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Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no.

paperIA2˙accepted c ESO 2016

January 18, 2016

A time domain experiment with Swift:
monitoring of seven nearby galaxies
I. Andreoni1,2,3? , P. D’Avanzo1 , S. Campana1 , M. Branchesi4,5 , M.G. Bernardini1 , M. Della Valle6,7 , F. Mannucci8 ,
A. Melandri1 , G. Tagliaferri1

1
INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
2
Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia
3
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
4
INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
5
Università degli Studi di Urbino “Carlo Bo”, via A. Saffi 2, 61029 Urbino, Italy
arXiv:1601.03739v1 [astro-ph.HE] 14 Jan 2016

6
INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
7
ICRANET, Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122, Pescara, Italy
8
INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy

Preprint online version: January 18, 2016

Abstract

Context. Focused on the study of transient sources, time domain astronomy is nowadays one of the most active and growing areas of
research in astronomy. Most of the present and planned surveys aimed at carrying out time domain studies work in the optical band,
and found their searching strategies on fixed cadences. Although nothing similar currently exist in the X–ray and ultraviolet (UV)
bands, the Swift satellite is certainly the most appropriate available instrument to carry out such surveys.
Aims. We aimed to detect a supernova (SN) shock breakout (SBO) in nearby galaxies. The SBO marks the first escape of radiation
from the blast wave that breaks through the photosphere of the star and launches the SN ejecta. The detection of a SBO is diagnostic
for the radius of the progenitor star, the explosion energy to ejecta mass ratio, and it allows us to determine the onset of the explosion
with an accuracy from a few hours to a few seconds.
Methods. Using the XRT and UVOT instruments onboard the Swift satellite we carried out a weekly cadenced, six months lasting
monitoring of seven nearby galaxies, namely NGC 1084, NGC 2207/IC 2163, NGC 2770, NGC 4303/M 61, NGC 3147, NGC 3690,
NGC 6754. We searched for variable/transient sources in the collected data. These galaxies have been selected because they are close
(distance ≤ 50 Mpc), small enough to fit in the Swift/UVOT field of view, and host of at least 3 SNe in the last 20 yr.
Results. We found no evidence for a SN SBO event. Five objects located within the light of the sample galaxies were found to be
variable in the X–ray and/or in the UV. These include mainly background AGN and unresolved ULX in NGC 3690. Besides these
objects, we found two variable Galactic sources: the known nova CP Draconis (that experienced an outburst during our monitoring)
and an uncatalogued eclipsing binary.
Conclusions. Despite the lack of SBO detections, the results of our explorative study encourage the use of Swift in further time domain
studies. Moreover, since our sample galaxies are within the Universe volume that will be reached by the forthcoming advanced
gravitational waves (GW) detectors (a-LIGO/a-Virgo), this work provides an example on how to carry out Swift surveys useful to
detect the GW signal from SNe, and to detect counterparts to GW triggers.
Key words. Surveys - Supernovae: general - Gravitational waves

1. Introduction Time domain astronomy focuses on transient sources. These
might be extragalactic, usually involving catastrophic events (su-
Time domain astronomy is one of the most active and growing pernovae are the most common examples) or Galactic, usu-
areas of research in astronomy, being able to touch basically ev- ally involving cataclysmic events (novae). In recent years a few
ery aspect of this science with a different perspective. In the next single-optical band surveys started exploiting the variable sky, as
decade, we expect it to flourish, prompted by facilities like the (among others) the Catalina Sky Survey (Drake et al. 2009), the
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope1 in the optical, and the Low- Palomar Transient Factory (Rau et al. 2009), the PanSTARRS
Frequency Array for radio astronomy2 and the Square Kilometre (Stubbs et al. 2010), the La Silla Quest (Rabinowitz et al.
Array3 in the radio. Such facilities will revolutionise our under- 2011), the SUDARE at the VST (Botticella et al. 2013) and
standing of the Universe with nightly searches of large swathes the SkyMapper (Keller et al. 2007) in the 1-m to 2-m tele-
of sky for variable objects and network of robotic telescopes scopes category. These synoptic surveys concentrated on super-
ready to follow-up in greater detail anything of interest. novae (SNe), leading, e.g., to the discovery of SN 2011fe in the
Pinwheel galaxy M101 within ∼ 1 day of the explosion (Waagen
2011; Piro & Nakar 2014).
?
e-mail: iandreoni@swin.edu.au
1
lsst.org
2
lofar.org
3
skatelescope.org

