You are on page 1of 277

i

87
56



. (OSIAF Moscow)

:
. . .
, 2000.

56 . . . . .:
-, 2000. 280 .
,
, , , ,
. .
, ,
().

.

ISBN: 5-7333-0043-4 87

., . .

. , . ,
. , . , . ,
. , . , . ,
. , . .
.
-, 2000

........................................................................................................... vii
. ................................................. xiii


. ""
...................................................... 3
. .......................................................... 19
. :
.............................................. 30


.
........................................ 43
. .................................... 65
. - (
)....................... 78

:
.
........................................................................... 87
. (members) :
(. . . ) .................. 107
. " "..........................................144
. ...................................................................... 152
. ..................................................................... 160
. :
.................................... 168


.
...........................................................187
. ""
.................................................... 215

" .
- "
. ...................................................................... 241

.....................................................................................255

,
" ", .
: " : " (1994),
" (1996), " " (1996), "
(1999), " - " (2000).

(
), , . , --
, , . .
,
" ", " ",
" ", " "
.

.

. ,
,
().
,
.

- , ,
. : "
", " ", "". , ,
" " (
, ), "-
", "", "", "", "
", " ", " ", "
", " ".

, .
, : "
", "", " " ( ), "Lucas"
(), "Siksi" (), "Cuademos del Este. La cultura de los 90"
( ) .
via

,

.
" :
" (1994) .

,
.
.
,
, : "
(1996),
" " // . . (1996), "
: " / / " : , ,
" (1993) .


. , ,
. , :
"F ruits o f her plum , R ussian W oman C ulture", "D ehexing Sex: Russian
Womanhood During And After Glasnost", "The Explosive World Of Tatyana
Tolstaya's Fiction".

,
. : "
: "(199), " ".
: - ( . -
, 1996), " - " (1999)

.

, , .
, "
", " ", " ", "
", "" " ".

.

.
.

, . 1987 1991 .
" ". 1992 .
.
. ,
.
ix


.
.
" " (
) - -
.


, : " (1992),
" " (1993), " " (1997).
" " ("Lettre
International"). , ,
, , .

,
. ("
", , 1989; " " (
. , 1990)).
.
( . ).
" ", "FlashArt".
"".


.
, .
,
.
l l U k
. , .
, 1994

" "
,
. ,

.
, ,
, "
" (. ) "" (. ),
( ) .
,
,
1,
.
, ,
, II ,
, ,
, , , -
.
,
,

XX .
, ,
.
,
. , , .
,
" ". "
, -

1 90- ., , . ,
94 . .
xiv


" 2.
:
, ,
. ,
"
,
" 3 ( ,
, , , -
, ,
4 ,
);
. ,

,
.
,
.
(. ), (. ),
(. ) (. ),
(
) . ,
. ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, , "
, ... (
) .
,
, -
"5. ,
,
.
,
" " ( ),
.
,

2 . .: . .., , . 158.
3 , . 158.
4 (.).
5 . / /
. : , 1999, . 604.
XV

,
-
. . . ,
,
,
,
.
,
; ,
. , .
, "
" 6. ,
,
, .
. ,
,
7.

. ,
. ,
.

. ,
,
. . , ,
, , "
,
, " 8.

(,
, )
,
, ,
,
,
.

, ,

6 . .: . .., , . 193.
7 . . . 1. / /
, . 120221.
8.: ., , . 81.
xvi


.
, ,
,
. , "
, ,
.
. ,
"9.
. ,
, .

,
. "
", "
" 10.
.
,
, (,
) , . ,
. , "
" 11. "
, . , , .
. "-
-
,
( . . .)
12. ,
,
, . "-
".
,
, ,
,
,
. .
, .
, .
, ,

9 . .: . , , . 40.
10 .: ., , . 267.
11 , . 268.
12. .: . "".., , . 16.
xvii

,
,
.
"G eneration "". ,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
,
,
. " (. . .)
;
" 13. , "
:

" 14. ,
"", 15,

, ,
. ,
(. ,
. , . ),
.
.
, , "


. , ,
" 16.
, ,
, ""
"".
; ,
. . ,
, "
,
. ,

13 . Generation "". .: , . 30.


14 , . 31.
15 , ,
,
(
, ).
16 . .: . .., ., . 63.
xviii

" ", -
17.
" 18.
, , , ,
, .
, ,
. . ,

. ,
,
(, , ,
, ),
, " "

,
.

17 . , 6070 .,
, "
", " " (. .:
. ..., , . 47).
18 . .: . ..., , . 238.

""


,
. ,
, ,
. ""
""
. ,
,

.

. ,
,
. .
" ".
,
, .
,
, ,

.
,
""
. , ,
.
, 50- .,
,
, .
,
.
,
4

,
? ,
.
,
,
( , ,
, ).
- " "
.
, ,
, , ,
,
. "" ,
.
" "
,
,
. , -
-
,
(
).
"" .
, , -
, "".

. 20- .
,
.
, , "
" . ""
,
( )
(. . ,
).
,
(
) ", ",
, -
. ", "
,
,
. , ,
-.
5

(
, -, ).
""
.
, "patria",
"partis", "pater (patros)" ,
,
. "" "..." (
""),
"patria", "patris" ("") "partis" (""),
.
- ,
,
. ,
, (pater (patros) ), . . ,
-
.
,

, (
).
.
, ""
, . "" -
, " " ,
" ". ,
.
.
(
), "
,
: "? ?"
, . ", ...
", .

, ,
, ,
,
.
.
, -
. , ,

1 . . . . . ., ., . ., 1979.
6

,
. , ,
, "
" . " "
, , .
"" ( )
,
.
,
:
" , ,
.
, ,
- ,
, . ,

"2.

, . ,

. " "
,
, . " ",
.
.
.

. ,
,
".

( ,
) ,
. , "
" . ,
, , , "",
, ""
, "" , ,
,
.
.

2 . , "" / /
. ., , 1996, . 23.
7

. ,
" ". , -
, : , ,
"" , .
" " .
. 3 ,
, ,
.
- .
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
.
( ) ,
...
,
, .
" -", " - ", " -"
.
. , . 4
( , ),
"...
-, ".
( : "
, ,
,
".) "
,
,
"",
"" .
5.
. , -
,
.

. 6

3 Carmody D. L. Women and world religions. Nashwille: Abingdon, 1979, p. 23.


4 . / /
. , 1998, 1, . 258259.
5 . Underground / / " ". .:
, 19931994, . 369370.
6 . . .: , C-: , 1988, . 100.
8

: "
,
,
. , .
, ,
, , ".
,
,
. ,
, (
" " ).
.
, "" ,
, .
, .
, -
, , (
),
.
" "
. ,
" ".

.
. 80- .
" ,
." ,
( ), - .
,
. , -
"Das Ewig Weibliche" ("
"),
.
,
.
" , . -
,
. :
" ,
"7.

7. . . .: --
, 1994, . 71.
9

. :8
" ,
... -, ,
..."
:
"
,
. " , ,
,
.

" 9.
. :
", , ,
.
,
...
. . -
. , . " |0.
" "
(,
)

. ( , ,
, ,
,
.)
.
, , ,
. , "
" (

, "" ,
"" ). ,
,
. . 11 :
" , ,
... ,
, .

8 . . . .: , 1989.
9 , . 86.
10 , . 87.
11 . / / . . .: , 1991, . 2,
. 1215.
10

: ,
...
" ", "Venus barbatus".
: " ,
, ".
, , ,
( ). ,
""
, :
( ) ,
, ,
" " (
,
, ,
""). , " "
, ,
, , " ". (
"" ,
"-".) ,
.
" " . 12 ,
:
" :
, .
, " " ,
".
,
( ),
- ,

).
, " "
" ".
( , - ,
;
, " ".)

; ,
,
.
, ( )
"

12 . / / -. .: , 1988, . 268.
11

" " --
". (
. ).
,
.
,
" "
(
),
.
"" ,
, , , -
- . ,
. ,
,
.

,
.
, ,

"-". , , ,
, , ,
,
.
,
,
. ,

. , , ,
, .
,

.
13:
" (, )
, -".
1
, , ,
.
, ,

15 . . .: , 1991, . 359.
12

, . , ,
, .
,
.

" ",

. (
, " ,
, ,

). (
):
.
, , ,
- , .
,
,
. ( "
, "
", .

"".)
,

.
.
, ,
- .

.
,
, - ,
, ,
, . "
" . 14 :
" , , ".
15 ,
( -

14 Bernard J. Foreword: A Quiet Revolution / / The Study o f Women. N.-Y.: Harper & Row,
1979, xiii.
15., : Fantastic Women: Sex, Gender and Trasvestism. Basingstoke; L.: Macmillan,
1989.
13

, ,
). ( )
, .
,
, ,
. ,
, (
). ,
.
.
.
. (
-)
, , .
"" .
, ,
. , ,
,
, ""
. (
) .
,
.
:
50- 90-
( )
, , "-
", , "" . -
(, , -)
() .
, ( )
.
, :
,
. / ,

.
,
. ,
""
. ,
, , ,
.
.
14

, ,
.
, ,

. ,
: , , .
,
. "" :
, .
,
, . ,
. 16
, , ,
" ".
" ".
? ,
, , "",
, , .
, ""
" "" . . -
|7:
" ...
".

.
"" - ,
( ).
, , .
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
(
) , .
,
.
"" .
, .
,

16Fantastic Women...
17 . . . . / / , 1996, 10, . 98.
15

( ). ( )
, , .
, , ,
, .

. , "
" (, ),
() (
, ),
.
, ,

. -,
,

.
.

. ,
" " , ,
, , , (

). ,

.
,
, .
" " ,
,

,
,
.

. " "" ,
intuitio ratio, ,
,
, .


,
.
"
(
16

), -
18. " " "
" " ;
- . , ,

.

. (
") .

18 Bern S. J. The measurement of psychological androgyny / / Journal o f Consulting and


Clinicas Psychology, 1974, 42, pp. 155162.

,
.
.
, .
, ,
. , ,
, .

. , ,
" "
37-, .
, .
. 30-,
40-. 50-. , ,


(. . 2).
? ,
- 30-. , "
" 1938 . ,
, .
, ,
.

1 ,
99-06-00039.
" " ()
. .
20

? . ,
,
. -

1938 .

,
.
,
, , ,
.
, ,
, , .
.
, ,

,
.. , ,
, ,
, ,
,

.
"" 26 29 .
.
, .
,
.
.
, ,
.
, , , .

,
.
( ?)
.
" . ,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
. , .
, , .
, - (
,
. ..).
, .
21

[] [] .
, , ,
"2.
, ,
,
. ,
, . ,
. , .
,
, , , . --
, , , -.
, .
, , "
".
,
" " (
?), .
, .
, ,
. "",
. " -
"
1936 . 1938 .,

. ,
...

3. . , ""
""
""
().
" , , -
.
, ,
".
.
,
, !
"". .
, .
: "
?" .
, , .

2 . . .: - " ", 1939,


. 212-214.
22

. ,
, .
.
.
, , ;
. , , .
; .
..
. , .
.
. . 3,5 ,
; ,
. , -
; . , .
. .
.
.
-. . ,
, . . .
,
-. , ,
. .
24 ,
. (, , , ,
, ) 8 , 5
.
; .
. , ,
, .
-.
, .
.. , .
. : " ,
".
. ,
, - "
".
.
. , ,
...
. .
: ,
, , , .
, , --
.
, .
, , ,
, .
. .
--
. ,
, , .
23

. ,
. . , -
:
, ? !
"" . .
" 3
. .
, , -.
:
! !
" .
. , ,

,
"3.

, ,
, , - .
,
.

,
: .
: " "? ...
, ,
, ,
- . "
, . -, ,
, , ,
, , ,
.

" 4.
. .
,
. ( )
. ,
, .
, ,
.
-
().
, ,

3 , 1938, 4, . 13.
4 - . . .: , 1992, . 39.
24


.
- . ,
, ,
.
. , , 1932 .
56 ,
, 5.
.

,
. , , "
" ,
.
.
"
". ,
,
, .
,
, .
.
, ,
.
. "
". .
,
? .
,
,
.
. ,
, .
,
.
. "
", "
".
, 6.

5 .: . . " ".
. 19271941. .: , 1998,
. 148 (.).
6 .: , 1936, 910, . 15.
25

-, -
, ,
,
(
, 1936 . ),
. , " "
.
, basso
ostinato. .
,
" ".
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
- ,
.
.
. ,
. " "
, , ,
, ,
" ..."
. ,
,
,
.
3. . , ,
,
. ,
, "".
:
"
. , .
<...> , . ,
, <...>.
" 7.
, , .
, ?

7 3. N. / / . . 3. .
. .: , 1993, . 335-336.
26

. .
. .
.

.
.
,
60- .,
. .

.
. " "
.
, .
, , ,
, . -
,
. , , ,
.
" ":
" ,
, ,
,
, "8.
,
" , ,
,
, , -
,
, "9.
, , ,
" ".

.
. 1914 . .
, , .
.
, ,
.
(" "),
(. . . 17).

8 . / / , 1991, 9, . 14.
9 , . 36.
27

. 20- . 30- . -
, ,
. "", , .
, .
, ?
.
, .
, , ,
, .

. ,
: , .
37- .
. , , .
, .
, .
.
. .
,
, , . ? 1948 .,
, ( . . 18).
,

. , , ,
, .
, .
, .
. . ,
, .
.
,
. "".

, , .
, ,
:
" 1948 . ,
. <...>
. ,
, " |0.
, ,
:

10 , . 332. on. 1, . . 5, . 39 ().


28

, ,
,
.
, , .

. ,
, ,
. -
.
,
,
" ",
, " ".
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
. . , , 5
,
". .
,
. .
, .
: ,
, (" " -
- ), "", ..
, , .
, ,
. . .
.
.
,

.
. ,
,
. . " . ,
, , " .
". :

11 .., .. " . " ":


-. .: -
, 1996. " " ",
. 115.
29

" , "12.

,
: "
" (. ).
, .



...


,
! ,
.
( . )13
< ............................................... >
: ,
...
,



.
!
,
.
( . )14

12 . . . ., 1972, . 348.
13 . . .: . , 1973. . 4041.
14 , . 5354.

:
1

:
, .
,
.
"" ,
,
.
,
,
: ;
;
. ,
.
, 6070- .
.
, ,
,
.
,
:
, , , , .

.
.
23 ,
. ""

1 1996 .: Vainshtein . Female fashion,


Soviet style: Bodies of ideology// Russia-Women-Culture / Goscilo H., Holmgren B. (eds).
Indiana (J.P., 1996, pp. 6494. "
" : , 1995, 7, . 4960.
. 31

.

, .

"" ,
.
, /,
. ,
.
: " ", "
, ".
, " "
,
.
:
, .
! (
) .
, ,
.
(
: ,
, ).
,
, , , .
, - ""
, "": , 1986
1987 . "" ,
,
. ,
, .

.
, .
, , ,
.
, "" :

, .

"/", "/", "/".
,
,
: " +
32

". : ,
, , . .
casual style 2.

,
:
" , , ,
, , , .
: , , ,
, ..." 3.

, ,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,


.
" " ,
"", ,
.
, , .

,
.
( )
.
: ,
,
, ,

. ,
,
.
90-,
- ,
.
, ,
. , .

