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AWS Security Primer

I was preparing some AWS Security related training. Soon, I realized that this topic is too huge
to fit into my brain. So I structured my thoughts in a mind map1. Within a couple of minutes2 I
came up with this:

What is your first reaction? Mine was pretty much surprised:


Let me summarize how AWS Security works to make sure you are not surprised one day.

This post received over 200 points on Hacker News.

Account Structure
In 2015, I wrote a blog post about why Your single AWS Account is a serious risk. Since then,
AWS released Organizations. An Organization is a bucket for multiple AWS Accounts. The key
thing to consider is Service Control Policies (SCPs). SCPs are evaluated before IAM policies. So
you can restrict usage of services within an AWS account and no IAM policy in the world can
change that.

The security best practices for root user rules still apply:

1. Dont use your root user


2. Activate MFA
3. Dont use the Access Key

AWS API
I needed to separate this topic into two: Authentication (who you are) and Authorization (what
you are allowed to do).

Authentication
The thing you are familiar with is the IAM User. If you dont use the root user (which you
should not), you are most likely using AWS with IAM Users. An IAM User can (this is
optional!) login to the Management Console using a Login Profile. As you know, the password
should not be as trivial as your birthday, which you can enforce by a password policy. Its also
regarded good practice to activate MFA for all IAM Users with a Login Profile. If you want to
use the AWS CLI you also need an Access Key which you download to your laptop. This is very
sensitive information, and its a good practice to rotate this Access Key in regular intervals. If
you are using AWS CodeCommit (managed git repo) than you also can upload your public SSH
key for authentication purposes. A lot of stuff, still we have not talked about what the user is
allowed to do. This will be covered in the next section.

But lets first look at other points on the map.

An IAM Group is not an identity (you can not reference the group later) it just groups
IAM Users. And you can manage Authorization for the whole group instead of individual
users, which is also a good practice.
Cognito is niche. You can manage your own pools of users (not IAM Users) or connect
with Facebook, Twitter, and all those users can (depends on what you authorize) get
access to parts (or the whole) of your AWS account.
An EC2 Instance Profile is used to authenticate an EC2 Instance. This is handy if your
EC2 instances want to communicate with the AWS API. No need for Access Keys on
your EC2 instances.
Federation can make your life easier if you have many users that want to use AWS in
your company. You can use an external Identity Provider such as your AD to authenticate
users.
An IAM Role can only be assumed. You can not login. The cool thing is that not only
IAM Users can assume roles. Also, AWS services can assume roles for you to work on
your behalf. Even roles can assume roles which are amazing if you plan to complicate
your setup. Important to keep in mind is, that a role controls who can assume her in a
Trust Policy.
To make things simpler, AWS introduced Service-Linked Roles. Some AWS services
manage parts of your AWS account on your behalf. E.g. EMR launches EC2 instances to
run Hadoop for you. Before Service-Linked Roles, you had to create an IAM Role with
the proper Trust Policy for AWS to work in your account. Service-Linked Roles come
pre-configured and are managed by AWS. You only have to install them once.
Also kind of niche is IoT Things. Things like your thermostat authenticate with a
certificate. A thing can (depends on what you authorize) get access to parts (or the whole)
of your AWS account.

This is a summary of who can get access to your AWS account.

Authorization
Given you, or a thing, or a machine, authenticated successfully, they now want to do
something. Thats where IAM Policies come into play. A policy can be defined inline (IAM
User, IAM Group, IAM Role) or can be a separate entity (Managed Policy) that can be attached
to IAM Users, IAM Groups, or IAM Roles. You can either create your own Managed Policies or
use the predefined policies managed by AWS. You will most likely not follow the principle of
least privileges if you use AWS managed policies. The whole policy topic seems easy to
understand. The only problem is to define those policies. Thats why I created the Complete
AWS IAM Reference.

Besides IAM Policies, some services use additional authorization mechanism. The services with
their own authorization mechanism are:

SNS and SQS: A Topic Policy or Queue Policy can open a topic/queue to things like
IAM User, IAM Role, AWS Account, or just all of us. This can be handy, but you should
think twice before doing so. Most likely, you can use the assume role approach to achieve
the same!
Glacier: Glacier comes with two types of policies, one to control access, and the other to
control modification of archives. The latter is important if you have to enforce that data
can not be changed for legal reasons.
IoT: As mentioned, IoT Things can authenticate, and the Policy determines what they
can do in your AWS account.
Lambda: A Lambda Function can be opened for invocation by a Permission. This is
needed if you want a Cron to trigger your Lambda because this Cron is AWS. So
AWS needs permissions to invoke your function. Most likely, you can use the assume
role approach to achieve the same!
S3: S3 is the king of alternative ways for authorization.
o You can set ACLs on the bucket and object level to give read/write permissions. I
recommend no using them. There is no simple way to change all ACLs on the
object level. And it is very hard to reason if every object can have different
permissions.
o You can also use a Bucket Policy to give read/write permissions to your
bucket/objects. This makes sense if your bucket is public and you ant to give read
access to the world.
o You can also generate pre-signed URLs to give temporary permissions to read or
upload objects. This makes sense if you want users to directly upload files from
their browser.
KMS: Key Policies are the primary way to control access to customer master keys
(CMKs) in KMS. On top of that, you can use IAM policies to authorize. The second way
to control access are Grants. With a Grant, you can allow another AWS principal (e.g. an
AWS account) to use a CMK with some restrictions. You could also implement this with
the Key policy, but grants are more flexible to control.