1

g. this reason the selection of the sample cannot be based only on collapse SNe with pre-explosion high resolution imaging.6.1 to derive 9 mpe. or 0. the Swift6 . Target galaxies and monitoring details enhanced our understanding of the last stages of massive stel- lar lives and deaths. since the SN rate observed at near-IR wavelengths in starburst galaxies direct detection of SN progenitors is incredibly difficult. 2015) and Virgo (Acernese et al. These 2. thus within the a-LIGO and a-Virgo to reach sensitivity that will make possible to detect transient GW signals from coalescences of neutron star (NS) and/or horizon) which allows our instruments to resolve their internal stellar-mass black hole binary systems and from core-collapse structure. an intense production of SNe. We show examples of UV and X–ray im- electromagnetic (EM) counterparts of the GW signals from core. sient optical events in nearby galaxies (Rau et al. such as the dates and the exposure times. The Gossan et al. the system NGC 2207/IC 2163.15 SN yr−1 ). 1999). The advanced LIGO (The LIGO Scientific field of view of the Swift telescopes (the field of view of the Collaboration et al. along with increases in and at the same time to shed light on UV/X–ray “transient con.1. NGC 3147. 2013. Kasliwal et al. We at detecting the UV/X–ray SBO by monitoring nearby galaxies present their main features in Table 1 and the details of the obser- using Swift. lated to larger (red giant) progenitors (e. in Table A.int/gaia/ March 2013. that will monitor the high Section 6. For has only been possible for a small number of nearby core. 2008). In Section 2 we describe Telescope Facility (Spitzer5 ) in the infra-red (with projects like our selection criteria for the galaxies and the monitoring char- SPIRITS. We searched for sources adopting a signal- 10 svom. 2013. mainly because the angular directly associated with a GW event will be useful when the EM resolution of the UVOT (∼ 1 arcsec) is better than the resolution counterparts of compact object coalescences will be searched in of the XRT (∼ 15 arcsec) and the density of UV-optical sources the future. collapse events. that dominate among tran. 2006) and Mannucci et al. the Galaxy Evolution acteristics. luminosity of permanent sources. A few thousands of SNe have been discovered so far. UV images and X–ray images taminants” in galaxy fields. From these we excluded galaxies in Another ingredient in transient astronomy is the prospect to observe gravitational waves (GWs) in the upcoming years.de/eROSITA calibrated event files. This time 3. the large num- Soderberg et al. 2005) based on the number of observed SNe in nearby galaxies. 2015) de. The core-collapse events are expected to be detectable galaxies.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies Facilities like GAIA4 in the optical. or 0. Gezari et al. We selected as target The present work focuses on SNe. and Fermi8 at higher energies have been in Section 4 our results. (2003) showed that the core-collapse Schawinski et al.edu 8 fermi. Swift UltraViolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT. For example.mpg. Roming et al.gsfc. distance (averaged for sky location and system-orientation) of With our selection criteria the final sample consists of 10 200 Mpc. NGC 3690.13. The the star formation rate. Analysis methods domain experiment by Swift represents an example for a pos- sible monitoring program to detect potential sources of GWs. (NGC 5468.gsfc. XRT is 230 in diameter. 2006. We discuss how well a weekly survey pioneer of time domain astronomy from space. We used the latest version of the calibration files (CALDB) available in 4 sci.1 to domain astronomy with its instruments (Gehrels & Cannizzo A. b) their angular size is small enough to fit within the of massive stars. galaxies: NGC 1084. while the field of view of tectors in full sensitivity will observe coalescences of NSs up to the UVOT is 170 × 170 . possible problem is dust obscuration. the Space Infrared This paper is organised as follows. These open the can determine SN SBO onsets in Section 5 and the role of such path to missions such as eROSITA9 (although more focused on a a survey in the search for EM counterparts to GW signals in ”static” all-sky survey) and SVOM10 . nearby galaxies are in general the host of all the GW transient sources detectable by the GW detectors. We took advantage of 2 .frs to-noise ratio threshold of S/N ratio = 3. NGC 6946..esa. Ott et al. and led us to discover that we live in an Our project aims is to monitor nearby galaxies that are site of accelerating Universe that may be dominated by dark energy. Longer duration (days) shock breakouts ber of identified SNe in Arp 220 (IC 1127/IC 4553) came from (SBOs) have been observed with GALEX by type II SNe re.gov We processed the data with xrtpipeline v.2. Hence we adopted a different approach. Müller et al. The monitoring has been carried out on a weekly timescale 2015). making the SN of the progenitor star were discovered (Campana et al. detection problematic in the optical. 2015) and up to tens of Mpc for more optimistic sample is clearly not complete but provides a fair represen- models (Fryer & New 2011). In Section 3 we describe the analysis procedures and Explorer (GALEX 7 ). largely overcomes the density of the X–ray sources.08 deg2 ). the radio band and none came from the optical (Lonsdale et al.gov 7 3. Using is particularly sensitive to the cooling envelope emission. we selected 11 galaxies (ob- served rate ∼> 0. and NGC 6754. 5 spitzer. In our dataset we search for transients. and NGC 4038 were left out).edu 6 swift. the M 81/M 82 group because their separation is larger than the The second generation ground-based GW detectors are expected UVOT field of view. tation of nearby star-forming galaxies. Requiring at least 3 provide estimates of the radius of the progenitor star. Our final selection criteria are: a) they are close (distance ∼ < 50 Mpc.12 deg2 . This is an important tool. NGC 2770. While the UV/X–ray bright SBOs are directly possible for about six months. 0. 2008. we selected galaxies in is bright in the UV for up to several days after the SBO. XRT data analysis galex. observed SNe in the last 20 years. and is about an order of magnitude larger than in the optical. Swift observed 7 of them over the period 2013-2014 within a few Mpc (Ott 2009. ages of the target galaxies in Figs A. Typically high star forma- ing the precise moment that a supernova shock wave breaks out tion rate galaxies are heavily obscured by dust. energy sky in the near future. Characterising transient events not require different analysis methods. Andreoni et al. 2009) and aims NGC 4303/M 61.nasa.caltech. In the selection of the targets one In the last few years the decades-ago predicted pulses mark.1 and A. 2013). and can which several SNe were already discovered.nasa. that has already proven its ability to redefine time vations. which the Asiago database (Barbon et al. 2008).caltech.