2 (.) . .
3, 1966, N 1.
.. 33

""
. "" , , "
, .
, ".
, 20- . JI. .
"" "" ,
.

,
. ,
"" ,
, " "
.
, ,
,

. ""
. ,
, "" .
"" , ,
,
. , ,

.
, ,
: "
, , ,
" ( : "
, !") 4.

: " ,
.
,
" 5. ,
.

.
:
1) " "; 2) " ".
,
. "",

4 , 1960, 6.
5 , 1965, 7.
34

"", "", "",


. , ,
, 60-
: " , ,
..."6.
,
"" , ",
, ". , ,
"": ,
, -,
.
,
, " ".
.
, , "? , " 7.
:
" , : ,
, ,
""8.
,
, , ,
:
" ,
"9.
" ", "" ""
. -,

, 50- .
. -, ""

. ""
: "", ", ""
"".
"" ,
.-. .
" " "pudeur"
"1"
. "" , , ".
, ,

6 , 1962, 1.
7 , 1959, 12.
8 , 1963, 12.
9 , 1959, 12.
. 35

: , "" "-"
, |0. ,
" "

, , , -
.
"".

,
.
, , ,
, ,
, , ''conspicuous
consum ption", .
" ",
,
" ".
, ,
:
, , ,
.
, , ,
. " "
"understatement" , ,
.
" "
,

.
""
, ,

- . ,
" "
, "
" ( "
"). , ,

:
" , ,
, .
, (

10 BologneJ. . Histoire de lapudeur. Paris, 1986, p. 14.


36

), , , , , .
. " ",
. , ,
, ,
, " ".

.
,
,
.
( )
( , , ),
, , ,
.

. . ,
:
, ""
12.
"" ,
.
, .
90- . , , ,
"" , "" ""
, , , :
,
.
.
6070 . ,

.
,
, : " -
- . ,
, , " 13.

,
.

11 17501917 ., 5 . . . . . , .
. . 5, ., 1972, . 3839.
12Lurie A. The Language of Clothes. N.Y., 1981, p. 1952.
13 , 1960, 9.
. 37

.
,
: ,
. ,
, "" ,
. ,
, ,
.

, ,
,
.
" ", " ".
"" :
, "",
, . , "
" 14.

" ", : "
, ".
,
, "
.
,
.

: XVIII . ,
.
, .

? " ",
,
.
,

. ,
, , "
"...

,
.

14 Laver J. Modesty in Dress. L., 1969, p. 9.


38

,
. , ,
-,
.

, , . ,
,
. .
"", 70- .,
:
"... , , , , .
,
, - " |5.
" ",
:
, ,
,
.
, , ,
.
, -
, .
" , ! "
". ,
, , , , .
, " 16.
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
.
, -
, .
.
,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, .

15 . . ., 1980, . 9.
16 , 1965, 5.
. 39

, ,
.
.
" ",
, ,
:
, " ". ,

, , , .
, , .
" "
: ,
.
, 1965 "
" :
" , ,
. ...
, ,
... 17.
, ( )
,

.

,
. 8
, ,

: ""
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
.

. " "
, , ,
, ,
.
,

17 , 1965, 7.
40

:
- ?
19931994 . (
) :

.
, 1994 .
67 , 34 .
- ,
.
,
. ,
, .
.
"" , , ,
,
, " ".

: "
", -,
"" , .
. , "
" |8.
, (
), ,
.
19931994 .,
, , -
.
, ,

. , , ,
... .
, ", ... ,
".


, ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

, ,
, . , -
, ,
, , .

. ,
,
, - ,
, .
,
. ,
, , , ,
.

90-.
, , -
, ,
,
. :
, !
44

,
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
( ) - (, ,
) " " . ,
, , . :
" ...,
.
,
1989 .,
,

, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
50-
.
90- .
, ( 30%
2000 . 1), ,
.
.

.

. ,

.
, " "
" ", .
,
.
,
, ,

1 (
), 2000 . ,
1600 .
.. 45

, ""
, () 2.
,
,
,
. .


, ,
.
3.
, ,
,
, - ,
-, . . . .? ,
,
?
: , ,
,
,
. .
,
, .
, ,
,
.

,
.
,
, .
.
1968- .

.
, .
( ,
,
.

2.: . / /
, 1996, 22, . 101 128.
3 . .: . / /
. ., 1998, .187191.
46

,
, , ,
.)
,
, ,

.
,
, , ,
.
, .
,
,
,
.
,
, .

, -
, .
"" .

. ,
, , ,
,
-
- .
.
,
, ,
. ,

, ,

- .
, , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, -
.
,
.
.. 47


. ,
,
,
.
,
.


, ,
. ,

.
, ,
. .
,
.
,
. , -
.
.

" ", " ".

: -
- -
.
, , ,
.
" .
. .
,
"
" , (
, )
. 5060- ,
" ",
- .
60-
, .

( ""
).

-
- ,
.
, ,
.
,
"", , ,
. ,
, ,
"" -
, .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , "".

, ,
, , .
( ),
( ),
( , )
.
.
,
, , .
, (,
, , )
. (
, .)

.
, ,
. ,
.
. .
,
,
.

.
,
(, ,
, ),
.
... 49

, , 70-
. , .
90- ,
( . " ").


,
,
. , ,
,
- . , ,
, ,
"
" .
,

.
, ,
.

. , ,
,
.
, 90-,
. , ,
"" .
,

.
.
. 3040- "
". ,
50- (
)
.
70-
,
"-". 80- .
" " ,
//
, ,
, ,
.

50

""
" "4.
,
,
.
,
.
, -
. , ,

. -
.
" ".
, ,
( ),
,
, .
( , , " ",
,
.
, .)
:
- -. ,
.
, , ,
, ,
. ,
.
.
( ) ,
""
"". ,
.
,
,
, .
( . ). " ..."
. ,
.
, "
" "". " ",

4 . .: . . ( ,
10 ) / / , 1999, 2 (4), . 1020.
... 51

, ,
, 5.
. ,
.
, ,
. "
" ",

" "
. , , ,
"" "" ().

,
.
- .
"
", .
.
.
()
"
". (
),
.
, ,
" "
.
90- .
, ,
. ,
.
("
!", " ..."). ,
,
( )
.
,
,
? . , , ,
"", "".

5 . :
/ / , 1998, 33, .75107.
52

" " .
. ,
.
, .

.
,
.
,
. (
.)
. ,
. ,
, ,
. , .
.
( , , , ,
, .
. .)
.
.

-. ,
, ,
.
,
.

19851995 .:
,
, ... ,
, , !
.
, .
, ,
, , ,
, .

, ,
, - , -
" ", "".
"" ""
, , , , ,
. , ,
.. 53

, , ,
.
, .
, ( )
. , , ,
,
, ""
, ,
. ( )
! , .
, ""
"".
.

, ,
,
"",
"".
,
,
,
.
" ".
.

. "
...".
, , ,
,
.
, -,
, . " "
.
90- : )
, ) ) "
" , , (
) ,
( )
.
, , ,
. ,
"",
. ,
, ,
54

, , -
.
.
" " ( ,
"", "")
. "" . .
,
. ""
. (
, ),

, ,
.
.
,
.
.
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
,
,
, .


,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
. ( , .)
, ,

.
.
,
.
. 55

"
" .


.
,
,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
.
- , .
, ,
. -
,
. . . ,
. ,
,
, .

.
,
"", "", "" ,
"", .
, ,
.
. .
... .
90-
(, ) ,
, , .
,
, : "
..."
, ,
, .
. ,
",
, ... -
, ! ".
,
,
.
56


,
.
: " , ".
,
. ,
, .
- ,
, , , .
,
-
,
, .
,
, , .
.
( )
. .
, , .

-.
,

,
. . " !" .


.
, ,
, . -
,
, , , ,
, "" . .
, ,

.

, -.
, .

.
, .
.
. 57

.
, .

, ,
, (
) .
, ,

, ,
.
,

. " "
. " "
,
, .
,
.
,
, .
,
. -
6 , , (
), ,
. , .
.
,
, .
. ,
, , .


-.
. , .
,
,
, - .
,
. , , . ,
, . ,
.

6 Escape {.) , .
58

, .
.
, . " ",
. . ,
, .
.
.
, ,
, .
.
,
.
, .
. , ,
,
, .
,
, . . ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
.
: .
,
"". ""
.
,
, , .
"" , ,
( ,
) ".

, .
"
" .
,
, - , .
:

, .
.
.. 59

.
-
, .
,
.
,
, ,
. , , (
, "") , ,
"". . , ,
,
, ,
, .
,
, , -
, . ,
, .

. ,
,
- .
.
,
. -,
, , . -,
.
, , -
-.
"" , , .

,
.
,
, .
,
, ,
.


.
,
, ,
. ,
60



.
.
:
.
: , .
,
-
. , .
, , ,
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
, ,
( ,
, , , ,
). ,

, , ,
. .

,
. , ,

, .
-

.

: "- ?
".
, ,
.

. --

. , ,
.
,
. --,
, ,
. 61

.
, ,
,
.
"" ,
, , ,
""
.

, .
,
( )
.
, ,
...
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. ( )
,
,
.
,
,
, .,
, , -
-. ,
. , "" ,
. ,
"",
, ,
.
, , ,
, -..
, , ,
. .,
.
, ,
. " " .

.
,
62

,
, .
.
,
,
. ,
. ,

" ", .
, , ,
, ,
90-. ,
, ,

.
(, , )
. ,
,
( ) .
.


,
.
,
. ,
.
, -
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , -,
,
,
.
( )
, ,
, .
, , ,
, , . . ,
, . ,
. " ,
, ".
, . 63

.
: " , , ,
, ".
-
, .

( -
) 1.
, , , -

. ,
, ,
" " , ,
.

, . . .
, ,
.
,
,
, , ,
-
, , , , , , .
, "
". , , , ,
, .
.
, -, , .

.

, -
.

.
.
,
"" ,
.
.

7 ., . . ., 1994, . 86 .
64

. ,
.
.
: ?

.
, .
"" "",
. -
, ( ),
( ) .
, "". -
, .
" ", , ,
, , , "-
" , ,
, ,
. , ,
.
" ", ,
,
.
,
, .
. , ,
, .
,
( ). ,
. , ,
, ,
. (: ,
, ,
, ,
.)

, .
, ,
, . ,
, , , .

. ,
. ,
.


( )

,
,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,
("" ),
,
. , ,
,
""
,
.



.
,
.
" " , "
" '. , , ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
.

1 Barr W. Culture and the Ad. Exploring Otherness in the World o f Advertising. Westview
Press, 1994.
66

,

, " " 2.
,
,
,
3. ,
.

,
.
.
(
)

( ). ,
, ,
. ,
-

-
, .
(
, ,
4) ,

2 ., : . / /
. . : Socio-Logos, 1994, . 179207.
3 "", ,
" , ",
, . , "
, "
(Bourdieu P., Wacquant L. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Trans, by Jurchak A. The
University of Chicago Press, 1992, c. 17).
, , ,
, , . .
,
, , (.,
: Bourdieu P. Language and Symbolic Power. Trans, by Jurchak A. Harvard University
Press, pp. 229230).
4 , ,
"" ""
(.: Bourdieu P. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature.
Columbia University Press, 1993; Bourdieu P. Distinction: A Social Critique ofthe Judgement
of Taste. Harvard University Press, 1984, .
/ / . . : Socio-Logos, 1994, .
2 08-221).
67

,
, , ,
,
.
.
,

.
, ,
. ,
, :
" " ", '
" ""? ,
? .
, . ,
.
, "5.

"" ,
, .

"". ,
,
, ,
"" , , ,
, , , . .
,
, , ,
,
6.
,
,

5 Ogilvy D. Ogilby on Advertising. N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1985, p. 14.


6 : "...
" ",
, "
". , ,
: ? ,
: ,
,
, ,
" (Foucault . 1991. Questions of Method. Trans, by Jurchak A. / / The
Foucault Effect. Studies in Governmentality/ Graham B., Gordon C,, Miller P. (eds.). The
University of Chicago Press, p. 74).
68

( )
, ,
,
. ,
"" ""
.


,
"" "", ,
, 7

8.

, , "
", "".

, " ".



60-,
-
(, , , . .).
, 9,
,
. "
"
, - ,
("
" |0), .
,
" ",
.

.

7Sartre J. P. Being and Nothingness. An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology. Philosophical


Library, 1956.
*., : Fanon F. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1996.
(Fartort F. Peau noire, masques blancs. Editions du Seuil, 1952).
9 ., : Jameson F. Transformations o f the Image in Postmodernity / / The
Cultural Turn. Selected Writings on the Postmodern, 1983 1998. Verso, 1998, pp. 93135.
10 Debord G. La societe du spectacle. Editions Champ Libre, 1971.
69


,
. , ,


, " ".

,
, ,
. " ".

,
. ,
.
. ,
80-: " , "
("Youve com e a long way baby") "
("Virginia Slims"), ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
, ".
, "
" " ("Just do it")
"" ("Nike").
"Weiden and Kennedy",
1988 , , " ,
", , , "
" |2. "
("Calvin Klein"): " " ("Just Be"),
: ,
.
.
" - , " ("" ("Sprite) : "
, " ("", 1999).
, : -,
, -,

" .: .
// , , / . (.).

. , 1997, .
3 8 9 -3 9 9 .
12 Nike, Inc. Annual Meeting o f Shareholders, September 23, 1998, p. 3.
70

. ""
,
( " ")
( ).
,

, .
.
, ,
, , ,
.

90-,
.

,
. , ,
,
,
(" ", " ... ", "
"),
, '.
" " ( "" ("Malboro")
" " ("" ("Fanta)
" PEPSI" ("-" ("Pepsi-Cola")
"" ( "')
" " ( ITLV)
" " ( " " ("Golden Moscow')
" ( "'),
" " ( " " ("Red Bull')
" , " ( " " ("Pall Mall')
" " ( "').


,

,
. ""
( ) ,

.
.
, "
" .
71


, 70
80- |3.
" "
|4, ,

, ,
, ,
"". , ,

. ,
,
" "
,
. ,

,
.
, "",

, ,
" "
. ,
, "",
.

"" . "" (look)
"" (gaze) 15. ,
. . ,
, |6.
, , ,

13 ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
14 . . 7 8.
15 Lacan J. Of The Gaze As Objet Petit a / / The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-
Analysis. W.W. Norton, 1998 (1981), pp. 7475.
16 ,
, "". ,
"".

, ,
.
72

,
"", "" (stain).
.
.
( " ", ) (
"" ).
,
, , ,
(
""), .
-
, , , ,
(. . , ).
-
, ,
.
, ,
.



,
.
|7, (
) ,
.
" ".

?
. .
, -
, , .
,
,
.
, , .
,
|8.

17 Som ig . Some Remarks on Linguistic Strategies o f Persuasion / / Language, Power; and


Ideology. Studies in political discourse / Ruth Wodak (ed.). John Benjamins. 1989, pp.
102-103.
18 , " ,
.
73


, ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
1<. ,

, (
). ,
,
,
, "" "
", ,
.
,
. ,
- , ,
, , ,
"" . , ,
.

.


.
.
, .
, ,
, ,

.

. ,
,
.

