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Original Title: Theory of Elasticity & Plasticity by Dr. D. Dinev.pdf

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Introduction

The rules of the game

Print version Lecture on Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity of

1.1

Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Elasticity and plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Overview of the course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.3 Course organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Mathematical preliminaries 6

2.1 Scalars, vectors and tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.2 Index notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.3 Kronecker delta and alternating symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.4 Coordinate transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.5 Cartesian tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.6 Principal values and directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.7 Vector and tensor algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.8 Tensor calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2

1 Introduction

1.1 Elasticity and plasticity

Introduction

Elasticity and plasticity

What is the Theory of elasticity (TE)?

Branch of physics which deals with calculation of the deformation of solid bodies in

equilibrium of applied forces

Theory of elasticity treats explicitly a linear or nonlinear response of structure to

loading

What do we mean by a solid body?

A solid body can sustain shear

Body is and remains continuous during the deformation- neglecting its atomic struc-

ture, the body consists of continuous material points (we can infinitely zoom-in

and still see numerous material points)

What does the modern TE deal with?

Lab experiments- strain measurements, photoelasticity, fatigue, material description

Theory- continuum mechanics, micromechanics, constitutive modeling

Computation- finite elements, boundary elements, molecular mechanics

1.3

1

Introduction

Which problems does the TE study?

All problems considering 2- or 3-dimensional formulation

1.4

Introduction

Shell structures

1.5

Introduction

Plate structures

1.6

Introduction

2

Elasticity and plasticity

Disc structures (walls)

1.7

Introduction

Mechanics of Materials (MoM)

Makes plausible but unsubstantial assumptions

Most of the assumptions have a physical nature

Deals mostly with ordinary differential equations

Solve the complicated problems by coefficients from tables (i.e. stress concentration fac-

tors)

More precise treatment

Makes mathematical assumptions to help solve the equations

Deals mostly with partial differential equations

Allows us to assess the quality of the MoM-assumptions

Uses more advanced mathematical tools- tensors, PDE, numerical solutions

1.8

Introduction

Overview of the course

Topics in this class

Stress and relation with the internal forces

Deformation and strain

Equilibrium and compatibility

Material behavior

Elasticity problem formulation

Energy principles

2-D formulation

Finite element method

Plate analysis

Shell theory

Plasticity

Note

A lot of mathematics

Few videos and pictures

1.9

3

Introduction

Overview of the course

Textbooks

Elasticity theory, applications, and numerics, Martin H. Sadd, 2nd edition, Elsevier

2009

Energy principles and variational methods in applied mechanics, J. N. Reddy, John

Wiley & Sons 2002

Fundamental finite element analysis and applications, M. Asghar Bhatti, John Wiley

& Sons 2005

Theories and applications of plate analysis, Rudolph Szilard, John Wiley & Sons

2004

Thin plates and shells, E. Ventsel and T. Krauthammer, Marcel Dekker 2001

1.10

Introduction

Overview of the course

Other references

Elasticity in engineering mechanics, A. Boresi, K. Chong and J. Lee, John Wiley &

Sons, 2011

Elasticity, J. R. Barber, 2nd edition, Kluwer academic publishers, 2004

Engineering elasticity, R. T. Fenner, Ellis Horwood Ltd, 1986

Advanced strength and applied elasticity, A. Ugural and S. Fenster, Prentice hall,

2003

Introduction to finite element method, C.A. Felippa, lecture notes, University of Col-

orado at Boulder

Lecture handouts from different universities around the world

1.11

Introduction

Course organization

Lecture notes- posted on a web-site: http://uacg.bg/?p=178&l=2&id=151&f=2&dp=23

Instructor

Dr. D. Dinev- Room 514, E-mail: ddinev_fce@uacg.bg

Teaching assistant

Dr. A. Taushanov- Room 437

Office hours

Instructor: Tues: 13-14; Thurs: 16-17

TA: . . . . . . . . . . . .

