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# ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2017

## SELANGOR (2) ENGLISH VERSION

PART 1

a) i. History on Statistics

Statistics is a broad mathematical discipline which studies ways to collect, summarize, and draw
conclusions from data. It is applicable to a wide variety of academic fields from the physical and
social sciences to the humanities, as well as to business, government and industry.

Once data is collected, either through a formal sampling procedure or some other, less formal
method of observation, graphical and numerical summaries may be obtained using the techniques
of descriptive statistics. The specific summary methods chosen depend on the method of data
collection. The techniques of descriptive statistics can also be applied to census data, which is
collected on entire populations

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The word statistics comes from the modern Latin phrase statisticum collegium (lecture about state

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affairs), which gave rise to the Italian word statista (statesman or politician compare to status)
and the German Statistik (originally the analysis of data about the state). It acquired the meaning of

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the collection and classification of data generally in the early 19th century. The collection of data
about states and localities continues, largely through national and international statistical services.
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In the 9th century, the Islamic mathematician, Al-Kindi, was the first to use statistics to decipher
encrypted messages and developed the first code-breaking algorithm in the House of Wisdom in
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Baghdad, based on frequency analysis. He wrote a book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering
Cryptographic Messages, containing detailed discussions on statistics.[1] It covers methods of
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## cryptanalysis, encipherments, cryptanalysis of certain encipherments, and statistical analysis of

letters and letter combinations in Arabic.
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In the early 11th century, Al-Biruni's scientific method emphasized repeated experimentation. Biruni
was concerned with how to conceptualize and prevent both systematic errors and observational
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biases, such as "errors caused by the use of small instruments and errors made by human
observers." He argued that if instruments produce errors because of their imperfections or
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idiosyncratic qualities, then multiple observations must be taken, analysed qualitatively, and on this
basis, arrive at a "common-sense single value for the constant sought", whether an arithmetic mean
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or a "reliable estimate."
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In modern history, The Word statistics have been derived from Latin word Status or the Italian
word Statista, meaning of these words is Political State or a Government. Shakespeare used a

word Statist is his drama Hamlet (1602). In the past, the statistics was used by rulers. The application
of statistics was very limited but rulers and kings needed information about lands, agriculture,
commerce, population of their states to assess their military potential, their wealth, taxation and
other aspects of government.
Gottfried Achenwall used the word statistik at a German University in 1749 which means that
political science of different countries. In 1771 W. Hooper (Englishman) used the word statistics in
his translation of Elements of Universal Erudition written by Baron B.F Bieford, in his book statistics
has been defined as the science that teaches us what is the political arrangement of all the modern
states of the known world. There is a big gap between the old statistics and the modern statistics,
but old statistics also used as a part of the present statistics.

During the 18th century the English writer have used the word statistics in their works, so statistics
has developed gradually during last few centuries. A lot of work has been done in the end of the
nineteenth century.

At the beginning of the 20th century, William S Gosset was developed the methods for decision
making based on small set of data. During the 20th century several statistician are active in
developing new methods, theories and application of statistics. Now these days the availability of
electronics computers is certainly a major factor in the modern development of statistics.

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a) ii. History on Probablity

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Probability is a way of expressing knowledge or belief that an event will occur or has occurred. The
concept has been given an exact mathematical meaning in probability theory, which is used