radius =20 arcsec.48 NGC3147 10:16:53.926 −07:34:43. where spurious events generated by instrumenta- ages. In summary.622 +33:07:24. We used the Source Extractor (Bertin & galaxy. NGC 4303 (NGC4303-O1. which is – a Galactic uncatalogued eclipsing binary.65 4. or b) their light curve like sources detected by Chandra and positionally coincident cannot be satisfactorily fitted with a constant function (with a with the NGC3690-I1.326 +58:33:41. tion are more likely to happen. during our monitoring of seven nearby galaxies One X–ray variable source (the nucleus of NGC 3147. The results centre of NGC 3147 (NGC3147-I1.nasa.62 NGC2770 09:09:33. we then searched for positive residuals in the image looking for We discuss now the results of the analysis on each target variable or new sources.91 the HEAdas11 software to identify sources. see Section 4. In one case the ghost lies the images of a target galaxy taken at different epochs and gen. Andreoni et al. distance. variable We observed with the UVOT/uvm2 filter (central wave. see Section 4. epoch by fitting the data with an absorbed power-law model. O1. see Section 4.e. corresponding to single observations. In the XRT data we found that the 3 .gov/docs/software/lheasoft/ 19 epochs by the UVOT (see Table A. both of our analysis are reported in Table A. First. while for the X–ray sources located inside the target galaxies we carried out a more careful analysis using HEAdas XSELECT (using circular apertures.96 42 11.950 +04:28:24. Using the Swift/XRT on. The count rate to flux ratio servations of a single galaxy and again we identify all significant conversion was obtained using the UVOT photometric system sources. assuming a beginning of November 2013 to the second week of March 2014. ing apertures with radius = 3 arcsec.92 15 9.e. For each potentially varying sources. By subtracting this reference frame to every single image. null hypothesis probability from a constant fit threshold of p < – one Seyfert 1 galaxy located in a region of the sky outside 0. related to a point-like source) and with a FWHM compa.4) variable in the X–rays as well as in the UV band.40×0. Then.86 1.65 4.7. (Evans et al. Alard 2000) and ESO- ECLIPSE (Devillard 1997) packages to perform the image sub.3). very close to a bright star. the filter with the small. in the X–rays but outside the field of view of the UVOT.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies Table 1.73 2.5) displayed a count rate high enough to carry out a meaningful X–ray spectral analysis that enabled us to obtain – one variable X–ray source inside the galaxy NGC 1084 a flux calibrated light curve (Fig. NGC 4303 (NGC4303-I1. see Section 4.01). of the image.6).752 −50:38:31. 2009). the ISIS (v.1). see Section 4.80 2.85×2. ∼ 5 arcsec). see Section 4. of the sky outside the target galaxy NGC 2770 (NGC2770- est contamination from optical photons). ghost images. see Section 4. 2.34 44 10. we summed up all the ob. TARGET GALAXIES Galaxy RA(J2000) Dec(J2000) Dist (Mpc) Mag (V) Size (arcmin) NGC1084 02:45:59. Arnouts 2010) to identify those residuals whose flux is greater than 5 times the standard deviation of the local background of 4.2) (Alard & Lupton 1998. The – one low-luminosity AGN at the centre of the galaxy absorption component was fixed to the value of the Galactic col. UVOT data analysis galaxy NGC 3147 (NGC3147-O2. FWHM=498 Å. symmetrical PSF.61×1. i.2. see with the Swift XRT and UVOT telescopes we have detected: Section 4.63×0. likely generated by one to line tools we extracted the 0. we will consider sources relevant for our – one variable X–ray source inside the galaxy NGC 3690 (pos- purposes if: a) they have been detected above the S/N ratio = 3 sibly due to the unresolved emission of a number of point- threshold in just a single (or a few) epoch. In the following.1.093 −21:22:21. (NGC1084-I1. apparent magnitude (V) and angular size. variable in the X–rays but not in the UV band.29 30 12. No correction for MW reddening was ap- get galaxies we took advantage of the Swift/XRT online tools12 plied in the derived light curves.69 NGC2207/IC2163 06:16:22.5). We extracted one image per identified two sources that survived our selection criteria but that each event file.62×1. using the XIMAGE. in the other one it is right at the border erated a master image that is the median of all these aligned im. 6). see Section 4. Good data have been collected for 20 epochs by the XRT and for 11 heasarc.e.632 +73:24:02. we searched in every single observation for the HEAdas uvotproduct tool to build its UV light curve us- objects exceeding the threshold. located in a region the ‘purest’ UV filter available (i. Poole et al. Results centred on each identified source). We found two false positives in our UVOT dataset. NGC 1084 the subtracted image. automatic algorithm based on the image subtraction to search – a Galactic known nova (CP Draconis) outside the target for variable sources in the UVOT data.5).80 45 12. We found no transient 12 swift.10 19 10.33 NGC3690 11:28:31.64×3.e.61 2.41 NGC6754 19:11:25.14 2. – one possible quasar in a region of the sky outside the target 3. We took advantage of galaxy NGC 3147 (NGC3147-O1. declination (DEC). (Breeveld et al. We developed a semi. Values provided by the SIMBAD and NED data repository.29 NGC 4303/M 61 12:21:54. we used detect tool.1). 4.4) and one at the umn density NH provided by Willingale et al. 2008). (2013). We aligned we classified as spurious.uk/user_objects/ events in the UVOT data. We require the residuals to be symmetric (i. List of selected targets with their right ascension (RA). The weekly monitoring of the galaxy NGC 1084 ranged from the rable to the FWHM of the UVOT (i. length=2246 Å.84×3.80 40 10. 2011).5).ac. To build products for sources located outside our tar. we traction and to handle the images.3-10 keV spectrum for every single three AGNs at higher redshift.

2014) stand within the region.3).4 (NGC2770-O1). Good data have been collected for 25 epochs by both the known Seyfert 1 Galaxy (RA = 12:21:38.0031. The fit performed on the data with a con. Our dataset lacks of any precursor signal that can 4 .0.9. procedure. Brough et al.4. ability inside or outside the galaxy NGC 2770. X–ray emission detected from NGC1084-I1.. d. as extended source. This source is classified as an r = 12 mag star in the SDSS.).4 × 10−3 counts s−1 . Good data have been collected for 21 epochs from the beginning of November 2013 to the end of April 2014. too (Fig. The fit performed on the Time (days) data with a constant function returns a mean flux of 6. We note how. which leads the image subtraction to produce they correspond to two different orbits of the Swift satellite) by an asymmetrical residual that was discarded by our automatic the ∼ 20% and the ∼ 10 % with respect to the mean value (Fig. for galaxy hosts a low luminosity AGN (Brinkmann et al.f. 1994). In this case light curve keeps a constant trend till the flux suddenly decreases the variable emission comes from the unresolved nucleus of an in two consecutive points (both occurring on May 20th 2014.2. We found no transient We detected no transient events in the UVOT data.3. emission of the active nucleus is significantly variable. NGC 4303/M 61 4. NGC 2207/IC 2163 The weekly monitoring of the galaxy NGC 4303 . We found no significant vari. (Table A.3. In the UVOT data we found Spinelli et al. We extracted this light curve using an aperture to the constant value. The and a probability p = 9 × 10−11 . by the XRT. As for the other galax- 4. We suggest that it may be an eclipsing binary sys- Dec = -07:34:23. possibly causing the observed variability. The flux of its UV counterpart does not vary significantly in the same time frame. tem. and p = 0. Its dure for point-like sources inside nearby galaxies.better known as M 61 . named NGC1048-I113 ) located inside the tar. The X–ray events in the UVOT data nor in the XRT data. 1). In the XRT data we found no transient events and no vari- get galaxy NGC 1084 varies significantly (Fig. as ex- pected (Fig. A fit with a constant function gives a χ2 = 40. 2014. ing the UVOT data analysis because we optimised the proce- dinates RA = 9:09:34. ever that three candidate active galactic nuclei (AGN. UVOT. We On October 2014 the Type Ia supernova SN 2014dt exploded have not detected any X–ray counterpart to this source in our in M 61 (Nakano et al. The time zero is set to 0 50 100 MET = 408372298 s (2013-12-10). This source is located at coor. 70 XRT. 2014.4). Andreoni et al. 4. The fit provides a χ2 = 147. NGC1084−I1 Flux (10−16erg s−1cm−2A−1) 65 XRT constant fit 0. This Good data have been collected for 27 epochs by the XRT. Dec = +33:09:28.4). Dec = +04:30:26.1 (63 d. However. The source is coincident with a 2014. Ochner et al. 4).2). in two different orbits of the Swift satellite.f.4. Cavuoti et al.8. UVOT/uvm2 light curve of the candidate eclips- ing binary system NGC2770-O1. NGC 2770 ies we analysed the X–ray sources located outside the target The weekly monitoring of the galaxy NGC 2770 ranged from galaxy. 26 epochs by the UVOT (see Table A.01 UVOT/uvm2 constant fit 0 50 100 150 5×10−3 Time (days) Figure 2.o.o. XRT dataset. 2014). We monitored this galaxy with the Swift satellite till the first week of June 2014 13 All coordinates here and in the following refers to J2000. we found that no transient events that could be interesting to our purposes. XRT and the UVOT (see Table A. 3). The flux suddenly decreases by time zero is set to Mission Elapsed Time (MET) = 405027281 s the ∼ 20% (red circle) and the ∼ 10% (green circle) with respect (2013-11-01).) Figure 1.ranged from the final week of January 2014 to the first The weekly monitoring of the system NGC 2207/IC 2163 ranged week of June 2014. for 20 epochs by the UVOT (see Table A. 2006. its counterpart at lower energy is highly variable.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies light curve of an extended region (centred on RA = 02:45:59. 2006). nor in smaller regions around each AGN.6 × 10−15 erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 . 4). One of them (NGC4303-O1) shows significant variabil- the second week of December 2013 to the beginning of June ity in its light curve (Fig.015 60 Count rate (c s−1) 55 0. Looking at the UVOT data. Both points were collected on May 20th with radius 20 arcsec. 2). We found no stant function returns a mean count rate of 5. X–ray counterpart to this source. candidate eclipsing binary ability in the UVOT data inside the same region.2 (for 19 degrees of freedom. we identified a sudden drop of the UV flux emitted This UV variability has not been detected by our algorithm dur- by a star outside the target galaxy.

