarello, E. 2015. Restoration of
forest resilience: an achievable goal?. New Forests
46: 645 668.
Acknowledgement Schulz, B.K., Bechtold, W. A. and Zarnoch, S. J. 2009.
I thank Mr. Ayele Shewangizawu and Mr. Abduraman Sampling and estimation procedures for the
Abdullahi for their cooperation while conducting field vegetation diversity and structure indicator.Gen.
data collection for this work. Also it is my pleasure to Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-781. Portland, OR: U.S.
thank Mr. Teferi Taddese, Coordinator of Lake Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific
Haramaya Watershed Project for his financial issue Northwest Research Station. 53 p.
facilitation. Sebsebe, D. 1980. A study on the structure of a
montane forest. The Menagesha-Suba State Forest.
M.Sc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis
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2006. Smallholder Tree Nursery Operations in Wello, Ethiopia. Mountain Research and
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Crops Journal (in press). Peinado, R. 2015. Aboveground biomass equations
CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) CBD News. for sustainable production of fuelwood in a native
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living resource. London: Champion and Hall. Forestry Challenges for Developing Countries, 327-
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 872


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 873-880
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.873

Research Article

The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold


mining land at West Kalimantan
Sulakhudin1*, Denah Suswati1, Muhammad Hatta2
1
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia
2
West Kalimantan Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology, Indonesia
*
corresponding author: sulakhudin@gmail.com
Received 11 April 2017, Accepted 16 May 2017

Abstract : The application of ameliorant has been suggested to improve soil fertility and crop growth in
post illegal gold mining (PIGM) lands. This study evaluated the effect of ameliorant types and semi-
permeable layer on properties of soil in PIGM lands and growth of sorghum. A field experiment
employed two treatments, i.e. type of ameliorant and semi-permeable layer. There were four ameliorant
types applied i.e., without ameliorant (M0); coastal sediment at a dose of 40 t/ha (M1); biochar at a dose
of 4 t/ha (M2), and coastal sediment at a dose of 30 t/ha + 4 t biochar/ha (M3). The second treatment
consisted of two levels, namely: without a semi-permeable layer (S0) and the semi-permeable layer of 20
cm depth from the soil surface (S1). The results showed that types of ameliorant gave different effect to
soil properties. Application of coastal sediment at a dose of 40 t/ha significantly increased the contents of
Ca and Mg, whereas application of biochar at a doses of 4 t/ha increased soil CEC. The semi-permeable
layer did not significantly affect plant height and stem diameter of sorghum. The highest of sorghum
growth was reached by application of coastal sediment at a dose of 30 t/h + biochar at a dose of 4 t/ha.
The combination of coastal sediment and biochar from banana peels could complement each other to
improve soil fertility in PIGM land.
Keywords: ameliorant, biochar, coastal sediment, post gold mining land, sorghum
To cite this article: Sulakhudin, Suswati, D. and Hatta, M. 2017. The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil
fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 873-880, DOI:
10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.873.

Introduction low. In 10-15 years after mining activities the Hg


content was an average of 0.037 ppm. When
Illegal gold mining has been going on since compared to the quality standard of mercury
before the 17th century. Mining was done abundance in the soil of 10 ppm (Stwertka, 1998),
traditionally in the river, but the last decade it then the PIGM land can be utilized for cultivation
moved to the land because of the gold reserves in of food crops. Once of food crops that can be
the Kapuas River had been reduced. Mining cultivated in the PIGM is sorghum. It can be
which has been operated for many years resulted grown well in infertile soil conditions (Irawan and
in environmental pollution and land degradation. Sutrisna, 2011). Additionally, sorghum is drought
The land of PIGM reached 6,613 ha that spread resistant, needs low input, high yield and can be
across 267 locations in eleven districts in West accumulator metal elements (Jamali et al., 2007).
Kalimantan (Department of Mines and Energy, Development of food crops in the PIGM
2012). The PIGM lands have been damaged in land requires the right technology because the soil
physically, chemically, biologically and contain in the area had been degraded. Application of a
Hg (Neneng et al., 2012). The results of the study specific amelioration technology is expected to
conducted by Ferianto et al. (2013) showed that optimize the soil in the area of PIGM to support
Hg levels in PIGM land in West Kalimantan were the growth of food crops. This technology uses
www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 873
The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan

local resources such as coastal sediment and Sub-District, Bengkayang District of West
biochar from banana peels, so the production cost Kalimantan Province. The experiment was
can be reduced. Coastal sediment that is the result conducted from July to October 2016. Coastal
of sea deposition is widespread on the coast of sediment was derived from Kijing beach and
West Kalimantan. According to Suswati (2009), applied in wet condition. Biochar was obtained by
the coastal sediment ameliorant could replace the hydrolysis of banana peels at a temperature of 350
o
role of lime in increasing pH and base saturation C. The study was a factorial randomized
(BS). Results of the study of Suswati et al. (2015) complete block design with two treatments and
showed that the addition of coastal sediment on five replicates. The first treatment was the
PIGM land reduced soil acidity, and improved amelioration of top soil (M) that consisted of four
CEC, BS, and availability of soil nutrients (K+, levels, namely: without amelioration (M0), coastal
Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+). Application of coastal sediment at a dose of 40 t/ha (M1), biochar at a
sediment at a dose of 40 t/ha on peat could dose of 4 t/ha (M2), and coastal sediment at a
increase the yield of hybrid maize that reached 12 dose of 30 t/ha + biochar 4 t/ha. The second
t/ha (Suswati et al., 2014). treatment was a semi-permeable layer thickness
In addition to the use of coastal sediment, (S) that consisted of two levels, namely: without a
soil fertility of PIGM land can be improved by semi-permeable layer (S0), and semi-permeable
applying biochar. It can improve the soil layer as deep as 20 cm of the soil surface, semi-
chemical, physical, and biological properties permeable 3 cm thick layer (S1). The semi-
contain functional groups and amorphous as well permeable layer made from a mixture of 5% of
as resistant in soil (Sohi et al., 2010; Tammeorg et coastal sediment and 95% sandy soil from PIGM
al., 2016). Biochar generally has high pH, C- areas. The study comprised 40 plots (each of 3 m
organic and CEC (Lehmann, 2007). Biochar has x 1.5 m size) with a 1 m protection zone framing
high water absorption and is resistant to microbial the experimental field. The sorghum was planted
decomposition (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). The at a spacing of 60 cm x 40 cm, resulting in 21
properties make biochar has a high nutrient plants per plot. Six plant samples were taken
retention, thereby reducing nutrient leaching and randomly for measurements of height plant and
increasing nutrient use efficiency (Laird et al., stem diameter per weeks. Fertilizers applied as
2010; Hussain et al., 2016). According to Novak basal fertilizers were manure 5 t/ha, Urea 200
et al. (2010), biochar addition increases retention kg/ha, SP-36 100 kg/ha and KCl 50 kg/ha. Plant
of water containing N, P, and K nutrients that can growth variables measured were plant height and
be absorbed by plants. The results of the study of stem diameter.
Hairani et al. (2016), biochar application of 35 The measurements were made every week
t/ha was able to increase the yield of sorghum until the end of vegetative growth. Soil analysis
1.48 times higher than without biochar. Once of was performed after the treatment. Some
good substance for making biochar is banana peel properties of soil analyzed were pH (H2O),
because it is an ordinary biological waste with a electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange
high content of cellulose and minerals (Zhou et capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS), contents of
al., 2017). N, P, K Ca, Mg and Na in the soil. The analysis
Studies on the effects of the addition of of soil properties was conducted at the Laboratory
coastal sediment and biochar to improve soil of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Faculty of
fertility in PIGM are limited. Many studies have Agriculture, Tanjungpura University. Data
been carried out on the use of biochar and coastal obtained were subjected to analysis of variance
sediment to increase soil fertility in some soil in (two-way ANOVA) using the Microsoft Excel
an individual manner. The hypothesis was that software and R statistic version 3.3.2. The
application of coastal sediment and biochars can differences between treatments were analyzed
improve soil fertility and growth of sorghum in with Duncans test at the 0.05 level.
PIGM land by favorable changes in soil
physicochemical properties. This study extends
knowledge related to the use of coastal sediment Results and Discussion
and biochar as soil amendments to the reclamation Characteristics of coastal sediment, biochar, and
of PIGM land, so it can play a role in supporting soil in PIGM land
sustainable food security program nationally.
The characterization of coastal sediment and
biochar is shown in Table 1. Coastal sediment was
Materials and Methods the result of sedimentation materials result of
erosion from the upland area through watershed
A field experiment was carried out at the PIGM
deposited around the coast. The content of
land in Simpang Monterado Village, Monterado
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 874
The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan

nutrients in the coastal sediment varies greatly (Rajkovich et al., 2012). The Ca content in coastal
depending on soil type and conditions of the sediment was 9.76 cmol(+)/kg. Other than as a
origin of these sediments. The coastal sediment nutrient source, it can maintain the balance of
for this study was alkaline with a pH of 8, due to nutrients in the soil in PIGM. Table 2 shows that
the presence of base cations mainly Ca and Mg the BS of the soil in the PIGM was only 26.37%,
with concentrations of 9.75 and 5.82 cmol(+)/ kg, while the coastal sediment was more than 82.87%,
respectively. The content of Mg in coastal so application coastal sediment was expected to
sediment was higher than that used by Suswati et increase soil pH and BS in PIGM land. Besides
al. (2015), amounting to 1.73 cmol(+)/kg, while coastal sediment had a high Mg content, as many
the Ca content was lower. The coastal sediment as 5.82 cmol(+) /kg, it could raise the availability
that was used by Suswati et al. (2015) has Ca of Mg in the soil. Mg contents in the soil in PIGM
content of 14.62 cmol(+)/kg. It had high BS land was very low, only 0.31 cmol(+)/ kg.
(82.87%) and consisted of 3.57% sand, 46.90% The positive effect of coastal sediment can
silt, and 49.53% clay. The high clay content will be improved by adding the biochar, especially
increase soil CEC because clay is a source of soil those made from banana peels. Biochar is made
negative charge (Bergaya and Lagaly, 2006). by pyrolysis to obtain biochar with good quality.
The content of total N in biochar was 1.82% while
Table 1. The characteristics of coastal sediment the total N content in coastal sediment that was
and biochar. only 0.89%. Additionally, the biochar also
contained 10.13 cmol(+) K/kg, while the coastal
Properties Coastal Banana sediment only contained 0.18 cmol(+) K/kg. Thus,
sediment Peel the use of two ameliorants was expected to
Biochar improve some properties of soil in PIGM land at
pH H2O 1:2 8.0 9.7 District Monterado, Bengkayang. The soil of the
Organic-C (%) 4.81 33.93 study site has suffered severe physical, chemical
Total N (%) 0.88 1.82 and biological damages that make the soil was not
P Bray I (ppm) 0.51 0.37 able to support optimal plant growth.
Extract NH4OAc
1N pH 7
K (cmol(+)/kg) 0.18 10.13 Table 2. The characteristics of soil in the PIGM
Ca (cmol(+)/kg) 9.75 0.82 land in the sub-district of Monterado.
Mg (cmol(+)/kg) 5.82 0.54 Soil properties Value Level
Na (cmol(+)/kg) 3.24
pH H2O 1:2 5.94 slightly acid
CEC (cmol(+)/kg) 22.94
pH KCl 1:2 5.10 acid
Base Saturation (%) 82.87
Organic-C (%) 0.21 very low
Texture
Total N (%) 0.03 very low
Sand (%) 3.57
P Bray I (ppm) 15.21 very high
Silt (%) 46.90
Extract NH4OAc 1N
Clay (%) 49.53
pH 7
K (cmol(+)/kg) 0.02 very low
Ca (cmol(+)/kg) 0.88 very low
As indicated in Table 1, the banana peel biochar
was more alkaline and had a high K Mg (cmol(+)/kg) 0.31 very low
concentration. The high pH value of banana peel Na (cmol(+)/kg) 0.04 very low
biochar may be due to hydrolysis that was Hg (ppm) nd nd
undergone by carbonates and bicarbonates of base CEC (cmol(+)/kg) 4.74 very low
cations such as K, Ca and Mg. Biochar from Base Saturation (%) 26.37 low
banana peels had 10.13 cmol(+)/kg of K, 0.82 Texture
cmol(+) / kg of Ca and 0.54 cmol(+)/ kg of Mg. In Sand (%) 95.00 sandy
line with the study of Butnan et al. (2015) which Silt (%) 5.00
reported that among the nutrients in ash that are Clay (%) 0.00
sources of plant nutrients, Ca and K constituted Source: Leveling according to the Soil Research
the two highest contents, whereas Mg and P were Institute (2005), nd = not detected
the two lowest in the biochars. A number of
biochars have high quantities of ash, which are The results of the analysis of some soil physical
enriched with several plant nutrients, particularly and chemical properties showed that the soil in
cationic elements, such as K, Ca, and Mg the PIGM land has low fertility. It is shown that

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 875


The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan

the binding ability of soil nutrients and water are caused by application of 30 t coastal sediment/ ha
very low. The ability of soil to retain water and + 4 t biochar/ha (M3). This was because of both
soil nutrients can be seen from the value of the materials had high pH (Table 1). The coastal
CEC that was very low at 4.74 cmol(+)/kg (Table sediment had pH of 8.0; the banana peel biochar
2). In addition, the low fertility rate can also be had pH of 9.7 so that a combination of both
seen from the sandy soil texture. The content of materials could increase the pH exceeding other
the sand particle in the PIGM land was 95%. This treatments. The M3 treatment raised soil pH from
value was higher than in the soil of PIGM land in pH 5.94 to 7.03. Suswati et al. (2015) reported
the District Mandor that amounted to 91.53% that application of coastal sediment at doses of
(Sagiman et al., 2015). Soil mineral fraction that 14-100 t/ha raised significantly soil pH because it
is dominated by sand will lead to the low ability contained high alkaline cations. Whereas biochar
to store water and nutrients because the sand has raised soil pH because biochar has negatively
low sorption sites (negative charge) (Schoonover charged from phenolic, carboxyl and hydroxyl
and Crim, 2015). Soil particles that are dominated groups on biochar surfaces that bind H+ ions in
by sand fraction have high permeability. This will the soil solution, so reducing its concentration in
cause the very high rate of leaching of nutrients in the soil solution and raising the soil pH value (Gul
the soil (Jalali and Merrikhpour. 2008). As a et al., 2015). Table 3 shows that application of
result, the availability of nutrients is low to very coastal sediment and biochar alone or combined
low. did not significantly improve the content of soil
Table 2 shows the low nutrient contents of C-organic and CEC. All treatments were able to
total N (0.03%), K (0.02 cmol(+) /kg), Ca (0.88 increase the content of organic C and CEC, but
cmol(+)/kg), Mg- (0.31 cmol(+)/kg) and Na (0.04 the increase was too small when compared with
cmol(+)/kg). Only P content that was those without ameliorant having C-organic
exceptionally high reaching 15.21 ppm. The very content and CEC respectively by 0.30% and
low CEC value (4.47 cmol(+)/kg) might be amounted to 5.37 cmol(+)/kg. This was because
caused by several factors, among others: (1) the of the very low content of organic C and CEC on
soil does not contain clay fraction (0.00%) which the soil in PIGM land (Table 2).
is a source of soil negative charge; (2) the soil Application of biochar increased soil CEC
organic matter content is very low as indicated by by 27.93% that was higher than that of other
the low value of organic C was 0.21% (Kleber et treatments. This was similar to that reported by
al., 2015). The very low soil organic matter Laghari et al. (2015), who observed that
content could be due to the rapid rate of application of 45 t biochar ha-1 slightly increased
decomposition of organic matter in sandy soil the CEC of soil by 20% as compared to the
because the temperature was quite high and control in the sandy desert soil. The Ca content of
aerobic atmosphere (Zechmeister et al., 2015). the soil applied with 30 t coastal sediment/ha + 4 t
The results of the analysis presented in Table 2 biochar/ha (M3) was significantly higher than no
show that the organic material was decomposed ameliorant (M0) and application of biochar
further (C/N = 7). The pH value of the soil at treatment (M2). This was because of the high Ca
PIGM land amounted 5.94 was slight acid. The content of the coastal sediment (9.75 cmol(+)/kg),
pH value of the soil will be a limiting factor while biochar had only very low Ca content
because some nutrients became less available, e.g. (Table 1). The same phenomenon was also
nutrient K, Ca and Mg so that less can provide the observed in the content of soil Mg, which
optimal nutrients for plant growth (Fageria, 2016). indicated significant differences of Mg soil at M1
One of the alternatives to increase pH was by and M3 treatments compared to M0 and M2
giving coastal sediment and biochar. Besides treatments. Coastal sediment had Mg content of
being able to increase the pH and availability of 5.82 cmol(+)/kg, whereas biochar had only 0.54
some nutrients, coastal sediment and biochar can cmol(+) Mg/kg (Table 1).
improve some properties of soil in the PIGM land. The increased Ca content due to the addition
of coastal sediment was in line with the study of
Effect of ameliorant and semi-permeable layer Suswati et al. (2015) showing that provision of
on soil chemical properties in PIGM Land coastal sediment raised the contents of Ca and Mg
in the soil. Table 4 shows that there were
Data presented in Table 3 show that the
interactions between applications of ameliorant
application of ameliorants significantly improved and semi-permeable layer on some soil chemical
some chemical properties of the soil in the PIGM properties in PIGM land. On the parameter of EC,
land. All treatments were able to increase the pH
it appeared that all treatments were significantly
significantly compared with no ameliorant
different from control (no ameliorant).
(control). The highest increase of soil pH was

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 876


The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan

Table 3. Effect of ameliorant on some soil chemical properties


Treatments *) Soil chemical properties
pH Organic C Ca Mg Na CEC
(%) (cmol(+)/kg)
M0 5.68 b 0.30 a 0.59 b 0.33 b 0.84 b 5.37 a
M1 6.72 a 0.56 a 1.25 a 0.64 a 0.78 b 5.95 a
M2 6.57 a 0.57 a 0.69 b 0.39 b 1.44 a 6.87 a
M3 7.03 a 0.48 a 0.96 a 0.54 a 1.17 ab 5.45 a
Description: Numbers followed by the same letters in the same column indicate no significant differences at the
Duncan test at 5% level of significance. *) M0 = without amelioration, M1 = coastal sediment at a dose of 40 t/ha,
M2 =biochar at a dose of 4 t/ha, M3 = coastal sediment at doses 30 t/ha + biochar 4 t/ha.

The increase EC of soil in the PIGM land due to contents of K, Ca, Mg and Na in the soil (Hossain
the addition coastal sediment was greater than the et al., 2011). The content of soil total N after
semi-permeable layer. It can be seen that the treatment showed that the effect was not
increase of soil EC caused by provision of coastal significantly different among all treatments. The
sediment without a semi-permeable layer (S0M1) content of total N ranged from 0.31 to 0.32% and
was 16.92% less than the application of coastal they were all very low. This was caused by the
sediment with a semi-permeable layer (S1M1) of sandy soil texture of PIGM land, so N leaching
18.91%. Suswati et al. (2015) reported that was very high. Thereby application of ameliorant
addition of 60 t coastal sediment/ha could increase in the form of coastal sediment and biochar, as
soil EC. The soil EC due to the application of well as the semi-permeable layer had not been
banana peel biochar, either with a layer of semi- able to increase soil total N content. The main
permeable (S1M2) or not (S0M2) was higher than nitrogen form in the agricultural field is nitrate,
the value of EC at control. Table 4 shows the which is very mobile in the soil due to the poor
value of EC in the S1M2 treatments was 1217 absorption by soil colloidal particles because it
S/cm and in the S0M2 treatment was 1138 has a negative charge. Therefore, the N cannot be
S/cm, whereas in the control was only 1052 adsorbed to cation exchange sites, so it is highly
S/cm. The increase of soil EC after biochar susceptible to loss by the way of surface water
additions might be largely due to the high runoff (Yu et al., 2014).

Table 4. Effect of ameliorant and semi-permeable layer on some soil chemical properties
Treatments Electric Total N Base Available P Exchangeable K
Conductivity (S/cm) (%) Saturation (ppm) (cmol(+)/kg)
(%)
S0M0 1052 d 0.31 a 31.96 bc 1.02 d 0.34 d
S0M1 1230 ab 0.31 a 65.91 a 1.10 d 0.43 cd
S0M2 1138 c 0.32 a 44.58 b 1.44 bc 0.77 ab
S0M3 1174 bc 0.31 a 59.60 a 1.50 b 0.86 a
S1M0 1072 d 0.31 a 28.90 c 1.29 c 0.40 cd
S1M1 1254 a 0.31 a 39.60 bc 1.12 d 0.42 cd
S1M2 1217 ab 0.32 a 63.94 a 1.81 a 0.67 abc
S1M3 1243 a 0.31 a 73.00 a 1.58 b 0.53 bcd
Description: Numbers followed by the same letters in the same column indicate no significant differences at the
Duncan test at 5% level of significance. M0 = without amelioration, M1 = coastal sediment at a dose of 40 t/ha, M2
=biochar at a dose of 4 t/ha, M3 = coastal sediment at doses 30 t/ha + biochar 4 t/ha, S0 = without a semi-permeable
layer, S1 = semi-permeable layer as deep as 20 cm of the soil surface, semi-permeable 3 cm thick layer.

Base saturation (BS) is a parameter that indicates sediment had very high BS of 82.98%. According
the dominance of nutrients in the form of nutrient to Suswati et al. (2014), coastal sediment
cations. Table 4 shows the treatments using contained high alkaline cations, which increased
coastal sediment (S0M1, S0M3, and S1M3) had BS and availability of cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+,
higher BS than without application of ameliorant and K+. Moreover, the increase of these cations
(S0M0 and S1M0). This was due to coastal might form a ligand complex with organic acids,

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 877


The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan

and therefore improved soil fertility (Husen et al., reduce leaching of P nutrient because P easily
2013). Data presented in Table 4 show that the migrates along the water that dissolves it.
content of available P in the treatment of semi-
permeable layer (S1) was higher than the Effect of ameliorant and semi-permeable layer
treatment without semi-permeable layer (S0). In on sorghum growth at PIGM land
the treatment without a semi-permeable layer,
Ameliorant influenced the improvement of soil
each treatment of ameliorant (M0, M1, M2 and
properties (Tables 3 and 4). Improvement of soil
M3) had available P of 1.02, 1.10, 1.44 and 1.50
ppm, while the treatment with a semi-permeable properties stimulated the growth of plants that
layer each had available of 1.29, 1.12, 181 and could be observed on the parameters of plant
height and stem diameter. Effect of ameliorant on
1.58 ppm. This indicates that semi-permeable
plant height can be seen in Figure 1. Application
layer can lower P loss due to leaching. The semi-
of 30 t coastal sediment/ha+ 4 t biochar/ha (M3)
permeable layer is a layer that is capable of
decreasing the flow rate of water in the sandy soil, resulted in higher plant height than other
so water will accumulate on top of the semi- treatments on all the observation periods. Even on
the observation of the 7th weeks of the treatment
permeable layer. Inhibition of water flow will
looked significantly different between the control
and M3 treatment.

250
M0 M1
Plant height (cm)

200
M2 M3
150

100

50

0
2 3 4 5 6 7
Period of observation (weeks)

Figure 1. The effect of type of ameliorant to plant height of sorghum.

This may reflect the improved soil chemical sediment/ha and 4 biochar/ ha signicantly
properties, indeed a more available nutrients with improved sorghum growth. The possible
30 t coastal sediment/ha + 4 t biochar/ha had been explanation of the improved plant growth is that
supplied to sorghum growth. Suswati et al. (2014) application of coastal sediment and biochar plant
reported that application of 40 t coastal nutrients in the soil (P, K, Ca and Mg) and also
sediment/ha could increase plant height of maize. improved soil EC, BS, pH (Tables 1 and 2).
Meanwhile biochar amendment at rates of 15 and According to Alburquerque et al. (2014), biochar
22 t/ha raised sorghum growth in sandy desert soil has high content of essential plant nutrients,
(Laghari et al., 2015). hence, it raises supplied plant nutrients in soil and
The stem diameter was higher with addition improved crop yield. In a study conducted by
of the coastal sediment and biochar mixture (M3) Schulz and Glaser (2012), biochar addition that
than other treatments (Figure 2). This treatment increased plant growth in sandy soils was
had highest stem diameter of 31 mm at 7 weeks observed when biochar was combined with
observation period. The stem diameter was organic fertilizer. Suswati et al. (2014) reported
significantly different without application of the highest plant growth of maize under
ameliorant at 6 and 7 weeks. This indicates that application of 40 t/ha of coastal sediment and 1.5
application of 30 t coastal sediment/ha + 4 t t/ha of salted fish waste. Therefore, it can be
biochar/ha were able to improve the condition of concluded that the addition of coastal sediment
soil fertility in the PIGM land, so it could improve and biochar enhanced sorghum growth in PIGM
plant growth which was reflected in the stem land.
diameter. In this study, application of 30 t coastal

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 878


The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan

35
M0 M1

Stem diameter (mm)


30
M2 M3
25
20
15
10
5
0
2 3 4 5 6 7
Period of observation (weeks)
Figure 2. The effect of type of ameliorant to stem diameter of sorghum

Conclusion Gul, S., Joann K.W., Ben W.T., Vanita S. and


Hongyuan D. 2015. Physico-chemical properties
Application of 30 t coastal sediment/ha + 4 t and microbial responses in biochar-amended soils:
biochar/ha was able to improve some properties of mechanisms and future directions. Agriculture,
the soil (pH, EC, and BS), and increase the Ecosystems and Environment 206: 4659.
nutrient contents of Ca and Mg. The combination doi:10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.015.
of coastal sediment and biochar from banana peels Hossain, M.K., Strezo, V., Chan, K.Y., Ziolkowski, A.
and Nelson, P.F. 2011. Influence of pyrolysis
can complement each other to improve some
temperature on production and nutrient properties
properties of soil so as to increase plant height and of wastewater sludge biochar. Journal
stem diameter of sorghum. Environmental Management 92(1):223-228.
doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.09.008
Hussain, M., Farooq, M., Nawaz, A., Al-Sadi, A.M.,
Acknowledgements Solaiman, Z.M., Alghamdi, S.S., Ammara, U. and
We would like to thank the Dirjen DIKTI on funding Siddique, K.H.M. 2016. Biochar for crop
granted through INSINAS Grant in 2016, as well as the production: potential benefits and risks. Journal of
Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura Soils and Sediments, 1-32, doi: 10.1007/s11368-
University and who has given permission and support 016-1360-2.
the research. Hairani, A., Osaki, M. and Watanabe, T. 2016. Effect
of biochar application on mineral and microbial
properties of soils growing different plant species.
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 880


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 881-889
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.881

Research Article

Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield


of maize in the second season
Widowati*, Astutik, Astri Sumiati, Wahyu Fikrinda
Faculty of Agriculture, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University, Jl. Telagawarna, Malang 65144, Indonesia
*corresponding author:widwidowati@gmail.com
Received 18 April 2017, Accepted 20 May 2017

Abstract : Application of biochar can increase availability of plant nutrients and yield. A field
experiment was conducted on anInceptisol with aim to determineresidual potassium fertilizer and biochar
application on growth and yield of maize in the second season. A randomized block design was used with
three replication. The treaments were residual application of potassium and biochar that consisted of
biochar only (30 t/ha), and biochar plus several levels of potassium apllication (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200
kg/ha), included application of 200 kg/ha potassium without biochar. Basal fertilizersapplied in the first
season were 90 kg N/ha and 100 kg P205, and in the second season was 90 kg N/ha. The results showed
that residual biochar alone or combined with different levels of potassium application increased yield of
maize. Residual biochar increased avalilabilty of N, P, K, Ca, and Na in the soil.
Keywords : biochar, maize, potassium, residual, yield
To cite this article: Widowati, Astutik, Sumiati, A. and Fikrinda, W. 2017. Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and
biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 881-889, DOI:
10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.881.