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extensively in such areas of study as mathematics, statistics, finance, gambling, science, and
philosophy to draw conclusions about the likelihood of potential events and the underlying
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mechanics of complex systems.
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The word Probability derives from Latin word probabilitas that can also mean probity, a measure of
the authority of a witness in a legal case in Europe, and often correlated with the witness's nobility.
In a sense, this differs much from the modern meaning of probability, which, in contrast, is used as a
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measure of the weight of empirical evidence, and is arrived at from inductive reasoning and
statistical inference.
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A gambler's dispute in 1654 led to the creation of a mathematical theory of probability by two
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famous French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. Antoine Gombaud, Chevalier de
Mr, a French nobleman with an interest in gaming and gambling questions, called Pascal's
attention to an apparent contradiction concerning a popular dice game. The game consisted in
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throwing a pair of dice 24 times; the problem was to decide whether or not to bet even money on
the occurrence of at least one "double six" during the 24 throws. A seemingly well-established
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gambling rule led de Mr to believe that betting on a double six in 24 throws would be profitable,
but his own calculations indicated just the opposite.
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This problem and others posed by de Mr led to an exchange of letters between Pascal and Fermat
in which the fundamental principles of probability theory were formulated for the first time.
Although a few special problems on games of chance had been solved by some Italian
mathematicians in the 15th and 16th centuries, no general theory was developed before this famous
correspondence.
The Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, a teacher of Leibniz, learned of this correspondence and
shortly thereafter (in 1657) published the first book on probability; entitled De Ratiociniis in Ludo
Aleae, it was a treatise on problems associated with gambling. Because of the inherent appeal of
games of chance, probability theory soon became popular, and the subject developed rapidly during
the 18th century. The major contributors during this period were Jakob Bernoulli (1654-1705) and
Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754).

In 1812 Pierre de Laplace (1749-1827) introduced a host of new ideas and mathematical techniques
in his book, Thorie Analytique des Probabilits. Before Laplace, probability theory was solely
concerned with developing a mathematical analysis of games of chance. Laplace applied
probabilistic ideas to many scientific and practical problems. The theory of errors, actuarial
mathematics, and statistical mechanics are examples of some of the important applications of
probability theory developed in the l9th century.

Like so many other branches of mathematics, the development of probability theory has been
stimulated by the variety of its applications. Conversely, each advance in the theory has enlarged the

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scope of its influence. Mathematical statistics is one important branch of applied probability; other

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applications occur in such widely different fields as genetics, psychology, economics, and
engineering. Many workers have contributed to the theory since Laplace's time; among the most

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important are Chebyshev, Markov, von Mises, and Kolmogorov.

One of the difficulties in developing a mathematical theory of probability has been to arrive at a
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definition of probability that is precise enough for use in mathematics, yet comprehensive enough to
be applicable to a wide range of phenomena. The search for a widely acceptable definition took
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nearly three centuries and was marked by much controversy. The matter was finally resolved in the
20th century by treating probability theory on an axiomatic basis. In 1933 a monograph by a Russian
mathematician A. Kolmogorov outlined an axiomatic approach that forms the basis for the modern
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## theory. (Kolmogorov's monograph is available in English translation as Foundations of Probability

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Theory, Chelsea, New York, 1950.) Since then the ideas have been refined somewhat and probability
theory is now part of a more general discipline known as measure theory."
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b)
i. Variance
The variance in probability theory and statistics is a way to measure how far a set of numbers is
spread out. Variance describes how much a random variable differs from its expected value. The
variance is defined as the average of the squares of the differences between the individual
(observed) and the expected value. That means it is always positive. In practice, it is a measure of
how much something changes. For example, temperature has more variance in Kedah than in Johor.

## ii. Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is a number used to tell how measurements for a group are spread out from the
average (mean), or expected value. A low standard deviation means that most of the numbers are
very close to the average. A high standard deviation means that the numbers are spread out.

iii. Range
The range of a set of data is the difference between the largest and smallest values. However, in
descriptive statistics, this concept of range has a more complex meaning. The range is the size of the
smallest interval which contains all the data and provides an indication of statistical dispersion. It is
measured in the same units as the data. Since it only depends on two of the observations, it is most

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useful in representing the dispersion of small data sets

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PART 2
a)

## Lower Secondary Students Lower Secondary Students

Height Weight Height Weight
No. Name No. Name
(cm) (kg) (cm) (kg)
1 Liberty Lavin 150 30 26 Shawnda Wylli 139 35