a χ2 = 6. We identified no tran- also found no evidence of any luminous progenitor.). The first. Andreoni et al.o. Dec = +58:33:46.0. We 34 epochs by the UVOT (see Table A. as the fit with a constant function returns with a constant function returns a mean UV flux (upper panel. The weekly monitoring of the galaxy NGC 3690 ranged from the second week of January 2014 to the last week of September 2014.f.1 × 10−15 erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 . The fit with a constant func- NGC4303-O1. No significant UV variability is present in our dataset.o. 0 as expected. The fit with a constant function on the X–ray data (lower panel) returns a mean rate of 1.o.f.4 × 10−3 counts s−1 (χ2 = 47. The second variable X–ray source. UVOT/uvm2 and XRT light curves of the MET = 409627840 s (2013-12-25). and p = UVOT and XRT. XRT. 2014. Flesch 2010). UVOT/uvm2 light curve (upper panel) extracted 0 0 50 100 Time (days) with an aperture (radius = 6 arcsec) centred on the dwarf nova CP Draconis (NGC3147-O1).8 (15 d. Several X–ray sources are present within NGC 3690 The weekly monitoring of NGC 3147. in agreement sient events in the UVOT data collected during our observations.02 0.1695. χ2 = 242. X–ray light curve of the galactic nucleus of NGC 4303.8.30 for 20 d. 5. while it lies around ∼ 1. ranged from the Christmas day 2013 et al. In the XRT data we identified a powerful and significantly vari- able emission generated inside the target galaxy NGC 3690 at 4. The time zero is set to X–ray counterpart to this source (lower panel) does not show any MET = 412217321 s (2014-01-24).5.01 10 (c ss−1−1)) 8 rate(c 5×10−3−3 Countrate 5×10 Count 0. a Seyfert 2 galaxy hosting as observed by Chandra (Zezas et al.01 0.o. lower panel) consists of a weak signal that shows no significant variability during our monitoring.01 ject is known to be recurrent (Shears et al. Dec = +73:17:26. χ2 = 39.13) × 10−15 erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 during the outburst.5.7. is the active nucleus of the NGC 3147 (Fig.o.0003.03 Count rate (c s−1) 00 00 50 50 100 100 150 150 200 200 Time Time (days) (days) Figure 5. 80 −1)) A−1 UVOT/uvm2 −2A 60 60 XRT cm−2 −1cm UVOT and XRT. at coor- XRT dinates RA = 10:15:39. is a candidate quasar (RA = 10:14:21. NGC 3147 coordinates RA = 11:28:31. The X–ray counterpart to this source (Fig.79 ± 0. NGC4303−O1 40 40 constant fit erg ss−1 −16erg Flux (10−16erg s−1cm−2A−1) 20 20 UVOT/uvm2 (10−16 14 Flux (10 XRT 00 constant fit Flux 12 0. (2015). Dec = +73:26:05.06 ×10−2 counts s−1 . Good data have been collected source.0.15 (14 d.) and a probability p = 0. The outburst activity of this ob- 0.f.5). Its variability in the UV band is however not si- Time (days) gnificant. Dwarf Nova 0. and 4. galactic nucleus of NGC4303 We have detected one transient event (a known dwarf nova. NGC 3690 p = 0. In the XRT data we found two variable sources.4× 10−16 erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 during the quiescent 5×10−3 phase. with Foley et al.0005).). identified as a Seyfert 1 galaxy (catalogued tion provides a χ2 = 3685 (25 d.01 0.f. 1996). 0 50 100 NGC3147-I1. located outside the target galaxy. 2011). The as 2XMM J122137. 2015) at a position consistent with our variable X–ray to the second week of July 2014. We identified the constant fit outburst of the dwarf nova CP Draconis (NGC3147-O1) in the observation of July 2nd . Good data have been collected for 35 by the XRT and for relate to SN 2014dt.426 (4 d. 2003) and NuSTAR (Ptak an AGN (Ptak et al. see Fig. but too far from Figure 3.4 (NGC3690-I1. both in the X–rays and in the UV band. The time zero is set to Figure 4. The fit performed on the data significant variability. 5. aperture with radius = 5 arcsec) of 1. lo- cated outside the target galaxy) in our UVOT dataset.7). The time zero is set to MET = 412217321 s (2014-01-24). some oth- 5 . 8).f.8+043025).). NGC3147-O2.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies for 27 epochs by both the XRT and the UVOT (see Table A. upper panel) shows that the flux rises up to at least Count rate (c s−1) (6. and a null probability. Two of them have been identified as AGNs.6. NGC 3147 to fit within the UVOT field of view. 6). The UV light curve (Fig. The fit performed on the data with a constant function returns a mean rate of 2. and a null probability.