19 Fairclough N. Discourse and Social Change. Polity Press, 1992, p. 120.


74

(
,
)
.
,
20.
.
- ,
,
. ,
.

"" ("Zippo") " " 21

" "
. ,
,
, .
. . ,
, .
. , ,
,
. .
. ,
. ,
, . ,
, , .
,
"" .

.
,

20 (Jakobson R. Two aspects of Language and two types o f aphasic


disturbances// JakobsonR., Halle M. Fundamentals of Language. 1956, Gravenhage: Mouton,
pp. 6996)
.
. , XIV "
".
.
, .
( , ),
( ""
""
).
21 Cosmopolitan, 1996, . 121.
75

, - .
-
, ,
, ,
. ,
:
"", " -
-. ,
, ,
,
.
" Mobile" ",
..." 22

.
.
"", , .
, , .
, - ,
, .
", ...",
.
- ,
. .
,
( ),
.
, ,
. ,
, .
.
,
"" : ,
, .

, ,
.
" " ("Visa") " " 23


. .

22 , 1996, 12 (7), . 11.


23 , 1998, . 1.
76

, , .
"",
""
. ""

.
" "
, "". ,
, , .
,
,
,
"" ,
.

.
, ,
. ,
.
.
, -
, .
,
" ".

, ,
.
, 7080- .

" " 24, ,
. ,
,
.
,
(-!), "":
, , "", " ".
"": "
", " ", " ".

, .

24 , 1996
36 ( , 1996,
44, . 6).
77

, , ,
,
. , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
-,
, " ".

, .
, , ,
,
,
. , ,
.
:
(
).
,
"", "", 25
, ,
.
,

. , , "
" ,
, .
, -


,
,
- .

.
,
,
.

25 . .

-
(
)

, -,
, -, .
, - ,
,
.
" ,
. ,
-, , -,
, -,
, -,

.

,
, ,
: , ,
, .
"" ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
""
( " ("Poly-
brillianse) "" "",
" " ""),
. "" ("Dove")
" ", " " ("Milford") "
", "" ("Sorti") "
", "" ("Raffaello") "", ""
("Lux") " , -
- 79

", " ",


"", ,
, ()
. : " ",
: "
, , ,
, , ,
, ", , .

(
) .
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
" ".
: " ", , "
", " () ( !)", (
), ; ,
, , ,
,

, , ,
, ,
" " ("Vidal Sassun"), " ("Stimul"),
"" ("Pickweek"), " " ("Oil o f Ulay").
?
"" .
,
.
-
-
" " ("They live"). ,
, , ""
, , ,
, ,
.
, 15 -
, " ",
"
.
: "
", "" "".

80

: ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, -
, ",
, ,
, , ,
,
".
. ,
,
, " - " .

("" ("Bounty") "),
.
.
, ,
. 60-
,
,
. ,
, ,
, .
, -
" ",
. ,
, ,
, "" ,
, .
,
, "
",
, .
, , ,
, , , , .
,
. ,
, ,
,
. "
, "",
" (. ).
, ,
- 81

, .
"", ,
, ,
:
: , ?
, .
() (
), " ,
" 3. .
, , ,
. ,
, .
, , :
.
: " , ,
, " ".
, , ,
,
.
, ,
() .
"" ("Nivea") " ",
( , " ",
-, ), . "
", ,
. "" ",
", , , .
.
"" ( ,
):
".
- .
,
,
.
: "
"belle" "-
" (Belle colore). ( ,
, ) ,
.
, ,

, .
82

"" ("Levante") " ",


,
. "
", ,
, ,
.
"" " "
, ,
" ", . .
, .
:
.
,
,
? ,
"" (""),
.
, " 90- ,
, ,
. ""
,
,
. -,
,
, .
.
"" .
""
"" . ,
,
"",
. , ""
- . "
",
"". , "",
, ( ,
),
,
, : " ,
",
" ".

, , ,
"" ,
- 83

, , .

,
. ,
, ,
.
"". :
, .
, ,
(", , "), ,
.
, (
-
).

:

(!)
, ?
, . " .

,
",
,
, ( ) ,
( ) ,
, .

,
.

,
.
" ", .
,
. ,
.
: " ,
.
, , ,
, .
"", , " ",
.
, .
, ,
84

. " "
,
" , , , ,
". ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
, , -,
, .
, ,
( , -

, ,
), , , ,
- ,
.
,
(
).
.
, "
". ,
, ,
, " " (
),

,
( XIX .) -
.
:

. . * 2000* ( ?... *),
, , 2000

. 2000> ( ?... >), >,


, 2000


.

,
.
,
(!),
.
,

.
:
" " " "
.
,
,
. , "
..." 2.
184
18 .
, " ,
, ,
".
, . -

1 : . .
. .: , 1998.
2
. .: , 1997, . 44.
88

,
3.
. . 239254
,
.
4.
,
,
5.
. 211
, 6.
, "", . .
,
, 7.
,
" ",
, -, ,
.
1992 .
"". ,
,
,
, ,

8.



. 228 , .
242 :
.
, (
),
>-

3 , . 56.
4 , . 89.
5 , . 28.
6 , . 99.
7 , . 112.
8 Easton S. The problem of Pornography: Regulation and the Right to the Free Speach.
London., New York: Routledge, 1994.
89

" " (,
, -
. , " "). "
"
.
(
),
.
.
, ""
.
, ,
-
,
.

,
( )
,
, .

, " ",
. ,
-
,
,
,
. . -
, , , , ,
.


" ", "
", "
" " ,

".
. 4 " "
... ,
..." ( , ,
, ,
, ). ,
,
- . , ,
90

. -,
,
. 37 , "
,
,
,
". -, ,
" ".
, ,

.
. , "-"
"- ", , , , "
" ,
""
. "- "
"
".

" "

.
,
"" . ,
" ",
"
" " + " ( ,
). , -
,
"
". ,
( ) ,
( ,
)
. 1 . 4 " "
(,
). , ,
"".

,
. ,
.. 240 241 . ,
" " " " ,
.
91

: 1990 .
89 , 1991 . 44, 1992 . 27, 1993 . 85
1994 . 226 .
"
" . 4, . 6 :
" -

,
".
, ""
( ) ,
. . - "-
"
, , .
, . 4 -
,
,
.


.
.

I. () .
"
, ".
.
, ,
, -.
.
, , ,
. ,
;
-, ;
- -,
, " "9.
,
,
. -

9 . -. . . 11
(27), 1996, . 7.
92

,
-
- -.
, , :
" .
,
,
, , ...
, ... - ,
( . . .).
...
:
,
, , -
(
),
, , , ,
" |0.
, -
, ",
". . :
"... ,
"" ( , , ).
, "
", " ",
", "
()"".
,

-. ,
.
, ,
-. ,
,
.


.

( ,

).
. ,

10 .
" .
93

" , ,
12.
. 4 " "
, ,
:
"
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
;

,
()
;

, -, - ,
,
()
....
. 9 "

, -, -
. ,
, :

,
, (
, );
-, -
(
) 23 4
( );
-, -
,
23 4 (
);
-, -
()

".

,

12 .
94

( , ,
. .); ( ,
, )
" ".
, "
",
, , . . ,

"", (

). , , " "
, "
",
.
, . 4 "
,
, ",
" ,
, ".
. 2 , "
,
...
",
- (
), .
,
,
" ,
".
,
, " ", "
", " "
. , ,
( ,
, ). -,

(
/ /
). -,
,
-, . . ,
; ""
(. ) - (. ). ,
95

,
,
.
,
"", "", ""
. ,
,
, .
,
, ,
.


;
.
,
,

.
, , ""
(
),
"-", ,
, " ", .
.
"" ""
. ,

.
, homo sapiens
,
( "cultura" , ,
, ).
:

.
, ,
,
. ()
.

,
() ().
,
96


.
,
.
.
. , ( ,
) , ,
,
.
" :
"" () "graphein"
"graphos" (, ). "
( ),
-.
"
. , . .,
" |3.
,
,
. .III
"
..."
,
. "
;
,
,
( . . .)-, ....
...". ,
,
() , ,
.
IV, , "
,
... ,

". , , , ,


.

-

13 , 1962.
97


.
,
, ;
,
;
.
,
( )
,
.

. ,
,

, (.
1). ,
, ,
(
-),
.
. , 1997
.
"
. (,
"").
, ,
.


, .
, 1997 . . . , . .
, . .
"

".
.
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, .
98

II. ,
1998 ., "
.

, ;
(, , ):
" ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
() ,
, ,
,
" (. 4).

"
" (. 2).

.

,
.
,
" ...
,
" (. 14). ,
,
.
(
).
,

,
"
"

. ,
,
( ).

, ,
,
,
.
, .
99

,
(, ,
). ,
, ""
-, - ,
,
, - .
,
. , -,
, ,
: -
,
"" , -
, . -
( ), ,
.
,
, " "
-,
. , -

. ,
, " , ,
()
, ,
, ,
", .
, , ,
,
,
( , ),
!
( , ,
!).

, -
,
.

,
,
.
,
-.
100

,
,
:
" ,
,
10 .
.
,

. ,
, .
,
,
" 14.
, , "
,
".
,
, " "
,
, ,
,
...",

.

,
" ,
, .
.
,
(brothel slut, chattel whore).
, ,
,
,
.
, , ,
, -,

14
. : .
.
. (E /C N .G /1996/4.
101

, , - .
-
""|5.
,

pro contra. pro-pornography
.
, ,
-, ,

, .. ""
( , ,
).
pro-pornography
, -
, ,
.
( ), . ,
, , ,
. ,
: ,
.
" ,
..."|6. ,
,
(, , , ,
), :
" ,
..." ,7.
, , :
-
. -. ,
,

( ,
"
", ).

15 Dworkin A. Pornography and Male Supremacy / / Gender, Race and Class in Media /
D ines G ., Humes J. (eds). London: Sage Publication, 1995, p. 240.
16 . . .: , 1997, . 66.
17 , .72.
102

- ,
,
, .

( ),
.

. , ,
,
.

,
, . ,

, ( ).

.

,

.


. ,
, , .
,

, , ,
.


,

, ,
.
, .
,
. , , ,
, , , ,
-

103

. " , ,
", . ,
,
.
, .
1983 . , ,

"
".

" ,
" |8.
:
"
/ ,
:

, ( );
,
;
,
,
;
, ,
, , ,
;
,
;
(, , ,
) , ;

;
, , , ,
, , ,
, "|9.
,
()
.

18// . A. Definition o f Pornography// Pornography: Woman Violence and Civil Liberties.


A Radicol New View/ Itzin C. (ed.) Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 435.
19 DworkinA. Op. cit., pp. 138 139.
1 04

; , ,
, .
:
" , -
20.

"
. , " .
, , 21.

"
.
,
"
" ",
".

,
,

, , ,
,
. 80- .
: , ,
, , , .

(.) , 14-
, "
".
"
".

:
"
, ,
. (), , ,
, () ,
, ,
,
. ... "" ()
, ,
, ;

20 , . 139.
21 .
105

,
, , , . ."22.
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
, /,
, .
""
. .
, ,
, -
. , ,


,
( 1978 . 4
.
1989 . "Pornography Victims Compensation
Act", , , ,

,
. .
1990 .,
.

, ,
.
( ),
. ,
, ,
.
,
1989 . , ,
,
.
: 1975
1986 ., .

22 , . 140.
23 , . 242.
1 06



,
.
-
. ,
.
,
(, , ).

, ,
.
,
:
" ,
, , ".

.
,

.
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
.

,
,
.
, .
, , ,
, ,
,

.
. ,

.
, ,
.

. , ,
,
.

(members) :
1


.
.


, .
1990 . " " ,
"" ,
" " ,
,
, ,
, 2.

. 5 1990 . ,

. , ,
,
,

1 . .: Goscilo . Dehexing Sex: Russian Womanhood


During and After Glasnost. Ann Arbor, b y the University o f Michigan Press, 1996, ch. 6,
pp. 1 3 5 -1 7 0 .
2 . .: ., .
/ / , 1990, 30 .7 ., . 38. 15-
" " 25 1990 . 1990 .

. , ,
, ""
. : " ?"
: " ".
1 08

"" "" 3.
1992 . ,
, ,
.
, -
,
" ", ,
,
,
. "" :
" , ""
[]"4.
,
. ,
" ",
.
, , ,
,

, ,
,
" ...
, , ,

" 5.
, ,
" ,
, ", ,
, . ,


, , , :
, ,
.
,
90-,
? ,

3 "
" (, 1 9 9 1 , 2 ,. 16 18).
4 , 1991, 2, . 3.
s " " ""
1991 . 1994 . "" ,
"".
(members) : 10 9

?
,
6.
? ,
, ,
,
,
.

,
"",
:
( ),
( ),
(
). (
) 7
,
, .
,
,
,
( ,
, ,

), -
8. , 80- ,

6 1993 . 80% -
.
7 ,
, ,
,

.
, 1983 .,
'' : "
(Pornography and Sexual Violence: Evidence o f the Links. London, Everywoman Ltd.,
1988). : Downs
D. A. The N ew Politics o f Pornography. Chicago, University o f Chicago Press, 1989.
8 ,
(1990), ,
, :
, , ,
, .
. .: Mercer. Just Looking for Trouble: Robert Mapplethorpe
11 0

,
(,
Feminist Anti-Censorship Taskforce, FACT),
, .

, ,
9.
, 1967 . |0,

.
,
, ,
"
, "
, ,
, , , ;
, - ;
- (, SEXTEX),
"Dial-a-Porn",
" "
, , , , ,
"
" "-" |2. ,

and the Fantasies o f Race, Segal, pp. 92 110. ,


- - ( ,
, ,
),
. ,
"2 Live Crew" "As Nasty As They Wanna Be",
.
9 xl.
, ,

,
"", 500
(.: Pornography and Sexual Violence: Evidence o f the Links. London,
Everywoman Ltd., 1988, pp. 10 11).
, , .
,
, , , ,
"" .
10 Perspectives on Pornography / Hughes D. A. (ed.) N.-Y.: St. Martins Press, 1970, p. xiv.
'1C m.: Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography Final Report, 1353. U. S. Department
o f Justice, 1986.
12 .: Hawkins G., Zim-
ringF. Pornography in a Free Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3052.
(members) : 111

"
" " ",
, -
.
, , , "
", .
,
, "
" 13,
, ,
|4. ,

"" "" 15,
.

, ,
, ,
:

13., , : .
/ / . . .: , 1997, . 6597.
, " ", -
, ,
, , .
14 ,
, "
" 1968 . (Pornography and Sexual Violence: Evidence o f the Links. London, Everywoman
Ltd., 1988, p. 22). . .: The Question o f Pornography: Research Findings and
Policy Implications / Donnerstein (ed.) N.-Y.: Free Press, 1987; For Adult Users Only: The
Dilem ms o f Violent P om ography/G ubarS., HoffJ. (eds) Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1988.
15 " "
, , " "
. " "
, "
". ,
(Harlequin romance) " ".
, , -
, , , ,
, . .:
Faust . Women, Sex, and Pornography. N.-Y.: Macmillan, 1980; Modleski T. Loving With a
Vengeance. 1982. Reprint. New York and London: Methuen, 1984; Radway J. Reading the
Romance. Chapel Hill: University o f North Carolina Press, 1984; Snitow A. Mass Market
Romance: Pornography for Women Is Different / / Radical History Review, 1979, 20, pp.
141 161. ( : SobleA. Pornography: Marxism, Feminism, and
the Future o f Sexuality. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1986, p. 21, n. 41).
112

" ,
; " "
;
, " |6.
, , , ",
". , , ,
,
,
,
. , "
" ""
, , , , . .,
" ,

, ,
"|7.
,
,
, , , "
" , " " , "" , "
" ,
-
" " 18.
,
" ",
""
|9' 20. ,
, , 21.