## 32 Lesha Villacorta 146 47

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7 Nora Condict 165 30

## 8 Avril Ledger 150 35 33 Alexandra Roth 150 42

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9 Hee Evatt 145 47 34 Lamont Pawl 128 35

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10 Lani Krogh 159 46 35 Tonisha 125 38

## 12 Celine 145 46 37 Sarina Neill 155 33

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13 Blanche Han 135 29 38 Kecia Wright 134 32

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## 21 Tyron Gill 128 48 46 Gaston Bloch 137 42

47 Claudette 139 48
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## 25 Celesta Burell 138 45 50 Lyle Dortch 139 49

Table 1
Heigher Secondary Students Heigher Secondary Students
Height Weight Height Weight
No. Name No. Name
(cm) (kg) (cm) (kg)
1 Kerri Krehbiel 152 35 26 Hedwig 160 54

## 8 Bernadine Boca 159 45 33 Wallace Winkle 172 58

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9 Ronald Ritchie 167 46 34 Viola Vick 163 58

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10 Kenyatta Keeler 172 46 35 Jamie Jourdan 164 59

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11 Love Lengyel 135 46 36 Karyn Kleiber 185 60

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## 13 Ileen Iriarte 167 48 38 Modesto Mori 162 61

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14 Latanya Lauro 138 48 39 Dorethea Delva 165 63

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## 25 Joseph 173 54 50 Paola Preciado 162 79

Table 2
b) Lower Secondary Students Higher Secondary Students
Weight (kg) Frequency Weight (kg) Frequency
25-29 4 35 - 39 2
30-34 10 40 - 44 3
35-39 13 45 - 49 9
40-44 8 50 - 54 13
45-49 11 55 - 59 8
50 - 54 4 60 - 64 4
65 - 69 5
70 - 74 1
75 - 79 5

c) 2 Statistical graph
- Frequency polygon
- Ogive

## Lower Secondary Students

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Upper Cumulative
Weight (kg) Frequency Midpoint
Boundary Frequency

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20-24 0 22 24.5 0
25-29 4 27 29.5 4

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30-34 10 32 34.5 14
35-39 13 37 39.5 27
40-44
45-49
8
11
42
47
44.5
49.5
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46
50 - 54 4 52 54.5 50
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55 - 59 0 57
Higher Secondary Students
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## Midpoint Upper Cumulative

Weight (kg) Frequency
Boundary Frequency
30 - 34 0 32 34.5 0
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35 - 39 2 37 39.5 2
40 - 44 3 42 44.5 5
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45 - 49 9 47 49.5 14
50 - 54 13 52 54.5 27
55 - 59 8 57 59.5 35
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60 - 64 4 62 64.5 39
65 - 69 5 67 69.5 44
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70 - 74 1 72 74.5 45
75 - 79 5 77 79.5 50
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80 - 84 0 82
14

12

10

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6

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4

w or
2

ct
je
0
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
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## Lower Secondary Students Higher Secondary Students

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60

50

40
Cumulative Frequency

30

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20

or
10

w
ct
je
0
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
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Upper Boundary

## Lower Secondary Students Higher Secondary Students

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ii) Mean
Lower Secondary Students
f = 50

fx = 1970

1970
Min/Mean x
50

x 39.4kg
Higher Secondary Students
f = 50

fx = 2795

2795
Min/Mean x

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50

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x 55.9kg

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Median
Lower Secondary Students
N tw
F
median L 2 c
fm

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Median Class = 35 39
L = 34.5 N = 50 F= 14 fm = 13 c=5
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50
14
median 34.5 2 5
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13

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Median = 38.7

## Higher Secondary Students

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N
F
median L 2 c
m

fm

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Median Class = 35 39

L = 49.5 N = 50 F= 14 fm = 13 c=5
50
14
median 49.5 2 5
13

Median = 53.7
Mode [YOU MAY USE HISTOGRAM TO FIND]

f m f m1
Mode L w
( f m f m1 ) ( f m f m1 )