Introduction capacity to buy organic fertilizers. Plant nutrient


availability becomes one of constraint to
Farm intensification technology applied in the increasing plant production. In general, soil plant
farm without addition oforganic matters will nutrient content can be increased by addition of
decrease C-organic content in the soil. ferlitilizers, but nutrient content will be decrased
Thiscondition will reduce efficiency of fertlizer by plant absortion, volatization, leaching and
application. Application of manure and organic fixation of by soil colloid. One of possible
fertilizer can increase soil fertility and fertilizer strategies to increase fertilizer efficiency is by
efficieny. In the hot tropical conditions, application of combined organic and organic
decomposation and mineralitation of organic fertilizers or biochar. Lehmann et al. (2003)
matter run very fast and thiswill cause increasing reported that biochar can maintaine nutrient
CO2emition and global warming (Bol et al, 2000), content in the fertilizer to prevent leaching. On the
and releasing CO2 in the atmosfir (Fearnside, other hand, Widowati et al,. (2012) stated that
2000). Low organic matter content also causeslow biochar can reduce N fertilizer application up to
cation exchange capacity (CEC) and low 70%. This is because biochar can manage N
availability of plant nutrients. Efficiency of release by Urea fertilizer in the form of NH4
anorganic fertilizer is also low, especially in the (Widowati et al., 2011). Similar results obtained
tropic where leaching is important aspect for from a greenhouse experiment also showed that
mobile nutrients (Brady and Well, 2008). the increase ofpotassium fertilizer did not
In Inceptisols, potassium is usually not increaseleaching of potassium in 30-60 days after
available because it is fixed by soil minerals. sowing (Widowati et al., 2012).
Problems related to availability of plant nutrients Biochar is organic charcol product of
become worse because farmer donot have pyrolysis (convertion of thermo condition without

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 881
Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

oxygen). Biochar can be used is an alternatif experiment was to determine the residual effect of
produced energy by returning carbon and nutrient potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and
to the soil (Laird, 2008). Biochar from pyrolysis is yield of maize in the second season.
type of carbon amorf consisting of many carbon
symbiosis and ash (Chun et al., 2004). During
process of pyrolysis, condition of temperature and Materials and Methods
time will affect characteristics of biochar (Antal A field experiment was conducted from
and Gronil, 2003). At low temperatures (<500C), September 2012 to February 2013 on an
raw material composition has a major influence Inceptisol of Tunggulwulung village, Lowokwaru
on biochar characteristics which affecting sub district of Malang City. Biochar was made
agriculture such as cation exchange capacity and from organic waste by pyrolysis method. The
nutrient content (Gaskin et al., 2008). Several Pertiwi-3 maize cultivar used in the second
research results showed that biochar increased planting was planted in September 2012. All
growth and yield of maize (Major et al., 2010), treatments were laid in a randomized block design
soybean (Tagoe et al., 2008), cowpea (Glaser et with three replications. In the first planting, each
al., 2002), and rice (Steiner et al., 2007). treatment was supplied with urea fertlizer with a
Concentrations of carbon at low temperatures dosage of 90 kg N/ha.
range from 380 g/kg to poultry waste biochar The urea Fertilizer was applied twice (1/3 of
(Chan et al., 2008), 692 g/kg for wheat stalk dose at 6 days after planting and 2/3 of dose used
(Chun et al., 2004) and 790 g/kg for biochar Chip at four weeks after planting). Phosphate fertilizer
Pine (Gaskin et al., 2008). Nitrogen was applied at 6 days after planting. Potassium
concentrations in biochar range from 1.4 g/kg fertilizer that was applied at 1 and 4 weeks after
(pine), 19 g/kg (groundnut), 40 g/ kg (poultry planting consisted of B0K200 (200 kg KCl/ha),
waste) (Chan et al., 2007). Low concentrations of B30KO (biochar, without KCl), B30K50 (biochar
P and K were found in biochar of pine of 0.089 + 50 kg KCl/ha), B30K100 (biochar + 100 kg
and 0.659 g/kg respectively, and biochar of KCl/ha), B30K150 (biochar + 150 kg KCl/ha),
chicken manure of 33.6 and 45.6 g/kg (Gaskin et and B30K200 (biochar + 200 kg KCl/ha). Basal
al., 2008). Concentrations of P and K in biochar fertilizer supplied for the second season was 90 kg
of organic waste product were 0.72% and 0.93%, Urea/ha without P and K fertilizers. Total number
respectively (Widowati et al., 2011). of plots were 21 with each of 3 m x 4 m size.
Several studies showed that biochar Maintenance of the experiment was done by
increased nutrient retention, especially Nitrogen weeding twice, and irigation twice per-week.
content in tropical areas (Lehmann et al., 2003; Plant spacing was 80 x 25 cm, 1 seed per-hole and
Steiner et al., 2008). When the process of nutrient total number of plant population was 50.0000/ha.
loss due to leaching can be reduced this means Soil samples were collected after harvest in the
that there is still nutrient retention in the soil as a first and second seasons, and analyzed for organic
residue that can be utilized for the next crop. content (Walkley and Balck), N (Kjedahl),
Nutrient residue in soil after harvest can reflect availability of P (Bray 1), potassium availability
nutrient availability status in low, moderate, high, (NH40AC 1 N pH 7), total K (HCl 25%), Ca, Mg
and very high category. Such conditions will and Na. There were five plant samples obeserved
determine whether to add nutrients through for plant height, stem diameter, leaf area index,
fertilization. The small amount or amount of stem dry matter, leaf, plant dry matter, length and
added fertilizer will affect the amount of nutrients diameter of ear, seed dry weight, potassium
absorbed and left behind as nutrient residues content in the leaf (70 days), and in the seed after
available in the soil. Widowati et al. (2014) harvest (130 days), and K absorbtion. Plant dry
showed that the sole application of biochar matter was observed by drying the plant fresh
increased maize production by 14% compared material in an oven with tempereture of 70 oC for
sole application of KCl fertilizer. 48 hours. Uptake of N, P, and K by maize crop
In contrast, application of biochar and 75% was calculated from plant dry weight and and N,
of dosage of KCl fertilizer increased maize P, and K contents. Data obtained were analyzed
production by 29%. Biochar residues and usingSPSS version 13.00.
increased doses of potassium fertilizer will have
the same effect on crop yields.This asumption is
supported by Mayor et al. (2010) who reported Results and Discussion
that yield of maize did not increase in the first Crop growth
season, but it increased in the second season after
applicationof biochar. Information on this aspect Residual biochar of 30 t/ha with and without
is vey limited, and therefore, the objective of this addition of pottasium fertilizer application

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 882


Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

produced the highest plant height. On the other and only 200 kg KCl/ha (Table 2) and as high as
hand, the residual biochar that was followed by seed yield of maize (Table 4). Application of
the increase dosage of potassium application from potassium fertilizer did not increase crop growth
50 kg up to 200 kg/ha reduced plant height and grain yield of maize (Table 4).
significantly (Table 1). Application of 200 kg Dry matter production showed similar trend
KCl/ha decreased plant heightabout 28.40 cm with stem diameter. Residual biochar with or
compared with application of 50 kg KCl/ha. withiout addition of potassium fertilizer
Residual biochar treatment alone increased plant application showed higher dry matters of leaf,
height, stem diameter, and leaf size, although the stem, and total biomass production compared with
stem diameter was not significantly different with no biochar added 200 kg KCl/ha (Table 2). Total
that of residual biochar added with potassium dry matter production is production of drymatter
application treatment. Biochar as a soil during plant growth. In the short period, fertilizer
amandement caused better root development and that isadded to biochar can increase plant growth
higher drymatter production than without biochar (Lehmann et al., 2003).

Table 1. Plant height, Stem diameter, and Leaf size at 70 days after planting
Treatment Plant height (cm) Stem diameter (cm) Leaf size (cm2)
200 kg KCl/ha 233.82 b 2.46 a 5493.22 a
Biochar 252.83 c 3.02 b 6712.51 b
Biochar + 50 kg KCl/ha 250.69 c 2.80 b 6397.63 b
Biochar + 100 kg KCl/ha 230.18 ab 2.93 b 6581.94 b
Biochar + 150 kg KCl/ha 227.67 ab 2.87 b 6601.77 b
Biochar + 200 kg KCl/ha 222.29 a 2.89 b 6310.49 b
LSD 0.05 10.99 0.20 487.68
Remarks: within each column, mean values followed by the same letters do not differ significantly at LSD 0.05.

Table 2. Drymatter of leaf, stem,and total biomass production of maize crop at 70 days after planting
Treatment Leaf dry matter Stem dry matter Total biomass production
(t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha)
200 kg KCl/ha 1.90 a 2.81 a 4.71 a
Biochar 2.69 cd 4.06 b 6.75 b
Biochar + 50 kg KCl/ha 2.42 b 4.00 b 6.42 b
Biochar + 100 kg KCl/ha 2.78 d 3.92 b 6.70 b
Biochar + 150 kg KCl/ha 2.55 bcd 3.67 b 6.22 b
Biochar + 200 kg KCl/ha 2.47 bc 3.79 b 6.27 b
LSD 0.05 0.25 0.43 0.58
Remarks: within each column, mean values followed by the same letters do not differ significantly at LSD 0.05.

Nutrient content and uptake of N, P, K K fertilizer and K fertilizer with biochar gave
same affect on level of N and P in the leave or P
Application of biochar supplied enough nutrients
in the grain (Table 3). Residual biochar increased
for the second crop especially P and K. It is
P and K contents in grain (Figures 2 and 3).
showed that the crop did not
Nutrient uptake by crop depends upon the
experiencedefficiency of nutrients (Table 3). Total
availability of the nutrient in the soil. It is showed
macronutrients of N (0.17-0.26%), P2O5 (60-185
that combination of residual biochar and K
mg/kg) and K2O (0.5-0.9 me/100g) available in
feritlizer decreased absorbtion of Potassium
the soil after harvest the first season would
(Figure 3).
beavailable for the second crop. Residual effect of

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 883


Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

Table 3. Content of N, P, K in the leaf (70 days after sowing) and grain of maize (130 days after sowing)
Treatment Nitrogen content (%) P content (%) K content (%)
Leaf Grain Leaf Grain Leaf Grain
200 kg KCl/ha 3.22 a 1.43 a 0.29 a 0.16 a 0.08 a 0.13 ab
Biochar 3.37 a 1.77 b 0.31 a 0.16 a 0.14 bc 0.12 a
Biochar + 50 kg KCl/ha 3.24 a 2.04 b 0.28 a 0.20 a 0.13 b 0.16 bc
Biochar + 100 kg KCl/ha 3.24 a 2.01 b 0.28 a 0.18 a 0.13 bc 0.13 a
Biochar + 150 kg KCl/ha 3.26 a 2.00 b 0.29 a 0.16 a 0.13 b 0.13 a
Biochar + 200 kg KCl/ha 3.32 a 1.83 b 0.30 a 0.20 a 0.16 c 0.17 c
LSD 0.05 0.26 0.33 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.03
Remarks: within each column, mean values followed by the same letters do not differ significantly at LSD 0.05.

180 c bc bc
160
bc
Uptake of N in seeds (kg/ha)

140 b
120
100 a

80
60
40
20
0
200 kg Biochar Biochar + Biochar + Biochar + Biochar +
KCl/ha 50 kg 100 kg 150 kg 200 kg
KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha
Treatment
Figure 1. Nitrogen uptake in the grain of maize at harvest

18
a a
Uptake of P in seeds (kg/ha)

16
a
14
a
12 a
a
10
8
6
4
2
0
200 kg Biochar Biochar Biochar Biochar Biochar
KCl/ha + 50 kg + 100 kg + 150 kg + 200 kg
KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha
Treatment

Figure 2. Phosphorus uptake in the grain of maize at harvest

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 884


Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

16

14 c

Uptake of K in Seeds (kg/ha)


bc
12
ab a
10 a a
8

0
200 kg Biochar Biochar + Biochar + Biochar + Biochar +
KCl/ha 50 kg 100 kg 150 kg 200 kg
KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha
Treatment
Figure 3. Potassium uptake in the grain of maize at harvest

Plant yield and carbohydrate content in of ash in biochar that that is available for the crop
maize grains (Glaser et al., 2002). The data from this
experiment showed that biochar did not only act
Even without the addition of P and K fertilizers, as a soil conditioner but also increased cation
plant growth and yield were not affected by the exchange capacity. Similar results were also
availability of nutrients P and K from the first reported by Liang et al. (2008). Application of
maize harvest residues.It is assumed that the biochar that consists of ash increasescation K, Ca,
available nutrients from the first season were still Mg in the soil (Glaser et al., 2001a). Residual
enough to support crop growth during the second biochar increased soil organic content (Table 6).
season (Table 4). This results showed that residual The increase of soil oganic matter in the soil is
biochar gave the good effect for availability of P always related with active decomposition of
and K nutrients, and for growth and yield. organic matter (Wilhelm et al., 2004). In the
Residual biochar alone or combined with degraded Oxisol in Kenya, Kimetu et al. (2008)
potassium increased ear size, earl length, grain reported that maize production increased twice
size (1000 g), grain yield/plant, and grain yield after three repeated applications of biochar of 7
(t/ha). The increase of grain yield from residual t/ha during two years.
biochar alone was lower (11%) compared with After application of biochar in the first
that of residual biochar combined with Potassium season, availability of N, P, K, Ca and Mg
fertilizer (18-20%). In the first season, biochar did increased by 39-53%, 179-208%, 69-89%, 61-
not increase yield significantly. Residual biochar 70%, and 1-22%, respectively (Widowati et al.,
gave high signifantly effect to the crop by time to 2014). This condition approved hypothesis that
time as reported by by Steiner et al. (2007) and grain yield of maize increased during the second
Major et al. (2010). season although without addition of P and K
Residual biochar with potassium in different fertilizers.Grain yield of maize in the first season
dosage gave the same effect to yield component was lower (5.46-7.02 t/ha) compared with that in
and grain yield of maize (Table 5). Biochar the second season (Table 5). This indicated that
applications independently showed the same biochar gave positif effect to the crop in the
maize yield when biochar was combined with second season. Other data showed that total N and
potassium fertilizer at various doses. Phosphate availabilty of phosphate were higher than without
and potassium combination with biochar gave the biochar. Widowati et al. (2012) pointed out that
effect of residual for the second cop. This was due biochar reduced leaching process of potassium
to the ability of biochar to maintain retention of while application of biochar combined with KCl
nutrient in the soil. In fact, there is more than 90% fertilizer did not increase K leaching. Effect of

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 885


Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

residual potassium fertilizer independently and in the lowest carbohydrate content. The highest
potassium fertilizer with biochar highly carbohydrate content was observed for application
significant in carbohydratecontent in the grain of biochar combined with 150 kg K/ha (Figure 4).
seed maize. Application of biochar alone resulted

Table 4. Yield and yield component of maize crop in the second season
Treatment Ear Diameter Weight Ear dry Grain yield Grain
length of ear of 1000 weight per-plant yield (g)
(cm) (cm) grains (g) (g) (g)
200 kg KCl/ha 17.6 a 5.43 a 302.9 a 21.63 a 122.52 a 6.46 a
Biochar 20.3 b 5.77 b 338.9 b 32.22 b 141.38 b 7.18 b
Biochar + 50 kg KCl/ha 19.9 b 5.82 c 346.7 b 30.29 b 155.46 b 7.77 b
Biochar + 100 kg KCl/ha 19.7 b 5.78 c 348.4 b 32.50 b 154.47 b 7.72 b
Biochar + 150 kg KCl/ha 19.7 b 5.81 c 359.0 b 33.75 b 151.97 b 7.60 b
Biochar + 200 kg KCl/ha 19.2 b 5.97 c 325.2 b 30.01 b 154.26 b 7.71 b
LSD 0.05 1,16 0.20 44.89 6.78 19.49 0.82
Remarks: within each column, mean values followed by the same letters do not differ significantly at LSD 0.05.

60

d e
Carbohydrate content (%)

50 c
c b
40

30
a
20

10

0
200 kg Biochar Biochar + Biochar + Biochar + Biochar +
KCl/ha 50 kg 100 kg 150 kg 200 kg
KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha KCl/ha
Treatment

Figure 4. Carbohydrate content in the grain of maize on harvest

Availability of nutrients in the soil after harvest (2005). Biochar could increse soil organic matter
in the first and second seasons in the soil during the first and second seasons.
Application of N, P and K fertilizers with biochar
Residual effect of potassium fertilizer combined
gave higher availability of nutrients compared
with biochar increased K, Ca, Mg and Na cations
with no biochar application. This was one of the
in the soil because of the increase of organic
reasons why grain yield in the second season (6.5-
content in the soil (Table 5). Similar results were
7.8 t/ha) was higher than that in the first season
also found by Major et al. (2010), Rondon et al.
(5.5-7.0 t/ha).
(2007), Steiner et al. (2007), and Topoliantz et al.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 886


Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

Table 5.Nutrient availability in the soil before sowing, after first season and after second season
Treatment Total N (%) P (mg/kg) K+ (me/ 100 g) Total K (%) Soil C organic (%)
BT FS SS BT FS SS BT FS SS BT FS SS BT FS SS
200 kg
KCl/ha 0.14 a 0.17 a 0.11 a 24.38 a 59.97 a 41.84 a 0.25 a 0.46 a 0.35 a 30.91 a 50.20 ab 284.01 b 1.46 a 1.35 a 1.93 a
Biochar 0.14 a 0.24 c 0.17 c 24.38 a 167.42 b 48.01 ab 0.25 a 0.88 c 1.03 c 30.91 a 122.86 c 234.57 a 1.46 a 1.86 b 2.30 b
Biochar + 50
kg KCl/ha 0.14 a 0.26 c 0.16 bc 24.38 a 173.25 b 91.87 e 0.25 a 0.82 c 0.87 b 30.91 a 142.36 c 526.12 d 1.46 a 1.88 b 2.27 b
Biochar +
100 kg
KCl/ha 0.14 a 0.24 c 0.20 d 24.38 a 180.51 b 61.08 c 0.25 a 0.78 bc 1.25 d 30.91 a 63.25 b 891.81 e 1.46 a 1.87 b 2.28 b
Biochar +
150 kg
KCl/ha 0.14 a 0.24 c 0.16 b 24.38 a 183.31 b 71.04 d 0.25 a 0.83 c 0.99 c 30.91 a 57.12 ab 355.85 c 1.46 a 1.87 b 2.26 b
Biochar +
200 kg
KCl/ha 0.14 a 0.23 b 0.16 b 24.38 a 184.62 b 51.63 b 0.25 a 0.82 c 1.17 d 30.91 a 54.50 ab 334.35 c 1.46 a 1.88 b 2.27 b
LSD 0.05 ns 0.01 0.01 ns 27.23 8.99 ns 0.52 0.13 ns 40.76 27.99 ns 0.15 0.16
Remarks: within each column, mean values followed by the same letters do not differ significantly at LSD 0.05.
BT = before treatment, FS = first season, SS = second season

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 887


Residual effect of potassium fertilizer and biochar on growth and yield of maize in the second season

Table 6. Availability Ca and Mg in the soil after harvest first season and second season
Treatment Ca2+(me/100 g) Mg2+(me/100 g) Na+ (me/100 g)
BT FS SS BT FS SS SS
200 kg KCl/ha 4.49 17.08 a 15.94 a 3.81 a 1.27 3.26 c 0.82 a
Biochar 4.49 a 27.44 bc 22.36 cd 3.82 a 1.27 3.25 c 0.99 b
Biochar + 50 kg KCl/ha 4.50 a 29.08 c 21.82 bc 3.81 a 1.28 3.14 bc 1.19 cd
Biochar + 100 kg KCl/ha 4.50 a 29.06 c 23.29 d 3.81 a 1.55 2.77 b 1.25 d
Biochar + 150 kg KCl/ha 4.48 a 27.57 c 22.02 bc 3.82 a 1.52 4.43 d 1.36 e
Biochar + 200 kg KCl/ha 4.49 a 27.44 bc 21.18 b 3.81 a 1.5 1.99 a 1.15 c
LSD 0.05 ns 5.69 1.11 ns 1.00 0.41 0.06
Remarks: within each column, mean values followed by the same letters do not differ significantly at LSD 0.05. BT =
before treatment, FS = first season, SS = second season

Conclusion pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use.


Transactions of the Asabe 51: 20612069.
Residual effect of potassium fertilizer combined Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G. and Zech,
with biochar supported availability of nutrients for W. 2001. The Terra Preta phenomenon a model
maize crop in the second season.The other side, for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics.
residual effect of biochar increased availabilty of Naturwisenschaften 8: 3741.
N, P, K, Ca and Na nutrients in the soil. Residual Glaser, B., Johannes, L. and Wolfgang, Z. 2002.
Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of
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highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal-a
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Kimetu, J., Lehmann, J., Ngoze, S.O., Mugendi, D.N.,
Kinyangi, J.M., Riha, S., Verchot L, Recha, J.W.
Acknowlegment and Pell, A.N. 2008. Reversibility of soil
The authors thank to the Directorate General of Higher productivity decline with organic matter of differing
Education, Ministry of Research, Technology and quality along a degradation gradient. Ecosystems
Higher Education of Indonesia for financial support to 11: 726739.
conduct this study through competitive research grant Laird, D.A. 2008. The charcoal vision: A win-win-win
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permanently sequestering carbon, while improving
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 890


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 891-897
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.891

Research Article

Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain


model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia
Eba Muluneh Sorecha* , Birhanu Bayissa
School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O.Box
138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
*
corresponding author: ebamule1@gmail.com
Received 21 April 2017, Accepted 20 May 2017

Abstract: The information on the length of dry spells could be used for deciding a particular crop or
variety, supplementary irrigation water demand and for others agricultural activities. The study was
conducted in three districts: Babile, Haramaya and Kersa, eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia. The aim of the
study was to analyze dry spell lengths and its implications on crop production in eastern Hararghe, so as
to minimize unexpected damage due to long dry spells and to have effective and efficient planning for
farming communities.Thirty years of rainfall data for each district were collected form National
Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia. Data quality control has been done prior to analysis. Markov-Chain
model were employed to analyze the collected data. The result of the study revealed that dry spells were
highly hitting Babile district comparing to the other two districts. The probability of dry spell lengths of 5
and 7 days in Babile district was found to be about 99 and 80%, respectively.Whereas, in Haramaya
district, the probability of dry spell length of 5 days was found to be 80% during 181(Days of the Year)
DOY, then it falls to below 50 % by 221DOY. Moreover, the probability of the occurrences of dry spells
of 10, 15, and 20 days were below 5% in Haramaya district during the main rainy season. The study also
investigated that in Kersa district, the probability of occurrences of the dry spell lengths of 5, 7, 10, 15,
and 20 days were estimated to fall below 30%, showing that the area was better in crop production as
compared to the rest districts. The annual rainfalls in all the districts were decreasing as per the trend line
and variable in all the districts: Babile, Haramaya and Kersa districts, having the CV values of, 41, 34 and
31%, respectively.Information regarding dry spell length analysis has to be well understoodat grass root
levels to ensure food security via lifesaving irrigation schemes or any other options.
Keywords: crop production, dry spells, Ethiopia, Markov-chain model
To cite this article: Sorecha, E.M. and Bayissa, B. 2017. Dry spell length analysis for crop production using
Markov-Chain model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 891-897, DOI:
10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.891

Introduction an increasing trend of average air temperature. As


a result, the vegetation period is expected to
In a predominantly agricultural system, natural become shorter and shorter with irregular
rainfall is the main source of water for agricultural distribution of rainfall (IPCC, 2008). It has been
sector. Absence of rainfall or minimal rainfall noted that the long dry spells incur heavy costs to
results in drought. Drought is a common agenda the affected societies. In tropics and subtropics,
that takes place nearly every year in many areas of the success or failure of the crops is highly related
the world, particularly, in developing countries. with the occurrences of dry spells. For achieving
Dry spell is a period where the weather has been maximum benefits from dry land agriculture the
dry, for an abnormally long time, shorter than and knowledge of distribution of dry spells within a
not as severe as a drought (Wilhite and Glantz, year is useful. Dry spells affect not only crop
1985). Findings on earths global climate indicate

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 891
Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia

production it could also stricken other sectors like temporal and spatial variability of dry spells
fisheries, health, electricity etc. whichin turn (Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Seleshi and Camberlin,
cause a crisis to the economy of a given country 2006; Hadgu, et al., 2013). However, nothing has
(Jayawardene, 2005). The information on the been done so far in eastern Hararghe in regarding
length of dry spells could be used for deciding a with either climate characterization or dry spell
particular crop or variety, supplementary analysis. Dry spell lengthscould be determined
irrigation water demand (Mathlouthi and Lebdi, using Markov-chain model (Barron, 2004).The
2008), breeding varieties of various maturity Markov chain probability model for the analysis
durations, field operations in agriculture in a of wet spells and dry spells was first introduced
specific location (Sivakumar, 1992; Taley and by Gabriel and Neumann (1957) using 27 years
Dalvi, 1991; Sharma, 1996). (1923 -1950) of rainfall data from November to
Crop growth performs well with uniformly April at Tel Aviv in Israel considering the
spread light rains than with a few heavy rains threshold of 0.1 mm (Gabriel and Neumann,
interrupted by dry periods. In cropping calendar 1957). The results were validated using chi square
of plants, the timing of breaks in rainfall (dry tests. Since then the Markov process models have
spells) is critical to crop viability than total been used extensively by many authors
seasonal rainfall (Usman and Reason, 2004). throughout the world.
Moreover, Simane and Struick (1993) reported Therefore, this study aims to analyze dry
that the amount of rainfall its distribution in a spell lengths and its implications on crop
given season is critical for crop production. production in eastern Hararghe, so as to minimize
Uneven distribution of rainfall could lead crops to unexpected damage due to long dry spells and to
different degrees of dry spells without significant have effective and efficient planning for farming
reductions in total rainfall (Barron et al., 2003). A communities.
number of studies have been conducted in
Ethiopia on climate characterization such as
number of rainy days, length of growing period, Materials and Methods
onset and offset of seasonal and annual rainfall. Description of the study area
Few of them highlighted the heavy losses in major
crop production in the country due to prolonged The study was conducted in Babile, Haramaya,
dry spells and the importance of studying the and Kersa districts of Eastern Hararghe Zone,
Ethiopia (Table 1).