01 information can be used as a diagnostic for the radius of the pro- genitor star. accuracy for SNLS-06D1jd and 0. serendipitous early UV events associated to the SNe SNLS- 04D2dc (Schawinski et al. of the star explosion. 2008). that is the soft X–ray and UV outburst expected at the birth of SNe (Colgate 1974.02 days accuracy was reached for SN 2010aq (Gezari et al. XRT.75 days ability.6).7. 2008) and 2010aq (Gezari et al. Gezari et al. This galaxy is not characterised by photons from this source to build a spectrum at each epoch an active nucleus.o. The time zero is set to MET = 409627840 s GRB 060218 (Campana et al.10 ×10−2 counts s−1 . NGC3147−O2 0.01 1 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 Time (days) Time (days) Figure 6. the Swift/XRT and UVOT provided evidences of their existence by detecting the early X–ray/UV Figure 7. then Type Ibc SNe).: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies XRT.025 XRT 5. 2010). 2008).015 star and launches the SN ejecta. 2010) by fitting the data The weekly monitoring of the galaxy NGC 6754 ranged from with theoretical models (Rabinak & Waxman 2011). For Wolf- the first week of April 2014 to the end of September 2014. For red supergiant progenitors (radius nitely state which source(s) is responsible for the observed vari.f. We found no transient events in the UVOT data. which marks the moment Considering the angular resolution of the XRT. 10−13 erg cm−2 s−1 . Supernova shock breakouts constant fit The SBO. χ2 = (Soderberg et al. The spectral indexes found ber of X–ray emitters inside the galaxy. XRT light curve of the candidate quasar (Flesch 2010) emission a few days before the SNe 2006aj associated with the (NGC 3147-O2). with a detailed study of the luminosity and temperature evolution of the early thermal expansion phase.o. The fit with a constant gives χ2 = 141. so the radiation is likely generated by a num- and convert the count rate to flux. strain the onset time (T 0 ) of SBOs. The UV counterpart of this source is not significantly variable.3 × with a constant function returns a rate of 2. These few observations demonstrate the capability to con- ers might be classified as ultra-luminous X–ray sources (ULX). X–ray radiation detected inside the target galaxy et al. The short duration (seconds to hours) of SBOs and the lack 0 50 100 150 200 of sensitive wide-field searches at high energies make their dis- Time (days) covery very hard. Chevalier & Klein 0.3−10 keV) (10−13Â erg cm−2Â s−1) 0.) and p = 0.02 1978. Falk 1978. marks the first escape of ra- Count rate (c s−1) diation when the blast wave breaks through the surface of the 0. T 0 was estimated with 0.0021.35 days for SNLS-04D2dc (Gezari et al. NGC3690−I1 XRT XRT constant fit 4 constant fit Flux (0.0026. as well as in the XRT data.) and p = 0. Also the GALEX satellite detected 20. The fit performed on the data to MET = 409627840 s (2013-12-25). The mean rate is 1. Its detection can enable an early follow-up of the SN. Matzner & McKee 1999). then Type II-P SNe). the data have been collected for 27 epochs by both the XRT and onset of the X–ray SBO associated with SN 2008D (Soderberg 6 . (2008) could es- 4.f. ∼ 1013 cm. while Schawinski et al. Andreoni et al. SNLS- 06D1jd (Gezari et al. The time zero is set to at each epoch are listed in Table A.03 Count rate (c s−1) 3 0. 1996) of NGC 3147 (NGC3147-I1). However. 2007).85 (35 d. the UVOT (see Table A.6 (26 a χ2 = 62. we cannot defi.02 2 0.7. This 0.f. galactic nucleus of NGC3147 XRT. NGC 6754 timate it with ∼ 1 hour precision. A 0. Good Rayet star progenitors (radius ∼ 1011 cm. The mean flux is 2. The time zero is set MET = 411013065 s (2014-01-10).o.) and a null probability. X–ray light curve of the active galactic nucleus (Ptak Figure 8.73 (6 d. We detected enough NGC 3690 (NGC3690-I1). 2006) and before the SNe 2008D (2013-12-25). and the explosion energy to the ejecta mass ratio 5×10−3 (Waxman et al.36 × 10−2 counts s−1 . 2008). 2008. d.