## L = Lower boundary of modal class

fm-1 = Frequency before modal class

## fm = Frequency of modal class

fm+1 = Frequency after modal class
w = class size
Lower Secondary Student
L = 34.5 fm-1 = 10 fm = 13 fm+1 = 8 w = 5

13 10
Mode 34.5 5
(13 10) (13 8)

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Mode = 36.4

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Higher Secondary Student
L = 49.5 fm-1 = 9 fm = 13 fm+1 = 8 w=5

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13 9 tw
Mode 49.5 5
(13 9) (13 8)
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Mode = 51.7

Based on my answers above, the mean is a more suitable measure of central tendency because it
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reflects the central value around which the data seems to cluster. The mean also reflect the high
number of frequency of students which have the range of weight almost near to the value of mean.
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The mode is not suitable because the data does not seem to cluster about mode. The median is also
not that suitable as it only shows the middle value of the whole data.
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PART 3
a)
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a person's weight and height. BMI is a fairly
reliable indicator of body fatness for most people. BMI does not measure body fat directly, but
research has shown that BMI correlates to direct measures of body fat. BMI can be considered an
alternative for direct measures of body fat. Additionally, BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform
method of screening for weight categories that may lead to health problems.

BMI is used as a screening tool to identify possible weight problems for adults and children.
However, BMI is not a diagnostic tool. For example, a child may have a high BMI for age and sex, but
to determine if excess weight is a health risk, a health care provider would need to perform further
assessments. These assessments might include skinfold thickness measurements, evaluations of
diet, physical activity, family history, and other appropriate health screenings.

## Calculating and interpreting BMI involves the following steps:

1. Before calculating BMI, obtain accurate height and weight measurements.

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2. Calculate the BMI and percentile using the formula:

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Weight (kg)
BMI

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Height (m) Height (m)

## Below are the classification of BMI

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If your BMI (kg/m) is You are
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< 18.5 Underweight
18.5 24.9 Desirable weight
25.0 29.9 Overweight
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> 30 Obese
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Research shows that excess weight is a serious health problem for many people, increasing their risk
of developing a number of serious illnesses, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and
high blood pressure. The good news is that getting and maintaining weight within the desirable
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weight range through healthy eating and regular physical activity can help prevent these illnesses.
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Underweight increase ones risk of health problems. Being underweight is linked with heart
problems, lowered resistance to infection, chronic fatigue, anaemia, depression and other illnesses.
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Aim for a gradual weight gain, which should be about 1 to 2 kilogram per month. You should aim for
a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m.
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The limitation of BMI is that its intended as a measure of fatness but doesnt actually take body

fat percentage into account. Its therefore skewed in individuals who are highly muscular or those
who have muscle wasting. For example, a bodybuilder whose weight may be higher than normal
due to increased muscle mass may appear obese according to his BMI number. In comparison, an
elderly persons BMI number may appear in the healthy range (<27) even though theyve had
significant muscle loss.
Another limitation of BMI is the fact that it does not differ between men and women even though
men tend to have larger frames in addition to a more muscular build. So even though a man and a
woman may have the same BMI, the woman would likely have a higher percentage of body fat than
the male. BMI also doesnt take fat distribution into account. For example, a persons waist
circumference can be used to determine their amount of visceral fat, which is located around vital
internal organs and is often associated with increased levels of inflammation and chronic disease
risk.

b)
Lower Secondary Students
No. Name Height (cm) Weight (kg) BMI
1 Liberty Lavin 150 30 13.3
2 Florencia 135 37 20.3
3 Zandra Keltz 159 40 15.8
4 Hyman Pillai 153 42 17.9
5 Will Rank 142 38 18.8

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6 Kiersten Jagger 150 35 15.6
7 Nora Condict 165 30 11.0