Table 1. Study site information

Station Latitude Longitude Altitude Geographic Average Data


name (0) (0) (m) classification temperature (0C) available
Babile 9.21 42.33 1518 Lowland 26.50 1980-2013
Haramaya 9.16 41.97 1980 Highland 18.11 1980-2013
Kersa 9.32 41.92 2200 Highland 18.07 1980-2013

Data collection and Quality Control in the past, and Markov process models can be
used to study properties of dry spells. A stochastic
A baseline of thirty four years of daily rainfall
process, whose state at time t is YT (t > 0), such
data for each districts were collected from
that the value of Ys(s<t) does not depend on the
National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia
values of Yu (u<s) then the process is said to be
(NMA). Then prior to any analysis the data were
Markov process (Medhi, 2009).
subjected for its quality using the cumulative
That is,
deviation test (Sahin and Kerem, 2010), common
in detecting for climatologically time series data
(Sahin and Kerem, 2010; Kang and Yusof, 2012). = = , = . . =


= ( = = )

Research approach
A Markov-chain model is useful for analyzing It indicates that the probability of its having state
random events whose likelihood depends on what Y at time t+h, conditioned on having the particular
happened last (Gabriel and Neumann, 1957). state Yt+hat time t, is equal to the conditional
Time series dry spells depends on what happened probability of its having that same state Y but

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 892


Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia

conditioned on its value for all previous times In this study, probabilities of a dry spell greater
before t. This captures the idea that its future state than a particular length based on the condition of
is independent of its past states, but depends only the previous days (that is, the probabilities of dry
on the immediate past. In dry spell analysis as a spell followed by dry season and that of followed
day is classified either wet state or dry state by wet season) were computed. The probabilities
depending on the rainfall amount of a day, of the dry spell lengths exceeding 5, 7, 10, 15 and
Markov process can be applied. The order one 20 days were computed using Markov model of
(order 1) process assumes that the present state order two under the assumption of binomial error
(wet or dry) depends only on the condition of the structure (Abeysekera et al.,1983). For the study,
previous state being wet or dry. The transition rainfall data from 1980-2013of all districts:
matrix of the Markov model of order 1 for two Babile, Haramaya and Kersa collected were used.
state (D=0 for the dry state and W=0 for the wet
state) is given by:
Results and Discussion
The results of the study revealed that dry spell
lengths of the considered days: (sp5) 5 days, (sp7)
7 days, (sp10) 10 days, (sp15) 15 days and (sp20)
20 days varies from place to place over the study
Where Pij= probability of the present day state i areas of Babile, Haramaya and Kersa districts.In
(i=0 or 1) given that previous state is j (j=0 or 1). line with this, the impacts caused due to the dry
Thus, using Geometric distribution the probability spell lengths also varies. The challenges of dry
of a dry spell lasting exactly n days will be given spell were so much over Babile district as
by the following formula; compared to other two districts. Even during the
main rainy season of Ethiopia: June, July, August

= = (1 ) and September (JJAS), the probability of dry spell
length of 5 days was about 99%. The probability
Where p00 is the probability of a dry day occurring of dry spell length of a week was also more than
after a dry dayP01is the probability of a wet day 80%. On the other hand, the probability of dry
occurring after a dry day. spell length of 20 days was below 20% (Figure 1).

sp5 sp7 sp10 sp15 sp20


1,2
Probability of dry spells

1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 261 281 301 321 341 361
Days of the year (DOY)

Figure 1.Markov-Chain model output of dry spells for Babile district

According to Barron (2004), Markov model is the harsh climatic condition, very high rainfall
capable to analyze the agricultural dry spell variability, CV value of 41% (Table 2). The study
lengths and respective risks. He reported that the also depicts that the annual rainfall in the districts
probabilities of agricultural dry spell exceeding 10 was decreasing from time to time as per the trend
days in East Africa varied from 20% to 70% or line indicates (Figure 2). Poverty driven by
more depending on onset of rainy season. In drought was hitting the farming communities in
general, this implies that growing crops in the this area and food aids were given almost every
district was under high probability of risks, given year over the past three decades.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 893


Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia

Table 2. Simple descriptive statistics of rainfall feature over the period 1980-2013
Station name Mean Minimum Maximum SD CV
Babile 404 174 819 164 41
Haramaya 712 309 1200 245 34
Kersa 760 462 1363 247 31

Annual RF Linear (Annual RF)


1000 y = -3,486x + 464,6
Annual rainfall(mm)

800 R = 0,044
600
400
200
0

years

Figure 2. Annual rainfall distribution of Babile for the period 1980-2013

On the other hand, in Haramaya district the probability of dry spell lengths of 7 days or a
probability of dry spell length of 5 days was found week has been reached about 20% in July.
to be 80% during 181DOY (1st decade of June), However, the probability of the occurrences of 10
then it declined to below 50 % by 221DOY (3rd days, 15 days, and 20 days were fall below 5%
decade of July) (Figure 3). Beginning from 2021 during the main rainy season of the area, JJAS.
DOY, the probability that the area faced dry spell This is the critical time for planting crops. Thus,
length of 5 days had been increased up to 100% the crops in the area might be influenced due to
by 301DOY (3rd decade of September). It has the high occurrences of the dry spell lengths of 5
been also clarified that in Haramaya district, the days than any other dry spell lengths occurrences.

sp5 sp7 sp10 sp15 sp20


1,2
Probability of dry spells

1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 261 281 301 321 341 361
Days of the year(DOY)

Figure 3. Markov-Chain model output of dry spells for Haramaya district

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 894


Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia

Major crops of the area like maize (Zea mays) and to this work). The annual rainfall condition over
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were impacted due to the district was tends to decrease over the period
this problem. This is what has been well of 1980- 2013, as shown by the trend line in
recognized in the area over the last thirty years (as Figure 4. The area had also faced high annual
per the informal interview with the local farming rainfall variability, showing the CV of 34%
communities which has been not incorporated in (Table 2).

Annual RF Linear (Annual RF)


y = -13,71x + 952,5
1400 R = 0,310
Annual rainfall(mm)

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Years

Figure 4. Annual rainfall distribution of Haramaya district for the period 1980-2013

Furthermore, the study depicted that the impacts production in the area was better as compared to
caused due long dry spells in Kersa district was the other two districts. Thus, farmers in this area
not as difficult as the other two districts. The dry were producing goodcrops, though the rainfall
spell lengths for all the considered dry spell days was decreasing (Figure 6) and variable (Table 2)
in this particular study were estimated to fall over the last three decades. Sorecha et al. (2017)
below 30% in Kersa district, during the main reported that the rainfall over Kersa district
rainy season of the area, JJAS (Figure 5). The showed a decreasing trend by -10.61 mm/yr,
implication for this was that the agricultural crop although not statistically significant.

sp5 sp7 sp10 sp15 sp20

1,2
Probability of dry spell

1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181 201 221 241 261 281 301 321 341 361
Days of the year (DOY)

Figure 5.Markov-Chain model output of dry spells for Kersa district

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 895


Dry spell length analysis for crop production using Markov-Chain model in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia

Annual RF Linear (Annual RF)


1600 y = -14,01x + 1005
Annual rainfall(mm)
1400 R = 0,318
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Years

Figure 6. Annual rainfall distribution of Kersa district for the period 1980-2013

Conclusion References
The study attempt to analyze the dry spell lengths Abeysekera, S., Senevirahtne, K.E., Leaker, A. and
over three districts and pointed out that dry spell Stern, R.D. 1983. Analysis of rainfall data for
lengths of the considered days: 5 days, 7 days, 10 agricultural purposes. Journal of National Science
days, 15 days and 20 days varies from place to Foundation 11(2):165-183.
Barron, J. 2004. Dry spell mitigation to upgrade semi-
place over the study areas of Babile, Haramaya arid rain fed agriculture: Water harvesting and soil
and Kersa districts. In line with this, the impacts nutrient management for smallholders maize
caused due to the dry spell lengths also varies. cultivation in Machakos Kenya. Doctoral Thesis in
The dry spell lengths of 5 days and a week or 7 Natural Resource Management, Stockholm
days were well notified over the considered University Sweden
stations, except in Kersa district where the dry Barron, J., Rockstrom, J., Gichuki, F. and Hatibu, N.
spell lengths fall below 30 %. Dry spellswere 2003. Dry spell analysis and maize yields for two
hitting Babile district more comparing to the other semi-arid locations in east Africa. Agricultural and
two districts. The probability of dry spell length of Forest Meteorology 117: 23-37.
Gabriel, K.R. and Neumann, J. 1957. On a distribution
5 days and 7 days in Babile werefound to be about of weather cycles by length. Quarterly Journal of
99 and 80%, respectively. The study also depicts the Royal Meteorological Society 83: 375-380.
that the annual rainfall in all districtswere Hadgu, G., Tesfaye, K., Mamo, G. and Kassa, B. 2013.
decreasing as per the trend line and variable as per Trend and variability of rainfall in Tigray, Northern
the CV values for respective stations. Therefore, Ethiopia: Analysis of meteorological data and
such baseline information regarding the dry spell farmers perception. Academia Journal of
length analysis has to be well understood by the Agricultural Research 1(6):088-100.
farming communities to enable them to get ready IPCC. 2008. Climate Change, summary for
against the challenges associated with dry spells policymakers: A report of working group of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
in the upcoming periods, so as to ensure food Montreal, Canada.
security and climate resilient economy. Jayawardene, H.K.W.I.,Sonnadara, D.U.J. and
Jayewardene, D.R. 2005.Trends in rainfall in Sri
Lanka over the last century. Sri Lankan Journal of
Acknowledgement Physics 6:7-17.
We, the author would like to thanks National Kang, H.M. and Yusof, F. 2012. Homogeneity tests on
Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia for providing me daily rainfall series in Peninsular Malaysia.
the climate data free of charge. Next, our special thanks International Journal of Contemporary
go to Haramaya University, Research Affairs Office for Mathematical Sciences 7 (1): 9 22.
financial issue. Lastly, we would like to acknowledge Mathlouthi, M. and Lebdi, F. 2008. Characterization of
people who contributed their knowledge and time in dry spell events in a basin in the North of Tunisia.
editing the paper. Medhi, J. 2009. Stochastic Processes. New Age
Science.

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Sahin, S. and Kerem, H.C. 2010. Homogeneity Sorecha, E.M., Bayissa, B. and Toru, T. 2017.
analysis of Turkish meteorological data set. Characterization of rainfall indices for crop
Hydrological Processes 24: 981-992, DOI: production in Kersa District, Eastern Ethiopia:
10.1002/hyp.7534. Farmers Advisory. Academic Research Journal of
Seleshi, Y. and Camberlin, P. 2006. Recent changes in Agricutural Science and Research 5(2): 134-139
dry spell and extreme rainfall events in Ethiopia. Taley, S.M. and Dalvi, V. B. 1991. Dry-spell analysis
Theoretical and Applied Climatology 83:181191. for studying the sustainability of rainfed agriculture
Seleshi, Y. and Zanke, U. 2004. Recent changes in in India The case study of the Vidarbha region of
rainfall and rainy days in Ethiopia. International Maharashtra state. Large Farm Development
Journal of Climatology 24:973-983. Project.
Sharma, T. C. 1996. Simulation of the Kenyan longest Usman, M. and C. Reason. 2004. Dry spell frequencies
dry and wet spells and the largest rain sums using a and their variability over sourthern Africa. Climate
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Simane, B. and Struik, P.C. 1993. Agroclimatic Wilhite, D.A. and Glantz, M.H. 1985. Understanding
analysis: A tool for planning sustainable wheat the drought phenomenon; The role of definitions.
(Triticum turgidum var. durum) production in Water International 10:111-120.
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47(1):31-46.
Sivakumar, M. 1992. Empirical analysis of dry spells
for agricultural applications in West Africa. Journal
of Climate 5: 532-539.

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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 898


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 899-905
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.899

Research Article

The effectiveness of Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis globulosa) as a


phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium of industrial
waste
Pungky Ferina, Retno Rosariastuti, Supriyadi*
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No.36A Surakarta
57126, Indonesia
*corresponding author: supriyadi_uns@yahoo.com
Received 28 April 2017, Accepted 24 May 2017

Abstract : The textile industry produces sideline output in the form of dangerous waste. The textile
industrial waste containing heavy metal, one of which is Chromium (Cr). Chromium is very dangerous
metal for environment, especially chromium hexavalent that has properties of soluble, carcinogenic, and
toxic. The pollution of chromium in soil is a problem that the action to be taken with the technology of
bioremediation. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with chromium using Mendong plant
(Fimbrystilis globulosa), combined with association of microorganisms Agrobacterium sp I3 and
compost. This study was conducted in field experiment plots using a completely randomized block
design. Data were analyzed using Anova followed by Duncan and correlation tests. The results showed
that the Mendong plant was an effective phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium and it can
be used as a chromium accumulator plant. The highest decrease of soil chromium content of 58.39% was
observed on the combined artificial fertilizer, Agrobacterium sp I3 and Mendong plant treatment
(P1B1T1). Removal effectiveness of chromium at the treatments using Mendong plant was higher than
without the Mendong plant. Chromium uptake in shoots was higher than in roots of Mendong plant.
Bioremediation increased the total bacterial colonies, decreased soil pH, and increased cation exchange
capacity of the soil. The growth of the Mendong plant was in a good condition during the process of
bioremediation.
Keywords: bioremediation, chromium, Fimbrystilis globulosa, phytoremediation, rhizoremediation
To cite this article: Ferina, P., Rosariastuti, R., Supriyadi. 2017. The effectiveness of Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis
globulosa) as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium of industrial waste. J. Degrade. Min. Land
Manage. 4(4): 899-905, DOI: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.899.

Introduction Ni, and Zn. One of the dangerous heavy metals is


Chromium (Cr). Chromium comes from industrial
A growing population increases human needs to activity, textile, tanning, manufacturing of paints,
meet the human life. One the measures to enhance iron coating, wood preservation, and mining
the welfare of human life is the existence of activities.
industrial activities. One of industrial activities is Chromium is hazardous to the environment,
the textile industry that produces output in the especially chromium hexavalent / Cr (VI) because
form of waste. Textile industrial waste contains it has properties of soluble, carcinogenic, and
toxic materials that are harmful to the toxic, that cause death of microorganisms,
environment, water, soil, and human health. animals, and humans if concentration is above of
According of the Ministry of the Environment standard quality (U.S. Department of Health and
(2010), many of heavy metals that are produced Human Service 2012). In Jaten District,
by the textile industry are Ag, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Province,

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 899
The effectiveness of Mendong plant as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium

there are many agricultural lands that have been plant in phytoremediation. One of
irrigated with industrial wastewater in Jaten phytoremediation techniques that can be
containing Cr between 0.531-3.99 ppm employed to clean up soils contaminated with
(Widyastuti et al., 2003). In general, standard heavy metals is rhizoremediation.
quality of chromium in soils that is allowed by the Rhizoremediation is a process that involves the
Indonesian Government is 2.3 ppm (Ministry of association of mutualism rizosphere plants with
Environment, 2010). Soils in Kebakkramat sub microorganisms, which can release exudates and
district, Karanganyar Regency are suspected to be oxygen into the soil to decrease chromium
polluted with Cr above the standard quality (Pramono et al., 2013). The bacteria used in the
because there are many industries at remediation of chromium are resistant to
Kebakkramat areas. The textile industries in the chromium and can survive in the chromium-
Kebakkramat area are near agricultural lands and contaminated environments. One of the bacteria
rivers. Textile industrial waste that is commonly that is resistant to the environmental conditions
discharged to the river and agricultural land contaminated with heavy metals is Agrobacterium
becomes the source of contamination on the sp I3. This bacterium can increase the uptake of
surrounding agricultural lands. the Cr to plant shoots. Addition of Agrobacterium
Technology to recover quality of soil sp I3 isolate can increase the growth of rami plant
contaminated with heavy metal that is now being (Rosariastuti et al., 2013).The purpose of this
developed is bioremediation. Bioremediation is a study was to explore the ability of Mendong plant
way to degrade, move, and change harmful in absorbing chromium in chromium
compounds into more simple and harmless contaminated soil.
(Kamaludeen et al., 2003). Bioremediation that
uses plants is called phytoremediation.
Phytoremediation is a technology for reducing, Materials and Methods
degrades, and isolates pollutants of the This study was carried out on paddy fields
environment by using plant (Pramono et al., contaminated with chromium at Waru village,
2013). Plant that can be used as a Kebakkramat sub district, Karanganyar regency of
hyperaccumulator is a plant that has high Central Java Province, from May to October
durability, rapid growth, ability to do 2016. Treatments tested in this study consisted of
phytoextraction of heavy metal, and it is not a three factors, i.e. artificial fertilizers treatment (P),
food crop. Mendong plant is a non-food plant for chelators (Agrobacterium sp I3; or compost) (B),
human or animal consumption that is easily and Mendong plant (T). Twelve treatments (Table
cultivated. The plant that can survive in flooded 1) were arranged in a completely randomized
condition has high economic value of craft block design with three replicates.
materials. The Mendong plant can be selected as a

Table 1. Treatments
No. Treatments Description
1. P0B0T0 Without artificial fertilizers, without chelators, without Mendong plant (control)
2. P0B0T1 Without artificial fertilizers, without chelators, with Mendong plant
3. P0B1T0 Without artificial fertilizers, with Agrobacterium sp I3, without Mendong plant
4. P0B1T1 Without artificial fertilizers, with Agrobacterium sp I3, with Mendong plant
5. P0B2T0 Without artificial fertilizers, with compost, without Mendong plant
6. P0B2T1 Without artificial fertilizers, with compost, with Mendong plant
7. P1B0T0 With artificial fertilizers, without chelators, without Mendong plant (control)
8. P1B0T1 With artificial fertilizers, without chelators, with Mendong plant
9. P1B1T0 With artificial fertilizers, with Agrobacterium sp I3, without Mendong plant
10. P1B1T1 With artificial fertilizers, with Agrobacterium sp I3, with Mendong plant
11. P1B2T0 With artificial fertilizers, with compost, without Mendong plant
12. P1B2T1 With artificial fertilizers, with compost, with Mendong plant

Preparation of bacteria carrier incubated for 2 months. After the incubation


period, the material mixture was sterilized using a
Carrier materials used for this study were 7.5 kg
presto pan for keeping the carrier sterile from
of bran compost, 750 mL of EM-4, and 15 L of
undesirable bacteria or fungi.
water. The materials were mixed well and then

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 900


The effectiveness of Mendong plant as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium

Preparation of Agrobacterium sp I3 inoculum Anova at 5 % level , continued test of Duncan at 5


% level, and correlation test.
Duplication of Agrobacteriumsp I3 inoculum was
started with the preparation of the LB (Luria
Bertani) medium with the composition of 10 g Results and Discussion
tripton, 10 g NaCl, 5 g yeast extract, 100 mL
distilled water, 15-20 g NA (Nutrient Agar) Chromium content in the soil
medium with the composition of 10 g beef extract, Bioremediation decreased soil chromium
10 g peptone, 5 g NaCl, 1000 mL distilled water, content in all treatments (Figure 1). Before
and 15 g agar/L. After obtaining pure isolate, bioremediation, the soil contained chromium 2.46
purification was done in Luria Bertani liquid in mg/kg that was above the standard quality of 2.3
Erlenmeyer and mixed up to gain density of 1010 mg/kg (Ministry of Environment, 2010). The
cells/mL. The carrier was then enriched with decrease of chromium content in the soil was
squirted Agrobacterium sp I3 to sterile carrier. The caused by decrease of soil pH (Table 2).The high
comparison was 600 mL Agrobacterium sp I3 for H+ ions increased the solubility of chromium
2 kg of the carrier. hexavalent so chromium become soluble and
easily to be taken up by plant. Soil pH of all
Implementation of the study treatments decreased after bioremediation (Table
This study used compost with a dose to the 2). The increase of acidity is usually caused by
Mendong plant of 5 t/ha, while a dose of NPK waste containing free mineral acids and carbonic
fertilize used for Mendong plant was 400 kg/ha acid (Sontang, 2004). As compost contains free
(Darini 2012). The dose of compost applied to mineral acids, the compost treatment reduced soil
Mendong plant treatment was 0.75 kg/plot of pH value.
land. The dose of compost applied to the control The artificial fertilizers caused soil pH
treatment (without Mendong plant) was 1.125 become lower, it could happen because the
kg/plot of land. Artificial fertilizers applied to fertilizers are soluble in water or hygroscopic that
Mendong plant treatment were 19.59 g Urea/plot can cause content of H+ ions in the soil becomes
of land, 25 g of SP-36/plot of land, and 15 g high. High H+ ion on water content causes the
KCl/plot of land. Artificial fertilizers applied to solubility of hexavalent chromium higher, so it
control treatment (without Mendong plant) were has high solubility and more easily taken up by
19.56 g Urea/plot of land, 18.75 g SP-36/plot of plants (Yunilda 2008). Treatment with Mendong
land, and 11.25 g KCl/plot of land. Application of plant (T1) had lower soil chromium content than
compost and artificial fertilizers was done 1 day without Mendong plant (T0) (Figure 1).
before planting the Mendong plant. The size of Treatment with Agrobacterium sp I3 or compost
the plot of land was1.5 m x 1 m. Seeds of had lower soil chromium content than control
Mendong plant needed were six in one treatment treatment (P0B0T0). It was proven by the increase
or one plot of land, with spacing of plant per sub of C-organic after bioremediation (Table 2). High
plots was 50 cm. Field observations were plant C-organic in the soil caused high availability of
height of every week and plant dry weight at nutrient elements that affected the increase growth
harvest. Plant dry weight consisted of parts of the of Mendong plant. The compost on P1B2T1
root and the shoot of Mendong plant. Harvest was treatment could decrease Cr content by 1.55 g/g.
carried out at 30 days after the Mendong planting Results of Anova test at 5 % level showed that the
with bacterial isolate treatment. Analysis of treatments of artificial fertilizers, Agrobacterium
chromium content in soil, roots, and shoots of the sp I3, compost and Mendong plant significantly
Mendong plant was done using a wet destruction decreased chromium content in the soil. Based on
method with AAS (Atomic Absorption the correlation tests, chromium content in the soil
Spectrophotometer). Soil parameters analyzed correlated positively to soil pH. Content
were CEC (ammonium acetate saturation), C- chromium in the soil correlated negatively to total
Organic (Walkley and Black), pH H2O soil bacterial colonies, soil CEC, and C-organic.
(Electrometric), and total bacterial colonies The treatment of artificial fertilizers,
(nutrient agar medium with the hand colony Agrobacterium sp I3, compost and Mendong plant
counter). Removal effectiveness or decreased chromium content in the soil by 1.023
phytoremediation effectiveness of Cr was mg/kg (58.39%) in the P1B1T1 treatment,
calculated with the following formula: Removal whereas treatment with low chromium content
Effectiveness (%) = [(initial concentration-final decrease was in the control treatment of P0B0T0
concentration)/initial concentration] x 100%. The with chromium content in the soil was 2.438
data obtained were subjected to statistical test of mg/kg.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 901


The effectiveness of Mendong plant as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium

4,5 2.438b
Cr content in the soil (g/g) 4
3,5
3 2,46 1.853ab 2.155ab
2,5 1.423ab1.782ab1.554a 1.762ab 1.75ab
2 1.737ab 1.714ab 1.55a
1,5 1.023a
1
0,5
0

Figure 1. Chromium content in the soil.