LIGO Scientific bright in the X-rays (Chandra et al. both rate of (0. galaxies (Evans et al. spatially coincident with galaxies. 2015). mated the probability to detect a SBO (including the cooling pected to be a GW emitter. the detection of a “canonical” SN We stress that a survey like the one we carried out with Swift or gamma-ray burst afterglow. Scientific Collaboration et al. Evans et al. We discussed the importance of the detection of X–ray/UV cantly increase the total number of local SNe detected by optical SBOs. Conclusions galaxies are within the Universe volume (< 200 Mpc) that will be reached by the forthcoming advanced GW detectors (a-LIGO We have observed seven nearby galaxies with a weekly ca- and a-Virgo) for binary coalescing NS systems. SNe are putative GW emit- The narrow field of the Swift/XRT and UVOT represents a ters. A precise de. time domain observa- monitoring like the one of the present work does not signifi. cantly the GW search sensitivity (Wa̧s et al.02%) for Type Ibc SNe. the onset of the SBO is the best EM mark of explosion time T 0 and the time window (T 0 uncertainties) where the moment of the explosion of massive stars. the problem of contamination from variable/transient objects.02%) ing flux ∼ 1. The probability to detect SNe during a Swift to carry on targeted. found that the main contaminant (variable) sources in both X– The effectiveness of our survey to detect an SBO was esti. the X– gain information about the progenitor star and the properties of ray/UV detection can give a more precise way to estimate the the ejecta.5 × 10−13 erg s−1 cm−2 ) are AGNs (NGC1084-I1. 2014. NGC 3147.fr/viz-bin/VizieR 7 .6 % from Type II-P SNe. tions. the probability to observe zero transients in our small observed sented in this paper represents a useful explorative study to test area is approximately 1. van den In our survey of 7 galaxies covering a sky area 0. curate theoretical models describing how the shock wave prop. namely those containing known. SNe oc- localization uncertainty of GW signals is expected to be large curring in dense circumstellar environment can be particularly (hundreds of square degrees. We detected several vari- vides timing and sky position that can be used in the search for able sources in both UVOT and XRT data. and the detection of their SBO would increase our ability to limitation in the search for the EM counterpart to a GW source constrain the time window in which the explosion takes place. 14 2015. However. Gehrels & Cannizzo 2015). Singer et al. even with a frequent (daily) mon. is an expected EM coun- terpart to GW signals from core-collapse SNe.014 deg2 . and our sample 7. While the accu- to search for the GW signal.6 % for Type II-P SNe. (2013) estimated 4 × 10−4 transients per square degree with a flux brighter than the above 6.03% (± 0. the use of astronomical catalogues (mainly through the Vizier 1999). re. NGC4303-I1. unrelated with the GW source. racy on the onset time provided by the study of canonical optical tion. multi-wavelength. Any search for EM counterparts to GW signals has to face termination of the (T 0 ).2- 2 KeV band) was found.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies et al. the detection of a SBO associated with accurate theoretical SNe and GRB afterglows cannot be better than about 1 day. is and will be useful in the framework of multi-messenger as- itoring.g. for the circumstellar matter properties and for the final stages of side the error region. The use of external triggers improves signifi. 1999). Our target. SNe or “orphan” gamma-ray bursts (Ghirlanda et al. 0. NGC 3690.3 × 10−13 erg s−1 cm−2 ) and UV (limit- mated to be 15. dence for about six months over the period 2013-2014 with the Two types of multi-messenger searches can benefit from this Swift/UVOT and XRT. for models permits to estimate the time of the core-collapse (and the X–ray/UV SBO it can be as accurate as a few hours down to thus of the GW emission) with precision from hours down to seconds. NGC 4303/M 61. (0. Andreoni et al. Kanner et al. 2012. For these events. 2012) and the EM follow up of GW candidate events (e. In our six-months messenger studies. Abadie et al. which use SBOs as triggers to search for monitoring (weekly cadenced) of seven closeby galaxies. use of archival data will be extremely useful to reduce the con- spectively. NGC3147-I1) and likely ULX (NGC3690-I1).5 days and 1000 s for Type II-P and Tipe Ibc SNe. NGC 6754. 2005. Type II-P.27) SNe yr−1 . the sky which is crucial to search for GW signals. cently detected in the optical (≥ 3 SN in the last 20 years).. 2013). 2012) with an emission that Collaboration et al. the effective strategy can be observable for weeks/months.1−6. the system NGC 2207/IC 2163. For this reason. signature of the GW sources.15 SNe yr−1 ) for each galaxy of our sample (Barbon et al. 2012). As discussed in the previous sec. providing a useful probe for the Swift satellite is to observe a limited number of fields in. We considered the UV emission in X–rays and in UV.9+11. nearby the progenitor star (Ofek et al.u-strasbg. The multi-frequency periodic monitoring of nearby galaxies pre. pro. seconds. Also. We esti- The Swift detection of a transient phenomenon that is ex. Counterparts to gravitational waves threshold.g. region (e. 2013). On the other hand.g. We also accounted for the 65% of SNe exploding as taminants. the capabilities of the Swift satellite for joint surveys with the GW detectors. no other contaminant brighter than 3 × 10−12 erg s−1 cm−2 (0. vizier. NGC 2770.1 −6. them to a SN SBO event. with a 90% interval corresponding to a Poissonian mean database14 ) was sufficient to securely identify most of them.08-0.03% (± 0. given that. from Type Ibc SNe. like local (within few tens of Mpc) phase) during our survey to be 15. Bergh et al. even in the era of the advanced detectors. Cappellaro et al. but we relate none of the GW signal. that are difficult to detect but can be a powerful tool to surveys that can be used as external triggers. Indeed. achieved with SBO observations and ac. To calculate these probabilities we as. It can significantly contribute to the detection of EM better than 1 day. of 0. detected within its localization agates through the exploding star.9+11. and after rejecting previously identified AGNs. Aiming at the detection of a SN SBO. the 25% exploding as Type Ibc (Smartt 2009. is fundamental in the multi. sumed a (conservative) detection rate of 3 SNe in the last 20 y if the search is limited within the galaxies. we GWs and neutrinos (see Section 6). 2012. 2012) with respect This work demonstrates that the Swift satellite is suitable to all-sky searches. According to Poissonian statistics. LIGO namely: NGC 1084. Cowperthwaite & Berger 2015). the SBO. Kanner et al. type of Swift survey: the search that uses external EM trigger we chose to target nearby galaxies with high rate of SNe re- events to search for gravitational wave events (e. Besides this. will likely not provide an estimate of T 0 with precision tronomy. 2008) was determined with 9+8 −20 s accuracy. rays (limiting flux ∼ 1. This suggests that an automated and rapid lasting 3.

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NGC 3147. Figure A. NGC 3147. Sum of all the images taken with the Swift/XRT of the target galaxies: NGC 1084. 9 .2. The angular size of each image is 70 × 70 . NGC 2770. NGC 6754. Single epoch images taken with the Swift/UVOT of the target galaxies: NGC 1084. NGC 4303/M 61. NGC 3690. The angular size of each image is 70 × 70 . NGC 3690. NGC 4303/M 61. the system NGC 2207/IC 2163. NGC 6754. NGC 2770. the system NGC 2207/IC 2163. Andreoni et al.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies Appendix A: Additional figures and tables Figure A.1.