16 -, 1986. . :
Cole S. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto: Amanta Publishers, 1989, p. 170, n. 18.
17 Loth D. The Erotic in Literature. N.-Y.: Julian Messner, 1961, p. 10.
18 "Last Gasp", " ()", ,
- , ,
, , -, , , , , ,
. : , , ;
, , , . . ,
.
19 Burgess A. What Is Pornography? / / Perspectives on Pornography / Hughes (ed.), p. 5.
20 , ,
, " ,
,

" (C oleS. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto: Amanta Publishers, 1989, p. 45).
21 " ,
" (Hyman S. .
In Defense o f Pornography / / Perspectives on Pornography / Hughes (ed.), p. 40).
(members) : 113


,
, ,
,
. (1970) ,
"" ,
"
", "".
(1979) "" "",
", ,
"; ,
,

" , , . .".
,
("") ("
") ,
"",
, "
" 22.
, ,
"" ""
23. ,
,
. ,

( ) ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,

22 , : "Commission on
Pornography and Obscenity", 1967 .; "
Office Departmental Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship" "Attorney
Generals Com mission on Pornography". . .: Hawkins G., Zimring F. E. Pornography
in a Free Society, pp. 2029.
1986 . .: Bloom . Grinding with the Bachelors: Pornography in the M achine A g e //
Perspectives on Pornography / Day C., Bloom C. (eds), pp. 925.

.
, ,
" " ,
: " ;
". (Attorney G enerals Commission on Pornography I, 1986, p. 78).
23
. . "", 1992, 2,
. 16.
114

"-
" , "" "
" 24. ,
,
.

, ("
", ),
,
" "
"",
,
,
. (
, ,
,
.)
,
,
-:
" "25.

( , [Steiner
G.], [van der Haag .], . [Elliott
G. .]) ,
( , [Levin .], -
[M ichelson P.J, [G oodm an N .])
26.

24 , , (Cleland J. Fanny
Hill, 1749), ( Reage P. The Story o f , 1954) ,
, "" . ,
, ( ;
. .: Bataille G. Death and Sensuality: A Study o f Eroticism and the Taboo, 1969)
" ". , ,
,
" , ,
", , ,
. .: . . .:
, , 1997, . 6597.
25 . : C ham eyM . Sexual Fiction. London and New York: Methuen, 19 8 1.
, , , ''
".
26 . .: Perspectives on Pornography / Hughes (ed) N .-Y ., 1970.
(members) : 115

" "
,
" ",
27. ,
, ,
, , , "", "-
", "", " " " " "
" ("Snuff")28. ,
,
, " " ( -
), "".
, , ,
,
,
,

29.
,
, ,
, -
.

27 Cole S. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto: Amanta Publishers, 1989, p. 162.
28
" " (1972) ,

: , .
,
" " ,
, ,
. "
" (Ordeal). . .: CrabbeA. Feature-Length Sex F ilm s// Perspectives on Pornography
/ Day C., Bloom C. (eds), N.-Y., 1988, pp. 4468.
" "
"", "Snuff",
1976 . ( "
") .
,
, -"".
,
, (. .: Clover . J. Her Body, Himself: Gender in the
Slasher Film / / Representations, Fall 1987, 20, pp. 187228). To,
" " " ",
( Williams L. Hard Core: Power, Pleasure and the Frenzy ofthe Visible. Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University o f California Press, 1989, pp. 189195).
24 P. .: TongR. Feminism, Pornography, and C ensorship/
/S o c ia l Theory and Practiced, Spring 1982, 1, pp. 1 18, esp. pp. 10 12.
116

, ,

.
,
:
.
,

. ,
,
. , ,

, ,
1) 2)
, . ,
, "
" ,
, .

,
" " 30
,
,

, (
, )
31. ,
, ,
(
) , ,
. ,

30
,
, , .
(Sheldon R., Arens . 1932). "
" .: Ewen S. and . Consuming Images: The Politics o f Style in Contemporary
Culture. N.-Y.: Harper Collins/Basic Books, 1988.
31 ., , .: Ewen S., Ewen E. Channels o f Desire: Mass Images and the Shaping
o f American Consciousness. N.-Y., 1982; SobeS R. The Manipulators: America in the Media
Age. Garden City, N.-Y., 1976. ,

, : Key W. . Subliminal Seduction: Ad M edias
Manipulation o fa N ot So Innocent America. N.-Y.: Signet, 1973.
(members) : 117

,
"" ,
, , ,
, . ,

.
, ""
(
),
"" ("People") ,
, , " ".



, "
" 32. ,
,
( ,

), , ,
" " "
" , ,
[ ]
33.

[ ] 34.
, , , "
", 35' 36.
,
,
( ) ,
,
- .

32 Foucault . History o f Sexuality, vol. 1. Trans. Hurley R. N.-Y.: Vintage Books, 1990, pp.
3 6 -4 9 .
33 ., , "-", "
" : "
, , " (
? / / -, 2, . 3).
34 ColeS. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto: Amanta Publishers, 1989, p. 41.
15 E llis J. P h otography/P orn ograp hy/A rt/P ornography / / Screen 21, 1980, I,
pp. 81 108.
36 . : ",
".
11 8


, ,
,
.
, , ("
") (
"",
).
, -
, ,
. ,

, -
( ) ,
. , [
]

, , ,
, ,
. ( ,
) 37
, ( ) 38
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
. , ( ,
) , ,
,
,
[] 39.

""
, ,
, , ;

37 . .: Williams L. HardCore: Power, Pleasure and the Frenzy o f the Visible. Berkeley
and Los Angeles: University o f California Press, 1989, pp. 184228.
38 ",
"
(.: M acKinnon . / / Pornography and Sexual Violence: Evidence o f the Links.
London, Everywoman Ltd., 1988, p. 9).
39 Brod H. Eros Thanatized: Pornography and Male Sexuality / / Man Confront Pornography /
Kimmel M. (ed.) N.-Y.: Crown, 1989, p. 197.
(members) : 119

, ,
. ,
,
40.
""
,

. ,

[ ]
.
, ,
, , ,
,
"
[ ] . ,
, ,
,
. -
-
.
41, , -
" ".
"

I

, ,
,
. ,
, , "
,
, ,
,

.

40 ,
. .: Williams L. HardCore: Power, Pleasure and the Frenzy o f the
Visible. University o f California Press, 1989, pp. 184 196.
41 , , ,
"''
, ,
", []
(. .: Kappeler S. The Pornography o f Representation. Minneapolis: University o f
Minnesota Press, 1986, pp. 4546).
120

, ,
,
( )
,
( ) 42.
-,

[within and outside the form?].
,
,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
,
[],
, ,
43.


44.

42 ,
, ( Cole S.
Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto: Amanta Publishers, 1989, pp. 7 12, 2425).
(DworkinA.
Pornography: M en Possesing Women. N.-Y.: E. P. Dutton, 1989, xxxiii).
, ,
,
"", "" ,
. ""
.
, 90-,
,
.
43 SobleA. Pornography: Marxism, Feminism, and the Future o f Sexuality. Yale University
Press, 1986, p. 150.
44 , "",
, , .
, ,
,
,
, (
).
, , -
. ,
.
(members) : 121

,
, ,
(,
),
, , ,
,
. ,
(
,
)
, " "
, 45.

:
""
"" ,
. ,
graphos
( , ) 46,
: "
"
, . -
"
" 47' 48.
,
,
.
" " 49
, ,

(

45 ,
, : Burstyn V. Women Against
Censorship. Vancouver and Toronto: Douglas and McIntyre, 1985.
46 pomographos , ,
,
( ). . .: Tong Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship
/ / Social Theory and Practice 8, Spring 1982, 1, p. 2).
47 Brendel O. The Scope and Temperament o f Erotic Art in the G reco-Rom an World / /
Studies in Erotic Art. N.-Y.: Basic Books, 1970, p. 64.
48 , " ", ,
, "".
49 , "", -
: Intergirl: A Hard Currency Hooker, trans. Bouis A. W. N.-Y.: Bergh
Publishers, 1991.
122

),
, ,
,

. "" "
,
. ,
,
,
[ ].
" "
100000 , "" :
[] ,
,
" ",

" ", .
,
( ),
, ,
,
"", "" "", -
"" "".
, ,
:
,
,
, , , .. ,
, ,

, .
""
, (

),

/ (: ) :
1) ,
(.
, ,
); 2)
, ,
(
); 3) ,
(members) : 123

(
, ,
, ); 4)
" " "-",
,
" ", , ,
. , ,
;
, , ..
,
" " , , "[ ]
".
, , :
"" , , ,
,
,
, .
,
. ,
, : "
", " ", " (.. ) "
.. ,
,
.
,
1991 1992 ., ,
.

; ""

,
50,
. 90-
( ), ""
; ""
.
;
.

,

50 90- -,
,
.
124

, .
,
,
(, 1991 .
"" ( 2)
" ";
("",
3 6, );
(, " ,
"-"). "
"
, ,
:
,
"
, .
"" "" ,

, "
" "",
,
, ?
, "",
"-", " " (
), " -", ,
.

; ,
; , ;
(
, ) 51; ,

51 ,
(,
). "", ,
, , " ".
.
,
: ,
, ,
, , ..
,
,
;
; "
" .
(members) : 125

."" (
);
" , , "; "" ,
; - 52.

,
,
, (
).
(
, ) "",

.
, "
" .
,
"" ,
,
, .
-. ,

, , ,
. ""

, " ".
, , ,
, , ,
.
- (
), 90- 53

52 ,
: ,
-, "
". , 1990; , 1990; "" . .
""
, , "
" (
,
, ). .
"", . 3 14.
,
,
-.
, ,
.
126

: 1) ""
, ; 2) ""
"" , ..
" ", ,
, ; 3)
, .. ,
( ,

" " ""
" " ); 4)
"".
,
,
.

"" :

,

,
. ,
, ,
,
" ",
54. ,
, , ,
[]
(, ; , ,
; , ).
, ,
(
),
- .

54 ,
" ",
, :
(
) ( );
, "" ("", "");
, (
, , , , ).
, , ,
(SobleA. Pornography: Marxism, Feminism, and the Future of Sexuality. New Haven
and London: Yale University Press, 1986, pp. 5658).
(members) : 127

, , ,
, , ,
, ;
" ".
, , ,
, , ,
, .
( ,
, ),
, ""
.
; ,
(
, , , " "),
55,
,
. ,
, ( , "-
", " - , " 56). ,
, -
,
, , 57- 58.

; , ,
, (
" "",
)
. , ,
( , )
, .
(
) "" (
",
,
). , , -

, "-", ,
. , "-"
. "" 1991 .
, ,

, .
56 , 1991, 2, . 89.
57Cole S. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto, 1989, p. 41 .
58 . .: Kwinter K. The Fashioned Face / / Fuse, March 1980.
1 28

,
" " 59,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
:
" , ,
. ,
, . ,
" 60.

" " , ,
.

. ""
, ,
" , " ,
( ). ,

, " " .
, ,
" " (
).
,
[ ],
,
:

" .
, .
, . (
.)
.
. ,
,
, .
.
" 61.

,
" " ,
, ,
.

, 1991, 2 , . 42.
60 , . 43.
61 Berger J. Ways of Seeing, 1972. Reprint. London: BBC and Penguin Books, 1977, p. 54.
(members) : 129

"" ,

, "
" (" "),
, " ".
( ), (
), " " ...

, ,
, , -
, , ,

.

.
"" ,
"",
"" 62.
, , , -
""
:
" . ,
.
, .
; .
,
"63.
,
,
, , . ,
,
: ,
. -
, "
" "",
.

62 Cole S. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto, 1989, pp. 3637.
63 Berger J. Ways o f Seeing, 1972. Reprint. London: BBC and Penguin Books, 1977, p. 47.
130

"" :

"" ,
, -
:
, , .
,
"",
,
.
( ),
, ,
. .,
, .
""
,
, , , ,
, "
" 64.
,
" ,
,
. , 65,
,
,
,

. , "
", ,
, " "66.
( -), (
- ) 67.

64 Cole S. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto, 1989, p. 36.


65 , (, ) ",
", , " " (Cole
S. Pornography and.., p. 32).
. .: Segal L.
Sweet Sorrows, Painful Pleasures / / Sex Exposed: Sexuality and the Pornography Debate /
Segal S., M cIntosh M. (eds). London: Virago Press, 1992, pp. 6364.
67 ,
"to fuck", .
"" "" (
"", ""). .
.
(members) : 131

"
"
. 1991 1992 .

( )
1:100 68.
,

, "" (1972).
, ""
,
( ).
,
(" ")
(" "), ("
"). , "
" ( , , ,
), , .
? + = , ;
+ = , 9.

,
: ,
, ; ,
, .
,
80- 90-

, - . ,

.
, "",

, .
:
( ), ,
...
.
.

, ,
(
: , ).
69 Cole S. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto, 1989, pp. 3738.
132

( ),
,
,
, . ,
,
, ( )
, "" , ,
.

. ,
, .
, ,
" ",
" " 70. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
,

( , ).
" " ,
,
:
,
", ", ,
.

, ""
, ,
. ,
,
"" , ,
. ""
( "", ),
,
, (,
) 71,

70
( -
), " ". ,
.
71 ,
, . .: Barthes R. Striptease / / Mythologies. N.-Y.: Hill
and Wang, 1972, pp. 8487.
(members) : 133

.
, ,
,
. ,

.
:
,

,
(, ) (
),
.
"" ,

, ,
" " 73.
,
,
,
. ,
: " , ,
, , " 74.
,
(
),
.

, ,
,
,
.
,
90-, :
,
, ,
,

72 "Les Bijoux Indiscrete" . .: Williams


L. HardCore: Power, Pleasure and the Frenzy o f the Visible. University o f California Press,
1989, p. 1.
73 . .
74 . / / , 1992, 12 [115], . 2.
134

, ,
,
.
,
(" ")
.

,
(, "
" 75 .
"").
,
- , .
:

1. (
, " " - , " "
) 7. "
"
,
.
2. ,
(
, - " "
"), ,
,
.
3.
. ,
(
), , " ".
, , , , ,
, (?)
(? ?), , -,
( ), -,

75 ,
"" " ", "
", ", "" "", "
", "".
,
.
76 "-, .
,
.
(members) : 135

"con" : "
", , : "" 77.
, ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
"",
( ): ,
-, , " "
, .
, ,
, .
[ ] , .
, ,
, , ,
,
: 1) , , ,
; 2) , , 78.
, , , "
" , ,
. , " "
,
,
; ,
" ", ( Lynn?),
,

, ,
. " " (
"
") .
: -
;
, ; , ,
, ( ).
"", "
" . "

77 . .: Merrier V. Master Percy and/or Lady Chatterley 11 Perspectives on Pornography


/ Hughes (ed.) N.-Y., 1970, p. 27.
78
.
" " ,
.
1 36

" ,
. ,
, ,
, " ".
, ,
, ,
,
. -
, ,
.
, (
) - "
", "".