Mendong plant ability in decreasing chromium in effectiveness more than without Mendong plant.
the soil can be calculated to detect effectiveness as The Mendong plant could increase CEC (Table
a phytoremediator. Phytoremediation 2). The process of bioremediation make Cr6+
effectiveness for soil contaminated with cation is exchanged with other cations, Cr in the
chromium was high in the treatment of Mendong soil are exchanged with other cations then Cr in
plant with artificial fertilizers, with the soil could be reduced because of the Cr in the
Agrobacterium sp I3 (P1B1T1) of 58.39% (Table soil is uptake by plants. Bacteria acted elaborate
3). Whereas other treatment combinations using compost into the nutrient elements ready to be
Mendong plant had chromium removal uptake by the plant (Hanafiah et al., 2009).

Table 2. Soil characteristics


Treatment *) Soil pH Soil CEC C-organic Total Soil Bacterial
(cmol(+)/kg) (%) Colonies (log 10
CFU/g)
Initial Soil 7.55 19.614 3.31 12.62
P0B0T0 (control) 6.96 bc 30.22 ab 2.91 a 12.65 a
P0B0T1 6.59 a 26.43 ab 2.99 a 12.18 a
P0B1T0 6.76 abc 32.24 b 3.28 a 16.18 b
P0B1T1 7.02 c 21.67 a 3.72 a 16.85 c
P0B2T0 6.88 abc 22.39 ab 3.11 a 12.66 a
P0B2T1 6.90 bc 23.91 ab 4.14 a 12.88 a
P1B0T0 6.59 a 29.98 ab 2.85 a 14.54 a
P1B0T1 6.68 ab 22.79 ab 2.71 a 12.98 a
P1B1T0 6.88 abc 25.73 ab 3.47 a 14.54 a
P1B1T1 6.81 abc 24.97 ab 3.05 a 14.57 a
P1B2T0 6.69 ab 26.79 ab 3.23 a 12.24 a
P1B2T1 6.59 a 24.21 ab 3.32 a 12.10 a
Remarks: Numbers followed by the same letter at the same column show no significant different in LSD test at 5%
level. *) see Table 1.

Treatment combinations of artificial fertilizers, sp I3 helped Mendong plant to accelerate


bacteria Agrobacterium sp I3 and Mendong plant chromium in rhizosphere areas or chromium
decreased chromium concentration in the soil. uptake by root but it could not be toxic for root of
Agrobacterium sp I3 treatment that made Mendong plant. Total soil bacterial colonies on all
symbiosis with root of Mendong plant decreased treatments increased, except on the P0B0T1
chromium concentration in the soil because (Table 2). Agrobacterium sp I3 treatment had more
Agrobacterium sp I3 has high tolerance to total bacterial colonies than the compost
hexavalent chromium (Rosariastuti et al., 2013). treatments. The treatment with the highest number
In phytostabilization mechanism, Agrobacterium of total soil bacterial colonies of 16.85 log 10
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 902
The effectiveness of Mendong plant as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium

CFU/g was the P0B1T1 treatment (Table 2). was effective as a phytoremediator of soil
Application of Agrobacterium sp I3 also increased contaminated with chromium if it was combined
the total soil bacterial colonies. with artificial fertilizers, Agrobacterium sp I3, and
compost. The Mendong plant treatment without
artificial fertilizers and chelators could only
Table 3. Chromium removal effectiveness
decrease chromium concentration by 29.37%.
Treatment *) Phytoremediation Therefore, a better strategy for bioremediation of
Effectiveness (%) Cr contaminated soil is a combination treatment
P0B0T0 0.87 that can do maximum absorption of chromium.
P0B0T1 29.37
P0B1T0 24.65 Chromium content and uptake by Mendong
P0B1T1 30.32 plant
P0B2T0 12.38
Chromium content in roots was lower than
P0B2T1 42.15
chromium content in shoot of Mendong plant
P1B0T0 27.55 (Figure 2). Mendong plant with control treatment
P1B0T1 36.98 (P0B0T1) had chromium content in shoot of
P1B1T0 28.38
plant that was lower than the other treatments.
P1B1T1 58.39
Treatment of compost application (B2) had
P1B2T0 28.84
chromium content in the shoot that was higher
P1B2T1 36.98
than the other treatment. Based on the Anova test
*) see Table 1. at 5% level, chelator treatments influenced
differently to chromium content in shoot of
The resilience of bacteria can be seen from the Mendong plant. This indicates that addition of
number of colonies, if number of total soil compost improved C-organic in the soil. The high
bacterial colonies before bioremediation is low, content of C-organic in the soilled to the high
and they become high after bioremediation, so the chromium uptake, because C-organic affected
Agrobacterium sp I3proved capable of adapting chromium uptake processes in plant roots and
and a good tolerance in those plots. Treatment that shoot. Chromium content in root of Mendong
had lowest removal effectiveness of 0.87% was plant was lower than that in the shoot.
the control treatment (P0B0T0). Mendong plant

40,000
30.259a
Mendong Plant (g/g)

30,000 26.639a
Cr Content in the

20,000
8.020a 6.162a
10,000 6.082a
1.491a 4.841a
0.45a 0.649a 1.782a 1.123a 0.45a
0,000
-10,000 P0B0T1 P0B1T1 P0B2T1 P1B0T1 P1B1T1 P1B2T1

Cr Content in Root Cr Content in the Shoot


Figure2. Chromium content in Mendong plant root and shoot

The highest Chromium uptake in the shoot of through the endodermis to xylem shoot of the
Mendong plant the (214.92 g) was observed in plant. The highest chromium uptake in the root is
the P0B2T1 treatment (Figure 3). Based on the Cr (11.83g) in the P1B0T1 treatment (Figure 3).
uptake, Mendong plant can be considered as a Cr The uptake process occurs because of
hyperaccumulator plant. A plant can be accumulation of Cr in the root cells. The root
considered hyperaccumulator if it can uptake cells are closely related to soil CEC. Soil CEC
more than 100 ppm for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Co increased during the bioremediation process, so a
(Baker et al., 1994). The lowest chromium uptake high soil CEC caused the high chromium uptake
in the root was observed in the P1B2T1 treatment in the root. Based on the Anova test at 5 % level,
(Figure 3). It occurred because chromium was chelator treatment resulted in significantly
translocated in the shoot of Mendong plant. different Chromium uptake in the shoot of the
Hexavalent chromium gets into the root from Mendong plant.
epidermis, then crosses a series of cells and breaks

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 903


The effectiveness of Mendong plant as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium

300,000
214.92b
Mendong Plant (g)
Cr Uptake in the
200,000 150.41ab
100,000 9.77a 49.08ab 43.13ab 37.47ab
23.56a 3.3a 3.88a 11.82a 10.17a 1.49a
0,000
-100,000 P0B0T1 P0B1T1 P0B2T1 P1B0T1 P1B1T1 P1B2T1

Cr Uptake in Root Cr Uptake in Shoot

Figure 3. Chromium uptake in the Mendong plant

Height of Mendong plant Mendong plant. Figure 4 shows that artificial


fertilizers treatment (P1) made Mendong plant
Plant height was measured at a time of maximum higher than that without artificial fertilizers (P0).
vegetative period. Application of artificial Artificial fertilizers applied in this research were
fertilizers increased the height of the Mendong Urea, KCl, and SP-36 to accelerate the growth of
plant. Data presented in Figure 4 show that the plant, increase the rate of photosynthesis, plant
growth of Mendong plant varied. The highest cells, stimulates enlargement the cells, and make
Mendong plant of 65.6 cm was in the P1B2T1 stronger plant shoot. The Mendong plant has self-
treatment, while the lowest plant height of 49.8 defense against the toxicity chromium in the
cm was in the P0B2T1 treatment. Based on the environment. This is shown by the high growth of
correlation test, the height of Mendong plant was Mendong plant. Therefore, Mendong plant can be
correlated positively to chromium content in the use as a hyperaccumulator plant for chromium,
root, chromium content in the shoot, chromium because chromium uptake in the plant was high
uptake in the root, chromium uptake in the shoot, and plant vegetative growth did not suffer
and dry weight of the plant. Based on the Anova interface.
test at 5 % level, the artificial fertilizers treatment
provided significantly different height of

80,0 61.7bc 65.6c


Height of Mendong

50.0a 51.4a 49.8a 53.6ab


60,0
Plant (cm)

40,0
20,0
0,0
P0B0T1 P0B1T1 P0B2T1 P1B0T1 P1B1T1 P1B2T1

Figure 4. Height of Mendong Plant

Dry weight of Mendong plant of7.943 g was on the P1B2T1 treatment.


Hyperaccumulator plant can be tolerance against
Figure 4 shows that the P1B2T1 treatment had heavy metals at least 10-20 times of normal plant
the highest growth, but the treatment had the and still produce high biomass (Baker et al.,
lowest dry weight (Figure 5). This occured 1994). Plant dry weight correlated positively to
because of the different in the number of clumps chromium content in the root, chromium uptake in
in the Mendong Plant. Mendong plant has many the root, and height of Mendong plant. However,
numbers of clumps then it automatically has high plant dry weight correlated negatively to
dry weight. Based on Figure 5, it can be seen that chromium content in shoot and chromium uptake
the highest plant dry weight of16.725 g on the in shoot. Based on Anova test, chelators
P1B1T1 treatment. The lowest plant dry weight significantly increased plant dry weight.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 904


The effectiveness of Mendong plant as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium

25,000 15.460ab
Mendong Plant (g) 14.403ab 16.725b
20,000 13.957ab 13.609ab
Dry Weight of

7.943a
15,000
10,000
5,000
0,000
P0B0T1 P0B1T1 P0B2T1 P1B0T1 P1B1T1 P1B2T1

Figure 5.Dry weight of Mendong plant

Conclusion Pramono, A., Irfan, D., Ngadiman., Rosariastuti, R.


2013. Bacterial Cr (VI) reduction and its impact
impact.
The Mendong plant effective as a as Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan 11 (2) : 120
120-131.
phytoremediator
remediator of soil contaminated with Rosariastuti, R., Prijambada, I.D., Ngadiman.,
chromium and can be used as plant of chromium Prawidyarini, G.S., and Putri, A.R. 2013. Isolation
hyperaccumulator. Bioremediation decreased soil and identification of plant growth promoting and
pH, increased soil CEC, increased soil C-organic,
C chromium uptake enhancing bacteria from soil
contaminated by leather tanning industrial wa waste.
and increased total soil bacterial colonies.
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 9 : 243-251.
Effective combination treatments to decreased Sontang, E. 2004. Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup.
chromium in the soil was application artificial Jakarta : Jambatan
fertilizers, Agrobacterium sp I3, Mendong plant U.S. Department of Health and Human Service. 2012.
(P1B1T1) had highest phytoremediation Toxicological Profile for Chromium. http
effectiveness of 58.39 %, 42,15 % in (P0B2T1) ://www.atsdr.cdc.gov. Accessed on 03 Janu January
treatment, and 36,98 % in (P1B0T1
P1B0T1) treatment. 2017.
Chelator treatments (Agrobacterium
Agrobacterium sp I3 or Widyastuti, E., Rosariastuti,, R. and Syamsiyah, J.
compost) had lower chromium content in the soil 2003. Pengaruh macam bahan organik terhadap
than in the control treatment (P0B0T0).Removal
(P0B0T0). kelarutan dan kadar Cr tanaman jagung (Zea mays
L) di tanah Entisol yang tercemar limbah cair
effectiveness of chromium in treatment using industri tekstil batik. Seminar Nasional Pengelolaan
Mendong plant was higher than without Mendong Lingkungan
plant. Chromium uptake in the root was less than Yunilda, A. 2008. Ilmu Tanah. Jakarta : Gramedia
chromium uptake in the shoot of plant.
plant Artificial
fertilizers, Agrobacterium sp I3 and compost
increased the growth of Mendong plant. The
growth of Mendong plant was in a good condition
during the bioremediation process.

References
Baker, A.J.M., Reeves, R.D., and Hajar, A.S.M. 1994.
Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in british
population of the metallophyte Thlaspi
caerulescens and Brassicaceae. New Phytologist
Trust 127 : 61-68
Hanafiah., Sabrina T., dan Guchi H. 2009. Biologi
Biolog dan
Ekologi Tanah. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas
Sumatera Utara, Medan.
Kamaludeen, S.P., Arunkumar, K.R .R., Avudainayagam,
S. and Ramasamy, K. 2003. Bioremediation of
chromium contaminated environments. Indian
Journal of Experimental Biology 41 (9) : 972-985.
Ministry of Environment Indonesia. 2010. Kementrian
Lingkungan Hidup. Himpunan Peraturan
Lingkungan Hidup. Ekojaya : Jakarta

Journal of Degraded
raded and Mining Lands Management 905
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 906


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 907-918
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.907

Research Article

Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for


agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia
Asmarhansyah1*, Rodrigo B. Badayos2, Pearl B. Sanchez2, Pompe C. Sta Cruz3,
Leonardo M. Florece4
1
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology, Agency for Agricultural Research
and Development, Indonesia
2
Soils and Agro-ecosystems Division, Agricultural Systems Cluster, UPLB,
3
Crop Physiology Division, Crop Science Cluster, UPLB,
4
School of Environmental Science and Management, UPLB
*corresponding author: asmarhansyah@gmail.com
Received 24 May 2017, Accepted 2 June 2017

Abstract : Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world.
Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a
high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil
characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for
agriculture used to formulate appropriate land development measures and amelioration strategies
forutilization of mined areas for crop production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the
land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current
suitability showed that in general food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were
consider as not suitable (N). Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L.)] and citronella
(Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle)] were consider as not suitable (N), while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas
L.) and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana L. Willd) crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3)
in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable
(S3). The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of
all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical
properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.
Keywords: Indonesia, land suitability, mining areas, tin
To cite this article: Asmarhansyah, Badayos, R.B., Sanchez, P.B., Sta Cruz, P.C. and Florece, L.M. 2017. Land
suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia. J.
Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 907-918, DOI: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.907.

Introduction Reynolds and Reddy, 2012; Ndace and Danladi,


2012; Narendra and Pratiwi, 2016). One of the
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of impacts of tin-mining activities is the change of
the tin mineral-producers in the world (Weber, landscape (Sheoran et al., 2010; Nurtjahja and
2003) with production of 95,200 ton (USGS, Agustina, 2015). Lands abandoned after tin-
2015) since Kepulauan Bangka Belitung laid mining activity are degraded lands with
under Southeast Asia Tin Belt (Cobbing, 2005). undulating landscape (Asmarhansyah, 2016a) and
This industry had huge impacts on economic and low soil fertility status (Inonu, 2011;
social life of the communities (Masialeti and Asmarhansyah, 2016b), and land productivity
Kinabo, 2005; Onwuka et al., 2013; Nurtjahja and (Gao and Liu, 2010).Soil texture of tailings
Agustina, 2015). Besides, it had also impact on generated due to former-tin mining activities are
the environment (Adewole and Adesina, 2011; dominated by sandy texture (Setiadi, 2002; Ashraf

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 907
Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

et al., 2010; Ashraf et al., 2013; Nurcholish et al., as agricultural areas. The requirements and
2013) and it caused soil properties ofthe tailings limitations for growth of various crops were
are very bad as a growth media. Tailings have a obtained from literatures such as Sys et al. (1993)
high portion of sand, low clay content, low soil and Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land
pH, low organic matter content, low cation Resources Research and Development (2011).
exchange capacity (CEC), low water-holding
capacity, and very low essential macro elements Determining types of abandoned tin-mining
(Nurtjahja et al., 2009; Budianta et al., 2013; areas and land quality
Asmarhansyah, 2016a). As reported by previous
researchers, it is said that former-tin mining lands Based on field observation, the types of
abandoned tin-mining areas assessed were (1)
have poor physical and chemical properties. Inonu
Sand tailing, (2) Sand tailing with vegetation, (3)
(2011) and Asmarhansyah (2016b) stated that
Mixture of sand tailing and overburden, (4)
former-tin mining areas were dominated by sandy
texture and low nutrient content. Mine Mixture of sand tailing and overburden with
reclamation programs commonly use only a vegetation, (5) Sand tailing from unconventional
mining, and (6) Overburden from unconventional
single, exotic, fast-growing species,
mining. The agricultural land was taken as
especially Acacia mangium and Falcataria
comparison. Land characteristics developed were
moluccana (Kodir et al., 2017). However,
based on climatic, soil, and topographic data. Soil
agricultural crops could be a wise option for the
reclamation of these areas since former-tin mining samples taken from the soil profiles were sent to
lands have a high potency to be used as Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor,
Indonesia for analyses.
agricultural lands. Studies into the application of
various types of organic materials to ameliorate
tin-tailings and trials on the suitability of various Comparison of land use and land quality
types of legumes have been carried out (Inonu, requirements
2011). The environmental impact of the activities The land evaluation was conducted by comparing
needs to be addressed with technologies which are the land characteristics in every type of
economically viable and environmentally sound abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop
(Suhartini and Abubakar, 2017). It means that requirements. The land suitability classifications
through the improvement the soil properties, the were defined based on their most serious limiting
former-tin mining areas have a potency to be used factors which may consist of one or more factors
as crop production areas. Land use of abandoned depending on land characteristics.
tin-mining areas for agriculture use must
determine land characteristic/quality and climate, Land suitability evaluation
through land suitability evaluation. Ritung et al. Land suitability evaluation was conducted in
(2007) stated that determination of post mining order to interpret the combination of land
land use should be considering the physical land suitability classes. The evaluation process will
properties, topography properties, and climate. determine whether certain land types of
This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil abandoned tin-mining areas are recommended for
characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and food, vegetable, fruit, industrial, spice and
to establish land suitability of the land area for medicinal, forestry, and forage crops.
agriculture used to formulate appropriate land
development measures and amelioration strategies
forutilization of minedareasfor crop production. Results and Discussion
Climate
Materials and Methods The annual average rainfall in the study area was
Time and place of study 2,406 mm. The mean annual temperature of the
area is 26.97o C, the lowest temperature is 26.21o
The research was conducted in abandoned-tin
C, while the highest temperature is 27.65o C. The
mining areas, where small-scale and large-scale
area has a mean annual relative humidity of
mines were operating. Site visits and soil
81.23%, with lowest relative humidity of 75.34%,
characterization were done in April-May 2015. while the highest relative humidity is 85.75%
Assessment the land use of the study areas and (Meteorology Station of Pangkalpinang, 2015)
their requirement and limitation
Abandoned tin-mining soils assessed
As observed in the field, the abandoned tin-
The abandoned tin-mining areas used in this study
mining areas have high potentials to be developed
are shown in Table 1.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 908


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Table 1. Location of abandoned tin-mining soils of Bangka Island, Indonesia


Abandoned Tin-Mining Soils Elevation Coordinate Point Location
(m, above South East
sea level)
Sand Tailing 11 02o2424 106o0154 Lampur, Central
Bangka
Sand Tailing with vegetation 26 02o1439 106o0854 Cambai, Central
Bangka
Mixture of Sand Tailing and 12 01o3970 105o4807 Nyatoh, Bangka
overburden
Mixture of Sand Tailing and 10 01o5941 106o0841 Batu Ampar,
overburden with vegetation Bangka
Sand Tailing from Unconventional 11 02o1648 106o1225 Belilik, Central
Mining Bangka
Overburden from Unconventional 11 02o1648 106o1225 Belilik, Central
Mining Bangka
Agricultural Land 25 02o1459 106o0825 Cambai, Central
Bangka

Physical properties Composition of tin tailings dominated by sand


fraction has implications on other properties.
Physical properties of abandoned tin-mining soils
Brady and Weil (1996) stated that the high
from Bangka Island, Indonesia, are shown in
percentage of sand particles implies a low specific
Table 2. As shown in Table 2, agricultural area
surface area of the tailings, and thus a low
has sandy clay loam textural class; mixture of
aggregation and capacity for binding nutrients and
sand tailing and overburden with vegetation has
retaining water.
sandy loam textural class, and other abandoned
tin-mining areas have loamy sand textural classes.

Table 2. Textural class of abandoned tin-mining soils of Bangka Island, Indonesia


Abandoned Tin-Mining Soils Particle Size (USDA) Texture
%Sand %Silt %Clay
Sand Tailing 81 11 8 loamy sand(LS)
Sand Tailing with Vegetation 81 18 1 loamy sand (LS)
Mixture of Sand Tailing and Overburden 80 18 2 loamy sand
(LS)
Mixture of Sand Tailing and Overburden with 77 12 11 sandy loam
vegetation (SL)
Sand Tailing from Unconventional Mining 85 7 8 loamy sand
(LS)
Overburden from Unconventional Mining 80 18 2 loamy sand
(LS)
Agricultural Land 69 4 27 sandy clay loam
(SCL)

Chemical properties tailing and overburden, or its mixture. It could be


understood since the physical characteristics,
Chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining
especially soil texture, will affect their chemical
areas are shown in Table 3. It can be seen from
characteristics. Sand tailings are highly porous
Table 3 that the pH of abandoned tin-mining soils
and have a very low organic (Ang, 2002;
are very strong acid according to the classification
Asmarhansyah, 2016a). The content of P2O5, K2O,
of soil reactions. The organic matter and nitrogen
and exchangeable bases of sand tailing and
of agricultural soil is higher compared to sand
overburden are classified as very low to low.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 909


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Table 3.Chemical characteristics of abandoned tin-mining soils of Bangka Island, Indonesia


Abandoned Tin-Mining Soils pH Organic HCl25% Exchangeable Cations BS KCl1 N
Matter (NH4-Acetate 1 N, pH 7)
H2O KCl Org. C N C/N P2O5 K2O Ca Mg K Na Tot CEC % Al3+ H+
% mg/100 g cmolc /kg cmolc /kg
Sand Tailing 4.7 4.3 0.13 0.01 13 4 1 0.11 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.19 1.22 15.57 0.00 0.08
Sand Tailing with Vegetation 4.8 4.4 0.19 0.02 10 5 2 0.14 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.24 1.49 16.10 0.00 0.16
Mixture of Sand Tailing and 4.6 4.3 0.10 0.01 10 5 1 0.31 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.39 1.69 23.07 0.06 0.16
Overburden
Mixture of Sand Tailing and 5.1 4.6 0.16 0.02 8 4 2 0.38 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.49 4.27 11.47 0.03 0.12
Overburden with Vegetation
Sand Tailing from 5.0 4.7 0.11 0.01 11 4 1 0.15 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.22 1.18 18.64 0.06 0.15
Unconventional Mining
Overburden from 5.1 4.6 0.24 0.04 11 5 3 0.18 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.29 3.24 8.95 0.05 0.14
Unconventional Mining
Agricultural Land 5.2 4.7 1.94 0.19 10 19 3 0.23 0.11 0.04 0.05 0.43 6.66 6.45 1.19 0.25

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 910


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Current suitability of different abandoned tin- are helpful indices to indicate and determine the
mining soils limitations and constrains to crop production. The
suitability classes of the lands denote the
Current suitability is the suitability of the soils to
qualitative analysis of the soils potential to the
crop grown based on their climate, physical and
crops commonly grown in the area. It implies
chemical qualities, while potential suitability is
what type of crop would give the highest benefit
obtained when the limitations posed by the current
in terms of productivity and profitability from a
suitability rating are corrected depending on the
given soil indicated by S1 as the most suitable, S2
level of input(s). The classes for the limitation and
as moderately suitable, and S3 as marginally
suitability of different abandoned tin-mining soils
suitable. The symbol N implies that the crop is not
to various crops were determined based on
suitable. The land quality/characteristics of
temperature (tc), water availability (wa), rooting
abandoned tin-mining areas in Bangka Island,
media (rc), nutrient retention (nr), nutrient
Indonesia are shown in Table 4.
availability (na), toxicity (xc), erosion hazard (eh),
and land preparation (lp). The suitability classes

Table 4. Land quality/characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas in Bangka Island, Indonesia


Land Quality/ Sand Sand Mixed Mixed Sand Over
Characteristics Tailing Tailing Sand Tailing Sand Tailing Tailing burden
with and and from from UM
Vegetation Overburden Overburden UM
with
vegetation
Temperature (tc)
Mean Annual Temperature 26.97 26.97 26.97 26.97 26.97 26.97
(oC)
Water Availability (wa)
Rainfall/Year (mm) 2,406 2,406 2,406 2,406 2,406 2,406
Relative Humidity (%) 81.23 81.23 81.23 81.23 81.23 81.23
Long of Dry Month 1 1 1 1 1 1
(month)
Rooting Media (rc)
Drainage G, M G, M G, M G, M G, M G, M
Texture LS LS LS SL LS LS
Coarse Material (%) <15 <15 <15 <15 <15 <15
Effective Depth (cm) >100 >100 >100 >100 >100 >100
Peat: -Ripeness -Depth - - - - - -
(cm)
Nutrient Retention (nr)
CEC (cmolc/kg) 1.22 1.49 1.69 4.27 1.18 3.24
BS (%) 15.57 16.10 23.07 11.47 18.64 8.95
pH 4.7 4.8 4.6 5.1 5.0 5.1
Organic-C (%) 0.13 0.19 0.10 0.16 0.11 0.24
Nutrient Availability (na)
Total-N (%) 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.04
P2O5 (mg/100g) HCl25% 4.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 5.00
K2O (mg/100g) HCl25% 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 3.00
Erosion Hazard (eh)
Slope (%) <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3
Erosion Hazard Level - - - - - -
Flood Hazard (fh)
High (cm) - - - - - -
Duration (day) - - - - - -
Land Preparation
Soil surface stoniness (%) <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5
Surface outcrops (%) <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5
Remark: UM: Unconventional Mining; SCL: Sandy Clay Loam; LS: Loamy Sand; SL: Sandy Loam;G: Good; M:
Moderate

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 911


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Based on the rating for limitations and suitability and overburden with vegetation was considered as
of abandoned tin-mining areas (Table 5, 6, 7, and marginally suitable (S3). The water availability,
8), in general food crops, vegetable crops, fruit soil texture and low soil fertility were considered
crops, and industrial crops were consider as not as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum
suitable (N), except the mixture of sand tailing production.

