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28 SEP 2013


To have a broad overview of Electrical
Engineering practice
This is not intended to be a Design
Workshop but to highlight Fundamental
Concepts and Safety Aspects
ELV topics such as PA, Telecommunication,
Building Automation, CCTV, SCADA and
Security Systems will not be covered here.
To discuss some common pitfalls
Energy Commission
Electricity Supply Act 1990 (Act 447)
Power to make regulations
Licensing of Service Providers
Tariff Rates
Supply Quality
Licensing of Competent Persons
Supervising Engineers, Chargemen, Wiremen
Licensing and registration of Electrical Installations
Promoting Energy Efficiency (new regulations)
MS 1525 Code of Practice
Efficient Management of Electrical Energy
Regulatons (2008) >3 million KWH users
Energy Commission
Electricity Regulations 1994
Rules for supervision, installation method,
equipment, testings and maintenance of
electrical installations.
Ground clearances for aerial lines
Clearances for live parts of switching stations
Rules governing the examination and licensing
of competent persons and contractors
Licensing of switchboard manufacturers
Rules on the licensing of electrical installations
Electrical Wiring Regulations
IEE Wiring Regulation Many Editions up to
17th Edition
IEE Wiring Regulation upgraded to BS7671
The phasing out of British Standards
MS IEC 60364 published in year 1996
The Malaysian Code of Practice The
Electrical Installations of Buildings
MS 1936 - A guide to MS IEC 60364
MS 1976 Electrical Installation of Building: Code
of Practice
TNB Requirements
Electricity Supply Application Handbook
Procedures and processes for power supply applications
TNB requirements with connection guidelines, metering
guidelines, etc. The latest edition highlights requirements
for Power Quality
Handbook on Connection charges
Define types of consumers & charges Category
1(132KV+), 2 (6.6KV <132KV) & 3 (<6.6KV)
Infrastructure Area Development 50% Contribution
charges from Developers. The sum is recoverable if TNB
collects back 25% as connection charges within 3 years.
Special Features 2nd feeder, underground cabling
Special concession given for Putrajaya development for
government buildings
Issues with TNB
Substation requirement trenching issues
Protection relays at incoming switchgear requirement
Metering requirements
Penalties for low MD achieved
Fire Protection Requirements. CO2 vs Clean Agent
Getting the Connection charge out early
Turnkey, partial turnkey projects issue of delays
Handing over of substation issue of changing
Clearance for Certificate of Fitness for Occupation
(CFO) before 12 April 2007, now Certificate of
Completion and Compliance (CCC) Liabilities under
Housing Development and Control Act.
Service Level Agreement between TNB & Developer
already implemented.
Bomba Requirements
Uniform Building By-Laws
Guide to Fire Protection in Malaysia
Emergency power supply
Emergency lighting for escape, Keluar signs
Fire rated cables
Lifts (Robinson Dept Store Fire)
To maintain power supply to any fire fighting
equipment passing through different fire zone or
Fireman switches (purpose & location)
Fire barriers for risers and compartment walls
Government Agencies
Department of Civil Aviation
ICAO Recommendations
Obstruction Lights for tall structures (>45m)
No intrusions into the flight transition cone of runway
( 1 in 7 slope from edge of runway )
No glare near airport landing approach
Use of fully cut off lanterns
Marine Department
Recommendations from International Association of
Lighthouse Authorities on Navigation Lights for Piers,
Wharfs, Ports and for bridges over major rivers
Receiving Land Use Day Time Night Time
Category 7.00 am - 10.00 pm -
10.00 pm 7.00 am
Noise Sensitive Areas, Low Density Residential, 50 dBA 40 dBA
Institutional (School, Hospital), Worship Areas.
Suburban Residential (Medium Density) Areas, Public 55dBA 45 dBA
Spaces, Parks, Recreational Areas.
Urban Residential (High Density) Areas, Designated 60 dBA 50 dBA
Mixed Development Areas (Residential - Commercial).
Commercial Business Zones 65 dBA 55 dBA