Service API

Some services come with their own API. Databases, like MySQL, come with their own
authentication and authorization mechanism. You usually authenticate with username and
password and the database user is authorized to do specific things (e.g. not DROP TABLE). Keep
in mind that the AWS API to manage RDS still uses the auth mechanism of the AWS API.

If you want to administer your Linux or Windows virtual machine you will use SSH or RDP. For
Linux machines, AWS can deploy up to one public SSH key to your instance. You can then
login via SSH with the private key on your machine. For Windows machines, AWS encrypts the
password with the public key, and you can use the private key to decrypt the password. Using the
username and password, you can login via RDP.
Network

The network is where many AWS customers spend most of their time when thinking about
security. But as you can see, it is much easier to understand than AWS API access. You create a
VPC (no EC2-classic coverage here!) where you define your subnets. Subnets within a VPC can
talk to each other (they are routed).
The recommended way of controlling network access are Security Groups. A Security Group is
attached to ENIs (network interfaces) and controls inbound and outbound traffic. By default,
Security Groups do not allow any inbound traffic but allow all outbound traffic. Besides
identifying traffic by IP address ranges you can also identify traffic by the target/origin Security
Groups. Security Groups are stateful: If an inbound packet is allowed, the response is also
allowed and vice versa.
There are also ACLs to control inbound and outbound traffic for subnets. By default, ACLs are
configured to allow all inbound and outbound traffic. ACLs are stateless, so you will most likely
open all high ports. I recommend not to use ACLs unless you have a reason.
Finally, you can control who can talk to whom on the network by configuring routes. You may
want to connect your office network with your VPC. You can use a VPN connection to do so.
The routing then determines which Subnets can send packages to your office and vice versa.

Data Encryption
Mostly all services that store data (EBS, S3, SQS, ) support encryption at rest. Which means
that AWS will encrypt the data on-disk. This is handy if you (or your regulator) fears that
another AWS customer could get access to your data because of the shared nature of the
environment. E.g. if you return an EBS volume to AWS because you no longer need it, the
underlying hard disk will be reused. AWS wipes the data but there is a very tiny chance that
someone with big resources can reconstruct parts of the data. If you dont trust AWS, you should
better encrypt the data before you send it to the service or not use AWS at all.

Spoiler: Im not an expert on Data Encryption!

When data is encrypted/decrypted a key/secret is needed. Those keys are managed by the Key
Management Service (KMS). The way this works is that KMS owns the customer master key
(CMK) and issues data keys that are then used by e.g. EBS to encrypt/decrypt the data. The data
key is stored together with the encrypted data, also encrypted. When EBS wants to decrypt the
data gain (because you want to read it), it sends the encrypted data key to KMS, where the
master key can decrypt the data key. The decrypted data key is returned to EBS where it is used
to decrypt the data. Key is that the CMK never leaves KMS. If you delete the CMK, the
encrypted data is garbage because it can no longer be decrypted.

If you dont want that AWS owns/knows your master key you can use a magic box called
Hardware Security Module to manage your master key. CloudHSM provides this boxes to you as
a Service for ~$20,000 per year. The trick is that this magic hardware box audits access and
destroys itself if someone wants to open it. The magic box also handles the
encryption/decryption part on its own hardware.
To make things easier again, data that is in transit also wants to be encrypted. Especially if this
data travels trough the Internet. All AWS services that can expose HTTP endpoints (ELB, ALB,
CloudFront, API Gateway) also support TLS/SSL encryption with certificates managed by the
Certificate Manager which renews certificates automatically at no costs.
If you want to connect your office with your VPC, you can use a VPN tunnel to encrypt the data.
The AWS API is also encrypting traffic using TSL/SSL.
The open question is: What happens if you talk to your database from an EC2 instance? Or if you
talk to your Application Servers. You should at least know which traffic is (not) encrypted and
why.

Governance
Documentation is king. You write down all your security related rules in Confluence. The first
point in your list: Activate MFA. 1 year later, you recognize that still half of your IAM Users
have not activated MFA. Maybe you need something better?

AWS provides a service to record all (okay, this was marketing speak) most of the API
calls using CloudTrail. With this tool, you can exactly know who did what and when.
You can also use Lambda to analyze this in near real time (5 minutes) and e.g. send an
alert if a user deactivates MFA.
AWS Config creates snapshots of all your AWS configuration where you can define
rules that must be met.
Trusted Advisor checks if you follow best practices. Make sure that you receive those
emails and review the findings every week!
VPC Flow Logs can record network flows in your VPC. You could analyze them to:
Improve Security (Groups) using VPC Flow Logs & AWS Config

Summary
This was a high level overview of the AWS Security surface. From my experience, customers
spent most of their time securing their network because they know how to do this. I recommend
that you shift your resources a little bit to make sure you get the AWS API Security right. With a
single S3 Bucket Policy you can open your confident data to the world.

I missed a few points. Some of them are known:

Patching the operating system (AMI)


Patching the applications dependencies
Application internals (e.g. input validation)