Note

For other time by appointment

1.12

4

Introduction

7

dea 4

rG

3

1

40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Points

Course organization

Grading

1.13

Introduction

Course organization

Grading is based on

Homework- 15%

Two mid-term exams- 50%

Final exam- 35%

Participation

Class will be taught with a mixture of lecture and student participation

Class participation and attendance are expected of all students

In-class discussions will be more valuable to you if you read the relevant sections

of the textbook before the class time

1.14

Introduction

Course organization

Homeworks

Homework is due at the beginning of the Thursday lectures

The assigned problems for the HWs will be announced via web-site

Late homework policy

Late homework will not be accepted and graded

Team work

You are encouraged to discuss HW and class material with the instructor, the TAs

and your classmates

However, the submitted individual HW solutions and exams must involve only your

effort

Otherwise youll have terrible performance on the exam since you did not learn to

think for yourself

1.15

5

2 Mathematical preliminaries

2.1 Scalars, vectors and tensors

Mathematical preliminaries

Scalars, vectors and tensor definitions

Scalar quantities- represent a single magnitude at each point in space

Mass density-

Temperature- T

Vector quantities- represent variables which are expressible in terms of components in a

2-D or 3-D coordinate system

Displacement- u = ue1 + ve2 + we3

where e1 , e2 and e3 are unit basis vectors in the coordinate system

Matrix quantities- represent variables which require more than three components to quan-

tify

Stress matrix

xx xy xz

= yx yy yz

zx zy zz

1.16

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation

Index notation is a shorthand scheme where a set of numbers is represented by a single

symbol with subscripts

a1 a11 a12 a13

ai = a2 , ai j = a21 a22 a23

a3 a31 a32 a33

a1 j first row

ai1 first column

Addition and subtraction

a1 b1

ai bi = a2 b2

a3 b3

a11 b11 a12 b12 a13 b13

ai j bi j = a21 b21 a22 b22 a23 b23

a31 b31 a32 b32 a33 b33

1.17

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation

Scalar multiplication

a1 a11 a12 a13

ai = a2 , ai j = a21 a22 a23

a3 a31 a32 a33

Outer multiplication (product)

a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3

ai b j = a2 b1 a2 b2 a2 b3

a3 b1 a3 b2 a3 b3

1.18

6

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation

Commutative, associative and distributive laws

ai + bi = bi + ai

ai j bk = bk ai j

ai + (bi + ci ) = (ai + bi ) + ci

ai (b jk c` ) = (ai b jk )c`

ai j (bk + ck ) = ai j bk + ai j ck

1.19

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation

Summation convention (Einsteins convention)- if a subscript appears twice in the same

term, then summation over that subscript from one to three is implied

3

aii = aii = a11 + a22 + a33

i=1

3

ai j b j = ai j b j = ai1 b1 + ai2 b2 + ai3 b3

j=1

j- dummy index subscript which is repeated into the notation (one side of the

equation)

i- free index subscript which is not repeated into the notation

1.20

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation- example

The matrix ai j and vector bi are

1 2 0 2

ai j = 0 4 3 , bi = 4

2 1 2 0

aii = a11 + a22 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free index

ai j ai j = a11 a11 + a12 a12 + a13 a13 + . . . = 1 1 + 2 2 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free

index

a11 b1 + a12 b1 + a13 b3 ...

= ... = ...

... ...

1.21

7

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation- example

Determine the following quantities

i = 1 a11 a1k + a12 a2k + a13 a3k

= i = 2 a21 a1k + . . .

i = 3 a31 a1k + . . .

k = 1 a11 a11 + a12 a21 + a13 a31 = . . .

k = 2 a11 a12 + a12 a22 + a13 a32 = . . .

k = 3 a11 a13 + a12 a23 + a13 a33 = . . .

Finally

1 10 6

ai j a jk = 6 19 18 (matrix)- two free indexes

6 10 7

1.22

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation- example

Determine the following quantities

bi bi = b1 b1 + b2 b2 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free index

b1 b j b1 b1 b1 b2 b1 b3

bi b j = b2 b j = . . . = ...

b3 b j ...

1.23

Mathematical preliminaries

Index notation- example

Determine the following quantities

Unsymmetric matrix decomposition

1 1

ai j = (ai j + a ji ) + (ai j a ji )

|2 {z } |2 {z }

symmetric antisymmetric

Symmetric part

1

(ai j + a ji ) = . . .

2

Antisymmetric part

1

(ai j a ji ) = . . .