,
;
, .
"" ,
.
""
"", ,
"" ("2328
", )
-
. .
""
,
(
).
:
,

, : "
, , , ". ,
,
. ,
,
, (
).
, ,
,
.
,
( ,
(members) : 137

), (
, )
(
, , ,
). ,
.
( ,
)

,
79.
,

. , "
"
" , " ,

. "money shot" ,
,
, (
, ),
, ( ), , "
" () (,
). -
( "-") ,
80,
. ,
,
,
. ,
: .
,
,
, ,

79 . .: Harlequin Romance and Harlequin Presents Editorial Guidelines. Ontario,


Harlequin Books, 1984.
80 , ""
,
, . ,
,
- " "
, ""
. .: ColeS. Pornography and the Sex Crisis. Toronto, 1989; DworkinA.
Pornography: Men Possessing Women. N.-Y., 1989
1 38

,
.
:
, ,
, , , "
" , , ,
, , .


,
Bildungsroman ( ),
,
""
, .
, ,
(
[] )
, . "
" , ,
,
: , , ,
, . ,

, ""
[ ].

. " "
,
, ,
. ,
, ( ,
)
, "" "", ,
, :
"", " -",
" "; , ,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
" ". , , ;
(members) : 139

,
. ,
.
" ""
, "
"
. , "
" , "
" , , , ,
,
(,
"", " "), (: "
, ...", "
... ", " , ,
..."). , , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, .
:


,

.

,

. "
", - -
,

( ) .

, .
"" ,
, .
( "" , )
,
, , 81.

81 , ,
.
1 40

90- "
",
(
) 82. ,
,
( ) "
". ,
,
( ), ,
: , ,
, ,
( ). ,


. " "
, , []
,
.
, , .
, ...
,
.
-
, ,
, :
, ,
,
.
" "
, ;
"" ,

.
( ""
, ),
.
: , ,
.
.

82 .
: . ? (
) / / , 1990, 9, . 334.
(members) : 141


;
, , , ,
, , (. . "
"). ,
: (
), ,
"" ( ,
, ); , ,
. , ,
( ), ,
,
" -" / .
,
,
" "83,
, : ,
, , , .
, ""
, ,
"" .

;
(1937) -
""
.
"" ,
, , ; ,
, ,
( , ).
,
, , ,
, ,
, . , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
84. , ,

83 , ,
(1926), , (1941).
. .: Hingley R. Joseph Stalin: Man and Legend. N.-Y.: M cGraw-Hill,
1974, pp. 1 0 6 -1 0 7 .
84 . .'.-
. ...
142

, -
,

.
,
, .

,

. ,
,
" ",
, .
, ,
,
. ,
,

? ,
,
, ,
,
,
.

,
1991 1992 ., 1994-
. "" ; ,
, "
", . ,
, ""
, .
, ,
, , .
, ,
, , " " "
".
, ,
,
,
,

, "" "". ,
(members) : 143

,

,
"" " ". ,
1994 .


450000 , , ,
, . 1994 . 11-
"" "--94"
,

, .

. ,
,

,
85.

85 . .:
. : / / , 1991,
59, pp. 7 9 -1 0 3 .

""
(
1990- .)

" "
, . 90- .
:
,
(. .
); -,
, ,

; ,
.
, :
-
,
; ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
, , ,
'.

. ,
, -

1 : " ,
, , (
, ) , , etc."
(GosciloH. Dehexing Sex: Russian Womanhood During and AfterGlasnost. Ann Arbor: The
University o f M ichigan Press, 1996, p. 140).
" " 145

. ,
, -.
,
- ,

90- .
?
,
"",
( , , ).
,
,
.
, ,
, , , ,
, /
, , . ,
,

, .
, . , . , . ,
,
;

,
, , ,
;
, , -. -
,
, .
,
,
, -
.
, ,
, .
, , ;
,
, ;
, ,
,
, . --
,

146

70 ,
.
, ("
, "), / ,
,
( , " " "
" ,
), - "",
" ".

, " ", " -
", "", "", " ", " ", "
" . .
(" ", "
")
(" ") ,
.
,

-. -,

( -, -, -,
- . .)
"", -
20- ., 60- 70-
"".
" "
(" ", " "). ,
-
,
. ,
-,

.

. :
-
( )
. ,
, ,
, ( -)
( ). ,
, , ,
, "" "".
"" 147


-
, ,
.
"". -, ,
, , 100
. -, "" ,
, 1899 .
,
. -,
,
, ""
""
"", ,
, ,
. , , -,
,
, .
.

, , ,
,
(, ),
- ,
.
"", - ,
, "" ,
-,
. "" ,
. ,
, , ,
, -
. ""
, -
, , 2,
,
- ,
, , ,
, , / (,
: " ,
", -
); -

2 , 1998, 36.
148

3, , /
,
,
( :
" ").
,
,
, " ".

, , "
XXI ?" 4
, . ,
, ""
, .
31- (1998). ,

,
.
" " ;
,
; , ,
,
. , , : "
". " "",
, .
" : , "
"" (???!!!) "
" 5. , ""
.
, . :
" 6.
"" ,

(!) , "",
. ,

, . -
,
.

3 , 1998, 44.
4 , 1998, 43.
5 , 1998, 3 1, . 42.
6 , 1998, 37, . 62.
" " 149

, . . ,
, , ;
, .. ,
, .
, , .
- .
,
( )
" ".
,
,
, , .

. "" ,
,
, , , ,
. , ,
,
. ""
,
(. , . 1, . -
8, . 9). , , ,
" ,
, " "
( , )
. , ,

(
: " " 10).
-
, , , ,
".
, , ,
" ",

7 , 1998, 26.
8 , 1998, 22.
9 , 1998, 42.
10 , 1998, 42, . 35.
" - , ,
"",
, "".
: "... , ,
" ( . " "// , 1998,
3 1 , . 45).
150

, .
"" , , ,
.

|2, ,
.
,
,
/, ,
.
, , ,
, (
- , ),
, : )
(
, ,
, ); )
(
); )
,
,
. " ,
,
,
, . ,
,
" !", "-"
-

" . . ...
, , , . ,
. : " ? .
, , ...". ( .
... //, 1998, 1, . 33).
"... .
..... !" ( . / / , 1998, 22, . 47). "...,
, ... , ,
, , , -
, " ( . [ .
] / / , 1998, 18, . 3234). " .
, . - , , .
, , ". "
( . . .) , ,
. , ...
" ( . . [
! / / , 1998, 5152, . 52.)
12 . 1998, 13.
" " 151

. " !" ,
, " " ""
(
|3).

,
, -
.
- , , .
,
, .
, , ,
,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
" " "
, " . ,
, ,
. ,

, , ,
.
, . , ,
, 90-
, -
.
,


.
(
)

. ,
, ,
,
, /
.
, , , ,
, .

13 , 1998, 49, . 8.
14 , 1998, 19, . 16 17.

: ,
"".
,
,
.
. , , "
"?

: ,
.
. . , ,
, , , ,
: ,
, - . -
. .
: " ?" : ",
, .
, ,
- ? ,
- .
. ,
, ,
. : " ,
, ". ,
- ,
.
, , . ,

. 30
.
, .
. :
-
, , .
153

, , ,
. -
. ,
,
.
II, , .

, .
.
.

" ".
, : "
, ".
. , " "
" " , .
.
, .
: , ? ,
, .
. ,
. , ,
, . ,
. ,

,
- , .

..: . ,
. ,
, ,
. , ?
, , , .
,
.

O.JL: , , , ,
. .
, .
?

..: , , -
?
.
154

O .JI.: , ,
" " .
"
", ,
, , "
" " .
,
-,
. .
. . ,
, , ,
,
, .
: , , .

..: ?

O .JI.: , . ,
.
. , " ",
- . , ,
, .
,
, , ,
. .
. .
, ,
, ,
, . ,
, . .

..: ,
. , ,
.

O.JL: , ,
.
,
.

..:
, .

O .JI.:
, . , - ,
, . .
155

,
70-, ,
" ". ,
. , ,
, .
, .
, .
, .
. , ,
. , ,
. , ,
, .

. ,
.
. , , -
. , , - .
: - ,
- - ,
. , - , .
softporn 1 , . , ,
.
, , ,
, .

..:
.

. .: , ,
.

..: .

. .: ,
.

, , ,
. (
, ) .
" " ("C aught looking").
backlash 2:

1 ,
. {.. . 1992 .) . .
2 (.) . .
156

, .
, : " , -
3. !" , ,
. ,
.

..: , ?

O.JL: ,
. .
. -
. ,
(
), .
, ,
. .

..: , .
, , , .
. .: :
,
,
, . ,
, ,
, .

..: ,
. ,

.
. , .
..:
. , ,
.
, ,
. , ,
.... -
. ,
. , ,
,
.
, , , , ,
. ,

3Sexual harassment (.) . . .


157

, .
. ,
. .

..:
.
?
O.JL: ,
, - .

. , ,
, .
.

..: ,
, , ,
?

O .JI: .
. ,
, ,
: "" " ("No" m eans N o"),
: " " " ("N o m eans
m ake it harder"). To .
- , . , -
, - ,
,
- . ,
,
. 1988

. , ,

- . : ",
?" : " ,
" . ,
" " (S h ell),
. : " , , ,
, , " ".
?" ", ".
.
, ,
. .
. ,
.
158

..: ,
. ,
? .
. .: ,
.
, , . ,
.
, .
,
, . ,
, ,
, . .

..: "repressed memory" 4


?

. .: . . -

. . ,
. ,
, : " !"
. ,
. , -
. .
, , .
.
. , ...
.
. (
), ,
, , , ,
.
, . ,
.
, , .
, , ,
, . .
, ,
, . .
.
,
,

4 (. ) . .
159

. ,
.
, ,
.
. ,
14 15 , .

..: .

O.JL: .
.
,
, .
, , ,
. . -
: " "" kinder,
, kirche (, , ),
"" , , . .
.

..: ?

O .JL: , . "-
" , .

, 1999 .

: ,
. ,
" ".
? - ?
:
: .
.
, . "
" . ,
, .
, .
.
, .
,
, .

, , , .
1999 .
.
. , , ,
.
. .
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
,
.

..: .

..: .
, "",
,
.
161

..: ""?

. .: " " .
" ", "".
. , ,
. , ,
: " " , ,
" ".
" "
.
,
- , , .

..: , , "
"
?

..: ,
- . ,
, .
.
. 8 ,
, ,
. , ,
. 20- . ,
" , !",
, 20-
, .

..: ,
. ?

..: 80- .,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
,

. ,
, , .
, ,
. ,
. , 90-
,
162

, 70%
, 30%
, . ,
, ,
.
, , .

.
. .
, ,
- - , ,
-
. .
,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
.
.
, ,
.
, - .

..: ,
, , ,
, .
,
, , ,
.
, .
.
?
. .: .

.
( ),
.

..: , ,
. .
..: ,
. , ,
163

- .

.

. , , ,
,
, , -
, . ,
,
, .

. ,
, ,
, . . ,
( 1993 . )
,
. 1993 .
,
, , , . .
. 1993 1995
- , : , -
, . 1994 . ,
, ,
.

..: , , .
, .
. .: . .
, . ,
, -
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
. 70- .
, . ,
, , , . ,
,
. .
: , .

.
.
164

..: , ,
, ,
.
, - .
..: , 1989 .,
. ,
. :
, .
.

..: ,
, ,
?

. .:
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, . .
, , . ,

, , .
. " ", "
", " "
.
, , .

..: , , , ,
,
.

. .: . ,
,
, .
. ,
, , .

..: ,
?
. .: .
, ,
. .
, , ,
165

, , ,
, .
.
, , ,
.
.
.
.
.
. ,
,
. - . ,
,
, .
.

..:
,
"".

. .: " " ,
. ,
,
, . .
" " ,
. , -
.

. .: ,
? ,
, .
. .: ,
. ,
" ". .
, ,
. - ,
.
.
. ,
... , ,
.
, " ". , ,
. ,
, :
" , ". ,
166

,
. : " ". ,
, .
, ,
, . ,

.

..: "",
,
, ,
( "") ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, -
, , , .
..: , ,
, ,
,
, .
.
.
,
.
.
. XX ,
. . ,
, .
, -
.
, . ,
,
.

...: ?

. .: , ,
. ,
.
.

. , ,
,
167

.
. .
, , .

..: ...

..: .
,
.
.
, ?!
, , , .
, .
,
.
. ,
, . :
, , .
, ,
.
,
, , . ,
,
.
,
.

, 2000 .

:

( )

,
, -
, .

.

,
, ,
. ,
,
.

1. ():
, (
),
, "-
". ,
,
, ,
: ? ? ? ?
? '?
.

1 . ,
( ) :
, . , ,
(, . .).

.
, ( ,
).
169

: .

"sex" , "" "".

,
: , ""
, , ,
, 2,
.
: W W W
3 alt.sex . "
" , ,
,
.


, ,
.
, .
,
.
,

.
4.


, ?
? , ,
?
2 (browser, "") ,
,
World Wide Web, WWW, ,
,
.
3 , -, WWW
, (
) .
(
). -
,
.
4 " " , ,
.
170

5

" ".
, , ,
,
-
.
,
:
.
( 6
), .
.
,
- .
-
,
, .
.

.
.
, .
,
, .


. , ,

.

. , ,
,
: , , - -
. .
,
: "Asian G irls", "Big
Tits", "O ral/A nal Sex", "G old Shower" . .
, ( )

5 , - ,
, .ru
6 ,
. " ".
171

, ,
1.
(
)
.
,
,
, , .
,
" ",
,

,
,
.

,
,
,
. ,
.
,
, :

,
. , () , -
9 10 "XXX N ude Girls!!!".
, ,
, " "

1 . .: . / / End ofthe World News,


6, http://im perium .lem n.ru//EOW N/eown6/sherman/.4sher/stories/TeKCTbi
"ff+,bdsm, mast, young, breast" "inc, me, m om , Fmm,bbb+".
"snuff, rape, tort, humil, pedo,
M M M M M f'.
9 :
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
10 ,
, . ,
,
, .
172

, ,
(" -
"), "".


, '
. ,
".
,
. ,
,
: ,

.
( for free... , -
?) ,
.

() "N ude Girls!!!" "For
Free!", "Click Me! . .

- |2,
, ,
, -
.
:
, postmodern condition13 .
, , .
, .
,
.

.
.. .
.
.

11 , .

.
12 . . http://w w w .zhurnal.ru/gallery/m irza/npoeK T

. , "
" .
11 (.) . .)
173

.
.
on demand.
,
.
,
.
,
" "
(
),
,

- .
, .
.
,
,
, . ,
, .

Pro contra
" "
Z hurnal.ru.
, .
, ,
- .
,

,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
: ,
, ,

.
, ,
,
( , , , ,
) .
174

, ,
" ",
( ,

). ,
-
.
, ,
. " "
"" ,
,
. ,
,
, .
, , ,
"" "" 13
.
, ,
,
, . ,
.
- . ,
, .
,
,
.
.
( : ).
, , ,
, . animal
sex 15
,
, , ,
.