Table 5. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for food crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining FoodCrop
Land Corn Cassava Sweet Taro Peanut
(Zea (Manihot Potato (Colocasia (Arachis
mays L.) esculenta (Ipomea esculenta L. hypogeaL.)
Crantz) batatas Schott)
Poir)
1 Sand Tailing Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn Nrn Nwrn
2 Sand Tailing with Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn Nrn Nwrn
Vegetation
3 Mixture of Sand Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn Nrn Nwrn
Tailing and
Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing S3twrn S3wrn S3twrn S3rn S3wrn
and Overburden with
Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn Nrn Nwrn
Unconventional Mining
6 Overburden from Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn Nrn Nwrn
Unconventional Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable.
Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH), rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient
retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

Table 6. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for vegetable crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining Vegetable
Land Red Chili Mustard Longbean Cucumber Eggplant
(Capsicum (Brassica (Vigna (Cucumis (Solanum
annuumL.) chinensis sinensisL.) sativus L.) melongenaL.)
L.)
1 Sand Tailing Nwrn Ntwrn Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
2 Sand Tailing with Nwrn Ntwrn Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
Vegetation
3 Mixture of Sand Tailing Nwrn Ntwrn Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
and Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing S3wrn S3twrn S3twrn S3wrn S3twrn
and Overburden with
Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from Nwrn Ntwrn Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
Unconventional Mining
6 Overburden from Nwrn Ntwrn Ntwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
Unconventional Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable.
Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH), rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient
retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 912


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Table 7. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for fruit crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining Land Fruit
Papaya Banana Citrus Mango Rambutan Watermelon Melon Pineapple
(Carica (Musa (Citrus (Mangifera (Nephelium (Citrullus (Cucumisme (Ananas
papaya acuminate aurantium indica lappaceun lanatus(Thunb.) lovar. comosus
L.) Colla) L.) L.) L.) Matsum reticulatus) Merr)
1 Sand Tailing Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn Nrn Nwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
2 Sand Tailing with Vegetation Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn Nrn Nwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
3 Mixture of Sand Tailing and Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn Nrn Nwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing and S3wrn S3rn S2rn S3wrn S3rn S3wrn S3wrn S3twrn
Overburden with Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn Nrn Nwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
Unconventional Mining
6 Overburden from Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn Nrn Nwrn Nwrn Ntwrn
Unconventional Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable. Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH),
rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 913


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Table 8. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for industrial crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining Industrial
Land Rubber Coconut Palm Oil Cacao
(Havea (Cocos (Elaeis (Theobroma
brassiliensis niciferaL.) guineensisJacq.) cacao L.)
Muell. Arg)
1 Sand Tailing Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn
2 Sand Tailing with Vegetation Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn
3 Mixture of Sand Tailing and Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn
Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing and S3wrn S3rn S3rn S3wrn
Overburden with Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn
Unconventional Mining
6 Overburden from Nwrn Nrn Nrn Nwrn
Unconventional Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable.
Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH), rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient
retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

In general, spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Aleurites moluccana L. Willd) crops were
(Piper nigrum L.) and citronella (Andropogoh considered as marginally suitable (S3) in
nardus L. Rendle)] were consider as not suitable abandoned tin-mining areas (Table 9). The
(N), except the mixture of sand tailing and forest crops and forage crops were considered as
overburden with vegetation was considered as marginally suitable (S3) in abandoned tin-
marginally suitable (S3), while the Jatropha mining areas (Tables 10 and 11).
(Jatropha curcas L.) and Kemiri Sunan

Table 9. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for spice and medicinal crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining Spice And Medicinal Crop
Land Pepper Citronella Jatropha Kemiri Sunan
(Piper (Andropogoh (Jatropha (AleuritesmoluccanaL.
nigrum L.) nardus L. curcas L.) Willd)
Rendle)
1 Sand Tailing Nrn Ntwrn S3wrn S3wrn
2 Sand Tailing with Nrn Ntwrn S3wrn S3wrn
Vegetation
3 Mixture of Sand Tailing Nrn Ntwrn S3wrn S3wrn
and Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing S3rn S3twrn S3wrn S3wrn
and Overburden with
Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from Nrn Ntwrn S3wrn S3wrn
Unconventional Mining
6 Overburden from Nrn Ntwrn S3wrn S3wrn
Unconventional Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable.
Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH), rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient
retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 914


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Table 10. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for forest crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining Land Forest Crop
Sengon Acacia Magahony Pinus
(Albizia (Acacia (Swietenia (Pinus
falcataria mangium mahagoniL. merkusiiJungh.)
L.) Willd) Jacq.)
1 Sand Tailing S3wrn S3rn S3rn Ntwrn
2 Sand Tailing with Vegetation S3wrn S3rn S3rn Ntwrn
3 Mixture of Sand Tailing and S3wrn S3rn S3rn Ntwrn
Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing and S3wrn S3n S3rn Ntwn
Overburden with Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from S3wrn S3rn S3rn Ntwrn
Unconventional Mining
6 Overburden from Unconventional S3wrn S3rn S3rn Ntwrn
Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable.
Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH), rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient
retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

Table 11. Rating for limitations and suitability of abandoned tin-mining land for forage crop
Abandoned Tin-Mining Land Forage
Elephant Grass Setaria Grass Leguminose
(Pennisetum (Setaria (Leguminose sp)
purpureumSchum.) spachelata
Schum.)
1 Sand Tailing S3wrn S3wrn S3wrn
2 Sand Tailing with Vegetation S3wrn S3wrn S3wrn
3 Mixture of Sand Tailing and S3wrn S3wrn S3wrn
Overburden
4 Mixture of Sand Tailing and S3wrn S3wrn S3wrn
Overburden with Vegetation
5 Sand Tailing from Unconventional S3wrn S3wrn S3wrn
Mining
6 Overburden from Unconventional S3wrn S3wrn S3wrn
Mining
Suitability Ratings: S1= Highly suitable, S2 = Moderately suitable, S3= Marginally suitable, N = Not suitable.
Limitations: tc = temperature, wa = water availability (precipitation, RH), rc = rooting media (texture), nr = nutrient
retention (CEC, BS, pH, Organic C), na = nutrient availability (N, P, K)

for food, vegetable, fruit, industrial, spice and


Potential suitability of different abandoned tin-
medicinal, forest, and forage crop. Table 12
mining soils
shows that sand tailing, sand tailing with
Based on the current limitations and suitability vegetation, and mixture of sand tailing and
ratings of the abandoned tin-mining areas grown overburden are marginally suitable (S3) for spice
to food, vegetable, fruit, industrial, spice and and medicinal crops forestry trees, and forage
medicinal, forest, and forage crops, these crops. Mixture of sand tailing and overburden
abandoned tin-mining areas were individually with vegetation is highly suitable (S1) for acacia;
reassessed with the assumption that soil moderately suitable (S2) for citrus, spice and
management technologies and practices being medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and
offered for each of the abandoned tin-mining kemiri sunan (Aleurites moluccana L. Willd)],
areas were implemented. Table 12 summarizes the forest trees [sengon (Albizia falcataria L.) and
potential suitability of abandoned tin-mining areas mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni L. Jacq.)]; and

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 915


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

marginally suitable (S3) for food crops, vegetable from unconventional mining are moderately
crops, fruit crops, industrial crop, spice and suitable (S2) for Sengon and Acacia, and
medicinal crops and forage crops. Sand tailing marginally suitable (S3) for spice and medicinal
from unconventional mining and Overburden crops forestry trees, and forage crops

Table 12. Potential suitability of abandoned tin-mining soils for food, vegetable, fruit, industrial, spice
and medicinal, forest, and forage crops
Abandoned Tin-Mining Highly Moderate Marginal
Areas Suitability Suitability Suitability
S1 S2 S3
Sand Tailing - - 1.Jatropha, Kemiri Sunan
2.Sengon, Acacia, Mahogany
3.Elephant Grass, Setaria Grass. Leguminose
Sand Tailing with - - 1.Jatropha, Kemiri Sunan
Vegetation 2.Sengon, Acacia, Mahogany
3.Elephant Grass, Setaria Grass,Leguminose
Mixture of Sand Tailing - - 1.Jatropha, Kemiri Sunan
and Overburden 2.Sengon, Acacia, Mahogany
3.Elephant Grass, Setaria Grass, Leguminose
Mixture of Sand Tailing Acacia Citrus 1.Corn, Cassava, Sweet Potato, Taro, Peanut
and Overburden with Pepper 2.Red Chili, Mustard, Longbean, Cucumber,
Vegetation Kemiri Sunan Eggplant
Sengon 3.Papaya, Banana, Mango, Rambutan,
Mahogany Watermelon, Melon, Pineapple
4.Rubber, Coconut, Palm Oil, Cacao
5.Citronella, Jatropha
6.Elephant Grass, Setaria Grass, Leguminose
Sand Tailing from - Sengon 1.Jatropha, Kemiri Sunan,
Unconventional Mining Acacia 2.Mahogany
3.Elephant Grass, Setaria Grass, Leguminose
Overburden from - Sengon 1.Jatropha, Kemiri Sunan,
Unconventional Mining Acacia 2.Mahogany
3.Elephant Grass, Setaria Grass, Leguminose

Integrated farming system in abandoned tin- materials. It means that the system can then
mining areas improve the quality of abandoned tin-mining
soils, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers (Gupta
Based on land evaluation, most crops developed
et al., 2012).
in abandoned tin-mining areas were categorized as
Based on potential suitability, IFS in
marginally suitable (S3); some were moderately
abandoned tin-mining areas is divided into three
suitable (S2). This indicates that abandoned tin-
types, namely: Type A, Type B, and Type C
mining areas are not an ideal growth medium
(Table 12).Type A is a group of (1) sand tailing,
because of poor soil physical and chemical
(2) sand tailing with vegetation, and (3) mixture
properties. For agricultural development, the soil
of sand tailing and overburden. Type B is a
physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin
mixture of sand tailing and overburden with
mining must be improved through integrated
vegetation. Type C is a group of (1) Sand tailing
farming system (IFS). IFS itself uses internal
from unconventional mining and (2) Overburden
input that combines crop and livestock. In the IFS,
from unconventional mining. The lands of Type A
the biomass produced can directly be used as
will be dominated by tree crops; Type B will be
materials for organic fertilizer and it can also be
dominated by fruit crops, legume cover crops, and
used as feed for ruminant. The manure from the
vegetable crops; and Type C will be dominated by
ruminant can then be used as organic fertilizer
both tree and fruit crops.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 916


Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development

Conclusion Budianta, D., Gofar, N. and Andika, G.A. 2013.


Improvement of sand tailing fertility derived from
Abandoned tin-mining lands have low soil post tin mining using leguminous crop applied by
fertility status as indicated by domination of sand compost and mineral soil. Journal of Tropical Soils
fraction and low soil pH, organic carbon, cation (18)3: 217-223
exchange capacity, and essential macro nutrients. Cobbing, E.J. 2005. Granite. in Barber, A.J., Crow,
Evaluation results showed that in general food M.J. and Milsom, J.S. (eds.) Sumatra: Geology,
Resources and Tectonic Evolution. Geological
crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial
Society Memoir, No. 31.
crops were consider as not suitable (N). The water Gao, J. and Liu, Y. 2010. Determination of land
availability, soil texture and low soil fertility were degradation causes in Tongyu County, Northeast
considered as the limiting factors of all crops to China via land cover change detection. International
get optimum production. In general, spice and Journal of Applied Earth Observation and
medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and Geoinformation 12: 916.
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forage crops were considered as marginally resource conservation and environmental
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Extension Education, Special Issue 2: 49-54.
agricultural development, the soil physical and Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources and
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must be improved through integrated farming evaluation for agricultural commodities. Indonesian
system (IFS). Based on potential suitability, IFS Center for Agricultural Land Resources and
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three types. Type A is a group of (1) sand tailing, Inonu, I. 2011. Tolerance of rubber plant (Hevea
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mixture of sand tailing and overburden with
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Sumatera, Indonesia. Sustainable Environment
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 918


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 919-926
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.919

Research Article

Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)


cultivated on dryland in rainy season
Akbar Saitama1*, Agung Nugroho2, Eko Widaryanto2
1
Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
2
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
*corresponding author: akbar.saitama@ymail.com
Received 11 April 2017, Accepted 11 June 2017

Abstract: Sweet potato is a tuber commodity and one of alternative crops in Indonesia. The demand of
sweet potato in Indonesia continues to increase. However, the supply of sweet potatoes for consumption
estimated is 2020 in Indonesia will be deficit. Low production of sweet potato is basically due to the
decrease of land area as cultivation production and also sweet potatoes have a low yield when planted in
rainy season. Based on the high utilization of sweet potato make demand for this commodities continues
to increase.Therefore, several strategies to increase crop yields of sweet potato needs to be done. This
study aimed to elucidate various sweet potato varieties that can cultivated on dry land in the rainy season.
This study was conducted from November 2016 until March 2017 using a randomized block design with
treatments of ten varieties of sweet potato consisting of (V1) Papua Solossa variety, (V2) Jago variety,
(V3) Kidal variety, (V4) Antin-1variety, (V5) Sari variety, (V6) Sawentar variety, (V7) Beta-2variety,
(V8) Antin-2variety, (V9) Antin-3 variety, (V10) Beta-1variety. The results showed different responses of
each variety.The vegetative growth was high as shown by the LAI value of 7.23 at 90 days after planting.
In conclusion, the sweet potato leaves had to be prune to boost the agronomic yield. Yields of ten
varieties of sweet potato crops ranged from 8.86 to 44.76 t/ha. Some varieties such as Sari, Papua Salosa
and Beta-2 varieties showed high yield although they were planted in moorland conditions in the rainy
season.
Keywords: dry land, rainy season, sweet potato, varieties, yield
To cite this article: Saitama, A., Nugroho, A. and Widaryanto, E. 2017. Yield response of ten varieties of sweet
potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4 (4): 919-926, DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.919

Introduction in 2016. Based on this data, sweet potato


cultivation has problems related to constriction of
Sweet potato as a food commodity, shows its field production that can be seen from the
position increase to fulfill national food production decline. Sweet potato harvest area in
sufficiency. This is not only due to the nutrient the world for the last five years showed a decrease
contents, minerals and vitamins, but also the high of 1.14% per year with an average harvest area of
utilization of the tuber varieties. Sweet potato 11.54 million hectares. The potential of some
tubers can be directly processed into various food varieties of sweet potato actually is more than the
forms and they can be processed for industrial raw national average productivity where the high yield
materials such as flour, sugar syrup, cosmetic of varieties sweet potato production can reach
ingredients, ethanol and alcohol (Warhamni, over 30 t/ha. The high utilization and reduced
2013). Production of sweet potato nationally production of these tubers caused demand for
continued to decrease from 2011 to 2016 while sweet potato continues to increase. Kementan RI
the reduction in production had reached 50,000 (2016) stated the demand for root crops from
ton per year. Otherwise, the productivity of sweet 2011 to 2016 continued to increase approximately
potato in 2011 increased from 12 t/ha to 17 t/ ha 200,000 ton per years and demand for sweet

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 919
Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato cultivated on dryland in rainy season

potato nationally from 2017 to 2020 will increase irrigation, fertilization (Urea, SP36 and KCL),
around 4.88% each year. Therefore, several reversal stem, shoots pruning, weeding, soil piling
strategies to increase sweet potato yield needs to up and harvesting. This research observations
be done. consisted of leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), total
Crop production is influenced by genetic and plant dry weight and harvest yield. The LAI was
environmental factors (Gonggo et al., 2008). calculated using Regazzoni et al. (2014) formula
Production on the sweet potato highly depends on of LAI =LA/GA, where LAI = Leaf area index,
the varieties and environmental conditions such as LA = Leaf Area, GA = Ground Area. Ground area
soil conditions, precipitation and solar radiation is shaded of leaf area. The yield obtained from
(Tsuno and Fujise, 1965). One of the matters that calculating the beds of tile. Harvest bed tile
led to the low production of formation sweet consisted of 6 plants, with area of harvest bed was
potato tuber is due to high growth on plant 210 cm x 60 cm= 1.26 m2. Calculation of the
vegetative hence soil conditions and heavy yield used the following formula: Yield (t/ha) =
rainfall (Mwololo et al., 2012). In the dry season, [(10000/scale of sampling plot) x yield of
sweet potato crops can be planted in paddy fields sampling plot].
by using surface irrigation, while in the rainy
season sweet potato will be well cultivated on
moorland with rain fed irrigation systems Results and Discussion
although the sweet potato will have high
vegetative phase so that the tuber formation will Soil condition
be obstructed (Dukuh, 2011). The research was located at the Agro Techno Park
Laurie et al. (2013), Sweet potatoes have a Brawijaya University, Jatikerto village,
high varieties, which each varieties have different Kromengan, East Java. Before being used for this
morphological characteristics such as leaves, research, land area was planted with long green
stems and tubers. The productivity of each bean. Land was dry land (moor), which rely to
varieties will be different even in the same rain-fed irrigation for water sources. The study
environmental conditions. Therefore, the selection was conducted from November 2016 to March
of suitable sweet potato varieties, that to be 2017 as the months are classified for rainy season.
planted based on environmental conditions is very Based on the soil analysis, soil of the study area is
important (Trustinah dan Iswanto, 2014). classified as a sandy clay loam texture soil with
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH 6,8, C-organic 1.67%, total N 0.18%, C/N 9,
yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato P 11.27 mg/kg, K 0.65 me/100g and base
grown in moorland during the rainy season, to saturation of 82%.
conclude the recommendation of which varieties
that suitable to land and environmental conditions Leaf area
and determine the actions of management for
moorland cultivation in the rainy season. Leaf area becomes a parameter that is directly
related to the plant growth parameters. The
Materials and Methods observations of plant leaf area on this study were
presented in Table 3. Sweet potato leaf area on the
This research was conducted on October 2016 age of 45 days after planting (DAP) ranged from
until January 2017 which located in 408.75cm2 to 1118.81 cm2 (Table 1). The results
Agrotechnopark Brawijaya University, Jatikerto of leaf area observation at 90 DAP gained sweet
Village, Sub district Kromengan, Malang, East potato leaf area that ranged from 5948.83cm2 to
Java at altitude of 303 meters above sea level. The 12419.25 cm2. The leaf areas of Sari and Beta-2
average rainfall of the area ranges from 100 to varieties of 5948.83 cm2and 7982.69 cm2,
1600 mm per year with temperature of 16 to 31oC. respectively, at 90 DAP were not significantly
This research used a factorial randomized block different. Leaf area at 120 DAP ranged from
design with ten treatments consisting of : (V1) 3953.21 cm2 to 9982.71 cm2.
Papua Solossa variety, (V2) Jago variety, (V3) Results of the study indicated that each
Kidal variety, (V4) Antin-1 variety, (V5) Sari varietiy showed different performance on leaf
variety, (V6) Sawentar variety, (V7) Beta-2 area. Each of the varieties grown had different
variety, (V8) Antin-2 variety, (V9) Antin-3 leaf characteristics. Variety testing is part of
variety, (V10) Beta-1 variety. Each treatment in genetic studies that will show responses in
this study was repeated three times. Length of physiological and agronomic environment. Leaf
total plot was 355 cm, height 40 cm, width 40 cm, area is a determinant factor of sweet potato plant
and the distance between rows 30 cm. The stages to adapt on the environmental conditions. The
of this research were land preparation, planting, sweet potato varieties planted on dry land (moor)

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 920


Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato cultivated on dryland in rainy season

in rainy seasons showed the leaf area growth sweet potato tubers would be difficult to form and
continuously. Persistent leaves growth constantly obstruct the process of tuber formation. The low
feared will make the process of tuber formation in production occurs due to the growth phase is
sweet potato crops were not happen (Dubois et al., dominated by sweet potato vegetative growth of
2013). Isa et al., (2015) stated if the vegetative the upper leaves and stems are excessive along
growth was very high and no pruning treatment, with the lack of tuber formation.

Table 1. Leaf area of ten sweet potato varieties


Varieties Leaf Area (cm2/plant)
45 DAP 90 DAP 120 DAP
Papua Salosa 1133.56 b 10793.04 b 5874,98 bc
Jago 698.92 ab 12002.09 b 7677,84 de
Kidal 1051.07 b 10676.85 b 7057,46 cd
Antin-1 1035.76 b 11758.55 b 7392,03 cd
Sari 408.75 a 5948.83 a 3953,21 a
Sawentar 1118.81 b 10769.71 b 7172,18 cd
Beta-2 493.47 a 7982.69 a 4498,00 ab
Antin-2 970.56 b 11996.67 b 9982,71 f
Antin-3 1103.35 b 12419.25 b 9310,04 ef
Beta-1 983.60 b 12070.13 b 9316,76 ef
LSD 5% 467.53 2460.11 1736.61
CV (%) 30.29 13.48 14.01
Description: Numbers followed by the same letter at the same column show no significant different in LSD test at 5%
level. DAP: days after planting.

Therefore, photosynthate left is only few for variety. Otherwise, the difference LAI of Beta-2
tubers development. If vegetative and of 35.87%was lower than Antin-1 variety. Beta-2
reproductive phases are in balance, the variety had lower LAI ranging from 41.90 to
accumulation of photosynthate will be balance as 48.25% when compared to Antin-3, Antin-2 and
well. The plants with moderate vegetative growth Beta-1 varieties. Papua Salosa, Jago, Kidal,
will have many tubers. In this research, shoot Antin-1, Antin-2, Antin-3 and Beta-1 varieties
pruning at 90 DAP decreased leaf area from 90 had leaf area indexes that were not significantly
to120 days after planting. Pruning was aimed to different from 3.81 until 4.67 per plant. Antin-2
reduce leaf buds or young leaves to stop the and Beta-1 varieties having higher LAI value up
growth of plant leaves. According to Van An and to 32.55% compared to other varieties.
Lindberg (2003), the effect of shoot pruning on LAI differences in sweet potato plants is
sweet potato plant is to reduce the leaf influenced by the main factor, which is each
growththerefore, the assimilates will be varieties of sweet potato have different
distributed to generative organs while in sweet morphological characters, especially the shape
potato, it will distributed to the tubers. and size of the leaves that could affect LAI in
sweet potatoes (Tsialtas et al., 2008), Sweet
Leaf area index potato have optimum LAI around 3 to 4 (Tsuno
and Fujise, 1963).The leaf area index (LAI) at 90
Leaf Area Index (LAI) observations on the study
DAP was high and almost reach more than 7.
are displayed in Table 2. Leaf area index at
High LAI will cause the difficulty in generative
45dapobservation had value between 1.2 and 3.62 organs formation. It is caused the photosyntathe
per plant. The leaf area index of sweet potato are focused in formation of vegetative organs,
observed at 90 DAP had values between 4.40 and
especially on leaves. High LAI were affected by
7.23 per plant, at the age of 120 DAP had values
some factors such as; the high of leaf area and
between 3.15 and 4.67 per plant. LAI value of
number of leaves, therefore it will be found many
Beta-2 variety was 3.15 per plant, the results were overlapping leaves. Agata and Takeda (1982),
not significantly different from the Sari, Sawentar, high LAI on sweet potato plant will not impact
Jago and Kidal varieties. Beta-2 variety had lower
positively on tuber formation.
LAI value of 31.43% than that of Papua Salosa

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 921


Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato cultivated on dryland in rainy season

Table 2. Leaf area index of ten sweet potato varieties


Varieties Leaf Area Index Observations Period (DAP)
45 90 120
Papua Salosa 2.36 abc 7.13 bc 4,14 bcd
Jago 1.43 a 5.89 b 3,91 abcd
Kidal 2.16 ab 6.61 bc 3,81 abcd
Antin-1 2.85 bc 7.14 bc 4,28 cd
Sari 1.20 a 4.43 a 3,28 ab
Sawentar 2.74 bc 7.23 c 3,65 abc
Beta-2 1.31 a 4.40 a 3,15 a
Antin-2 3.29 bc 6.91 bc 4,66 d
Antin-3 3.62 c 6.80 bc 4,47 cd
Beta-1 2.87 bc 7.06 bc 4,67 d
LSD 5% 1.26 1.32 0.91
CV (%) 30.92 12.07 13.39
Description: Numbers followed by the same letter at the same column show no significant different in LSD test at 5%
level. DAP: days after planting.