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8 Avril Ledger 150 35 15.6

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9 Hee Evatt 145 47 22.4
10 Lani Krogh 159 46 18.2
11 Raelene Dougal 156 41 16.8
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12 Celine Comerford 145 46 21.9
13 Blanche Hanlon 135 29 15.9
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14 Otis Plewa 157 28 11.4
15 Mila Seal 145 26 12.4
16 Rheba Trojanowski 157 30 12.2
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## 17 Julius Gilkey 145 31 14.7

135 35 19.2
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18 Carlie Araiza
19 Tony Orlando 120 37 25.7
20 Rowena Forry 125 34 21.8
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## 21 Tyron Gill 128 48 29.3

22 Gwyn Matter 153 50 21.4
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## 23 Paulita Cadorette 126 51 32.1

24 Joy Crumpton 129 41 24.6
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## 25 Celesta Burell 138 45 23.6

26 Shawnda Wyllie 139 35 18.1
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## 27 Dawn Dry 145 31 14.7

28 Santana Stitt 136 35 18.9

## 29 Kylie Mika 157 49 19.9

30 Mariko Cortes 123 51 33.7
31 Elliott Pinkham 129 50 30.0
32 Lesha Villacorta 146 47 22.0
33 Alexandra Rothfuss 150 42 18.7
34 Lamont Pawlowicz 128 35 21.4
35 Tonisha Bossard 125 38 24.3
36 Fermin Hamada 126 37 23.3
37 Sarina Neill 155 33 13.7
38 Kecia Seawright 134 32 17.8
39 Larita Bormann 165 30 11.0
40 Delmer Egner 125 29 18.6
41 Cher Basden 158 39 15.6
42 Tanika Wardwell 157 34 13.8
43 Doretta Greeson 145 35 16.6
44 Bethanie Hajek 135 45 24.7
45 Sylvester Hearn 136 42 22.7
46 Gaston Bloch 137 42 22.4
47 Claudette Yerby 139 48 24.8
48 Spencer Wand 145 45 21.4
49 Veta Doll 143 41 20.0

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50 Lyle Dortch 139 49 25.4

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Higher Secondary Students

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Height Weight
No. Name (cm) (kg) BMI
1 Kerri Krehbiel 152 35 15.1
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2 Lajuana Litten 144 38 18.3
3 Keith Kolesar 160 42 16.4
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4 Gillian Giffin 154 42 17.7
5 Evelyne Edelman 154 43 18.1
6 Leda Luo 167 45 16.1
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## 7 Christal Caines 173 45 15.0

8 Bernadine Bocanegra 159 45 17.8
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## 9 Ronald Ritchie 167 46 16.5

10 Kenyatta Keeler 172 46 15.5
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## 11 Love Lengyel 135 46 25.2

12 Ricki Rothman 178 48 15.1
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## 13 Ileen Iriarte 167 48 17.2

14 Latanya Lauro 138 48 25.2
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## 15 Cami Chicoine 177 51 16.3

16 Juli Johanson 142 51 25.3
157 51 20.7
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17 Tawanda Thornell
18 Barbar Bassin 168 52 18.4

## 19 Abbie Amato 166 52 18.9

20 Lance Lande 160 52 20.3
21 Karina Kier 166 53 19.2
22 Marcelina Mardis 164 53 19.7
23 Tomas Toscano 180 54 16.7
24 Deane Dismuke 165 54 19.8
25 Joseph Jamieson 173 54 18.0
26 Hedwig Halverson 160 54 21.1
27 Cletus Cotten 170 54 18.7
28 Debi Domino 148 55 25.1
29 Tatum Talty 172 55 18.6
30 Neoma Newhall 166 55 20.0
31 Marquerite Molyneux 155 55 22.9
32 Krishna Kalman 167 56 20.1
33 Wallace Winkle 172 58 19.6
34 Viola Vick 163 58 21.8
35 Jamie Jourdan 164 59 21.9
36 Karyn Kleiber 185 60 17.5
37 Gwenn Gaston 174 61 20.1
38 Modesto Moritz 162 61 23.2
39 Dorethea Delvalle 165 63 23.1