9E+03 s Table A.7E+03 s - 33002016 2014-02-09 1.0E+03 s 33001008 2014-03-06 2.0E+03 s 2.2E+03 s 2.2E+03 s 2.2E+03 s NGC 4303 33002007 2013-12-11 1.1E+03 s 2.3E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33000004 2013-12-31 2.7E+03 s 32999013 2014-01-25 1.8E+03 s 33001016 2014-04-17 2.8E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 33000013 2014-02-25 2.0E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33001006 2014-02-27 8.9E+03 s 1.1E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 33001019 2014-05-08 2.0E+03 s 33002011 2014-01-05 1.1E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33001007 2014-03-04 1. exposure time of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and UVOT during the monitoring of NGC 1084.0E+03 s 33002028 2014-04-27 2.2E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 33001023 2014-06-04 .1E+03 s 33001009 2014-03-13 1.0E+03 s 33002009 2013-12-22 1.0E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 32999006 2013-12-07 2.9E+03 s 33001005 2014-02-20 2.9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 32999005 2013-11-30 2.9E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 33000028 2014-06-04 .9E+03 s 33000016 2014-03-18 1. Andreoni et al.3E+03 s 33002027 2014-04-20 2.9E+03 s 8.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.7E+03 s 32999016 2014-02-15 1.8E+03 s 33001003 2014-02-06 1.9E+03 s 33002021 2014-03-09 2. starting date.2E+03 s 2.2E+02 s 8.2E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.6E+03 s 32999017 2014-02-22 1.9E+03 s 33000010 2014-02-04 1.6E+03 s 33002010 2013-12-29 1. starting date.1E+03 s 33002026 2014-04-13 1.5E+03 s 32999010 2014-01-04 2.5E+03 s .1.0E+03 s 1.1E+03 s 33001011 2014-03-27 2.4E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 32999003 2013-11-17 2.6E+03 s 33002023 2014-03-23 1.0E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 33000003 2013-12-24 2. Identification number.0E+03 s 33001022 2014-05-29 2.2E+03 s 2.2E+03 s 33000023 2014-05-02 2.9E+03 s 1.1E+03 s NGC 2207/IC 2163 Obs ID Obs Date X–ray Exposure UV Exposure 33002001 2013-11-03 1.0E+03 s 2. 33000001 2013-12-10 2.1E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 32999002 2013-11-09 1.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 33000011 2014-02-11 2.0E+03 s 2. exposure time Table A.2E+03 s 33001001 2014-01-24 2. 1.1E+03 s 33000015 2014-03-11 2.8E+03 s 32999009 2013-12-28 1.5E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 33001014 2014-04-03 2.9E+03 s 33002014 2014-01-26 2.4.2E+03 s 33000005 2014-01-07 1.9E+03 s 33000014 2014-03-04 1.9E+03 s 10 .8E+03 s 32999020 2014-03-13 2.1E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 32999012 2014-01-18 2.0E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 1. exposure time 33000025 2014-05-13 1.9E+03 s 1.7E+03 s 1. starting date.7E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 33000019 2014-04-07 1.9E+03 s 33002024 2014-03-30 2.8E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 33000017 2014-03-25 2. of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and 33002003 2013-11-17 1.0E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 32999018 2014-03-01 1.8E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.7E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33002005 2013-12-01 2.9E+03 s 33001020 2014-05-15 1. Identification number.1E+03 s 2.2. 33000027 2014-05-27 1.2E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 33000018 2014-04-01 2.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 33000020 2014-04-15 1.4E+03 s 33002022 2014-03-16 1.2E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 33001017 2014-04-24 1.2E+03 s UVOT during the monitoring of the system NGC 2207/IC 2163.0E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 32999007 2013-12-14 1.0E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 1.7E+03 s 33002025 2014-04-06 2.0E+03 s 2.6E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 33001018 2014-05-01 1.5E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 33000007 2014-01-16 1.0E+03 s 2.2E+03 s 32999008 2013-12-21 1.1E+03 s 33000021 2014-04-22 2.0E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 33001013 2014-03-28 4.9E+03 s 33001010 2014-03-20 2.2E+03 s - 33002015 2014-02-02 2.3E+03 s 1.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies Table A.8E+03 s 1.7E+03 s 2.1E+03 s 33002020 2014-03-02 2. Identification number.2E+03 s 32999015 2014-02-08 1.7E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 33000024 2014-05-07 1.8E+03 s 32999014 2014-02-01 2.3.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 33002018 2014-02-23 1.9E+03 s 33000009 2014-01-28 1.8E+03 s 33000012 2014-02-18 2.9E+03 s UVOT during the monitoring of NGC 4303.8E+03 s 33000002 2013-12-17 2.9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 32999004 2013-11-23 1. Identification number.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s .9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33000008 2014-01-21 2. 2.8E+03 s of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and 33000026 2014-05-20 2.3E+02 s 33002013 2014-01-19 1.2E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 2.8E+03 s Obs ID Obs Date X–ray Exposure UV Exposure 33002008 2013-12-15 2.9E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 1. starting date. UVOT during the monitoring of NGC 2770.0E+03 s 1. 33002004 2013-11-24 1.9E+03 s 33002017 2014-02-16 2.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 33001015 2014-04-10 1.6E+03 s 1.3E+03 s 33001004 2014-02-13 2.3E+03 s 33001012 2014-03-27 2.0E+03 s - 32999011 2014-01-11 1. NGC 1084 NGC 2770 Obs ID Obs Date X–ray Exposure UV Exposure Obs ID Obs Date X–ray Exposure UV Exposure 32999001 2013-11-01 1.0E+03 s 2.8E+02 s 33002019 2014-02-26 1.2E+03 s 33001021 2014-05-22 2.9E+03 s 33002012 2014-01-12 2.6E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1. exposure time 33002002 2013-11-10 2.1E+03 s 32999019 2014-03-08 2.6E+03 s Table A.