Dry weight to that of 30 DAP increased from 18.03 to


23.30%. Sweet potato crop was harvested when
Total dry weight of the sweet potato that was
the plant was entering 120 DAP. Total plant dry
observed at 45 dap ranged from14.85 to 44.40 g
weight at 120 DAP was on average range from
per plant. Dry weights of the sweet potato that
168.10 until 409.04 g per plant. The percentage of
was observed at 90 dap 72.28 to 115,03 g per
plants partition at harvest time (120 DAP) showed
plant. Total partition of plant dry weight at 90
that the partitioning dry weight in the leaves
DAP (which entered the generative phase of 10
ranged from 2.53 to 21.23% (Figure 2). Partitions
varieties that focused on the stem ranged from
on stem ranged from 5.55 to 34.50%, and
41.12 to 46.18% (Figure 1). The partition of leaf
partitions on root and tuber ranged from 44.28 to
dry weight ranged from 34.15 to 37.10%.The
91.92% (Figure 2).
partition of root dry weight at 90 DAP compared

100%
90%
80% 35,93 31,64 31,42 31,14 40,50 35,03 40,02 32,33 33,42 30,02
70%
% Partitioning

60%
50% 39,89 39,60 40,16 40,80
37,48 40,61 40,33 36,67
40% 35,58 35,88
30%
20%
10% 26,59 27,74 28,25 28,97 23,92 28,29 24,11 28,07 26,42 29,17
0%

Leaf Stem Roots and Tubbers

Figure 1. Partitioning dry weight of ten sweet potato varieties at 90 days after planting

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 922


Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato cultivated on dryland in rainy season

100%
90%
80% 44,28
70% 53,56 49,03
% Partitioning
63,79 66,63
60% 84,03 80,66 81,45
91,92 88,76
50%
40% 34,50
30% 27,02 29,74
24,36 16,18
20%
9,91 10,99 21,22 8,49
10%
11,85 5,55 10,06 7,29 19,42 21,23 17,20
6,06 8,35 2,53 3,96
0%

Leaf Stem Roots and Tubbers

Figure 2. Partitioning dry weight of ten sweet potato varieties at 120 days after planting

In the early plant growth phase of sweet potato, Dry weight of stem is influenced by number of
plant dry weight partitioning focused on shoot leaves that formed. Sanoussi et al., (2016) stated
zone. This partition occured until 90 dap and the that partition of sweet potato crop dry weight at
condition of partition of plant dry weight was not the vegetative growth would show the highest on
significantly different. When vegetative phase the leaves and stems, when generative phase, the
occurred, plant dry weight was going to focus on partition of the dry weight would be highest on
the stem (tendril) and leaves. Partitioning tubers. On the harvest time, partition of sweet
photosynthate is mostly going to the plant canopy, potato tuber could reach 90% of the total plant dry
especially stem tissue. It causes photosynthate weight. A study conducted by Madhu and
quantity for root growth in root tissue becomes Hatfield (2016), showed that dry weight
small. This conditions cause dry weight of canopy partitioning at the age of 44 dap could reach 55%
and stem become high while root dry weight on the leaves, 35% on the stems, and 10% on the
becomes small. Dry weight of canopy is root. While the plants in the process of tubers
determined by the growth rate of stems, and the fillings before harvest partition. The tuber dry
stem growth rate is positively affected by the rate weight could reach 45.9% of the total plant dry
of leaf initiation (Clough and Miltthorpe, 1975). weight

Table 3. Total dry weight of ten sweet potato varieties


Varieties Dry Weight (g/plant)
45 DAP 90 DAP 120 DAP
Papua Salosa 35.17 cd 92.73 abc 374,06 de
Jago 28.22 bc 95.43 bc 202,50 ab
Kidal 38.82 cd 102.72 c 303,27 cd
Antin-1 41.66 d 98.61 c 168,10 a
Sari 15.99 ab 72.28 a 409,04 e
Sawentar 39.36 cd 74.83 ab 263,04 bc
Beta-2 14.85 a 99.45 c 320,25 cd
Antin-2 38.65 cd 104.46 c 187,52 ab
Antin-3 34.43 cd 110.17 c 153,54 a
Beta-1 44.40 d 115.03 c 248,38 bc
LSD 5% 13.50 22.68 77.05
CV (%) 22.95 13.69 17.08
Description: Numbers followed by the same letter at the same column show no significant different in LSD test at 5%
level. DAP: days after planting.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 923


Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato cultivated on dryland in rainy season

Harvest yield productivity compared to Beta-1 variety, 187.92%


lower than Sawentar variety, 228.67% lower than
The harvest yield of ten varieties of sweet potato
Kidal variety, 281.94% lower than Beta-2 variety,
in the study showed that Antin-1, Antin-3, Antin-
322.35% lower than Papua Salosa variety, and
2, Jago, Beta-1, Sawentar, Kidal, Beta-2, Papua
405.19% lower than Sari variety. Sari and Papua
Salosa, and Sari varieties could produce 8.86,
Salosa varieties were not significantly different.
8.96, 11.96, 15.38, 19.70, 24.51, 29.12, 33.84,
Sari variety had four times higher productivity
37,42, and 44.76 t/ha, respectively (Figure 3). The
compared with Antin-1, Antin-2 and Antin- 3
yield of Antin-1 variety was not significantly
varieties.
different with yields of Antin-2, Antin-3 and Jago
varieties. Antin-1variety had 122.35% lower

Figure 3. Yields of ten sweet potato varieties

This study was conducted in the rainy season with carbohydrate left for tuber formation (Panggabean
dry land category (moor), which is known that if et al., 2014). If vegetative and reproductive phases
sweet potato is planted in the rainy season it will are in balance, usage and accumulation are in
have a long vegetative phase (Dukuh, 2011) The balance as well, practically assimilates that are
number of tubers per plant is potential sink. There used and stored will be in balance (Zhu and Jiang,
is a relationship between the number of tubers per 2014). Plants having moderate vegetative growth
plant with a total weight of tubers, the more will have many roots. Modification of plant
number of tubers per plant, the lower weight of growth physiologically is one effort to overcome
the tuber. This suggests that assimilates (source) the low production of sweet potato by controlling
translocated to tuber (sink) formation were limited vegetative growth. There are morphologically
because parts of assimilate were translocated to modification efforts through agronomic ways such
the stem. Translocation of assimilates is mostly as the use of growth regulators to maintaining the
shipped to the tuber. The amount of assimilates balance of vegetative and generative growth,so
transported and stored as a backup food the utilization assimilate by vegetative could be in
determines the weight of tubers per plant. Small control and most assimilates could be distributed
amount of assimilates will make tuber weight per into the sink (Rahmiana et al., 2015). Agronomic
plant smaller, whereas if the number of maintenance such as reversal plant canopy,
assimilates is high, it will increase the weight of pruning leaves and shoots are effective in
tubers per plant. Low yield in tuber plant modifying plant morphology (Esmaielpour et al.,
production is caused by the plant itself which is 2011). In this study, reversal plant canopy of
dominated by vegetative growth. This makes sweet potato and shoots pruning were done at 90
leaves and stems are growing excessively and DAP. The purpose of the reversal was to form the
lacking of tuber formation because there are few tubers. The influence of leaf reduction on growth

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 924


Yield response of ten varieties of sweet potato cultivated on dryland in rainy season

and yield of crops depends on the missing leaf varieties in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Animal
area, leaves posisiton on the stems, and crop- and Plant Sciences 20 (3): 3194-3201.
growing period. Shoot pruning on sweet potato Clough, B.F. and Milthorpe, F.L.1975. Effects of
that was done at 90 dappositively affected the water deficit on leaf development in tobacco.
Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 2:291300.
tuber formation on the ten varieties of sweet Dubois M., Skirycz, A., Claeys, H., Maleux, K. Dhond,
potato. Dukuh (2011) stated that shoot pruning at S., De Bodt, S., Bossche, R.V., De Milde, L.,
12 weeks after planting significantly affected the Yoshizumi, T. and Matsui, M. 2013. Ethylene
tuber formation, especially the quality and response factor acts as a central regulator of leaf
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pruning influence plant growth, especially the arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 162:319-332.
sweet potato crop (Aniekwe, 2014). When shoot Dukuh, I.G. 2011. The effect of defoliation on the
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increase the vegetative organs, whereas if shoot Agricultural Research 5 (6): 300-305.
Esmaielpour S., Saeid, H., Parisa, J., and Ghobad, S.
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(Nedunchezhiyan et al.,2012). Sulkan et al. (2014) Journal Food, Agriculture and Environment 9 (4):
stated that the formation of sweet potato tubers 289-294.
was influenced by formation of the roots on sweet Gonggo, B.M., Turmudi, E. dan W. Brata. 2003.
potato crop. Tuber formation begins when the Respon pertumbuhan dan hasil ubi jalar pada sistem
leaves begin to decline, in other words the growth tumpang sari ubi jalar jagung manis di lahan bekas
rate of leaves need to be inhibited. When the alang-alang. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
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potato tubers. and yield of several sweet potatoes (Ipomoea
batatas L.) varieties. Jurnal Agroekoteknologi 4 (1):
45-52.
Conclusion Kementerian Pertanian RI. 2016. Ubi Jalar, Outlook
The response of each of ten sweet potato varieties Komoditas Pertanian Sub Sektor Tanaman Pangan.
Pusat Data Sistem Informasi Pertanian: Jakarta. pp
planted in dry land (moor) and rainy season
7-28.
conditions showed differences. Some varieties Laurie S.M., Calitz, F.J., Adebola, P.O. and Lezar, A.
showed high responsive to the environment with 2013. Characterization and evaluation of South
the components shown in vegetative growth African sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam)
observations such as stems and leaves. This was Landraces. South African Journal of Botany 85: 10-
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after planting. Leaf area index (LAI) on sweet Madhu, M. and Hatfield, J.L. 2016. Dry Matter
potato had the optimum value when entered 90 partitioning and growth analysis of soybean grown
dap, LAI of Sawentar variety showed value of under elevated CO2 and soil moisture levels.
Current Science 111 (6): 981-984.
7.23, while varieties with limited LAI response
Mwololo, J.K., Mburu, M.W.K. and Muturi, P.W.
were Sari and Beta-2 varieties. To inhibit the 2012. Performance of sweet potato varieties across
growth rate of vegetative organs, after 90 dap environments in Kenya. International Journal of
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bengkuang (Pachyrhizus Erosus (L.) Urban)
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 926


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 927-936
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.927

Research Article

Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South
Kalimantan, Indonesia
Vivi Novianti1*, D.N. Choesin2, D.T. Iskandar2, D. Suprayogo3
1
Department of Biology, State University of Malang, Malang 65145, Indonesia
2
School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3
Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia
*
corresponding author: vivi.novianti.fmipa@um.ac.id
Received 28 April 2017, Accepted 22 June 2017

Abstract
Coal mine overburden (OB) materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones,
boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB
substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on
overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine
overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South
Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11,
42, 59 and 64 month) using line transect. Species identification used information from local people,
AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species,
consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae), 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and
14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum dilatatum, and Echinochloa colona
generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis
miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often found in and
around the basin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and
trees have been present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They were Chromolaena odorata, Clibadium
surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs), Ochroma
pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees). This plant species could be used for accelerating
primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was
needed to avoid planting invasive species.
Keywords: accelerating, mining, overburden, plants, succession
To cite this article: Novianti, V., Choesin, D.N., Iskandar, D.T. and, D. Suprayogo, D. 2017. Plant species from coal
mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 927-936,
DOI: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.927.

Introduction 2004; Ghose, 2004). Furthermore, loss of soil


during stripping and stockpiling causes not all
Ninety five percent coal mine in Indonesia using mined areas will be recovered with soil during
opencast mining method (Gautama 2007; revegetation (BPK, 2008). This area is known as
Setianingprang and Riawan, 2008). The chief overburden (OB). Coal mine overburden is stone,
environmental impacts of its practice are changes located above (referred to as roof rock) or
in soil stratification, reduced biotic diversity, and between (interburden) or below (floor rock) the
alteration of structure and functioning of coal (Novianti, 2013). OB materials are nutrient-
ecosystems; these changes ultimately influence poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones,
water and nutrient dynamics, and trophic boulders, cobbles, and so forth (Gogoiet al., 2007;
interactions (Matson et al., 1997; Almas et al., Novianti, 2013). Mine OB materials also contain

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 927
Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

elevated concentrations of trace metals (Dobson et is host to a vast area of the country`s remaining
al., 1997; Novianti, 2013). This character of tropical rainforests where various endemic flora
overburden is the reason why fast growing and and fauna can be found. Rainforests in the Heart
invasive species, such as Acacia mangium, is of Borneo also have a crucial function as the lungs
planted on previously mined coal areas. of the world because they produce oxygen needed
Therefore, reclamation approach to improve post- to help overcome the impact of climate change.
coal mining land has not yet successful because On the other hand, it contains nearly 60 percent of
there is no implication of returning to an original Indonesias coal reserves where over exploitation
state and restore biodiversity but rather to a useful occur. Ecological restoration approach is thus
one. critical to be carried out in Kalimantan to restore
Overburden condition is identical to the its biodiversity and ecosystem function.
primary succession i.e. vegetation development on
newly formed or exposed substrate, proceeds on
raw material rather than a developed or modified Materials and Methods
soil, and is usually characterized by low fertility, Description of study area
no biological legacy (no previous vegetation, no
seed bank, no organic matter derived from prior The study was conducted at the mine site of PT.
vegetation) (Glenn-Lewin et al., 1992). Hence, Arutmin Indonesia (AI), Satui mine project in
ecologycal succession in a mine OB is a lengthy South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Mining operational
process. A minimum period of ecologycal and office area are located at a distance of 165
succession is 50 years to a century to establish km Southeast of Banjarmasin.
advanced specic plant species in denuded, mine Characteristics and determination of overburden
OB-lled land; but this long time scales due to age as study area
specific problems can be overcome by artificial
interventions, that once identified, which are most Vegetation sampling area was carried out on out-
successful if they use or mimic natural process pit dump (overburden that dumped at dedicated
(Dobson et al., 1997). disposal site outside the mine pit), and without
Local vegetation is one of the keys of this leveled on its surface (free dump). Determination
process. This investigation sought to identify plant of OB dumping site is based on the following
species that present on coal mine OB dump. This conditions: (1) no disposal process (final dump),
study will be helpful in giving references of coal (2) the age of mine OB is known, (3) the origin
mine OB plant species in order to accelerate depth of OB is identified, and (4) geology
ecological restoration on coal OB dumping site. formation of OB is identified. According to that
This research was conducted in Satui, South requirement, there are six overburden used as
Kalimantan. Kalimantan or also known as Borneo vegetation sampling location (Table 1).

Table 1. Characteristics of overburden dumping site as study area


No. Age of mine OB (month) High of OB dump Width of OB Dump Origin depth
(m) (ha) (m asl)
1 7 38.18 2.68 30 s/d -80
2 10 20.07 2.06 30 s/d -80
3 11 16.18 3.66 30 s/d -80
4 42 19.90 7.09 30 s/d -80
5 59 24.11 2.14 30 s/d -80
6 64 29.85 11.87 30 s/d -80

determination of coal mine OB is based of the following formula:


T = T2 T1
Annotation:
T = age of mine OB (month)
T2 = starting time of sampling vegetation (month and year)
T1 = time of final OB dump (month and year)

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 928


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

The origin depth and geological formation of coal 9. http://app.ctu.edu.vn/forum/viewtopic.php?p=


mine OB in each pile was obtained using 78508&sid=70b76c420bff5faa564bd35
geological data belong to PT. Arutmin, Satui mine 10. http://www.natres.psu.ac.th/Departement/Pla
project. ntScience/weed/weedinplantation.htm
11. http://www.plantamor.com
Vegetation sampling and species identification
Vegetation sampling was conducted using line
transect. The lenght of line transect following the
lenght of OB dump area that able to be reached. In
order to represent plant communities on coal mine
dumping site, the distance between transect are
made of 5 m while total line transect following the
width of dump area that can be accomplished
(Figure 1).

Figure 2. Segment on transect line

Results and Discussion


Typology of coal mine overburden
Stockpiles of overburden was like a hill. The top
of it consists of flat and uneven part (Figure 3).
The uneven section due to a number of OB
mounds so that its surface becomes undulating.
Therefore, it can be devided into three parts i.e.,
peak, slope and valley (Figure 4). The valley
formed by confluence of several OB mounds will
form a basin that will be filled water when rain
Figure 1. Ilustration of line transect in an OB comes so that it resembles a pond. The size and
dump area depth of basin are varies (Figure 5). This stagnant
water accelerates the destruction of boulder (>256
Segment sign is made in every five meter of line mm), cobble (64-256 mm), and gravel (2-4 mm)
transect to facilitate the process of sampling develop into clay (1/256 mm). In contrast to
(Figure 2). Each plant that exposed to the transect substrate that is not inundated by water still in the
line is recorded, documented (using camera) and form of boulder, cobble, and gravel for a longer
coded for further species identification through period of time. Eventually, the differences of
local people, EIA report of PT. AI Satui Mine particel size and moisture played a role in
Project, and website bellow: determining the types of plants which present on
1. http://www.nationalherbarium.nl/MacMalBor coal mine OB dump. The compositions of
neo/indonesian/index.htm overburden substrate at six study sites are boulder,
2. http://www.indonesianchm.or.id pebble, cobble and gravel of clay stone.
3. http://www.biotrop.org/database.php?act=dbi According to PT. Arutmin Indonesia (2009),
as&kategori=&paper=1 Tanjung Formation in Satui Mine derived from
4. http://www.natureloveyou.sg/plants-D.html Eocene aged ( 50 million years).
5. http://www.iewf.org/weedid/All_common_na
me.htm Plants species on coal mine overburden dumping
6. http://www.rimbundahan.org/environment/pl site
ant_lists/dipterocarpaceae/index.htm Based on species identification on six overburden
7. http://www.dld.go.th/nutrition/ANIMAL_NU dumps, there are 123 plants species consisting of
TRITION_DIVISION_files/Native_grass.htm 79 herbs (grass, sedge, and herbaceous flowering),
8. http://app.ctu.edu.vn/forum/viewtopic.php?p= 10 lianas, lichen, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees
34293&sid=a6744de8ccd359178366065b38a that able to grow on OB substrate (Table 2).
06346

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 929


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Figure 3. Overburden stockpile was like a hill (A-B). The top of it comprises of flat (C) and uneven (D)

Figure 4. Illustration of undulating surface on coal mine OB dump (Source: Hairiah et al., 2000)

Figure 5. Some basins are formed by the confluence of OB mounds

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 930


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Table 2. Plants species and life form on six overburden dumps


No. Name Family Life span Class Age of overburden (month)
7 10 11 42 59 64
Herbs
1 Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Asteraceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v
2 Andropogon aciculatus Retz. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v
3 Andropogon chinensis (Ness) Merr. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v
4 Blyxa japonica (Mix.) Maxim. Hydrocharitaceae Annual Liliopsida v
5 Celosia argentea Linn. Amaranthaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v
6 Cyperus babakans Steud. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
7 Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
8 Cyperus compactus Retz. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v
9 Cyperus compressus Linn. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
10 Cyperus difformis Linn. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
11 Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
12 Cyperus halpan Linn. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
13 Cyperus iria Linn. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
14 Cyperus javanicus Houtt Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v
15 Cyperus kyllinga Endl. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v
16 Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
17 Cyperus pulcherrimus Will. Ex. Kunth. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
18 Cyperus pygmaeus Rottb. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
19 Cyperus sp.1 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
20 Cyperus sp.2 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
21 Cyperus sp.3 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
22 Cyperus sp.4 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
23 Cyperus sp.5 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
24 Cyperus sp.6 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
25 Axonopus compressus Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v
26 Cyperus sulcinux C. B. Clarke. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v v
27 Demodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC. Fabaceae Annual Liliopsida v
28 Echinochloa colona (Linn.) Link. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v v
29 Eclipta prostrata Linn. Asteraceae Annual Magnoliopsida v
30 Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v
31 Emilia sonchifolia (Lin.) DC. Asteraceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v v
32 Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 931


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

No. Name Family Life span Class Age of overburden (month)


7 10 11 42 59 64
33 Eragrostis leptostachya (R. Br.) Steud. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v
34 Eragrostis tenella (Linn.) P Beauv. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v
35 Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida
36 Erechtites valerianifolia (Wollf) DC. Asteraceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v
37 Eulophia graminae Lindl. Orchidaceae Annual Liliopsida v
38 Fimbristylis dichotoma (Linn.) Vahl. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v v
39 Fimbristylis miliaceae (Linn.) Vahl. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v v
40 Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahl. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v
41 Fimbristylis sp.1 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
42 Fimbristylis sp.2 Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
43 Hyptis capitata Jacq. Lamiaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v
44 Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. Convolvulaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v
45 Lindernia crustacea (Linn.) F.Muell. Scrophulariaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v
46 Melochia corchorifolia Linn. Sterculiaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v
47 Mitracarpus hirtus (Linn.) DC Rubiaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v
48 Polygala paniculata Linn. Polygalaceae Annual Magnoliopsida v
49 Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. Asteraceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v v v
50 Scleria bancana Miq. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v
51 Scleria sumatrensis Retz. Cyperaceae Annual Liliopsida v v v v v v
52 Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Asteraceae Annual Magnoliopsida v v v
53 Ottochloa nodosa Kunth. Poaceae Annual Liliopsida v
54 Alternanthera pungens Kunth. Amaranthaceae Perennial Magnoliopsida v v
55 Alternanther asessilis Linn. Amaranthaceae Perennial Magnoliopsida v v v v v
56 Centotheca lappacea (Linn.) Desv. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v
57 Chloris barbata Swartz. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v
58 Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v
59 Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Linn.) Willd. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v
60 Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v
61 Elaphoglossum blumeanum (Fe) J. Sm. Elaphoglossaceae Perennial Polypodiopsid v v
62 Elocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex. Henschel. Cyperaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v
63 Erigeron sumatrensis Retz. Asteraceae Perennial Magnoliopsida v v
64 Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v
65 Leersia hexandra Swartz Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v
66 Vitaceae Vitaceae Perennial Magnoliopsida v v

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 932


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

No. Name Family Life span Class Age of overburden (month)


7 10 11 42 59 64
67 Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell. Onagraceae Perennial Magnoliopsida v v v v
68 Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex Hitchc Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v
69 Panicum repens Linn. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v
70 Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v v
71 Paspalum dilatatum Poir. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v v
72 Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v v
73 Phyllanthus urinaria Linn. Euphorbiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
74 Rhyncospora corymbosa (Linn.) Britton Cyperaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v v
75 Saccharum spontaneum Linn. Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v
76 Sacciolepis indica (Linn.) Chase Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v
77 Sacciolepis strata (Linn.) Nash Poaceae Perennial Liliopsida v
78 Scirpus mucronatus (Linn.) Palla Cyperaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v
79 Typha angustifolia Linn. Typhaceae Perennial Liliopsida v v v v v v
Liana
80 Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Cucurbitaceae Annual Magnoliosida v
81 Mimosa pudica Linn. Fabaceae Annual Magnoliosida v v v v
82 Araujia hortorum E. Fourn Asclepiadaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v
83 Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. Cucurbitaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
84 Centrosema molle Benth. Fabaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
85 Centrosema pubescens Benth. Fabaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
86 Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook f. & Thomson Cucurbitaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
87 Mikania micrantha Kunth. Asteraceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
88 Passiflora foetida Linn. Passifloraceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v v
89 Wedelia trilobata (Linn.) Hitchc. Asteraceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
Bryophyte
90 Bryophyta Annual v v v v V
Ferns
91 Fern sp.1 Annual v
92 Christella dentata (Forsk.) Browney & Jermy Thelypteridaceae Perennial Filicopsida v
93 Lycopodium cernuum Linn. Lycopsida Annual Lycopodiopsida v
94 Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R Br. Lygodiaceae Annual Filicopsida v v
95 Nephrolepis sp. Nephrolepidaceae Annual Filicopsida v
96 Blechnum orientale Linn. Blechnaceae Perennial Pterdidopsida v v
97 Pityrogramma calomelanos (Linn.) Link Polypodiaceae Perennial Pterdidopsida v v v v v

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 933


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

No. Name Family Life span Class Age of overburden (month)


7 10 11 42 59 64
98 Pteridium esculentum (G. Forst.) Cockayne Dennstaedtiaceae Perennial Pteridopsida v
99 Pteris vittata Linn. Pteridaceae Perennial Filicopsida v v v v
Shrubs
100 Blumea balsaminifera (Linn.) DC. Asteraceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v
101 Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) King & Robinson Asteraceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v v v
102 Clibadium surinamense Linn. Asteraceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v v v
103 Lantana camara Linn. Verbenaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
104 Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr. Vitaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
105 Melastoma malabathricum Linn. Melastomaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v
106 Piper aduncum Linn. Piperaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
107 Solanum torvum Swartz. Solanaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v v
108 Trema micrantha (L.) Blume Ulmaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v v v
109 Trema orientalis (L.) Blume Ulmaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v v v
Trees
110 Morinda citrifolia Linn. Rubiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
111 Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. Ex Lam.) Urb. Bombacacea Perennial Magnoliosida v
112 Acacia mangium Wild. Fabaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v
113 Anthocephalus macrophyllus Havil. Rubiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
114 Homalanthus populifolius Graham Euphorbiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v v v
115 Macaranga gigantea (Reichb.f.& Zoll.) Mll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
116 Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell.Arg. Euphorbiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
117 Mollatus paniculatus (Lam.) Mull.Arg. Euphorbiaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v v
118 Palaquium oblongifolium (Burck) Burck Sapotaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v
119 Tree sp. 1 Perennial Magnoliosida v
120 Tree sp. 2 Perennial Magnoliosida v
121 Tree sp. 3 Perennial Magnoliosida v
122 Tree sp. 4 Perennial Magnoliosida v
123 Psidium guineense Swartz Myrtaceae Perennial Magnoliosida v

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 934


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Particular species of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalum condition (Figure 6). It indicates that Cyperaceae
conjugatum, Paspalum dilatatum, and needs better substrate physically (grain size) and
Echinochloa colona are mostly present among the chemically (humidity) than Poaceae. According to
boulders, cobble and gravel. While, Cyperacea Del Moral and Bliss (1993), undulating area gives
such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus higher soil humidity because of the present of
javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa, and Scleria stagnant water and keep refined particle compare
sumatrens is generally found in and around the to the flat area.
bassin that contain refined substrate and moist

Figure 6. Substrate of Cyperaceae (A-C) and Poaceae (D-F)

Figure 7. Seedling of Ochroma pyramidale (top) and Homalanthus populifolius (bottom) at the age of
seven months coal mine OB dump

According to Aththorick (2005), cover vegetation small shrubs. Some of them are annual, binual and
commonly are Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and perennial with life form are clump, solitary, erect,
Asteraceae. They are grass, sedge, herbs, and liana or climbing. Odum (1993) states that early