Designated Industrial Zones 70 dBA 60 dBA

equivalent A-weighted sound level (LAeq) means the constant sound level that, in a
given situation and time period, conveys the same sound energy as the actual time-varying
A-weighted sound.
Obstruction Lights Navigation Lights
Electricity Supply Planning
Purpose of Load estimates
To determine the voltage intake
230V SP, 400V TP, 11KV, 33KV, 132KV, 275KV
Technical factors possibility in upgrading, stability
and quality of supply
Substation design, land requirement and costs differ a
lot for each category
looking for cost effectiveness
To determine the metering scheme
Commercial factors MD penalties, return on capital
Central or local meters for multi-owner/tenant premise
Tariff mode special concession for street lighting or
thermal ice storage
Electricity Supply Planning
How to go about estimating the load?
Use of KW Per Acre method for mixed
development for very rough estimates
Use of Gross Floor Area (GFA)
6 to 9 watts per square foot (can be lower for GBI
certified buildings)
Use of Per Unit Type of Building
Low Cost House or Single Storey House 2KW
Double Storey Terrace House 4 to 6 KW per unit
Bungalow 8 to 15 KW
3 Storey Shoplot 20 to 35 KW
Use of detailed connected equipment list
Use Diversity Factor on total connected load
Electricity Supply Planning
MD ranges of Supply Typical Supply Scheme
Consumer Voltage
Up to 12 KVA 230V Overhead services from LV

12KVA to 100KVA 400V 3 phase overhead or

underground cable service from
existing LV mains
100KVA to 400V Direct cable service from LV
1000KVA board from a substation

1MVA to 5MVA 11KV Direct feed through TNBs 11KV

switching station

5MVA to 25MVA 33KV Direct feed through TNBs 33kV

switching station

Above 25 MVA 132KV/ Direct feed through TNBs

275KV 132KV or 275KV switching stn.
Electricity Supply Planning
Application of Diversity Factor
Best to refer to previous similar projects
Engineering judgment important
Having the Macro & Micro view
Critical design factors transformer, gen set and
riser sizing
Tendency to over-design by inexperienced
engineers but under-design is also happening
Understanding the type and mode of operation of
the connected equipment
Impact of development phasing in supply planning
Understanding TNB metering scheme
Electricity Supply Planning
Emergency Power
Fire pumpsets, pressurisation & smoke spill fans,
fireman lifts, fire control panels, fire intercom, PA
system and any thing concerning safety to building
Self-Contained Emergency lighting for switchrooms,
plant rooms, lobbies, staircases, escape corridors
Essential Power
Maintaining basic building facilities in the event of
power outage, eg lighting, computer system, lifts,
function rooms, potable water pumps, etc meeting
essential operation requirements of the owner
Uninterruptible Power Supply
Electricity Supply Planning
Space Planning - it is important to
determine all the space requirements
Type, size, number, location of substations
Near load centres to reduce cost of cabling
Avoiding taking up prime areas or sites which affect
value of adjoining properties
Accessible for equipment installations and
replacement, TNB prefers dedicated access.
Avoid flood prone areas as in basements
Inadequate space?
Compact substation Gas Insulated Substation?
132KV outdoor type 130m x 130m
132KV GIS type 60m x 80 m
More creative way to distribute power?
11KV instead of 400V distribution for multi-owners complex
Electricity Supply Planning
Spaces for Main Switch Boards, Gen Sets, UPS
& Sub-Switch Boards
Estimate of equipment sizes, clearances and working
space for maintenance
Gen Sets space for discharge of exhaust and
cooling air, avoid short-circuiting of air
Remote radiator may be necessary
UPS Solid State or Mechanical Flywheel?
Trenching depth, inter-connections or overhead
cabling connections must be practical cable
bending radii taken into considerations
Risers and adjoining rooms to be fixed.
Make sure that risers are accessible from common
Electricity Supply Planning
Cable Routes Planning
Cable or bus bar trunking routes from MSB to Risers to be
Note all obstructions from structural beams / other services. Be
mindful of voids or double volume locations.
Ceiling Head room for services to be negotiated
Try to maintain at least 750mm clearance between soffit of structural
beam and suspended ceiling and allowing minimum 2.75m clearance
from ceiling to floor.
Structural beams may need modifications for services to
pass through. Up stand beam if necessary.
External cable routes planning to avoid power and
telecommunication lines on the same side. If not possible
give adequate clearance
Clash analysis Coordination drawings or use REVIT MEP
No dig rule manhole / ducting or Service trench / tunnel?
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme

Electromagnetic Fields
An understanding of how electromagnetic
fields can cause electric stresses
Electric equipment failure is due mainly to
insulation breakdown, corona discharge and
How to manage electric stress is seen in
joint design and cable terminations method
How far we go up the transmission voltage
depends on this science of ES management
Electromagnetic fields at cable terminations
Heat Shrink Cable Terminations
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Eddy Currents
The effects on EMF inducing currents in
nearby metallic objects such as
Cable sheaths or armourings
Metallic pipes or conduits
Cable termination enclosures
Problems with Eddy Currents
Hot spots
Equipment or Cable failure
Eddy Currents Induced
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme

Mitigating Measures against Effects of

Eddy Currents
Tre-foil installation of single core cables
Cross Bonding of single core cable sheaths at regular
intervals especially for 33KV and above.
Use of non-metallic ducts for substation entries and
road crossing
Earthing armouring or cable sheaths at one end only, a
voltage surge diverter may be needed on the other end
Ensure all phase and neutral cables are within the
same cable termination enclosure
Crossing Bonding to reduce circulating sheath
currents for a dual 132 KV single core cable circuit
Mitigating Eddy Currents in Single Core Cables
with metal sheaths or armourings
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Fault Level Current
Shorting circuiting between phases to earth
give rise to a high fault current which must
be cleared fast to limit damage at the fault
Equipment and cable leading to the fault
location must be able to withstand this fault
current without sustaining damage
Fault current is a function of supply voltage
and total impedance: V / Z
Standard Fault level by TNB worst case
400 v 31.5KA/3s (22.6MVA)
6.6KV, 11KV, 22KV 20 KA/3s (762 MVA)
33KV 25 KA/3s (1429 MVA)
132KV 40 KA/3s (9145 MVA)
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme Considerations
Fault level determination is important:
All equipment must have the FL withstand capability
safety of equipment & personnel
Implication of cost,
100A, 20KA MCCB, is much cheaper than 100A, 50KA MCCB
(Frame size)
Generally the higher the KA rating the higher the costs
HV cable sizing very often did not consider fault
current capacity, using operating current for sizing only
The withstand time is important whether 1 second or 3
Transformer must not be overly sized, as the bigger the
transformer the higher the FL
Rationale for not permitting parallel operation of
transformers limiting the FL and losses
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme

Basic Insulation Level

This is the impulse withstand voltage (Vp)
strength of the equipment, cable as voltage
surges are common due to lightning and
switching operations.
Generally 4 to 5 times nominal voltage
When we specify BIL for switchgear,
transformer and cable for the same voltage
level, the value should be common.
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Types of Switchgear breaker
Air insulated mostly at LV
Bulk Oil: 6.6KV 22KV (obsolete)
Minimum Oil: 6.6KV - 22KV (obsolete)
Vacuum: 6.6KV 33KV (most competitive)
the early challenges voltage spikes
Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas (SF6): above 33KV
Excellent insulation and arc quenching performance
Ring Main Units (RMU)
Compact unit oil or SF6
Less protection relay devices
Non extensible or limited extensibility
Harder to determine location of cable faults
unless directional relays are used
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Types of Transformer - insulation
Air insulated (Dry type)
Epoxy Cast Resin
Oil insulated
With Oil Conservator tank
Hermetically Sealed (up to 22KV) w or wo Nitrogen
Types of Transformer Winding Configuration
Y Y more for transmission (No phase shift)
Delta - Star for distribution side (Dyn11) more stable
Types of Transformer Cooling
Voltage Transformation
Fixed, On Load tap changing
Transformer Impedance
4% 6% : to know the significance of values specified
Transformer with conservator tank
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Types of Cables
Paper Insulated (getting obsolete)
PVC, PVC/PVC(in plaster)
XLPE (cross linked polyethylene)
Paper Insulated Oil Filled (EHV cables)
Fire rated cables Class
XLPE type
Flexible Mineral Insulated (halogen free)
Other special application type
submersible, screened, etc
Types of armouring
Steel tape, Steel wire (for single core cables?)
Classification of Fire Rated Cables

BS 6387 Category CWZ

Heated for 3 hrs at 9500 C
Heated for 15 mins at 6500 C
and sprinkled for 15 mins
Heated for 9500 C for 15 mins
and subjected to mechanical
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Supply Security Issues
Need to assess the importance of the building facilities.
Murphys Law whatever can go wrong will go
Redundancy of equipment, cables, cable routes
must be planned for
Two independent sources of supply
Step down transformers minimum two per substation
Double Bus Bar system Power Plant, major
HV Ring Circuits or Mesh Network
Parallel feed to equipment switchboards
Second standby generator set to back up first gen set
Alternative cable feed should not be in same route or
ducting system (Penang bridge fire)
Double Bus Bar Scheme at Power Station
High Voltage Supply Design Scheme
Overhead lines vs Underground cabling issues
Overhead Lines
Greater safety issues clearances, falling lines
Tripping due to lightning or transient short circuiting
Higher maintenance painting towers, cleaning
insulators, collapsing towers
Way leave problem
Aesthetic not pleasing
Underground Cabling
Much more costly
Vulnerable to damage by digging
Easier to install and relocate
May need reactive current compensation for greater
voltage regulation