:
, .
-

13 .: . :
/ / , 22, 1996.
14 ., : Take Back The Night / Lederer L. (ed.). N.-Y., 1980.; Dworkin A.
Pornography: Men Possessing Women. N. Y., 1989; Griffin S. Pornography and Science. L.,
1981.
15 (.) . .
175

.
, .
, .
"
" (C D A ),

.
( - -
).
,
Blue R ibbon,
. ,
: ,
.
CD A , .
, ,
, "
" (F em inists For F ree E xpression) "
" (A m erican Civil L iberties U n io n ).
,
|6.
,

, ,
( , ..). ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
. ,

, , .
, .
,

|7. ,
, .

16Strossen N. Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Womens Rights.
Scribner, 1994.
17 1994 .,
kaos4, ,
. "
", ,
.
176

.

. , , -
18, ,
,
|9.
, ,
,
,

20. ,
.
, , , ,
, ,
. ,
/
/ ,
?
" " ?
.
,

. - -
, ,
, .
,
.
2|. ,
,
, .
, ,
, .

.
.

18., : Sykes J. Sex, Censorship and the Internet, http://www.desk.nl/~hksteen/


wankgirlworld/sexcensor.html
19
" ",
(
).
20 Paglia . Vamps & Tramps. N.-Y., 1995.
21 . .: Ross A. The Popularity o f Pornography / / Cultural Studies Reader.
N.-Y., 1994.
177

,
( "" )
. 22
"" "",
" "/"." , ,
,
. ,

, ,
. ,
, " 23",
,
, .
, , ,
:
"" , ,
.
, ,
, . ,
:

, .
,
.
" -
",
, ,
... ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, ,

. , , , ,
, , , ,

22 ( Guest Book) ,
,
. ,
.
23 , , ,
, ,
.
178

, .
,

.
.
.

2. ():

.
, :
, . ,
,

, .

, ,
24.
- , IC Q 25
,
( ) . ,
- 26,
27.

24 ,
: , , ,
,
, .
25ICQ ( ) ,
, , ,
"." ,
:
. , ,
,
IRC M U D ( 90-
: Silverman . L. Virtual Reality Sex: a case study in
gender construction and the ethics of technology. 1995. http://odin.domainnarneservers.net/
-m itch/vrsex.htm l)
26 - ( on-line " ")
.
- ICQ.
-, " " ("
-"). " "
"- ".
27 . .: Ferganchick-Neufang J. Virtual Harassment: Women and Online
Education / / First Monday On-line Magazine. Vol. 3, 2 http://www.firstmonday.dk/
issues/issue3_2/fergan/index.html
179

" " - ,
28.
, ,

, ,
, ,
, 29.
"" ,
( )

, .
. ,
,
,
.
, .
:
, , ,
,
. ,
IC Q -
, . .

:

,
, . , - -
.
,
: 30.

28
.: Gilbert P. On Space, Sex and Stalkers// Women and Performance, Issue
17. http://www.echonyc.com/%7Ewomen/Issue 17/art-gilbert.html.
- .
29 ,
, .
- ,
, .
, .
30 , (
, ,
, , ,
, ). ,

, .
180

, , ,
- - .
:
,
31.
. ,

, . , - -
,
.

,
: , ( , )
.


: ,
. " " 32,
,

" ",
.
, ,
.
,
.

" " .

, .
,
,
-
:
"! ,
, , .

31 nickname, . ,
.
32 Home Page ,
- ,
curriculum vitae -
, . .
" " "Yahoo!"
181

, . , , ,
, . ".
,
, ( ,
, ,
- ).
( - - -
) : ,
. , .

. ,
, " ".

, . ,
.
, . -
, -, - - -
32, ,
, "
". IC Q ,
33.
, ,
,
. ,
(" ,
?") ,
,
,
/.

. (dyke)
-
, ?
, ? ,
(" , ,
, ,
, ?"),
.

32, "", .
33 ,
,
, . ,
, ,
.
182

, -
, ,
,
.

, 90-
35.

1984 . "
" 36, "

". ,
, .
,
,

.
, , ,
,
(-
) .
( )
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
?
?

?
37, -
/ .

35 ,
.
(. : Braidotti R. Cyberfeminism with
Difference / / New Formations, 29, Autumn 1996).
, -
-- (http://www.cfc.spb.ru/)
36 Haraway D. A Cyborg Manifesto / / Simians, Cyborgs and Women. Free Association
Books, London 1990. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/Haraway/CyborgManifesto.html
37 ., : Butler J. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex". New York
& London: Routledge, 1993.
183

,
, , , ,

.
,
. " "38, ,
, ,
, .
,
, :
: "
, , ",

.

.
: , ,
. ,
, "" .
, ,

.
.

3.

, ,
- , , ,

. ,
,
.
. , ,
. , "
"
.
, ,

. , ,
,
, . . ,

38 O Brien J. C hanging the Subject / / Women and Performance, Issue 17. ( h ttp ://
www.echonyc.com/%7Ewomen/lssuel7/art-obrien.html)
.
184

, / : "
" ,
( ). , ,
.
39 .
, ,
:
, .
. ,
,
,
. / , /
,
. ,
,
.

39 , ,
.
, , .
, , .: ., .
Ph. D. / / , 18 , 1998 .
(http://w ww .russ.ru/joum al/netcult/98-08-18/fridm n.htm )

ft'
/ (
. . < *, , 1998




,
. "
"
" ".

1973 .,
" " (Screen), 3 1975 .
" " 1.
,

.
" ".
"
" . " ,
, .
,
". , , 1975 .,
, ( )
, "
" (C u ltu ral S tudies) -
.
,
. ""
, - .

, , , .
, ( )

1 M ulvey Z.Visual and O ther Pleasures: Theories o f Representation and Difference.


Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1989.
188

,
( )
. ,
""
(
), ""

.2
. -,
.
, ,
(
) "", "", "",
"", " , "" . . , -,


. :

, ;
, ,
.

,
"" .
"",
, " ,
" .
, -
. ,
.
.
(
)
. , ,
,
. " "

2 , (,
) -
, , , " ,
, ...
, "
( Baudrillard J. The Ecstasy of Communication / / Postmodern Culture / Foster H. (ed.)
London: Pluto Press, 1983, p. 133).
189

.
( ,
) ("
"). (- )
,
.
( ). , "
,
".
"
", .
,
" " " "
. --
,

( , "
"). " ,
.
( "",
)" 3.

. " "
, ,
. , "
", :


. .
:
, ,
, "
"
(
) . , "

.

".
,
" " .

3 Mulvey L.Visual and Other Pleasures.


190

,
.
,
. ,
" , ,
, ".

: " , ,
,
".
"" , "
, , /
, , - -
".
, "", 4.
" : ,
" ,
,
" - " 5.
,

. " "
.

" ".
, " ,
", :
" , ,
- -.
,
. (
)
(). []
,
(to-be-looked-at-ness). ,
, : -
- ... "" ,
(signifies it). ...
( narrative).

4 LaconJ. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-analysis (1973) / Miller J.A. (ed.).
Trans, by A. Sheridan. Introduction by David Macey. London: Vintage, 1998.
5 Battersby C. Just Jamming: Irigaray, Painting and Psychoanalysis / / New Feminist Art
Criticism: Critical Strategies/ Deep well K. (ed.) Manchester: Manchester University Press,
1995.
191

,

.
... -

. ...
,
, , ,
, .
.

. ,
,
"6.

,
, ,
( ), " "
( -) . " ,
,
."
( "
" "); ,
" " ( film noir);
;
, ,
.

. ,
.
.
,
.
" "
, , . .
- ,
", " . ,
,
( ),
,
,
7.

6 Mulvey L .Visual and Other Pleasures...


7 Ibid.
192


""
" ,
, ". , - -
, , (
, ), , - , "
"
, ,
.
, -
,
"
". " " 8
,
(
"").
" ,
, .
, ,
..."9
:
" . ,
, ,
"10.
,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
, . ., ,
, .
,
, ,
, " "
. :
"
.
, , .
.

8 Burgin V. Perverse Space / / Interpreting Contemporary Art / S., Allen W. (eds).


London: Reaktion Books, 1991.
9 , . 125.
10 , . 130.
193

... ,
11. ...
... : . ,
, .
" " ,
, " 12.
,
,
, " "
. ,
. :
, ,
?
,
?


.

.
.
" / / " "
":
" ,
, , .
,
... . ...
, ... 13".

,
- , .
,
.
:
/ .
,

11 "
" 1929 . ,
, .
12 Burgin V. Perverse Space..., p. 138.
13 Pollock G. Feminism/Foucault Surveillance/Sexuality / / Visual Culture: Images and
Interpretation/ Bryson N., Holly . A., Moxey K. (eds.) London: University PressofN ew
England, 1994, pp. 1415.
194


. ,

, , , . ., ( )
: .
,
,
,
.
, ,
" ".
.
, :
"
, . "
": "" "
", , , "".
, "
", , ", . . ,
. "

" 14.
,
, ,
:
, (
), ...
. ,
, , "
, .
". 15.
(
"" )
" ",
. .
,
" , ...
. ... ,
[] "16.

14 Robinson . Border crossings: Womanliness, Body, Representation 11 Visual Culture:


Images and Interpretation / Bryson N., Holly . A., Moxey K. (eds.) London: University
Press of New England, 1994.
15 H. . no: Isaak J.A. Feminism & Contemporary Art: The Revolutionary
Power o f Womens Laughter. New York: Routledge, 1996, p. 78
16 Robinson H. Border crossings..., pp. 4243.
195

,
" " ,
.
,
. ,

,
, .
- " ",
, .
" "
,
. , ,
, , "".
" ... ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,
!
" 17.


" , , ,
.
"
? (W hat does it rep resen t?); ? (W hat do you
represent?)" ,
. 70-
, ,
18. 1968 . " "
" / ",
.
, , ,
, ,
,
, . .
:
" ?
? ?

17 Schneemann . Interview / / Re/Search #13: Angry Women / Juno A., Vale V. (eds). San
Francisco: Re/Search, 1991, pp. 7071.
18 JonesA. Body Art / Performing the Subject. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
1998.
196

,
? ...
, , , ,
?"19


,
, . -
"", ,
, :
" ; ,
.
. :
, , (
) .
/ "20.

1968 . "
". ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
, .
... , ,
, " "
.
, " " ,
. , "
" ,
. , , ,
: " '. !"
, : "
! !"

. , "" ,
. , ,
(
). ,
, , .
( , ),
.
" " ,

19 . . : Jones A. Body Art, p. 161.


20 Export V. Interview / / Re/Search #13: Angry Women / Juno A., Vale V. (eds) San
Francisco: Re/Search, 1991, p. 188.
197

. " ",
.

.
.
, " ".
, .
, "
" 70-,
,
21.

.
, ,
. "
,
" 22. ,
, , ,
, . ... , ...
,
,
... .
,
,
, ,
. "
". ,
, ,
.
.

.

- ,
, .
, -

21 ,
,
.
22 Newman . Marking Time: Memory and M atter in the Work of Avis Newman / / Inside
the Visible: An Elliptical Traverse o f 20th Century Art. In, of, andfrom the Feminine/ Curated
and edited by M.C. de Zegher. Flanders: The Kanaal Art Foundation, 1996, p. 273.
198

.
.
- ,
, . -

. , ,
, ,
, .
- ,
. -
;
"" ,
, , . ,
, ,
"
-, , .
/- .
, ,
-- -- ...
,

, , "23.
, -
.
, .

, ,
.
"", ,
( -
). - ,
.
, , " "
( ),
.
,
. -
- ,

.
, . . ,
.

23 . : Pollock G. Inscriptions in the Feminine / / Inside the Visible.., p. 77.


199

,
, ,
.
, -
, (
), ( -

) ( ).
" "
, .

( )

- ( 1990 .)
" " " -
" 24.
, , ,
. , "
",
,

" ".
, ,

,
, , ,
.
,
,
. , "
"
, .


" "
. , ,
, ,
25, " ",
,
? 26 ,

24 Kelly . (P)age 49: On the Subject o f History / / New Feminist Art Criticism: Critical
Strategies/Deepwell K. (ed.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
25 Krauss R.E. The Optical Unconscious. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1994.
26 SchorM. Wet: On Painting, Feminism and Art Culture. Duke University Press, 1997.
200


,
.

.
, . ,
, , ,

, , ,
,
.

, ,
"" 27.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
" "
: " - , ",
, , " ".
""
" "
, : " " "" ( ),
"", " " " ", " ", " "
" " (unforme ). ,
" "
.

, " "
- " ".
,
" " ,

, "
", , .

. , "
, " 28.

27 KramsR. . Cindy Sherman: U n titled /C in d y Sherman: 1975-1993. New York: Rizzoli,


1993.
28 . . no: Krauss R. E. Cindy Sherman: Untitled.., p. 44.
201

, "
".
(
),
,
, " ". ,
" " ,

,
, "
" ( ), . . .
( )
,
,
29.
,
""
. , "
''
, "" . , ,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
" ,
, ,

"", , , ,
.
,

. ,
"" 70-
. , , ,
,
, , ,

. ,
, , "
" " " ,
. , -

29 Mulvey L .Visual and O ther Pleasures: Theories o f R epresentation and Difference.


Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1989; Mulvey L. Fetishism and Curiosity.
Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1996.
202

,

30.
"" 80- . ,
, "
", .
,
, , ; ;
( " ").
,
, "", ,
, ,
, (
, ), .

,
,
,
, .
,
,
" "
:
" ,

, , ,
, ,
, ,
"31.
60- 7 0-,

, .

. ,
- " ",
.
/ ( ),
,
.
,

30 Owen G. Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism / / Postmodern Culture / Foster


H. (ed.) London: Pluto Press, 1983; Lyotard J.F. The Lyotard reader / Benjamin A. (ed.)
Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989.
31 Krauss R. E. Cindy Sherman: Untitled.., p. 93.
203

" "
, ,
"" , 32.
" "
.
80- 90- .,
,
" ".
, ,
. ,
" objet ",
(
- , . -
- -
). ,
" " - ,
,
. , ;

( ,
, -
). ,

, "
" (
, ).

, .
, , -
,
. , ,

. "", "", ""
, (
, 33).
" ...
" 34. ,
, , -

32
.: Derrida J. Laverite enpeinture. Paris: Flammarion, 1978.
31 Baudrillard J. The Ecstasy o f Communication / / Postmodern Culture / Foster H. (ed.)
London: Pluto Press, 1983.
34. . no: Krauss R. E. Cindy Sherman: Untitled.., p. 109.
204

. , ;
", , , ".
, , , "
", . 80-

"
" ", []
,
, " 35.

90- "
", . . , ,

. " ",
, "".
" "
,
"
". ,
"
. ,
( ),
- ,
- .

, , .
, .
, ,
,
36. ,
.
,
.

, ,
.
,
" ".
(
) , .