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 935


Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

stage development of a community is Aththorick, T.A. 2005. Similarities of ground cover


characterized by low organic matter while plant communities in several types of plantation
inorganic nutrients are extrabiotic, biochemical ecosystems in Labuhan Batu. Journal of
diversity is low and space heterogeneity is high. Communication Studies 17:42-48
BPK (Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia).
Vegetation that able to utilize that kind of 2008. Examination results the second half of the
community structure is species with reproduction fiscal year (ta) 2007 for the general mining damage
strategy ruderal selection and production is control in 2003-2007 in the Department of Energy
based on quantity. This vegetation is herbs and and Mineral Resources and related companies in
mostly is grass. Some of certain shrubs and trees South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan, in Jakarta,
have been present at the age of seven months on Banjarmasin and Samarinda. Main Auditor at State
coal mine OB dump, shows that substrate has Finance IV.
been available for vascular plants. They are Del Moral, R. and Bliss, L.C. 1993. Mechanisms of
Chromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, primary succession: insights resulting from the
eruption of mount St.Helens. Advances in
Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, Ecological Research 24:1-66
Solanum torvum (shrubs), Ochroma pyramidale Dobson, A.P., Bradshaw, A.D., Baker, A.J.M. 1997.
and Homalanthus populifolius (trees) (Figure 7). Hopes for the future: restoration ecology and
This result indicates that revegetation acceleration conservation biology. Science 277:515522.
can be done on coal mine OB dump by applying Gautama, R.S. 2007. Speech of Professor of ITB: Mine
plant species above which have been proven able drainage management: an important aspect in
to grow on substrate OB condition. However, environmentally mining.
species selection is needed to avoid planting of http://www.itb.ac.id/news/trackback/1486.
invasive species such as Acacia mangium and Ghose, M.K. 2004. Effect of opencast mining on soil
fertility. Journal of Scientific and Industrial
Centrosema pubenscens. Research 63 10061009.
Glenn-Lewin, D.C., Peet, R.K. and Veblen, T.T. (eds.)
1992. Plant Succession: Theory and Prediction. ix +
Conclusions 352 pp. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY. ISBN
Although physical, chemical and biological of 0-412-26900-7.
coal mine OB substrates do not support the Gogoi, J., Pathak, N., Dowarah, J. and Deka Boruah,
growth of many plants, but there are particular H.P. 2007. In Situ Selection of Tree Species in
Environmental Restoration of Open cast Coal mine
species present on OB substrate. Cyperaceae
Wasteland; Proceedings of Int. Sem. on MPT 2007.
(such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus Allied Publisher. p 678681.
compactus, Scleria sumatrensis, Rhyncospora Hairiah, K., Widianto, Utami, S,R., Suprayogo, D.,
corymbosa) often found in and around ponds, Sunaryo, S.M., Lusiana, B., Mulia, R., van
while Poaceae (Paspalum conjugatum and Noordwijk, M. and Cadisch, G. 2000. Acidic Soil
Echinocloa colona) and liana (Passiflora foetida, Management Biologically: Reflections on
Hodgsonia heteroclita and Benincasa hispida) are Experience of North Lampung. SMT Grafika Desa
generally present among boulders, rubble, gravel Putera, Jakarta.
and pebbles. Accelerating succession on coal Matson, P.A., Parton, W.J., Powere, A.G. and Swift,
M.J. 1997. Agricultural intensification and
mine OB dumps can be implemented by planting
ecosystem properties. Science. 277 504509.
the species above (Table 2), but selection is Novianti, V. 2013. Process of Primary Succession and
needed to avoid invasive species. Its Application on Previously Mined Coal Areas.
PhD thesis. Bandung (ID): Institut Teknologi
Bandung.
Acknowledgements Odum, E.P. 1993. Basics Ecology.Third edition.
The Author is greatful to PT. Arutmin Indonesia, Translated by Tjahjono Samingan. Gajah Mada
especially Satui Mine Project, South Kalimantan for University Press. Jogjakarta.
supporting financial and all facilities for this study. PT. Arutmin Indonesia. 2009. Terms of Reference Draft
Author are also thankful to the anonymous reviewer for for the Environmental Impact Assessment.
his critical suggestions and comments in improving the Increased Coal Production PKP2BDU318/South
manuscript. Kalimantan, Satui Mine and DU-308 /South
Kalimantan Mine, Karuh Kintap District of Tanah
Laut subdistrict Satui Tanah Bumbu regency, South
References Kalimantan. Banjarmasin.
Setianingprang, P. and Riawan, I. 2008.Role of
Almas, A.R., Bakken, L.R. and Mulder, J. 2004. Geological Data for Preventing Acid Mine
Changes in tolerance of soil microbial communities Drainage on Coal Mine: Case Study at PT.
in Zn and Cd contaminated soils. Soil Biology and Indominco Mandiri. Proceeding Seminar of Acid
Biochemistry 36: 805813. Mine Drainage and Ex-Mine Land Reclamation in
Indonesia. Bandung.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 936


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 937-943
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.937

Research Article

The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the intensity of the foot


rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil
Norma Fauziyah1, Bambang Hadisutrisno2*, Suryanti2
1
Phytopathology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University
2
Department of Plant Pest and Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Bulak Sumur, Yogyakarta,
Indonesia
*corresponding author: bambanghs_ugm@yahoo.com
Received 12 April 2017, Accepted 20 June 2017

Abstract : Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is an important spice plant of Indonesia. In Bangka Belitung
Province, the main pepper producer, pepper has been the most commonly cultivated commodity.
However, the production has declined from time to time. One of the causes of the decline is Pepper Fot
Rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici. The rapid spread and development of the disease is mainly due to
utilization of diseased plant materials for pepper cuttings and infested or diseased plantation soil. The
materials used in this research included the infected soil taken from the infected pepper plantation at
Bangka Island with disease intensity of pepper foot rot 60%, inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi
in the zeolite medium, compost, and pepper seedling from Natar variety. This research was done by
planting pepper seedling on infected soil and observing plant height, disease intensity, and infection of
AM fungi on the roots. The results showed that soil from diseased pepper plants harbored high population
of plant pathogens inoculum and caused the death of 9 week-old cuttings and retarded growth of the
survivors. Sterilization of the infected soil with hot water vapor for 3 hours still could not control the
pathogen. Good growth was observed on one node cutting planted in sterile soil amended with arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi.
Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, pepper, pepper foot rot, Phytophthora capsici
To cite this article: Fauziyah, N., Hadisutrisno, B. and Suryanti. 2017. The roles of arbuscular mycorrizal fungi in
the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 937-
943, DOI: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.937.

Introduction as well as other predicaments in the field.


Evidence indicated that farmers commonly
Pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the most prepare cuttings from pepper veins taken from
important plantation commodities in Indonesia. In their own plantation, considering good yield of
the Province of Bangka Belitung, it is the choicest the parent plants. Obtaining healthy and
commodity that is being developed nowadays. productive cuttings which is then developed in a
The Pepper foot rot disease caused by controlled Pepper Nursery Farm is a strategic
Phytophthora capsici is one of the most serious breakthrough to cope with these two major
diseases in Indonesia, and sometimes it causes diseases (foot root disease and yellow disease)
serious problems. The intensity of this disease in (Manohara, 2007; Suryanti et al., 2013) and this
Indonesia could reach 63.7% (Bande et al., 2014). research is the initial step of the effort. Bande et
The rapid spread and development of the disease al. (2014) showed that P. capsici, the causal agent
is mainly due to the utilization of diseased plant of the pepper foot rot disease, besides being a
materials for pepper cuttings and infested or soil-borne pathogen, has the potential of being
diseased plantation soil. Problems challenging spread through its propagation materials. Diseased
pepper farmers in Bangka Belitung are a partial cuttings as propagation materials are very
knowledge and limited ability to identify foot rot dangerous for the survival of pepper plants.

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 937
The roles of AM fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

Swastiningrum (2015) and Putri et al. (2016) soil was taken from the infected pepper
proved that Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi could plantation at Bangka Island in the depth of 15-20
significantly control the disease development, cm with disease intensity of pepper foot rot 60%,
each of which is for the rust disease on sugarcane inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal AM fungi in
caused by Puccinia kuehnii and leaf spot disease the zeolite medium as the collection of Laboratory
on clove caused by Colletotrichum of Mycology of Agriculture Faculty of UGM,
gloeosporioides. The additions of AM Fungi compost, and pepper seeds from Natar variety.
could improve uptake of phosphorus on maize The planting of pepper seed was done in the
which in turn increase plant yield (Mau and infected soil in the polybags with a capacity of 2
Utami, 2014). This fact needs to be studied for the kg, Soil sterilization and inoculation of AM fungi
foot rot disease on pepper. was done in accordance with the type of the
treatment. The technique of inoculation was done
by spreading 10 g of biological fertilizer AM
Materials and Methods fungi, fungal spores of 19.57 spores in zeolite to
This research was conducted from April to the hole in the polybags containing a mix of
November 2016. The preparation of seedlings and sterile soil and compost, before the pepper seeds
inoculation were done in a screen house in were planted. Sterilization of infected soil was
Condongcatur, Sleman DIY (113 m above from done using standard sterilization of hot water
sea level). Meanwhile, the laboratory research was vapor for a period of three hours at the
conducted at Mycology Laboratory of temperature 100oC. Both the planting of pepper
Agriculture, Department of Plant Pest and seedlings and inoculation were conducted at
Disease, Faculty of Agriculture of Gadjah Mada 04.00-05.00 pm to accelerate the growth and
University, Yogyakarta-Indonesia. The infected infection.

Table 1. Code of treatments for growing media


Code Treatment Description
P0 The pepper seeds without inoculation of AM fungi and fertilizer were planted into the sterile
infected soil.
P1 The pepper seeds inoculated with AM fungi and without any fertilizer were planted into the
sterile infected soil.
P2 The pepper seeds without inoculation of AM fungi and with fertilizer were planted into the
sterile infected soil.
P3 The pepper seeds inoculated with AM fungi and fertilizer were planted into the sterile infected
soil
P4 The pepper seeds without inoculation of AM fungi and fertilizer were planted into the infected
soil.
P5 The pepper seeds inoculated with AM fungi and without any fertilizer, were planted into the
infected soil
P6 The pepper seeds without inoculation of AM)fungi and with fertilizer were planted into the
infected soil
P7 The pepper seeds inoculated with AM fungi and fertilizer were planted into the infected soil.

Parameters of observation fresh green leaves and stalk , 1: The symptom


occurs on the leaves and stalk of 10%, 2: The
The observation included the disease intensity
symptoms on the leaves and stalk are the range of
from first weeks of application until the ninth
10-50%, 3:50-100% leaves are wilting (plant is
weeks and the infection of AM fungi on the roots
dead). The disease intensity was measured using
of pepper, given with a treatment.
the following formula:
Observation on the emergence and growth of
disease
IP
(n x v) x 100%
The observation on the growth of the disease was ZxN
started from the emergence of the symptoms and
it was weekly observed for 7 weeks using the Remarks: IP: Disease Intensity: (%), n: Number
scoring. The scoring system used was based upon of plants for each category of attack, N: Number
Manohara (2007) in which: 0: Plants are healthy of plants observed, v: Score value of attack
(not showing any wilting symptoms) with the

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 938


The roles of AM fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

category, and Z: Score value of the highest attack hours before conducting an observation using a
category. binocular microscope to measure the percentage
of the infection of mycorrhizae based upon the
Infection of AM fungi on pepper roots
method of Giovanette and Mosse (1980). The
The observation was conducted by following the percentage of colonization of the plant roots was
method of Kormanik and McGraw (1982): measured using the following formula.
Percentage of infected roots = [(Number of
infected roots/Number of observed roots) x 100%] Results and Discussion
The sample roots of the pepper plant at the age of
six weeks old were removed and cleaned with the In the treatment of the infected soil that has been
water. Subsequently, the roots were cut into 2 cm sterilied (P0), it was found that the disease
approximately. The cuts of the roots were soaked intensity was stable at 40%. The sterilization of
in 10% of KOH in a beaker glass and heated at a infected soil by means of the standard method (3
temperature of 80-90oC within 10-115 minutes. hours at 100o C) was not effective. This showed
The roots of pepper were then taken and put into a that time and type of sterelization for the soil used
50-mL beaker glass and rinsed with water 3-4 previously for the program needs to be studied
times until the water of cleaning was no longer further as something interesting. The role of AM
brown. Afterward, they were soaked in 1% of HCl fungi in the disease intensity of pepper foot rot
solution within 5 minutes and colored with 0.05 % could be seen in the 9th week (Figure 1).
lactophenoltrypan blue. It would be left for 24

Figure 1. The development of disease intensity of pepper foot rot for 9 weeks.

Figure 1 showed that application of AM fungi on disease infection after 9th observation. Figures 1
sterile soil (P1) and non-sterile soil (P5) gave a and 2 show that the provision of AM fungi in
good effect on the percentage of disease intensity inhibit the disease intensity of pepper foot rot,
than other treatments. It also revealed that particularly in the treatment of P1 (6.67%) and
application of AM fungi with compost on sterile P5 (17.78%). Djunaedy (2008) stated that
soil (P3) and non-sterile soil (P7) had a higher mycorrhizal fungi could increase the ability in the
score of disease intensity but lower than nutrient absorption and the nutrient provision for
application on the seedlings without AM fungi on the plant thus enabling the mycorrhizal fungi to be
both the sterile soil (P2) and non-sterile soil (P6). used as the biological fertilizer and to increase the
The results of this study expressed that the effect soil fertility. Mycorrhizal fungi can be also used
of mycorrhizae inhibited the rate of disease as one of the soil-borne pathogen controlling
progress compared to others treatments. It agents. Mycorrhizal fungi are able to make the
indicated that on sterile soil and amendment of plants more resistant to or tolerant of disease due
compost were not able to inhibit the rate of to the improvement of nutrient on the host plant,

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 939


The roles of AM fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

competition between pathogen and mycorrhizae in high content of organic materials providing
obtaining the photosynthate and infection area, nutrients for the pathogens. The infected soil from
and the change of anatomy and morphology on pepper plant contains the inoculum of
the roots for experiencing the lignification causing Phytophthora capsici (Figure 3), the causal agent
the roots thicker. Mycorrhizae makes the of foot rot disease.
mechanism of the resistance to the attack of soil- The disease intensity in this research
borne pathogen active due to the increase of developed rapidly because, as stated by Manohara
amino acid and phenol compound that is toxic (2007), the leaves infected by P. capsici would
towards the pathogen (Rozy et al., 2004). show the symptom after 24 hours, the diseased
Combination of mycorrhizae and compost did not leaves would fall three days after the infection and
show lower score of disease intensity than single it could be dead shortly.
treatment of AM fungi because compost had a

Figure 2. Pepper seed in some treatments. P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7 are as presented in Table 1

Figure 3. Sporangium of Phytophthora capsici; a) Sporangium of Phytophthora capsici from samples of


infected soil, b) Sporangium of Phytophthora capsici from symptomatic roots and leaves after treatment.

The results of contrast analysis inoculation of AM fungi. The disease intensity on


the plants inoculated with AM fungi was lower
The plants inoculated with AM fungi showed a
than the one without the inoculation of AM fungi.
better height compared to the ones without

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 940


The roles of AM fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

In contrast, on the infection of AM fungi to the plant height, leaf area, numbers of leaf, index of
lower roots, its high disease intensity was affected chlorophyll, and proline content of tomato plant
by the lower infection of AM fungi in the pepper (Damaiyanti et al., 2015). The inoculation of AM
plants (Table 2). AM fungi are able to enhance the fungi on onion plants is able to control the
growth of plants including the plant height, intensity and the growth rate of soil borne
number of leaves, and the root length on the pathogen and can be used as the trigger of
plants (Prasasti et al., 2013; Wicaksono et al., resistance on the pepper plants to the soil borne
2014). Application of 20 g mycorrhizae increased disease (Halim et al., 2016; Sari et al., 2016).

Table 2. The effect of provision of AM Fungi to the infected soil on the plant height, infection of AM
fungi on the plant roots, and disease intensity at 9 weeks after inoculation
Variable Treatment
Without Inoculation of AM Inoculated with AM
Fungi (P0, P2, P4, P6) fungi (P1, P3, P5, P7)
Plant height, cm 4.64b 8.03a
b
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots, 14.93 49.44 a
a
Disease intensity, % 61.67 38.89 b
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

The provision of compost to the infected soil did pepper plants in the infected soil (Table 3).
not give any effects on the height of pepper plants However, the provision of compost was not
as the disease intensity tended to be high; thus, the effective in controlling the pepper foot rot disease
growth of the plants was disturbed. The provision on the infected soil.
of compost increased the disease intensity on the

Table 3. The effect of the compost provision to the infected soil on the plant height, infection of AM
fungi on the plant roots, and disease intensity at 9 weeks after inoculation
Variable Without inoculation of AM fungi
Without Compost (P0, P4) Compost (P2, P6)
Plant height, cm 5.36b 3.93b
a
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots , % 9.85 20.00b
b
Disease intensity, % 43.33 80.00 a
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

The treatment of AM fungi at the same time as the reported by Stone et al. (2001), organic materials
compost could not restrain or control the intensity such as compost are inconsistent in controlling the
of the pepper foot rot disease. The percentage of soil borne pathogen such as Pythium ultimum
disease intensity with the treatment of AM fungi dependent upon the quality and quantity of the
and the compost was higher than the treatment of compost as the organic materials.
AM fungi without the compost Table 4. As

Table 4. The effect of provision of AM fungi and compost to the infected soil on the plant height,
infection of AM fungi on the plant roots, and disease intensity at 9 weeks after inoculation
Variable Inoculated with AM fungi
Without compost (P1, P5) Compost (P3, P7)
Plant height, cm 9.71a 6.35b
a
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots, % 76.67 22.22b
b
Disease Intensity, % 12.22 65.56a
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 941


The roles of AM fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

Table 5 shows that the disease intensity in the might be able to effectively suppress the
infected soil with the sterilization treatment (P0) pathogens. The treatment of sterilization with the
is lower than that of the infected soil without any provision of compost to the infected soil cannot
sterilization (P4). The soil sterilization could control but increase the population of soil borne
control the population of pathogen as it can pathogen as seen in Table 6. P. capsici as the
terminate the pathogen in the infected soil causal agent of pepper foot rot disease can live as
(Rebecca et al., 2005). However, data presented in saprophyte in the remains of plant (Manohara,
Table 5 show that soil sterilization did not 2007); thus, with the provision of compost, the
effective to terminate the pathogen because it was pathogen can increase in the infected soil for
not able to suppress the overall populations of obtaining the nutrients from the compost.
pathogens. Longer period of soil sterilization

Table 5. The effect of sterilization to the infected soil on the plant height, infection of AM fungi on the
plant roots, and disease intensity at 9 weeks after inoculation
Variable Without inoculation of AM fungi
Sterilization (P0) Without Sterilization (P4)
Plant height, cm 5.95a 4.78b
a
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots , % 16.67 3.03b
b
Disease Intensity , % 40.00 46.67a
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

Table 6. The effect of sterilization and the provision of compost to the infected soil on the plant height,
infection of AM fungi on the plant roots, and disease intensity at 9 weeks after inoculation
Variable Without Inoculation of AM fungi
Sterilization + Compost Without Sterilization +
(P2) Compost (P6)
Plant height, cm 3.83b 4.00b
b
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots, % 10.00 30.00a
b
Disease intensity, % 80.00 80.00b
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

The provision of AM fungi to the infected soil to the provision of AM fungi, sterilization of
sterilized and infected without sterilization infected soil and the provision of compost with
showed the low level of disease intensity as the provision of AM fungi, infected soil without
shown in Table 7. This was because sterilization sterilization and the provision of compost as
was able to control the soil-borne pathogen and shown in Table 8. The provision of compost has
the roots of the pepper plant were protected by caused the quite high disease intensity in spirit of
AM fungi, which can be seen from the data on the having been inoculated with AM fungi and the
high infection of AM fungi on the roots. There treatment of sterilization
was no any difference in the result of the research

Table 7. The effect of provision of AM fungi and sterilization to the infected soil on the plant height,
infection of AM fungi on the plant roots, and disease intensity at 9 weeks after inoculation
Variable Inoculation of AM fungi
Sterilization (P1) Without Sterilization (P5)
Plant height, cm 9.93b 9.49b
a
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots,% 83.33 70.00b
b
Disease intensity , % 6.67 17.78b
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 942


The roles of AM fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

Table 8.`The effect of the provision of AM fungi, provision of compost and sterilization to the infected
soil on the plant height, infection of AM fungi on the plant roots, and disease intensity at 9
weeks after inoculation.
Variable AM fungi Inoculation
Sterilization + Compost Without Sterilization+
(P3) Compost (P7)
Plant height, cm 7.16b 5.54b
b
Infection of AM Fungi on the roots, % 21.10 23.33b
b
Disease intensity, % 64.44 66.67b
Remark: the number followed by a different letter shows a significant difference in the orthogonal contrast test

Conclusion in plant roots. In: Schenck, N.C. (ed). Methods and


Principles of Mycorrhizal Research. APS Press.
This research concluded that the use of Manohara, D. 2007. Phytophthora leave spots as the
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi could control the source of inoculums of foot rot disease on black
disease intensity of the pepper foot rot on the pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Bulletin of Research on
pepper seedlings planted in the infected soil. The Spice and Medicinal Plants 18: 177-187.
single treatment of mycorrhizae was more Mau, A.E. and Utami, S.R. 2014. Effects of biochar
amendment and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
effective in suppressing the rate of disease
inoculation on availability of soil phosphorus and
progress. Sterilization of the infected soil with hot growth of maize. Journal of Degraded and Mining
water vapor for 3 hours still could not control the Lands Management. 1: 69-74.
pathogens. There was a negative correlation Prasasti, O.H., Purwani, K.I. and Nurhatika, S. 2013.
between the infection of AM fungi on the roots Effect of glomus Mycorrhizae fasciculatum against
and the intensity of the pepper foot rot disease. the vegetative growth of peanut plants were
infected by the pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. Jurnal
Sains dan Seni Pomits 2: 2337-3520.
Acknowledgements Putri, A.O.T., Hadisutrisno, B. and Wibowo, A. 2016.
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation
The authors would like to express their grateful thanks
on the growth of clove seedling and leaf spot
to the Faculty of Agriculture Gadjah Mada University
intensity. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan 10:
for the financial support.
145-154.
Rebecca, E.D., Duncan, R.A. and Scow, K.M. 2005.
Soil sterilization and organic carbon, but not
References microbial inoculants, change microbial
Bande, L.O.S., Hadisutrisno, B., Somowiyarjo, S. and communities in replanted peach orchards.
Sunarminto, B.H. 2014. Detection and California Agriculture. 59: 176-181.
quantification of Phytophthora capsici in soil using Rozy, F., Liestiany, A. and Maftuhah. 2004. Ability
black pepper leaf baiting. Journal of Agroteknos controlling of mycorrhizal on Rhizoctonia solani
4:160-166. Kuhn at soybean. Agroscientiae 11: 96-97.
Damaiyanti, D.R.R., Aini, N. and R. Soelistyono, R. Sari, M.P., Hadisutrisno, B. and Suryanti. 2016.
2015. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae inoculation Suppressing of purple blotch disease development
on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum on shallot by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Jurnal
esculentum Mill.) under salinity stress. Journal of Fitopatologi Indonesia 12: 159-167.
Degraded and Mining Lands Management 3: 447- Stone, A.G., Traina, S.J. and Hoitink, H.A.J. 2001.
452. Particulate organic matter composition and pythium
Djunaedy, A. 2008. Applications systemic fungicide damping-off of cucumber. Soil Science Society of
and utilization of mycorrhizae for control of soil America Journal 65:761770.
borne pathogens on soybean crop (Glycine max L.). Suryanti, Hadisutrisno, B., Mulyadi and Widada, J.
Embryo. 5: 149-157. 2013. Survey of distribution pepper yellowing
Giovannette, M. and Mosse, B. 1980. An evaluation of disease and pathogens associated. Jurnal Budidaya
techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular Pertanian 9: 60-63.
mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist Swastiningrum, A. 2015. The mechanism of arbuscular
84:489-500. mycorrhizal fungi in suppressing the development
Halim, M., Karimuna, L. and Hasid, R. 2016. The role of disease in sugarcane seedlings. Thesis.
of mycorhizal arbuscular in the incidence of foot rot Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.
disease on pepper plant. Jurnal Fitopatologi Wicaksono, M.I., Rahayu, M. and Samanhudi. 2014.
Indonesia 12: 178-184. Effect of mycorrhizal and organic fertilizer on the
Kormanik, P.P. and McGraw, A.C. 1982. growth of garlic. Jurnal Ilmu Ilmu Pertanian. 29:
Quantification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae 34-43.

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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 944


JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT
ISSN: 2339-076X (p); 2502-2458 (e), Volume 4, Number 4 (July 2017): 945-954
DOI:10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.945

Research Article

Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut


on saline soil
Abdullah Taufiq*, Andy Wijanarko, Afandi Kristiono
Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Jl. Raya Kendalpayak KM 8, Kotak Pos 66 Malang 65101
Indonesia
*
corresponding author: taufiq.malang@gmail.com, ndy_wijanarko@yahoo.com
Received 27 April 2017, Accepted 19 June 2017

Abstract: Agricultural lands affected by salt facing complex problems associated with soil salinity and
the toxicity effects of Na cation. Soil amelioration and mulching is an alternative to alleviate negative
effect of salinity. Objective of research was to identify effective ameliorant, and effect of mulching in
improving growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil. The research had been conducted on saline soil
(soil EC 12 dS/m) in Lamongan during dry season of 2016, using Hypoma 2 cultivar. Treatments that
consisted of two factors were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was
mulching (without mulching and mulching with 3.5 t/ha of rice straw), and the sub plot was soil
ameliorations (control, 120 kg/ha K2O, 750 kg/ha S, 5 t/ha gypsum, 5 t/ha manure, and 1.5 t/ha of gypsum
+ 5 t/ha manure). Results showed that mulching, and amelioration with 120 kg/ha K2O, 750 kg/ha S, 5
t/ha gypsum decreased soil EC, but could not improve groundnut growth and could not retard chlorophyll
degradation because the soil was EC still high (12.5 dS/m). The higher yield (1.49 t/ha dry pods) can be
obtained by amelioration with 750 kg sulphur/ha combined with mulching.
Keywords: amelioration, groundnut, mulching, salinity
To cite this article: Taufiq, A., Wijanarko, A. and Kristiono, A.2017. Effect of mulching and amelioration on
growth and yied of groundnut on saline soil. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 4(4): 945-954, DOI:
10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.945.