1E+03 s 33225015 2014-07-13 1.9E+03 s 1.1E+03 s 33225011 2014-06-15 2.9E+03 32998013 2014-03-28 1.2E+03 s 2.5E+03 s 33225018 2014-07-27 1.9E+03 s 33225025 2014-09-07 2.2E+02 32998024 2014-06-13 1.9E+03 32998027 2014-07-04 1.1E+03 s 2.6E+03 s 33225017 2014-07-20 2. Identification number.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33225004 2014-04-27 1.4E+03 s 33225006 2014-05-11 2.9E+03 s 32998033 2014-08-22 2.1E+03 s 2.7E+03 32998015 2014-04-11 2.5E+03 s 1.0E+03 32998010 2014-03-07 2.9E+02 s 5.8E+03 s 33225020 2014-08-10 2.2E+03 s 32998030 2014-07-25 1.1E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 33225001 2014-04-06 1.1E+03 s 2.4E+03 32998022 2014-05-30 2.0E+03 s 33225005 2014-05-04 2.0E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 2. UVOT during the monitoring of NGC 6754.5E+03 s 33225026 2014-09-14 1.9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s .0E+03 s 2.0E+03 32998003 2014-01-24 2.9E+03 s 1.7E+03 s 1.5E+03 s 33225019 2014-08-03 1.7E+03 32998012 2014-03-21 1.0E+03 s 33225028 2014-09-28 2.5E+03 s 1. 33225007 2014-05-18 1.6.8E+03 s 33225027 2014-09-21 3.1E+03 32998004 2014-01-31 1.5E+02 s 33225008 2014-05-25 2.1E+03 s 3.2E+03 s 33225016 2014-07-17 1.6E+03 32998005 2014-02-07 2.1E+03 s 32998032 2014-08-15 1.7E+03 s 1. starting date.1E+02 s 6.0E+03 s 33225023 2014-08-31 6.9E+03 32998018 2014-05-02 1.9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1.5E+03 s 1.1E+03 32998028 2014-07-11 2.9E+03 s 33225014 2014-07-06 2.8E+03 s 1. Andreoni et al.2E+03 s .0E+03 32998009 2014-02-28 1. NGC 3690 NGC 6754 Obs ID Obs Date X–ray Exposure UV Exposure Obs ID Obs Date X–ray Exposure UV Exposure 32998001 2014-01-10 1. starting date.8E+03 s 32998037 2014-09-18 2.2E+03 32998021 2014-05-23 2.9E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 33225012 2014-06-22 1.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 33225003 2014-04-20 2.8E+03 s 33225009 2014-06-01 2. Identification number.1E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 1. 33225002 2014-04-13 2.1E+03 s 2.7E+03 s 1.9E+02 32998023 2014-06-06 .2E+03 s 2.7E+03 s 2.2E+03 32998017 2014-04-25 1.0E+03 32998014 2014-04-04 2.7E+03 s 1.9E+03 32998020 2014-05-16 1.9E+03 s 33225024 2014-09-04 1.5E+02 s 9.3E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 32998031 2014-08-08 2.3E+03 s 33225022 2014-08-24 5.7E+03 s 1.7E+03 s 1.1E+03 s 2.7E+03 32998016 2014-04-18 1.4E+03 s 1.0E+03 32998007 2014-02-21 5.7E+03 s 1.4E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 2. exposure time Table A.0E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 2.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies Table A.0E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 2.1E+03 s 32998035 2014-09-05 1. exposure time of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and UVOT during the monitoring of NGC 3690.0E+03 s 32998034 2014-08-29 2.9E+03 s 11 .0E+03 32998026 2014-06-27 1.3E+03 s 2.7E+03 32998008 2014-02-26 9.0E+03 s 2.1E+03 s 32998038 2014-09-26 1.6E+03 s 33225013 2014-06-29 2.1E+03 32998006 2014-02-14 1.7E+03 s 1.5.4E+03 32998025 2014-06-20 1.2E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.7E+03 32998002 2014-01-17 1.0E+03 32998011 2014-03-14 1.9E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 2. 2.4E+03 s 2.1E+03 s 2.0E+03 s 33225021 2014-08-17 2.0E+03 32998029 2014-07-18 2.2E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 1.

0E+03 s 2.1E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 2.9E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 2.4) 37992009 2014-02-19 2.2E+03 s 2.39.0E+03 s 1.5) 37992020 2014-05-07 1.4E+03 s 1.31.9E+03 s 1.5 (+0. Andreoni et al.17) 37992006 2014-01-29 1.33 (+0.7E+03 s 1. -0.3E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 1. In the last column. 1. -0.34.7 (+0.1E+03 s 1. -0.0E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 1.5.22) 37992028 2014-07-02 2.66 (+0. starting date.7. -0.4 (+0.8E+03 s 1.34.9 (+0.4) 37992019 2014-04-30 1.25 (+0.48 (+0.6 (+0. -0.45.0E+03 s 1.1E+03 s 2.15) 37992017 2014-04-16 1. -0.1E+02 s 6.5.48.6.21) 37992005 2014-01-22 2.2E+03 s - 37992026 2014-06-22 2.1E+03 s 1.4) 37992021 2014-05-14 2.29) 37992016 2014-04-09 2.39. -0.4) 37992003 2014-01-01 1.1E+03 s 1.28) 37992014 2014-03-26 2.1E+03 s 2.6 (+0. -0. -0.3E+03 s .4E+03 s 1. 2013).29) 37992011 2014-03-12 6. -0.6.5.51.22) 37992010 2014-03-06 1.23) 37992022 2014-05-21 2.8. -0. -0.29) 37992007 2014-02-05 2.3-10KeV) 37992002 2013-12-25 1.49 (+0.8E+03 s 1.6) 37992012 2014-03-16 1.2E+02 s 1.3E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1.43.4) 37992008 2014-02-12 1.9E+03 s 1. -0.1E+03 s 1.45. 2.17 (+0.43. NGC 3147 Obs ID Obs Date X-ray Exposure UV Exposure Index (0.30 (+0. -0.4.47 (+0.5.1E+03 s 2.42 (+0. -0.8 (+0.5 (+0. -0.3E+03 s 2.3) 37992013 2014-03-19 2. -0.7 (+0.0 (+0.34.17) 37992018 2014-04-26 1.28. -0.9E+03 s 1.8E+03 s 1. 2009) in the XRT 0. -0. exposure time of observations carried out by the Swift instruments XRT and UVOT during the monitoring of NGC 3147.30 × 1020 cm−2 (Willingale et al.3) 37992029 2014-07-09 1.48 (+0. -0.1E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 1.22) 37992023 2014-05-28 2.1E+03 s 1.4) 37992030 2014-07-13 1.29) 37992015 2014-04-02 1.4.8E+03 s 1. Evans et al.42 (+0. -0. Identification number.9E+03 s 1.7E+03 s 1. -0. -0.7E+03 s 2.7E+03 s 1.1E+03 s 1.0E+03 s 2.8E+03 s 1.3-10 KeV with a Galactic column density of 3.7 (+0.31 (+0.1E+03 s 2. -0. -0.1E+03 s 2.39.26) 37992024 2014-06-04 . -0.5.3E+03 s 1.2E+03 s 1.: A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of 7 nearby galaxies Table A.9 (+0.5) 12 .9E+03 s 1.9E+03 s 1.17) 37992004 2014-01-15 2.5.9E+03 s 1.38 (+0.36.5) 37992027 2014-06-25 1.4.49 (+0.2E+03 s 1. -0.52 (+0. the photon index of the absorbed power-law spectrum computed (through the Swift/XRT online tools.