2

1.24

8

2.3 Kronecker delta and alternating symbol

Mathematical preliminaries

Kronecker delta and alternating symbol

Kronecker delta is defined as

1 0 0

1 if i = j

i j = = 0 1 0

6 j

0 if i =

0 0 1

Properties of i j

i j = ji

ii = 3

11 a1 + 12 a2 + 13 a3 = a1

i j a j = . . . = ai

...

i j a jk = aik

i j ai j = aii

i j i j = 3

1.25

Mathematical preliminaries

Kronecker delta and alternating symbol

Alternating (permutation) symbol is defined as

+1 if i jk is an even permutation of 1,2,3

i jk = 1 if i jk is an odd permutation of 1,2,3

0 otherwise

Therefore

123 = 231 = 312 = 1

321 = 132 = 213 = 1

112 = 131 = 222 = . . . = 0

Matrix determinant

a11 a12 a13

det(ai j ) = |ai j | = a21 a22 a23 = i jk a1i a2 j a3k = i jk ai1 a j2 ak3

a31 a32 a33

1.26

Mathematical preliminaries

Coordinate transformations

9

Consider two Cartesian coordinate systems with different orientation and basis vectors

1.27

Mathematical preliminaries

Coordinate transformations

The basis vectors for the old (unprimed) and the new (primed) coordinate systems are

0

e1 e1

ei = e2 , e0i = e02

e3 e03

Let Ni j denotes the cosine of the angle between xi0 -axis and x j -axis

Ni j = e0i e j = cos(xi0 , x j )

The primed base vectors can be expressed in terms of those in the unprimed by relations

e02 = N21 e1 + N22 e2 + N23 e3

e03 = N31 e1 + N32 e2 + N33 e3

1.28

Mathematical preliminaries

Coordinate transformations

In matrix form

e0i = Ni j e j

ei = N ji e0j

v = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 = vi ei

= v01 e01 + v02 e02 + v03 e03 = v0i e0i

1.29

Mathematical preliminaries

Coordinate transformations

Or

v = vi N ji e0j

v0j = N ji vi

Similarly

vi = Ni j v0j

These relations constitute the transformation law for the Cartesian components of a vector

under a change of orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system

1.30

10

2.5 Cartesian tensors

Mathematical preliminaries

Cartesian tensors

General index notation scheme

a0 = a, zero order (scalar)

a0i = Nip a p , first order (vector)

a0i j = Nip N jq a pq , second order (matrix)

a0i jk = Nip N jq Nkr a pqr , third order

...

A tensor is a generalization of the above mentioned quantities

Example

The notation v0i = Ni j v j is a relationship between two vectors which are transformed to

each other by a tensor (coordinate transformation). The multiplication of a vector by a

tensor results another vector (linear mapping).

1.31

Mathematical preliminaries

Cartesian tensors

All second order tensors can be presented in matrix form

N11 N12 N13

Ni j = N21 N22 N23

N31 N32 N33

Since Ni j can be presented as a matrix, all matrix operation for 3 3-matrix are valid

The difference between a matrix and a tensor

We can multiply the three components of a vector vi by any 3 3-matrix

The resulting three numbers (v01 , v02 v03 ) may or may not represent the vector compo-

nents

If they are the vector components, then the matrix represents the components of a

tensor Ni j

If not, then the matrix is just an ordinary old matrix

1.32

Mathematical preliminaries

Cartesian tensors

The second order tensor can be created by a dyadic (tensor or outer) product of the two

vectors v0 and v

0

v1 v1 v01 v2 v01 v3

v03 v1 v03 v2 v03 v3

1.33

Mathematical preliminaries

Transformation example

The components of a first and a second order tensor in a particular coordinate frame are

given by

1 1 0 3

bi = 4 , ai j = 0 2 2

2 3 2 4

Determine the components of each tensor in a new coordinates found through a rotation of

60 about the x3 -axis

1.34

11

Mathematical preliminaries

Transformation example

The rotation matrix is

1

cos 300 cos 30 cos 90 3

0

0 2 2

Ni j = cos(xi , x j ) = cos 210 cos 300 cos 90 = 3 1

2 2 0

cos 90 cos 90 cos 0 0 0 1

1.35

Mathematical preliminaries

Transformation example

The transformation of the vector bi is

1 3

2 2 0 1

b0i = Ni j b j = 23 1 4 = ...

2 0

0 0 1 2

1 T

1 3 3

0 1 0 3 0

2 2 2 2

a0i j = Nip N j p a pq = 3 1 0 2 2 3 1

0 = ...