35 Krauss R. . Cindy Sherman: Untitled.., p. 111.


36 . no: Battersby . Just Jamming: Irigaray, Painting and Psychoanalysis / /
New Feminist Art Criticism: Critical Strategies / Deepwell (ed.) Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 1995.
205

,
" " ( " "),
,
"", -
, - ,
" ",
37. ,
, ,
( )
, ,
, , ,
, -, .
,
. , ,
, ,
. : (
) , ,
, , " "
. ,
( ) , -
, ,
, , -
, .
"" (,
, ,
)
, "" ""
, , .
, ,
. ,
, ,
, " , ".
,
,
.
, ,
,
"" .
.
, , ,
( -
). ,

37 Derrida J. Loreille de lautre. Montreal: V lb Editeur, 1982.


206

,
. 38.
,
" ,
,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, , . . , ,
: . , ,
,
,
,
( ) .

...

-,
39.
, .
, ""
. ,
"" .
,
" ...

,
. , "40.

.
,

. ""
"" ,
, ,
" ",
, ,
. , , , --

38 Derrida J. Loreille de lautre. Montreal: V lb Editeur, 1982.


39 Levin D.M. Introduction 11 Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision / Levin D. M. (ed.)
Berkley: University o f California Press, 1993.
40 X. . no: Levin D. M. Introduction.., p. 2.
207

, , , , , , , , -
-
41.
,
"", "" "".
,
. , ,
, ,
, , , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, .

42.
, , ,
.
. ,
.
, 70-
(,
, , ,
, ),
?
, ,
, "", ""
(), ", "", "", "" ""
,
, ,
.
: ?
, , " "
, ,

41 , ,
:
XX . (Jay . Downcast Eyes: The Denigration o f Vision in Twentieth
Century French Thought. Berkley: University o f California Press, 1993).
42
- .
, , ,
( , ).
,
.
208


,
. "
.
" ,
" "
. ,
"",
(telos),
, . .
,
. , ,

"".
: ,
, ,
[. . , ].
, "
", , ; , (cortPige),
tekhne 43.
, ,
, , . ,

- -,
. , , ""
,
,
, .

,
.
:
(

" ") - ,
,
.

, . "" "
" ,

43 Derrida J. Choreographies. Correspondence with . V. M acDonald (1982) / / Points...:


Interviews, 1974 1994 / Kamuf P. (ed.). Trans, by . V. M acDonald. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1994.
209

, "
" "".

, ,
.
,
. -

. ,

, ,
, , ,

,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
,
. "
, , ...
, .
"" , , "
(), ...
... ,
..."44.
, , "
" ,
,
, .

-, ,
.
,
.

. ,
,
, " ":

44 Newman . Marking Time..., p. 276.


210

" ,
. ,
, , .
. , , ,
"45.
,
, -
, .
, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
, 46. .
"-, , ,
. -,
, .... ,
" 47.

, . ,
- , "
?" - ,
. , ,

. "
.
, "48.
- , " ...
". , -

45 Irigaray L. An Ethics o f Sexual Difference, pp. 151184.


46 . : Adams P. Father, cant you see Im filming? / / Vision in Context:
Reflections and Refractions / Brennan ., Jay M. (eds) N ew York: Routledge, 1996; Brennan
T.The Interpretation oft he Flesh: Freud and Femininity. London: Routledge, 1992; Brennan
T. The Contexts o f Vision from a Specific Standpoint / / Vision in Context...; Krauss R. E.
The Optical Unconscious. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1994; Krauss R. E.
Cindy Sherman: Untitled / Cindy Sherman: 19751993. N ew York: Rizzoli, 1993.
47 Vasseleu C. Textures o f Light: Vision and Touch in Irigaray, Levinas and Merleau-Ponty.
London: Routledge, 1998, p. 67.
48 .
,
.
"
" .
-
,
.
211

, , , .

, .
, , .
, .
, ( - ) .
-
, .
,
(
49). -
- ,
( , ), ,
, , .
, .
, .
, . ""
(
"").
" . . ,
- ,
() , .
(polemos) ,
: 50.
-,
- .
, -
,
() 51. -
, - "",
" ", "" " ",
,
. -,
, ,
( ), "
", (
) , , , ,
.
, ,
.

49 Vasseleu . Textures o f Light...


50 Irigaray, 1993, p. 171.
51 Vasseleu C. Textures o f Light.., pp. 6768.
212

" ,
... ,
, , .
,
"52.
-
, .
,
"".

, .
53.
, .
?
, ,
,
, (mucous), / ,
, , , ?
,
, , (
) , .

, "
" ,
.

52 Irigaray L. An Ethics o f Sexual Difference, pp. 151 184.


53 .
" ",
, , (
. ,
, -, , ,
, , , ,
, , , , ,
, , .

: " ,
, .
, (
) , ,
" (Isaak, 1996, . 77).
// emp <*"/'< , < . ,,*t * + < f*wv *< *, /*<
., > . ,1991


" " , 9 0 - :

" !"

,
""
. ,
. , ,
,
.
"" /
-
.
"",
,
,
"".
, "
, "
" "
"
".
, "", "
" ,
- ,
.
"
[ ]
"" '.

1 . , "" "" / / "


". .: , 1999, . 13.
216



" " ("
" ) ,
"". ,
,
.
. , .
(cunt a r t ) 2 (Judy Chicago)
" " -?
/ "",
?
, ?
""?
,
""
,
, . ,
, . " " (
, ,
)
""
. .
"
",
,
.
,
, .
.
""
. "cunt-
positiv e-attitu d e" (" "), "fem ale
sensibility" (" "), "female styles" ("
"), "socially constructed female experience" ("
")
, .
, , ,
,
.
70- (Lucy Lippard), "female writing"
("", , -), "feminist art"

2 , .
" " 217

"female sensibility"
(more vague) .
"
" (I like everything about everything)
"".

.

(
70-)
)
(" ") ) (" "),
"" ,
.
,
" " (personal is political)


. 3.
" "
"Moja Heje ", , ,
, .
" ",
, ,

.

.
(Pipilotti Rist) "
" (I couldn't agree with you more, 1999)
, ,
,


.

, (,
"" -
).

3 .: Solomon-Godeou A. Representing Women: The Politics o f Self-Representation 11


Reframings. New American Feminist Photographies. 1995.
218


(Sukrah Moral) " " (1999)
.

. " "
, - ,

, - ,
.

, . ,
-, ,
, ,
" " , ,
- " ,
" (not-the-girl-w ho-m isses-m uch).

.
""
( ),
( ).
( " ").
"" " "" -
.
, ,
"", ,

.

1.

, .
, ( ) ,

, (
,
).
""
"".
, ,
.
, ,
-, ,
" " ( ).
" " 219

2. ,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
. .

, .
, . .
""
, .
, ""
? -?

. ""
,
? -
?
? (
, , ""
. .)

3. , ,
""
, .
, , ( ,
),

(,
, , ),
.
,
,
.
,
,

. -
.
.
.
220

.
"" ,
.
, " ",
-
, , .
.
,
?

90- "".
,
" -
", ,
"" .
. "",
,
, "
".
, ,
"" .
""
", " (1990)

, ,
""?
-
"", ""
. ? , ""
".
" , "

, ,
,
.

. "
,
- .
""
CIRC
" " (1991).

"" 221


, .
.
() "
" "" .

, , "",
. .
(
) "-
": " "
.

. -, ,
( ). ,
, .
, ( "female
sensibility" ), ,
, , :
" !" " , ,
",
, . "",
, "
, ", .

? . , ,
, . : -
.
, ,
, "" .
: " ,
, ". .
, , ,
"",
.

90-. "" (
, ) " " ( ,
, ) " (1991),
" "
"".

80- 90-
222

.
, ,
, , ,
.
,
( ) (. . . 240)
.
" "
- -
" ", ,
" ".
( ,
, ),

( ) ( ),

, .
"
"" "" ""
. (),
(""?)
(""?).
("
"?) ("
"?).
,
.
, "",
.
,
, " ", ,
, .
" ?" (. .
. 8586) "".
(: " "
" " )
"
".
--
-.
?
( , )
: " , ,
"?
" " 223


. per se 4.
, , ,
.
.
"
", ,
: " ?", " ,
?", " ,
" 5 .
, ""
""
(
).
, ,
""
,
, ,
.
1991 . "
" (. . . 213). (
, , . )
"", , (
), - .
,
- ,
.
,
, .

"",
90-.
,
, , .
""
.
, ,
, ,
,
.

4 (.). . .
5 "What medical school did YOU go to?", "Do you want your baby to die?", "Iknow w hats
best for your child".
224


6, ,
, ,
, (
) , , ,
,
, , .
"" -
( ),
, ,
,
.

.


" , ,
" (1994). ,
, history 90-
herstory 1.
"" ""
, ""
-,
( "
", )
, .
, ""
"" ""
, , , ""
- .
""
""
" "
(-, 1994), ,
" " (. . . xi).
- ,
,
,

6 ., , : Mulvey L. Visual Pleasure and Narrative


Cinema, 1975.
7 (his story) (her story), . e.
.
"" 225

, (
"
).
, ,
.
-, ""
.

"", " "
. "
, 8.
"" ,
.
/ ""
",
,
" 9?

? -
(,
, ,
)?
.
""
"" ?
?
"", " "
?
, -
, ,
": .
" (, 1990) |0.
"" , "
",
""
, .
(" ")
(": ")
, -,

8 . .: . , / / .
, 1994, . 15.
9 , . 27.
10 "Odella, a hidden survivor: A photographic essay by Carlotta Duarte".
226

"""" , -,
, ( )
-
.
, -
, ,
, ""
.

, ,
.
( ,
) () 1974 .
, .
40, 30. . ,
(
, )
""
90-.

".
,
, , "feminity as image" ("
") (Judith Williamson), "woman-
as-image" - "woman is
nothing but masquerade, nothing but image" ("
, ")
(Rosalind Krauss), ,
-
.
, , ,
, : ", ,
". : "Woman is nothing but
costume" (" ").
, , -
,
"
". (, ,
, --
.)
""
"" " ".

" . .: Ballerini J. O della/Carlotta/ / Reframings. Philadelphia, 1995.


" " 227

,
, , , .

:
, (), (),
(), (), "
", (),
,
().
,
.
, "
(to efface)", .
--
( -),
"",
"".
--
. ,
, ,
"".
,
,
.
.
--
, . , ""
. ,
.
.
""/-
(),
"" ().
.
, ,
.
- .

, (. . . 239).
.
(
, ). ,
.
: , .
228

- , ,
. , ,
,
.
.
""/"-
", ,
,
(. "", " ", "
").
""
"", ( ),
()
().
" "
" ",
, ,
, , .
, , .


(everything about everything |3) ,
, per se.
70-
-
"New Genre Public Art" ( , 90- .) 13,
, ,
"" ,
per se, ,
, .

15

, 90-
, 60-
70- , .

12" ".
13 .
14 Beth . Portraits. Deitch Projects. N-Y, 1997.
15 Camp art (.) "" ,
XVIII ,
/,
. , , , "-
", ""
.
"" 229

( )
70-,
(Carolee Schneem an), (Judy C hicago),
(Ana M endietta) , ,
, ,
" "

.
, ,
,
"". "" .

" " (U p to and Including Her Limits,
1974), ,
( ), ,
, , ,
"". ,
,
,
. ,
70-,
90-. ,
, her limits
her/his limits 16.
70-
90- , ,

(
)

.

"" - (1997),
-.
, ()
" , ...".
""

(, ,

70- ),

16 / (.).
230

, ", (
,
,
" ", -,
.)
,
" "
.
.
"
" (1994)
, .
. :
, , .
.
,
, , , ,
,
, , (" ", " ",
"Ice-cream ", "", "", " ", "
") . ,

, . .
.

vagina dentata
armata cum dentibus l7- ls,
19. vagina dentata , "
, , ,
". ,
, vagina den tata
" , , ,
".
( - )
,
.
, vagina dentata
,
, .

17 , (.). . .
18. .: . / / Balcanica.
., 1979, . 242, .
19 .: Gessain R. Vagina dentata dans la clinique et la mythologie / / Psychanalyse et des
sciences de Ihomme. Paris, 1957.
"" 231

, ,
", , " , ,
( ).
,
( , ,
), , ,
( -).
,
, .
1994 .,
XL "
" 20, -
(. . . 186) ,
" " 21 . "
"
,
, -
. ,
, - , ,
.
, ,
( )
( ,
) ,
" "" "", ""
"", ", ,
", , " ,
"" " 22.

"
,

( )
(""). ,

,
.

(" ", 1994; "

20 . .: . / / " .
". XL, 1994.
21 SontagS. N otes on C am p. 1994.
22 .: . ( S.S.) //
" . ". XL, 1994.
232

", 1995; " ", 1995; " ",


JI. , 1997),
(" ", 1997; " ", 1999),
" " (1999)
,
( "")
.
" " ( . . . 214)
" to -b e -lo o k e d -a t-n e ss o f fem ininity"
(" ").
( ) ---
, " ", ---,
" ", ( )
?
(, , )
.
( ""
). , ,
"" ().
,
, .

( ). ""
. /
, .
. ,
,
. " ",
, " "
-,
.
" "
/ , "
" .
"" ,
( , , , ,
. .), ""
"" .
.
. ,

.
" ,
, " ("unbroken
" " 233

series of monuments passed down through time in the institutional form of the
canon") . . -, - -
"
" (, ,
). ,
"" ( ) ,
, ,
, .

, , ,
" :
,
?"23
, ,
"" ,
,
( ) ,
. , ("
!"). , , ,
,
: " /
".
,
.

"" ,
, .
" " (1994),
( ),
.
, ,
. , (
)
, . " "

.
, ,
, , .
" " , (. .
. 253) -
(, ),

23 . : . / / -2, .
., 1995, . 2.
234

. /
,


. "" "
" ( ) "
" "".
("
"), - ("
"), "" ,
(" ?").

"". ,

,
, ('nothing but
masquerade, nothing but image"). ""
, ,
"".
.
"" .
, ""
"to-be-looked-at-ness o f
femininity", "woman-as-image" "nothing but masquerade, nothing but image",
.

" ". ,
,
, , ( , ,
, , ,
), , (, " ").
" " ""
,
. ,
" ?" ""
,

, ""
,
.
""
" " 24.

24 "" "la source" . . . .


"" 235

-
"" 90- ,
" -- "
( ""
) -
/ "". " " "
"
"",
, ,
,
", ""
, "". , "",
. , ""
" ", "
" " ",
, .
, ""
" " .

(. . . 185), XL
. ,
" "
: -, , "
, "",
" " ";
-, " ", ,
" --
" ; -, "
- " 25.
,
, , "
" ( )
.
""
, , ,
.
""

(
).
,

25 . .: . / / " ".
XL , 1999.
236

, . "
" " " (
) .
"" "", ".
" " "" "".
, (Untitled Film
Still, #6, 1977 26 (Untitled Film Still, #34, 1979),
, "".
/,

, , ,
,
,
.
. , ,
"" . ,
, ""
( , , ):
", "" ,
(" " ),
,
.
."27

, "". :
"..., -
(?!), ,
( "" ?) -??-
"expierence []... "
:
" ? "" "".
. -, -, -. ,
, " -
, . " , , ,
, . -,
. ,
" ( . . .).28
, '' " "
, " ",
/, .

26 . . .
27 - " ", 1995.
28 .
" " 237

,
, .
, "" .
", , ",
" "
(. . . xii).
" " (
) .
" "
""
, ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
. (
, , )
.
" " -
- .
/,
"" ( ), ,
,
. , "
" .
,
.
,
,
, " ".
""
. / /
, -, , .
" "

,
.
-,
.
, ,
, . ,
- , "
".
238

,
"",

.
: , , ,
.

