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# Overview on Pump

Centrifugal Pump

Gear Pump

Screw Pump

Lobe Pump

Vane Pump

Diaphragm Pump

Plunger Pump

## Working Video of Plunger Pump

Centrifugal Pump
Pump Selection
Pump selection can be done based on flow rate and the head
requirement and other parameters like corrosion, presence of solid etc.
The Doolin chart can be used to select the pump on the flow and head
basis.
Centrifugal Pump Characteristics
Centrifugal pumps are characterized by their specific speed. In the
dimensionless form, specific speed is given by,
Where N=RPS, Q=volumetric flow rate (m3/s), h=head (m),
Ns=specific speed

## Pump manufacturers do not generally use the dimensionless specific

speed, but define it by the equation

## Q= US GPM, h=feet, N=RPM. Normally specific speed varies from

400 to 10,000
Centrifugal Pump Characteristics Curve
Characteristics Curve-Pump in series
Characteristics Curve-Pump in parallel
System Curve (operating line)
There are two components to the pressure head that has to be supplied by the
pump in a piping system a) The static pressure, to overcome the differences in
head (height) and pressure. b) The dynamic loss due to friction in the pipe ,the
miscellaneous losses, and the pressure loss through equipment. The static
pressure difference will be independent of the fluid flow-rate. The dynamic
loss will increase as the flow-rate is increased. It will be roughly proportional to
the flow-rate squared. The system curve, or operating line, is a plot of the total
pressure head versus the liquid flow-rate. The operating point of a centrifugal
pump can be found by plotting the system curve on the pump's characteristic
curve. When selecting a centrifugal pump for a given duty, it is important to
match the pump characteristic with system curve. The operating point should be
as close as is practical to the point of maximum pump efficiency, allowing for
the range of flow-rate over which the pump may be required to operate. Most
centrifugal pumps are controlled by throttling the flow with a valve on the
pump discharge. This varies the dynamic pressure loss, and so the position
of the operating point on the pump characteristic curve. Throttling the flow
results in an energy loss, which is acceptable in most applications. However,
when the flow-rates are large, the use of variable speed control on the
pump drive should be considered to conserve energy.
System Curve (operating line) Contd.
Power consumption
Power consumption by centrifugal pump can be calculated by following
equation.

## Where h=head required, m, Q=volumetric flow rate, m3/sec, =density of fluid

(kg/m3), g=gravitational acceleration (9.81m/s2).

## Break power (KW)= Po/efficiency.

Centrifugal Pump Efficiency
The pressure at the inlet to a pump must be high enough to prevent cavitation
occurring the pump. Cavitation occurs with in the pump casing. Vapour
bubbles will form if the pressure fall vapour pressure of the liquid.
The net positive suction head available (NPSHavailable) is the pressure at the
pump suction, above the vapour pressure of the liquid, expressed as head of
liquid.
The net positive head required (NPSHreq) is a function of the design
parameters of the pump, and will be specified by the pump manufacturer
As a general guide, the NPSH should be above 3 m for pump capacities up to
100 m3/h, and 6 m above this capacity. Special impeller designs can be used to
overcome problems of low suction head. The inlet piping arrangement must
be designed to ensure that NPSHA exceeds NPSHR all operating conditions.
Typical Centrifugal Pump P&ID
Typical Velocity Criteria
The velocity are suggestive for pressure drop calculation
1. Air 0 to 30 psig: 4000 fpm
2. Benzene: 6 fpm
3. Steam (0 to 30psig saturated): 4000 to 6000 fpm
4. Steam (30 to 150 psig, saturated/superheated): 6000 to 10000 fpm
5. Steam (>150 psig, superheated):6500 to 15000 fpm
6. Water (average service):3 to 8 fps
7. Water (boiler feed): 4 to 12 fps
8. Water (pump suction line): 1 to 5 fps
9. Water (economical): 7 to 10 fps
10. Pump suction (non boiling): 1 to 5 fps
11. Pump suction (boiling liquid): 0.5 to 3 fps.
More details for each fluid and service please see Ludwing, Vol-1
Introduction to Vacuum Pump
Vacuum range:

## Vacuum Type Vacuume range Use

Distillation, drying,
Rough Vacuum 760 torr to 1 torr
filtration
moltn metal designing,
Medium Vacuum 1 torr to 0.001 torr
molecular distillation
Film technology and
High Vacuum 0.001 torr to 10^-7 torr
research
Film technology and
Ultra high vacuum 10^-7 torr and below
research
Introduction to Vacuum Pump Contd.
Vacuum means the "degree of emptiness" of a process system. Perfect vacuum
mean an absolute zero pressure, which is technically impossible.
Absolute vacuum=barometric pressure of the location - vacuum.
For example, when 15-inch Hg vacuum is referred to a 29-inch Hg barometer,
then the absolute pressure is 29-15= 14 inch Hg absolute.
Types of Vacuum Pump
-Liquid Piston/ring
-Centrifugal
-Axial
-Two-impeller straight lobe
-Helical lobe
-Reciprocating
-Sliding-vane rotary
-Ejector
-Rotor oil-sealed a)rotor piston type b)Vane type
-Diffusion (normally not used for commercial application)
Ejector
Normally the steam is used as a motive fluid to create vacuum. Ejector has no
mooving part