2 2 0 2 2

0 0 1 3 2 4 0 0 1

1.36

Mathematical preliminaries

12

The tensor transformation shows that there is a coordinate system in which the components

of the tensor take on maximum or minimum values

If we choose a particular coordinate system that has been rotated so that the x30 -axis lies

along the vector, then vector will have components

0

v= 0

|v|

1.37

Mathematical preliminaries

Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor

It is of interest to inquire whether there are certain vectors n that have only their lengths

and not their orientation changed when operated upon by a given tensor A

That is, to seek vectors that are transformed into multiples of themselves

If such vectors exist they must satisfy the equation

A n = n, Ai j n j = ni

The parameter is called eigenvalue and characterizes the change in length of the eigen-

vector n

The above equation can be written as

(A I) n = 0, (Ai j i j )n j = 0

1.38

Mathematical preliminaries

Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor

Because this is a homogeneous set of equations for n, a nontrivial solution will not exist

unless the determinant of the matrix (. . .) vanishes

det(A I) = 0, det(Ai j i j ) = 0

3 + IA 2 IIA + IIIA = 0

1.39

Mathematical preliminaries

Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor

The IA , IIA and IIIA are called the fundamental invariants of the tensor

1 1

IIA = tr(A)2 tr(A2 ) = (Aii A j j Ai j Ai j )

2 2

A11 A12 A22 A23 A11 A13

= + +

A21 A22 A32 A33 A31 A33

IIIA = det(A) = det(Ai j )

The roots of the characteristic equation determine the values for and each of these may

be back-substituted into (A I) n = 0 to solve for the associated principle directions n.

1.40

13

Mathematical preliminaries

Example

Determine the invariants and principal values and directions of the following tensor:

3 1 1

A= 1 0 2

1 2 0

IA = . . . , IIA = . . . IIIA = . . .

3 + 3 2 + 6 8 = 0

1.41

Mathematical preliminaries

Example

For 1 = 2 we have (A 1 I) n1 = 0

5 1 1 n11 0

1 2 2 n21 = 0

1 2 2 n31 0

The homogeneous set of equations have linear dependent equations and the solution rep-

resents only the ratio between the solution set

Applying n31 = 1 and solving the first end second equations we get

n1 = . . .

1.42

Mathematical preliminaries

Vector and tensor algebra

Scalar product (dot product, inner product)

a b = |a||b| cos

Magnitude of a vector

|a| = (a a)1/2

e1 e2 e1 3

a b = det a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

Vector-matrix products

Aa = Ai j a j = a j Ai j

aT A = ai Ai j = Ai j ai

1.43

14

Mathematical preliminaries

Vector and tensor algebra

Matrix-matrix products

AB = Ai j B jk

ABT = Ai j Bk j

AT B = A ji B jk

tr(AB) = Ai j B ji

tr(ABT ) = tr(AT B) = Ai j Bi j

where ATij = A ji and tr(A) = Aii = A11 + A22 + A33

1.44

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus

Common tensors used in field equations

a = a(x, y, z) = a(xi ) = a(x) scalar

ai = ai (x, y, z) = ai (xi ) = ai (x) vector

ai j = ai j (x, y, z) = ai j (xi ) = ai j (x) tensor

a,i = a

xi

ai, j = ai

xj

ai j,k = ai j

xk

1.45

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus- example

Vector differentiation

a1 a1 a1

x y z

ai a2 a2 a2

ai, j = =

xj x y z

a3 a3 a3

x y z

1.46

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus

Directional derivative

Consider a scalar function . Find the derivative of the with respect of direction s

d dx dy dz

= + +

ds x ds y ds z ds

The unit vector in the direction of s is

dx dy dz

n = e1 + e2 + e3

ds ds ds

The directional derivative can be expressed as a scalar product

d

= n

ds

1.47

15

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus

Directional derivative

is called the gradient of the scalar function and is defined by

= e1 + e2 + e3

x y z

The symbolic operator is called del operator (nabla operator) and is defined as

= e1 + e2 + e3

x y z

2 2 2

2 = + +

x2 y2 z2

1.48

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus

Common differential operations and similarities with multiplications

Gradient of a scalar u vector

Gradient of a vector u = ui, j ei e j uv tensor

Divergence of a vector u = ui, j uv dot

Curl of a vector u = i jk uk, j ei uv cross

Laplacian of a vector 2 u = u = ui,kk ei

Note

The -operator is a vector quantity

1.49

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus- example

Scalar and vector functions are = x2 y2 and u = 2xe1 + 3yze2 + xye3 . Calculate the

following expressions

Gradient of a scalar

= . . .

Laplacian of a scalar

2 = = . . .

Divergence of a vector

u = ...

Gradient of a vector

u = . . .

1.50

16

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus- example

Curl of a vector

e1 e2 e3

u = det x y z

= ...

2x 3yz xy

1.51

Mathematical preliminaries

Tensor calculus

Divergence (Gauss) theorem

Z Z

u ndS = udV

S V

1.52

Mathematical preliminaries

The End

Welcome and good luck

Any questions, opinions, discussions?

1.53

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