,
-

.
. . (
* -). Obscuri Viri, 1995

. ./. 1990

: , ,
, ,
-
- ?

: , ,
. ,
,
- ,
, , , .
, , ,
.

..: ?

. .: , ,
.
.
..: ?
..: , ,
, .
"", ,
. , ,
, - .
!
, ...

, . ,
,

. ,
. ,

- .
, ( ),
, ,
,
. ,
.
, .
. .: -
,
, . ,
. -
?

..: .
, .
.
,
.
. .: ,
, ,
. ,
-
. ,
, .
: , .
.

..: .
, .
. ,

. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
,
, 20- .,
30- .,
.

. ,
. ,
,
,
243

.
.

..:
. .
. ,
.
.

..: ,
.
-,
. ,
.
.
. (
, ""

.)
,

. .
. ,
, -
. .
, ,
.
, , , " ",
,
, , .
, , ,
"".
. ,

,
. ,
, ,
"".
,
- : " "
.

..: , ?
. ,
.
244

. ?
?

..: ,
. ,
. , -
: - ,
, -
, .
,
, ,
.
.
, .
, ,
?
. - ,
, .
. , , "
", " .

..: ,
.
, .

..: , , ,
.
, ,
, .
. ,
,
, .
:
, ,
, ,
.

..: , ,
.

..: . , , ,
: " ?"
.
; , ,
, - ,
, - . ,
245

,
, .
..: ,
.
.

..: ,
.
, ,
. .
.

, .
,
. ,
, .

..: ,
...

..: , .

..: ?
..: . .
, .
,
. ,
, . .
, ,
,
. "" ,
.

..: .

..: . ,
.

..: ?

..: , . ,
, , .
;
, , . ,
,
. ""
246

, (! )
, .
, ,
"", .
,
.
, , , , . .


... .
.
.
.
, ,
.
. , , ,
, ,

.
- ,
.

..:
, ?

..: .
,
. ,
. ,
.
, . ,
. ,

,
, . ,
, ,
- .
..:
.

..: ,

. .
, ,
.
247

: background ', .
, , ; ,
, , , .
, ,
.
ad infinitum 2,
. ,
,
. ,
" ",
.
, ?
: ,
, .

..: ?

..: ,
.
.
,
, .
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
. ,
, " " . ,
,
.
, , "-
". ,
.
, .
?
, ( ,
) .
, ,
, .

1 , (.) . .
2 (.) . .
248

, -
. - ,
. ,
"G eneration " :
, , ,
, , , .
, .
,
: " !"
,
. ,
, . ,
. : -
.
- ,
. .
"" , .

. ( , , ),
, .
. : ,
, , . (
" ": ,
, , , ;
,
.)
..: ,
? " "
, "
" -.
. ", !",
, ,
" "
, ,
, .

..: , . ,
,
,
. : ,
,
.
. :
,
249

.
.
. , , ,
.
,
.
: -,
.
.
, .
..: , ,
.

..:
,
.
. ""
. ,
. .
,
.
. .
, ,
-
, . ,
,
, .
,
.
,
.
:
- .
, : ,
.
: ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
250

, - ,
? .
..: ?
..: , ,
. , ,
. , :
(,
. .),
.
,
, . -
, .
. --
. ,
. ,
. ,
. ,
,
. , ,
,
.

..: "",
?

..: , .
,
,
.
..: .
,
?

..: , . ,
,
, .

.
, ,
, .
. ,


, , , . -
. . , . , 1997
251

,
,
,
,
. , ,
, : " ,
". ,
.
, -
. ,

. ,
, , .
,
, ,
.

. ,
,
.
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
.

, 2000 .
-
2000 .:

1. . : .
[M acM illan, 1992] 320 ., .
2. .
. . . [Sex Equality Policy in the Western
Europe. Routledge, 1997] 320 ., .
:
1. . ... . .
. . 256 ., ., .
2. . :
XX . [Basic Books, 1988] 372 ., , .
3. . . ,
. [Yale University Press, 1997] 160 ., , .
:
4. , .
.... : - .
1996.
5. . . 1997.

:
1) olessia-n@ mtu-net.ru
, , , ..,
.
2) 125195 / 42 . . 928-12-94
: . -
. / 4070281000000000043 '-
, / 30101810200000000399 . 1
. ; 7701212630; 044583399; 18911216;
87100.

() 11 1 2 ,1 6 ,2 3 3
170174
() 132, 134, 179, 183

49

- 199
14, 23, 26, 133, 163, 190, 192, 196, 2 0 6 - 2 1 2 , 217, 227,
232, 237
14, 47, 168 184, 247
1 8 7 -2 1 2 , 2 1 7 -2 3 8
70, 1 9 3 -1 9 7 , 217, 222228, 234
59, 62, 80, 1 8 8 -1 9 3 , 1 9 5 -2 0 6 , 2 1 7 -2 2 0 , 224, 226, 230,
2 3 2 -2 3 3
199206
" " 7072
1 2 9 -1 3 0 , 135, 140, 155, 1 8 8 -1 9 3 , 2 0 1 -2 0 2 , 217, 220, 224,
226, 232

3 - 7 , 1 1 -1 6 , 28, 4 3 - 4 9 , 58, 6 3 - 6 7 , 71, 87, 99, 102, 106,


1 0 9 -1 1 1 , 1 1 9 -1 2 0 , 1 2 9 -1 3 3 , 1 3 8 -1 3 9 , 152, 155, 157, 160, 163,
167, 176, 1 8 2 -1 8 3 , 200, 207, 215, 222, 229, 2 3 1 -2 3 8 , 252
182183
172
157

31
1 3 -1 4 , 64, 172, 194, 199, 2 0 4 -2 0 7 , 2 0 9 -2 1 2 , 216, 220, 224,
227, 2 3 4 -2 3 5 , 237, 244
- ( ) 2 1 ,2 3 25, 55
14,49, 78, 102, 104105, 108, .,
1 3 0 -1 3 2 , 137, 1 4 5 -1 4 6 , 1 4 8 -1 4 9 , 154, 179, 204, 2 1 8 -2 1 9 , 243,
2 4 8 -2 5 0
256

26, 33, 4 4 - 4 5 , 7 2 - 7 4 , 8 0 - 8 4 , 92, 1 1 6 -1 2 0 , 131,


1 35-136,139, 143, 144, 1 8 8 -1 9 0 , 1 9 5 -1 9 6 , 200, 204, 2 0 8 -2 1 1 ,
2 1 7 -2 1 8 , 234, 247, 2 5 0 -2 5 2
148, 199, 216217, 216, 228
13, 16, 23, 32, 1 9 2 -1 9 8 , 200, 2 0 8 -2 0 9 , 2 1 5 -2 3 8
20

56

33 .
1 0 3 -1 0 6 , 118, 123, 130, 139, 156, 158, 174, 1 7 8 -1 7 9 ,
204, 2 1 9 -2 2 0
60, 69, 140, 167, 207, 218, 2 2 5 -2 2 6 , 229, 232, 2 3 5 -2 3 6
63, 1 6 8 -1 8 4 , 237
199
14, 6162, 90, 124, 196
13, 40, 64, 242243

2 1 6 ,2 2 8 231
50, 1 8 8 -1 9 3 , 2 3 0 -2 3 1 , 246, 2 5 0 -2 5 1
51 53
1 4 4 -1 5 1 , 2 1 5 -2 3 8
145146, 148, 151
194
"""" 215238
145150
149, 151
150
81, 125, 128, 133, 141, 143, 1 9 6 ,2 3 2 -2 3 4
242243

177
63
6364, 228 .
6264
188189, 198
157
, 228, 228., 231

4 - 7 , 1 5 -1 6 , 28, 40, 44, 4 8 - 5 0 , 52, 61, 81, 115, 1 2 2 -1 2 3 ,


1 2 8 -1 2 9 , 137, 141, 1 4 5 -1 4 6 , 1 4 9 -1 5 0 , 1 5 8 -1 5 9 , 1 6 0 -1 6 1 ,
165, 177, 1 8 1 -1 8 2 , 189, 194, 1 9 8 -1 9 9 , 211, 219, 225, 228,
2 4 3 -2 5 1
257

- 7, 12
4 5, 7
67, 248
49, 51, 164, 167, 243244
- (-) 5, 7, 11, 50, 122123, 141, 150,
2 4 3 -2 4 4
141, 189
319
13, 190, 198, 203
206212
28, 219, 243244
98
249251
154
8
1516, 131, 139141, 192197, 200, 215238

126, 146, 148, 151, 190, 217, 2 2 4 -2 2 5 , 232, 234, 237


39, 84, 189190, 233
83, 8 7 - 8 8 ,9 4 , 1 0 1 -1 0 4 , 110, 1 1 2 -1 1 3 , 1 7 4 -1 7 5
" " 5051, 76, 78, 243
246247


248
248
68, 71, 155, 190192, 248
188, 206212
4 9 - 5 1 , 135, 138, 141, 204, 244
245, 250251

5
7577, 205, 218, 233
- 145151, 161162
- 145151
157
59, 85, 87106, 107143, 144145, 154156,
16 4 -1 6 5 , 1 6 8 -1 8 4 ,
8788, 105, 121, 154
94,111,111 .
111, 111- ., 137139, 155
170
145151, 155
258

149150
170171
251
198
92106, 121123, 135 ., 144145, 148, 153, 250

47
172, 182183
23, 181183, 190, 203204, 220221,
2 2 3 -2 2 4 , 237, 2 4 7 -2 5 1
9, 46, 50, 7 1 - 7 2 , 1 8 7 -2 0 5 , 224, 230, 2 4 5 -2 4 6 , 252

14, 35, 84, 101, 1 1 8 -1 1 9 , 171, 1 7 7 -1 7 8 , 180, 1 8 2 -1 8 4 , 193,


200, 219, 239, 2 4 1 -2 5 1
31, 41, 4 3 - 4 7 , 5 0 - 7 7 , 7 8 - 8 4 , 8 7 -1 0 6 , 1 1 6 -1 1 7 , 133,
1 6 5 -1 6 6 , 169, 171, 217, 229, 248
133138
65, 6872, 76

6568
6568, 74
59, 6669, 74, 7677
68, 7277
6577
6577
4647
6 5 - 6 6 , 1 4 4 -1 5 1 , 1 8 0 -1 8 3 , 1 8 7 -2 1 2 , 2 1 5 -2 3 8 ,
2 4 1 -2 5 1
199, 207
45, 246, 248249
48, 101, 106, 222223, 249

- 89, 9 1 - 9 2 , 99
178183
46, 89, 144
100106, 1 0 9 ,110., 111., 118,150,154155,
158, 1 6 3 -1 6 4 , 177
7 5 ,7 8 - 8 4 , 8 7 -1 0 6 , 108, 1 1 2 -1 1 4 , 1 1 6 -1 3 1 ,1 3 5 -1 4 3 ,
1 4 4 -1 5 1 , 1 5 4 -1 5 8 , 1 6 8 -1 8 4 , 1 9 2 -1 9 3 , 1 9 6 -1 9 7 , 237, 241
82, 101, 1 3 5 -1 3 6 , 1 4 0 -1 4 1 , 148, 176, 1 8 0 -1 8 3
184
1 3 6 -1 3 9 , 1 5 4 -1 5 5 , 176, 1 8 1 -1 8 3
259

7277, 188189
172178, 200, 207, 248
58, 247248
189
44
4546, 122, 203
45
36
46
" " 39, 129, 190, 202, 2 1 1 -2 1 2 , 212 .
3 0 - 4 0 , 79, 117, 138, 228
35
241

7, 30, 3 6 - 3 9 , 59, 7 4 - 8 4 , 108, 118, 1 2 4 -1 2 8 , 1 3 0 -1 3 3 , 140,


1 4 4 -1 5 1 , 179, 182, 190, 1 9 3 -1 9 7 , 207, 2 1 0 -2 1 2 , 2 1 7 -2 2 4 ,
222, 232, 234, 245, 250
182
3 9 ,2 1 9 ,2 3 5
104, 242250
220, 2 2 2 -2 2 3 , 2 5 0 -2 5 1
150, 245246, 250251
250251
50, 188, 191, 196, 245246, 250251

31, 56, 119, 230


15,139

1 8 8 -1 8 9 , 202, 205, 207, 224, 232, 235, 2 4 5 -2 4 6 ,


2 5 0 -2 5 1
13, 2 8 ,4 3 - 4 9 ,6 4 , 7 1 ,9 9 ,1 0 0 - 1 0 6 ,1 1 3 - 1 1 4 , 1 1 9 -1 2 1 ,
145, 1 5 1 -1 5 2 , 1 5 6 -1 5 9 , 161, 1 6 4 -1 6 7 , 1 7 4 -1 7 6 , 1 7 8 -1 7 9 ,
182, 190, 1 9 3 -1 9 7 , 200, 2 0 2 -2 0 3 , 2 0 7 -2 0 8 , 212, 212 .,
2 1 5 -2 3 8 , 2 4 1 -2 5 1
182183
166167
81, 132, 189, 1 9 1 -1 9 2 , 2 0 1 -2 0 2 , 232

(. ) 104105,155156,
168, 174, 1 7 8 -1 8 0 , 178 ., 1 8 3 -1 8 4 , 221
178180

58, 62
260

51, 53, 57, 6 1 - 6 3 , 1 1 8 -1 1 9 , 147, 162, 165, 171, 178,


1 8 7 -1 9 1 , 196, 207, 2 1 0 -2 1 1
189190
12, 61, 78, 8 2 - 8 3 , 8 7 -1 0 6 , 1 0 9 -1 1 0 , 1 1 2 -1 1 4 , 118, 123,
126, 133, 145, 1 7 0 -1 7 1 , 177, 184, 1 8 9 -1 9 1 , 196, 209, 2 1 8 -2 2 0 ,
234, 237, 249

1314

160, 165, 167, 204206, 222, 235236,


2 4 2 -2 4 5
"
:

. " ". - 160 .


" : " (). 540 .
. " : , ,
, , .". 208 .
( ): , , ,
. 256 .
. . ( ). - 240 .
. . " : " (
). 280 .
. " ". - 240 .
X. " ". - 240 .
XX .: . . "
". - 240 .
. " ". - 240.
. " ". - 400 .
. "". - 336 .
. " ". - 140 .
. " ". - 320 .
. ". . ." - 256 .
. " :
XX ." - 256 .
. " ". - 320 .
. " ", "
" .
. " ". - 336 .
. "
", 1. - 320.
. " ". - 224 .
. " ". - 408 .
. " ". - 208 .

"-" " "


:

. " ". - 3 20.


. " ". - 336 .
. " ". - 336 .
. "
", 2. - 320 .
. " ". - 800 .
. " ". - 240 .
. " ". - 320.

. ..
.
.
.

. , . , . , . , . ,
. , . , . , . , . .

-
00208 10 1999
-
123056, . , ., . 6, . 31

:
. , , 17, . 5, 6
, . 247.17.57

24.07.2000
60x90/16. .
. . 1 . . 17,5
3000 . 5574
- ,
140010, . ., -, 403.
. 554-21-86