Introduction varied among genotypes (Singh et al. 2007; Singh


et al. 2008). Taufiq et al. (2015) found that pod
Salt affected of agricultural land in coastal area yield of 10 cultivars decreased by 30-53% at
tend to increase due to sea water intrution salinity of 1.60-1.84 dS/m and by 59-93% at
(Marwanto et al., 2009; Erfandi and Rachman, salinity of 2.95-4.44 dS/m compared to the
2011), intensive use of irrigation from deep well control.At low salinity level, planting tolerant
(Wanget al., 2008; Putra and Indradewa, 2011), cultivar is more efficient than amelioration.
and natural dissaster like tsunami (Rachman et al., However, amelioration is needed if the salinity
2008; Royet al. 2014). Increasing soil salinity above the level that can be tolerated by crop.
raising complexes problem, including high Na Leaching is the most effective method to reduce
concentration (Tester and Davenport, 2003) and soil salinity, but it need much fresh water and
Cl (Papadakis et al., 2007) in the soil, that is time consuming. An alternative way is alleviating
difficult to overcome. Salinity affects plant negative effect of Na. Soil EC can be reduced and
growth in all growing stage (Nawaz et al., 2010), negative effect of Na can be alleviated by
reduces water absorption by crop (Kronzucker et application of K (Kabir et al., 2004; Kopittke,
al., 2006; Salwa et al., 2010), reduces nutrient 2012), Ca (Dabuxilatu and Ikeda, 2005), and
uptake (Salwa et al., 2010; Jouyban, 2012), and elemental S (Nazar et al., 2011). Application of
chlorophyll content (Xing et al., 2013; Nokandeh compost (Radwan and Awad, 2002), gypsum
et al., 2015). Salinity tolerance of groundnut

www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id 945
Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

(Niazi et al., 2007; da Silveira et al., 2008; groundnut seed of Hypoma-2 cultivar treated with
Joachim and Verplancke, 2010), combination of insecticide of active ingredient the ametoxam. The
manure with gypsum (Smith et al., 2009; Chaum seeds were planted in the plot of 4 m x 3 mwith
et al,. 2011; Kahlon et al., 2012; Murtaza et al., plant spacing of 40 cm x 15 cm, 1-2 seeds/hole.
2013) are effective in decreasing soil EC and Irrigation from adjacent well with water-EC of
improving plant growth. Application of P and K 3.88 dS/m applied just after planting. The rain
fertilizer, manure, ash, and dolomiteincreased often fall at the site from 15 days after planting
yield of rice and palawija crops on saline soil (DAP) up to hasvest, and so that no more
(Sembiring et al., 2008; Iskandar and Chairunas, irrigation added.Weeding conducted twice, at 15
2008). Mulching effective in alleviating salinity DAP using propaquizofap herbicide, and manual
effect (Dong, 2012). Mulching reduced salt weeding at 45 DAP together with ridging. Basal
accumulation under high saline irrigation (Zang et fertilization at rates of 36 kg P2O5/ha and 30 kg
al. 2008), and decreased soil salinity (Abou-Baker K2O/ha broadcasted just after planting, while 33.7
et al. 2011). Alharbi (2015) showed that mulching kg N/ha applied at 15 DAP. Pest was controlled
decreased soil salinity of surface layers compared regularly using fipronil, deltametrin,
to the unmulched layer. Objective of the research chlorantraniliprol, and pyridaben insecticide
was to identify the effective ameliorant and effect accordingly.
of mulching in improving growth and yield of
groundnut on saline soil. Table 1. Soil properties in the top 0-20 cm at
experimental site.
Materials and Methods Parameters Method Value
pH-H2O 1:5 7.8
The research was conducted at Lohgung Village, EC (dS/m) Field 12.10
Berondong Sub District, LamonganDistrict measurement1)
(6o5359.89801 S; 112o1115.31277 E; 26 m C-organic (%) Walky-Black 1.02
above see level) from May to August 2016.The Exch-K NH4OAc pH 7 1.00
experimental site is about 1.5 km from the coast, (cmol+/kg)2)
and the soil at the trial site developed from lime Exch-Na NH4OAc pH 7 2.51
stone. Soil salinity as indicated by soil EC is high, (cmol+/kg)
soil pH is midly alkaline. Cation saturation at Exch-Ca NH4OAc pH 7 23.7
exchange site dominated by Ca (56.5%) and Mg (cmol+/kg)
(35.1%), while K and Na only 2.4% and 6.0%, Exch- NH4OAc pH 7 14.7
consecutively (Table 1). Based on soil EC (>4 Mg(cmol+/kg)
dS/m), pH (<8,5), and exchangeable sodium CEC(cmol+/kg) Cation summation 41.91
percentage (<15%) indicate that the soil at Na saturation (%) (Exch- 5.99
experimental site is classified as saline soil. Soil at Na/CEC)*100
the site is highly saline because the EC in the 1)
range of 8.8-16.0 dS/m according to Jones (2002). using Hanna portable EC meter type HI993310;
2)
exch=exchangeable
According to Hazelton and Murphy (2007), the
soil contain high K, very high Ca, Mg, and Na.
Observation consisted of soil analysis at harvest
Treatments that consisted of two factors were
(pH, C-organic, exchangeable Na, Ca, Mg, and
arranged in a split-plot design with three
K). Electrolic conductivity (EC, using Hanna
replicates. The main plot was two levels of
portable EC meter type HI993310) and soil water
mulching, consisted ofwithout mulch (M0) and
content at 0-20 cm of soil depth (gravimetric
mulching with 3.5 t/ha of rice straw(M1). The sub
method) were measured every 15 days from
plot was six soil ameliorations consisted of
planting up to 75 DAP. Tissue analysis of shoot
control (A0), 120 kg/ha K2O (A1), 750 kg/ha
(Na, Ca, Mg, and K) was measured at pegging
Sulphur (A2), 5 t/ha gypsum (A3), 5 t/ha cow
stage. Four samples collected from each plot were
manure (A4), and 1.5 t/ha gypsum+5 t/ha cow
oven dried at 75oC up to constant weight and then
manure (A5).
ground and composited according to the
Ameliorant treatment applied just before
treatments during grinding. Soil and plant
planting, while mulching treatment applied just
analyses were conducted at Iletris Laboratory
after planting. Rice straw of the previous crop
according to Eviati and Sulaeman (2009).
cleared from the land. Paraquate
Agronomic parameters consisted of number of
dichloride herbicide sprayed before planting to
seedling at 15 DAP, shoot dry weight at pegging
control weeds, and the land cultivated using rotary
stage, plant height and chlorophyl content index at
at one week after weed control. Before planting,
15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 DAP. Chlorophyl content

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 946


Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

index was measured using Chlorophyl meter not significantly difference, except at 60 DAP and
SPAD-500. Observasion at harvest consisted of 75 DAP. Mulching treatment did not significantly
number of harvested plant, number of filled pods, affect soil moisture content, even the soil moisture
pod and kernel weight. Variance analysis used to tend to be higher than without mulching (Figure
detect effect of treatments, and mean comparation 1). The soil EC fluctuated between observation,
using Least Significant Different (LSD) at 5% and it tended to increase as soil moisture
level of significancy. decreased. Mulching reduce evapotranspiration
and salt accumulation (Zhang et al., 2008),
maintain moisture content in the root zone, and
Results and Discussion also reduce soil temperature, evaporation and salt
Soil properties and nutrient uptake accumulation (Abou-Baker et al., 2011; Swarup,
2013; Alharbi, 2015). Reduction of soil EC in this
Mulching treatment tended to reduce soil EC at all experiment migh be due to reduction of salt
observation dates with reduction varied from 0.22 accumulation in the top soil layer.
to 1.34 dS/m (Figure 1). The differences of EC
between mulching and unmulching treatment was

15,5 42,5
15,0 40,0

Soil moisture content (%)


14,5 37,5
14,0 35,0
EC (dS/m)

13,5 32,5 EC-M0


13,0 30,0
EC-M1
12,5 27,5
MC-M0
12,0 25,0
11,5 22,5 MC-M1
11,0 20,0
15 30 45 60 75
Plant age (DAP)

Figure1. Effect of mulching on soil EC and soil moisture content at 15 DAP up to 75 DAP on saline soil.
Lamongan, dry season 2016. (M0=without mulch, M1=with mulch, EC=electrolic conductivity,
MC=moisture content)

Soil amelioration with 120 kg/ha K2O, 750 kg/ha low according to Hazelton and Murphy (2007).
S, 5 t/ha gypsum, 5 t/ha manure, and1.5 t/ha Soil pH at harvest was 0.7 units higher than at
gypsum+5 t/ha manure affected soil EC, but the planting (increased from 7.8 to 8.5), that might be
diffrences was statistically not significant (Figure due to salt accumulation on top soil layer as
2A). The dynamic of soil EC due to amelioration indicated by increasing soil EC. Soil EC was
seemed more related to the dynamic of soil significantly affected (p=0.05) by intercation
moisture content (Figure 2B). Soil EC during the between mulching and amelioration treatments.
trial was >11 dS/m, and it was above the critical All amelioration treatments, except manure,
level of 3.2 dS/m (Yadav et al., 2011). In pot combined with mulching resulted lower EC than
experiment, groundnut could not perform pod on without mulching (Figure 4C). Mulching had
soil EC 6.5 dS/m (Mungala et al., 2008), on soil positive effect on the EC reduction. Without
EC >1.84 dS/m (Taufiq et al., 2015). On field mulching, soil EC increased linearly) as soil depth
experiment with soil EC 15.33 dS/m, groundnut decreased from 12 cm to 9 cm, 6 cm and 3 cm
of Domba and Hypoma-1 cultivar produced 0.5- (Y=16,985-0,6589X, R =0,99. With mulching,
0.7 t/ha dry pod (Taufiq et al., 2016). Mulching soil EC at 3 cm and 6 cm was relatively similar,
and amelioration treatments and their interaction and then it decreased up to 12 cm of soil depth
had no significant affect on soil pH, C-organic (Figure 4D). This data indicated that mulching
content, exchangeable K (exch-K), Ca, Mg, and retarded salt accumulation and increasing of EC in
Na (Figures 3 and 4). Exch-Na in all treatments the top soil layer. As reported by Abou-Baker et
was less than 0.3 cmol/kg, and was classified as al. (2011) and Swarup (2013) that mulching

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 947


Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

reduce soil temperature and evaporation. Ca and Mg, but application of 120 kg K2O/ha or
Decreasing of soil temperature and evaporation with 5 t/ha gypsum decreased K, Na, Ca, and Mg.
will reduce the flow rate of disolve salt in the soil Uptake of Na was higher if amelioration with
from the deeper layer to the top layer, and hence K2O or gypsum was combined with mulching
retard salt accumulation in the top layer. Uptake (Figure 4). This means, that amelioration of saline
of K, Na, Ca, and Mg due to amelioration soil with K2O or gypsum is better than with
treatments were lower than control (Figure 5). sulphur (S) or manure or combination of manure
Among the ameliorants, application of 750 kg and gypsum, and the effect is better if combined
S/ha or 5 t/ha manure increased uptake of K, Na, with mulching.

15,0 50,0
14,5

Soil moisture content (%)


A0 45,0 A0
14,0
13,5 A1 40,0 A1
EC (dS/m)

13,0 A2 35,0 A2
12,5
12,0 A3 30,0 A3
11,5 A4 25,0 A4
11,0 A5 20,0 A5
10,5
10,0 15,0
15 30 45 60 75 10,0

Plant age (DAP) 15 30 45 60 75


Plant age (DAP)
A B
Figure 2. Effect of ameliorant on soil EC (A) and soil moisture content (B) at 15 DAP up to 75 DAP on
saline soil in Lamongan during dry season 2016. (A0=control, A1=120 kg/ha K2O, A2=750 kg/ha S,
A3=5 t/ha gypsum, A4=5 t/ha manure, A5=1.5 t/ha gypsum+5 t/ha manure)

9,0 1,8
8,8
A B
1,5
8,5
C-org (%)

1,3
pH-H2O

8,3
8,0 1,0
7,8 0,8
M0 M0
7,5 0,5
7,3 M1 0,3 M1
7,0 0,0
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5

Ameliorant Ameliorant

0,16 0,27 D
exch-Na (cmol+/kg)
exch-K (cmol+/kg)

0,14 C 0,24
0,12 0,21
0,10 0,18
0,08 0,15
0,12
0,06 M0 0,09 M0
0,04 0,06
0,02 M1 0,03 M1
0,00 0,00
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5

Ameliorant Ameliorant

Figure 3. Effect of ameliorant and mulching on soil pH, C-organic, exch-K, and exch-Na on saline soil in
Lamongan during dry season 2016. (M0=without mulch, M1=with mulch, A0=control, A1=120 kg/ha
K2O, A2=750 kg/ha S, A3=5 t/ha gypsum, A4=5 t/ha manure, A5=1.5 t/ha gypsum+5 t/ha manure)

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 948


Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

30,0 20,0
27,5

exch-Ca (cmol+/kg)

exch-Mg (cmol+/kg)
25,0 A 17,5
22,5 15,0 B
20,0 12,5
17,5
15,0 10,0
12,5 7,5
10,0 M0 M0
7,5 5,0
5,0 2,5
2,5 M1 M1
0,0 0,0
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Ameliorant Ameliorant

17,0 C 17,0 D
16,5
16,0 16,0

EC (dS/m)
EC (dS/m)

15,5
15,0 15,0
14,5
14,0 14,0
13,5 M0
13,0 13,0
12,5 M1
12,0 12,0
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 3 cm 6 cm 9 cm 12 cm

Ameliorant Soil depth


- mulching + mulching

Figure 3. Effect of ameliorant and mulching on exch-Ca, exch-Mg, and EC on saline soil in Lamongan
during dry season 2016. (M0=without mulch, M1=with mulch, A0=control, A1=120 kg/ha K2O, A2=750
kg/ha S, A3=5 t/ha gypsum, A4=5 t/ha manure, A5=1.5 t/ha gypsum+5 t/ha manure)

80,0 50,0
Ca (mg/plant)

Mg (mg/plant)

60,0 40,0
30,0
40,0
20,0
20,0 M0 M0
10,0
0,0 M1 0,0 M1
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Ameliorant Ameliorant

80,0 80,0
Na (mg/plant)
K (mg/plant

60,0 60,0
40,0 40,0
20,0 M0 20,0 M0
0,0 M1 0,0 M1
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Ameliorant Ameliorant

Figure 5. Effect of mulching and ameliorant on K, Ca, Na, and Mg uptake of groundnut of Hypoma 2
cultivar at pagging stage on saline soil in Lamongan, during dry season year 2016. (M0=without mulch,
M1=with mulch 3.5 t/ha; A0=control, A1=120 kg/ha K2O, A2=750 kg/ha S, A3=5 t/ha gypsum, A4=5
t/ha manure, A5=1.5 t/ha gypsum+5 t/ha manure)

The results indicated that mulching effectively with K2O, sulphur and gypsum combined with
reduce soil EC in the top soil layer, but could not mulching effectively reduced EC, but had no
reduce Na uptake by groundnut. Amelioration effect on exch-Na.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 949


Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

Plant growth height at 30DAP up to 75 DAP, but not


significantly affected shoot biomass at 55 DAP
The seed of Hypoma-2 cultivar started to
(maximum vegetative stage) and at harvest.
germinate at 5 DAP.Plant vigor at germination
Amelioration treatments did not improve plant
stage was good eventhough the soil EC 12.10
growth as indicated by plant height and shoot
dS/m. Germination percentage at 10 DAP was 95-
biomass at all observation date, except shoot
98%, and plant population at harvest was 87.6%.
biomass at 55 DAP where amelioration reduced
Mulching treatment significantly improved plant
the biomass compared to control (Table 2).

Table 2. Effect of mulching and amelioration on plant height and shoot biomass of groundnut on saline
soil in Lamongan on dry season 2016.
Treatment Plant height (cm) Shoot biomas
15 30 45 60 75 At 55 DAP At
DAP DAP DAP DAP DAP harvest (g/5 harvest
plants) (t/ha)
Mulching
Without mulch 4.1 a 6.5b 11.6 b 19.5b 21.5 b 25.6 15.68 2.06
With mulch 3.4 b 8.0a 12.8 a 21.5a 23.0 a 25.9 15.31 2.18
Amelioration
Control 3.8 7.2 12.1a 19.9 21.8 25.1 19.88a 2.04
120 kg/ha K2O 3.7 6.7 12.2a 21.0 22.0 25.5 13.56b 2.15
750 kg/ha S 3.8 7.6 12.3a 21.3 22.7 26.0 15.22b 2.29
5 t/ha gypsum (G) 3.8 7.3 10.9b 19.0 20.9 25.3 12.67b 2.23
5 t/ha manure(M) 3.7 7.4 13.0a 21.0 22.7 25.4 16.47ab 2.03
1.5 t/ha G+5 t/ha M 3.9 7.2 12.7a 20.9 23.5 27.0 15.17b 1.97
CV (%) 6.63 7.52 7.62 7.86 8.84 5.16 23.02 17.04
Numbers in the same coloum in each main factor with the same letter or without letter means not significantly
different with LSD 5%. DAP = days after planting.

Mulching and amelioration treatments and their had no significant effect on these variables, except
interaction had no significant effect on on weight of dry pod and dry kernel (Table 3).
chlorophyll content index (CCI). CCI value Soil EC at trial site was very high, and groundnut
continously reduced with plant age increased only performed 6-7 pods/plant. Mensah et al.
(Figure 6). It means that chlorophyll content (2006) found that number of filled pod decreased
reduced and leaves become more yelowish. Figure with increasing soil EC, from 11-17 pods/plant at
7 ilustrates the relationship between CCI value EC 4.68 dS/m to 7 and 6 pods/plant
and leaf colour. Mulching and amelioration consequtively at EC 8.9 dS/m and 17 dS/m. Seed
treatments could not retard chlorophyll size of Hypoma-2 cultivar on saline soil was
degradation. Eventhought mulching and bigger than on non saline soil, as indicated by
amelioration treatments significantly decreased weight of 100 kernels of 34.2-36.2 g on saline soil
soil EC, they but had no positive effect on CCI (Table 3), and about 31.2 gon non saline soil
because the soil EC was still high (ranged from 11 (based on the cultivar description). Ratio of kernel
dS/m to 15 dS/m). Reduction of chlorophyll to pod on saline soil was lower (0.35-0.40) than
content due to salinity stress also reported by on non saline soil (0.60-0.70). Mulching and
Hossain et al. (2011), Xing et al. (2013) and amelioration treatments did not increase pod and
Nokandeh et al. (2015). kernel weight. Hypoma-2 cultivar yielded 3 t/ha
of fresh pod (1.3 t/ha dry pod), 0.49 t/ha dry
Yield and yield components kernel (Table 3). Potential yield of Hypoma-2
cultivar on non saline soil is 3.2 t/ha dry pod. It
Rice straw mulching increased number of
means that the yield of 1.3 t/ha dry pod on saline
branches and number of filled pods, but no
soil with EC 11-15 dS/m is about 41% of yield on
significant effect on weight of fresh and dry pod,
non saline soil. Harvest index (HI) value in this
weight of dry kernel, weight of 100 kernels,
experiment was 0.38, in the range of common HI
harvest index and kernel to pod weight ratio.
of groundnut (0.3-0.5).
Amelioration and its interaction with mulching

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 950


Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

45 45
40 40
35 35
30 30 A0
25 25

CCI
A1
CCI

20 20
A2
15 M0 15
10 10 A3
M1
5 5 A4
0 0
A5
15 30 45 60 75 15 30 45 60 75

Plant age (DAP) Plant age (DAP)

A B
Figure 6. Effect of mulching (A) and ameliorant (B) on chlorophyll content index (CCI) of groundnut leaf
from 15 DAP up to 75 DAP on saline soil in Lamongan during dry season 2016. (M0=without mulch,
M1=with mulch 3.5 t/ha; A0=control, A1=120 kg/ha K2O, A2=750 kg/ha S, A3=5 t/ha gypsum, A4=5
t/ha manure, A5=1.5 t/ha gypsum+5 t/ha manure)

CCI=21.1 CCI= 28.1 CCI= 30.2

CCI= 37.6 CCI= 40.1 CCI= 41.4


Figure 7. Ilustration of relationship between chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf colour.

Pod and kernel weight were significantly affected combined with mulching. The highest kernel
by interaction between mulching and amelioration weight (0.61 t/ha) was obtained by amelioration
treatment. The highest pod yield (1.49 t/ha) was with 5 t/ha manure without mulch, or by
obtained by amelioration with 750 kg S/ha amelioration with 120 kg K2O/ha combined with
combined with mulch (Table 4). Amelioration mulch (Table 4). This indicates that the kernel
with gypsum or gypsum+manure decreased pod yield of groundnut on saline soil can be increased
yield if combined with mulch treatment. It means by amelioration with 5 t/ha manure, or by
that pod yield of groundnut on saline soil can be amelioration with 120 kg K2O/ha combined with
increased by amelioration with 750 kg S/ha mulch.

Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 951


Effect of mulching and amelioration on growth and yield of groundnut on saline soil

Table 3. Effect of mulching and amelioration to the yield and yield components of Hypoma-2 cultivar on
saline soil in Lamongan indry season 2016.
Treatment No. of No. Fresh Dry Dry Harvest Weight Kernel
Branches of pod pod kernel index of 100 to pod
Filled weight weight weight kernels ratio
pods (t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha) (g)
Mulching
Without mulch 4b 6b 2.97 1.31 0.49 0.38 35.57 0.38
With mulch 5a 7a 3.12 1.28 0.49 0.37 34.40 0.37
Amelioration
Control 4 6 3.05 1.44 0.54 0.40 34.92 0.37
120 kg/ha K2O 5 7 3.12 1.36 0.53 0.37 34.37 0.39
750 kg/ha S 5 7 3.23 1.33 0.48 0.37 36.25 0.35
5 t/ha gypsum (G) 4 7 2.88 1.21 0.45 0.35 34.22 0.37
5 t/ha manure (M) 5 7 2.99 1.28 0.51 0.38 34.55 0.38
1.5 t/ha G+5 t/ha M 4 7 3.99 1.16 0.45 0.39 35.62 0.40
CV (%) 7.94 12.50 18.42 14.10 17.99 9.78 11.69 7.94
Numbers in the same coloum in each main factor with the same letters or without letters mean not significantly
different with LSD 5%.

Table 4. Effect of mulching and amelioration on yield of groundnut of Hypoma 2 cultivar on saline soil
in Lamongan, dry season year 2016.
Amelioration Pod weight (t/ha) Kernel weight (t/ha)
Without With Without With
mulch mulch mulch mulch
Control 1.43 ab 1.44 ab 0.50 abcde 0.57 ab
120 kg/ha K2O 1.34 ab 1.39 ab 0.46 abcde 0.60 a
750 kg/ha S 1.16 bc 1.49 a 0.40 bc 0.56 abc
5 t/ha gypsum (G) 1.27 abc 1.16 bc 0.47 abc 0.43 bc
5 t/ha manure (M) 1.36 ab 1.21 abc 0.61 a 0.41cde
1.5 t/ha G+5 t/ha M 1.34 ab 0.99 c 0.54 abcd 0.37 e
Numbers in the same variable with the same letters meannot significantly different with LSD 5%.

Conclusion field assistance, and Mayar, Angesti and Ekmi for good
work in preparing and analysing soil and plant samples.
Mulching using 3.5 t/ha rice straw and
amelioration with 120 kg/ha K2O, 750 kg/ha S, 5
t/ha gypsum decreased soil EC. However, References
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Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 954


General Information
The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of
significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately one month after
acceptance. Online submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided the text, tables,
and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file (preferably in Times New Roman
font).
Two types of manuscripts may be submitted:
1. Research articles: These should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and
experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the
work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and
interpret the work clearly.
2. Reviews: Submissions of reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest
are welcome and encouraged. Reviews should be concise and no longer than 5-8 printed
pages (about 8 to 12 manuscript pages). Reviews are also peer-reviewed
Format
A template to guide authors in the preparation of the manuscript can be downloaded from
http://www.jdmlm.ub.ac.id. Length a complete manuscript should be no less than 4 pages and no
more than 12 pages (10 pt, single-spaced, including figures, tables, and references).
Review Process
All manuscripts are reviewed by an editor and members of the editorial board or qualified
outside reviewers. Decisions will be made as rapidly as possible, and the journal strives to return
reviewers comments to authors within four weeks. The editorial board will re-review
manuscripts that are accepted pending revision.
Plagiarism Policy
Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is a serious violation. Plagiarism is the copying of ideas,
text, data and other creative work (e.g. tables, figures and graphs) and presenting it as original
research without proper citation. The Journal defines plagiarism as a case in which a paper
reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation. If evidence of
plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be
offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript
will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined
by the responsible Editor(s).
Copyright Notice
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before
(except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under
consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for
publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
Sources of Support
Production of the journal is facilitated by a grant from the International Scientific Publication
Office, University of Brawijaya, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya, and
International Research Centre for the Management of Degraded and Mining Lands.

Contact
Eko Handayanto
International Research Centre for the Management of Degraded and Mining Lands
Soil Science Building 3rd floor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya,
Jalan Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia,
Phone: +62 341 553623; Fax: +62 341 564333
Email: editor.jdmlm@ub.ac.id

Achmad Riyanto
Phone: +62 341 553623; Fax: +62 341 564333
Email: editor.jdmlm@ub.ac.id