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40 Mario Musgrave 178 65 20.5
41 Tressa Tomasini 164 65 24.2

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42 Zita Zuchowski 172 65 22.0
43 Lovetta Lobaugh 168 65 23.0

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44 Jung Jennison 185 68 19.9
45 Jerrell Jankowski 156 74 30.4
46
47
Jane Joshua
Jetta Jacks
159
160
76
77
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30.1
30.1
48 Spring Sickels 160 78 30.5
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49 Shirlee Sussman 161 78 30.1
50 Paola Preciado 162 79 30.1
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Listed below are the lower and higher secondary students with ideal weight (BMI 18.5 24.9)
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## Delmer Egner 125 29 18.6

Alexandra Rothfuss 150 42 18.7
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## Will Rank 142 38 18.8

Santana Stitt 136 35 18.9
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## Carlie Araiza 135 35 19.2

Kylie Mika 157 49 19.9
143 41 20.0
m

Veta Doll
Florencia Brzozowski 135 37 20.3
Gwyn Matter 153 50 21.4
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## Spencer Wand 145 45 21.4

Rowena Forry 125 34 21.8
Celine Comerford 145 46 21.9
Lesha Villacorta 146 47 22.0
Hee Evatt 145 47 22.4
Gaston Bloch 137 42 22.4
Sylvester Hearn 136 42 22.7
Celesta Burell 138 45 23.6
Tonisha Bossard 125 38 24.3
Joy Crumpton 129 41 24.6
Bethanie Hajek 135 45 24.7
Claudette Yerby 139 48 24.8
Tatum Talty 172 55 18.6
Cletus Cotten 170 54 18.7
Abbie Amato 166 52 18.9
Karina Kier 166 53 19.2
Wallace Winkle 172 58 19.6
Marcelina Mardis 164 53 19.7
Deane Dismuke 165 54 19.8
Jung Jennison 185 68 19.9
Neoma Newhall 166 55 20.0

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Krishna Kalman 167 56 20.1
Gwenn Gaston 174 61 20.1

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Lance Lande 160 52 20.3
Mario Musgrave 178 65 20.5

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Tawanda Thornell 157 51 20.7
Hedwig Halverson 160 54 21.1 tw
Viola Vick 163 58 21.8
Jamie Jourdan 164 59 21.9
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Zita Zuchowski 172 65 22.0
Marquerite Molyneux 155 55 22.9
Lovetta Lobaugh 168 65 23.0
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## Dorethea Delvalle 165 63 23.1

Modesto Moritz 162 61 23.2
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## Tressa Tomasini 164 65 24.2

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Range : 29kg 68 kg
x
Mean
N
at

2280
Mean
46
m

Mean 49.56kg
x 2
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Variance mean 2
N

117496
Variance 49.56 2
23
Variance 2652.33

## Standard Deviation = 2652.33

Standard Deviation = 51.5

Based on the findings, the mean weight of ideal weight for both category of students is 49.56kg. The
deviation of the data is seems to be bigger with value of 51.5 which shows that the data are not
clustered in the middle and does deviated as the data are combination of both lower and secondary
students.

c)
No. of Lower Sec. No. of Higher Sec.
Classification Category
students students
< 18.5 Underweight 21 17
18.5 24.9 Desirable weight 23 23
25.0 29.9 Overweight 3 4
> 30 Obese 3 6

## Lower Sec Stud

21/50

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Underweight 17/50
19/50 Higher Sec Stud

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23/50 23/50 Lower Sec Stud
Ideal Weight 23/50

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7/100 Higher Sec Stud
3/50 Lower Sec Stud
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9/100 Over Weight
2/25
Higher Sec Stud
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Obese 3/50
Lower Sec Stud
3/25
Higher Sec Stud
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i. Underweight = 19/50
ii. Normal = 23/50
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## iii. Overweight = 7/100

iv. Obese = 9/100
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