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Lecture 1

Introduction
The rules of the game
Print version Lecture on Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity of

Dr. D. Dinev, Department of Structural Mechanics, UACEG


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Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Elasticity and plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Overview of the course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Course organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Mathematical preliminaries 6
2.1 Scalars, vectors and tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 Index notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Kronecker delta and alternating symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 Coordinate transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.5 Cartesian tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.6 Principal values and directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.7 Vector and tensor algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.8 Tensor calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2

1 Introduction
1.1 Elasticity and plasticity
Introduction
Elasticity and plasticity
What is the Theory of elasticity (TE)?
Branch of physics which deals with calculation of the deformation of solid bodies in
equilibrium of applied forces
Theory of elasticity treats explicitly a linear or nonlinear response of structure to
loading
What do we mean by a solid body?
A solid body can sustain shear
Body is and remains continuous during the deformation- neglecting its atomic struc-
ture, the body consists of continuous material points (we can infinitely zoom-in
and still see numerous material points)
What does the modern TE deal with?
Lab experiments- strain measurements, photoelasticity, fatigue, material description
Theory- continuum mechanics, micromechanics, constitutive modeling
Computation- finite elements, boundary elements, molecular mechanics
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1
Introduction

Elasticity and plasticity


Which problems does the TE study?
All problems considering 2- or 3-dimensional formulation
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Introduction

Elasticity and plasticity


Shell structures
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Introduction

Elasticity and plasticity


Plate structures
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Introduction

2
Elasticity and plasticity
Disc structures (walls)
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Introduction
Mechanics of Materials (MoM)
Makes plausible but unsubstantial assumptions
Most of the assumptions have a physical nature
Deals mostly with ordinary differential equations
Solve the complicated problems by coefficients from tables (i.e. stress concentration fac-
tors)

Elasticity and plasticity


More precise treatment
Makes mathematical assumptions to help solve the equations
Deals mostly with partial differential equations
Allows us to assess the quality of the MoM-assumptions
Uses more advanced mathematical tools- tensors, PDE, numerical solutions
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1.2 Overview of the course


Introduction
Overview of the course
Topics in this class
Stress and relation with the internal forces
Deformation and strain
Equilibrium and compatibility
Material behavior
Elasticity problem formulation
Energy principles
2-D formulation
Finite element method
Plate analysis
Shell theory
Plasticity

Note
A lot of mathematics
Few videos and pictures
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Introduction
Overview of the course
Textbooks
Elasticity theory, applications, and numerics, Martin H. Sadd, 2nd edition, Elsevier
2009
Energy principles and variational methods in applied mechanics, J. N. Reddy, John
Wiley & Sons 2002
Fundamental finite element analysis and applications, M. Asghar Bhatti, John Wiley
& Sons 2005
Theories and applications of plate analysis, Rudolph Szilard, John Wiley & Sons
2004
Thin plates and shells, E. Ventsel and T. Krauthammer, Marcel Dekker 2001
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Introduction
Overview of the course
Other references
Elasticity in engineering mechanics, A. Boresi, K. Chong and J. Lee, John Wiley &
Sons, 2011
Elasticity, J. R. Barber, 2nd edition, Kluwer academic publishers, 2004
Engineering elasticity, R. T. Fenner, Ellis Horwood Ltd, 1986
Advanced strength and applied elasticity, A. Ugural and S. Fenster, Prentice hall,
2003
Introduction to finite element method, C.A. Felippa, lecture notes, University of Col-
orado at Boulder
Lecture handouts from different universities around the world
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1.3 Course organization


Introduction
Course organization
Lecture notes- posted on a web-site: http://uacg.bg/?p=178&l=2&id=151&f=2&dp=23
Instructor
Dr. D. Dinev- Room 514, E-mail: ddinev_fce@uacg.bg
Teaching assistant
Dr. A. Taushanov- Room 437
Office hours
Instructor: Tues: 13-14; Thurs: 16-17
TA: . . . . . . . . . . . .

Note
For other time by appointment
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Introduction
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40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Points

Course organization
Grading
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Introduction
Course organization
Grading is based on
Homework- 15%
Two mid-term exams- 50%
Final exam- 35%
Participation
Class will be taught with a mixture of lecture and student participation
Class participation and attendance are expected of all students
In-class discussions will be more valuable to you if you read the relevant sections
of the textbook before the class time
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Introduction
Course organization
Homeworks
Homework is due at the beginning of the Thursday lectures
The assigned problems for the HWs will be announced via web-site
Late homework policy
Late homework will not be accepted and graded
Team work
You are encouraged to discuss HW and class material with the instructor, the TAs
and your classmates
However, the submitted individual HW solutions and exams must involve only your
effort
Otherwise youll have terrible performance on the exam since you did not learn to
think for yourself
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2 Mathematical preliminaries
2.1 Scalars, vectors and tensors
Mathematical preliminaries
Scalars, vectors and tensor definitions
Scalar quantities- represent a single magnitude at each point in space
Mass density-
Temperature- T
Vector quantities- represent variables which are expressible in terms of components in a
2-D or 3-D coordinate system
Displacement- u = ue1 + ve2 + we3
where e1 , e2 and e3 are unit basis vectors in the coordinate system
Matrix quantities- represent variables which require more than three components to quan-
tify
Stress matrix

xx xy xz
= yx yy yz
zx zy zz
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2.2 Index notation


Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation
Index notation is a shorthand scheme where a set of numbers is represented by a single
symbol with subscripts

a1 a11 a12 a13
ai = a2 , ai j = a21 a22 a23
a3 a31 a32 a33
a1 j first row
ai1 first column
Addition and subtraction

a1 b1
ai bi = a2 b2
a3 b3

a11 b11 a12 b12 a13 b13
ai j bi j = a21 b21 a22 b22 a23 b23
a31 b31 a32 b32 a33 b33
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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation
Scalar multiplication

a1 a11 a12 a13
ai = a2 , ai j = a21 a22 a23
a3 a31 a32 a33
Outer multiplication (product)

a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3
ai b j = a2 b1 a2 b2 a2 b3
a3 b1 a3 b2 a3 b3
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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation
Commutative, associative and distributive laws

ai + bi = bi + ai
ai j bk = bk ai j
ai + (bi + ci ) = (ai + bi ) + ci
ai (b jk c` ) = (ai b jk )c`
ai j (bk + ck ) = ai j bk + ai j ck
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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation
Summation convention (Einsteins convention)- if a subscript appears twice in the same
term, then summation over that subscript from one to three is implied
3
aii = aii = a11 + a22 + a33
i=1
3
ai j b j = ai j b j = ai1 b1 + ai2 b2 + ai3 b3
j=1

j- dummy index subscript which is repeated into the notation (one side of the
equation)
i- free index subscript which is not repeated into the notation
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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation- example
The matrix ai j and vector bi are

1 2 0 2
ai j = 0 4 3 , bi = 4
2 1 2 0

Determine the following quantities


aii = a11 + a22 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free index
ai j ai j = a11 a11 + a12 a12 + a13 a13 + . . . = 1 1 + 2 2 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free
index

ai j b j = ai1 b1 + ai2 b2 + ai3 b3



a11 b1 + a12 b1 + a13 b3 ...
= ... = ...
... ...

(vector)- one free index


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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation- example
Determine the following quantities

ai j a jk = ai1 a1k + ai2 a2k + ai3 a3k



i = 1 a11 a1k + a12 a2k + a13 a3k
= i = 2 a21 a1k + . . .
i = 3 a31 a1k + . . .

The first expression gives the components of the 1-st row

a11 a1k + a12 a2k + a13 a3k =



k = 1 a11 a11 + a12 a21 + a13 a31 = . . .
k = 2 a11 a12 + a12 a22 + a13 a32 = . . .
k = 3 a11 a13 + a12 a23 + a13 a33 = . . .

Finally

1 10 6
ai j a jk = 6 19 18 (matrix)- two free indexes
6 10 7

ai j bi b j = a11 b1 b1 + a12 b1 b2 + a13 b1 b3 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free index


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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation- example
Determine the following quantities
bi bi = b1 b1 + b2 b2 + . . . = . . . (scalar)- no free index

b1 b j b1 b1 b1 b2 b1 b3
bi b j = b2 b j = . . . = ...
b3 b j ...

(matrix)- two free indexes


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Mathematical preliminaries
Index notation- example
Determine the following quantities
Unsymmetric matrix decomposition
1 1
ai j = (ai j + a ji ) + (ai j a ji )
|2 {z } |2 {z }
symmetric antisymmetric

Symmetric part
1
(ai j + a ji ) = . . .
2
Antisymmetric part
1
(ai j a ji ) = . . .
2
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2.3 Kronecker delta and alternating symbol
Mathematical preliminaries
Kronecker delta and alternating symbol
Kronecker delta is defined as

 1 0 0
1 if i = j
i j = = 0 1 0
6 j
0 if i =
0 0 1
Properties of i j
i j = ji
ii = 3

11 a1 + 12 a2 + 13 a3 = a1
i j a j = . . . = ai
...
i j a jk = aik
i j ai j = aii
i j i j = 3
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Mathematical preliminaries
Kronecker delta and alternating symbol
Alternating (permutation) symbol is defined as

+1 if i jk is an even permutation of 1,2,3
i jk = 1 if i jk is an odd permutation of 1,2,3
0 otherwise

Therefore
123 = 231 = 312 = 1
321 = 132 = 213 = 1
112 = 131 = 222 = . . . = 0
Matrix determinant

a11 a12 a13

det(ai j ) = |ai j | = a21 a22 a23 = i jk a1i a2 j a3k = i jk ai1 a j2 ak3

a31 a32 a33
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2.4 Coordinate transformations


Mathematical preliminaries

Coordinate transformations

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Consider two Cartesian coordinate systems with different orientation and basis vectors
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Mathematical preliminaries
Coordinate transformations
The basis vectors for the old (unprimed) and the new (primed) coordinate systems are
0
e1 e1
ei = e2 , e0i = e02
e3 e03

Let Ni j denotes the cosine of the angle between xi0 -axis and x j -axis

Ni j = e0i e j = cos(xi0 , x j )

The primed base vectors can be expressed in terms of those in the unprimed by relations

e01 = N11 e1 + N12 e2 + N13 e3


e02 = N21 e1 + N22 e2 + N23 e3
e03 = N31 e1 + N32 e2 + N33 e3
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Mathematical preliminaries
Coordinate transformations
In matrix form

e0i = Ni j e j
ei = N ji e0j

An arbitrary vector can be written as

v = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 = vi ei
= v01 e01 + v02 e02 + v03 e03 = v0i e0i
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Mathematical preliminaries
Coordinate transformations
Or

v = vi N ji e0j

Because v = v0j e0j thus

v0j = N ji vi

Similarly

vi = Ni j v0j

These relations constitute the transformation law for the Cartesian components of a vector
under a change of orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system
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2.5 Cartesian tensors
Mathematical preliminaries
Cartesian tensors
General index notation scheme
a0 = a, zero order (scalar)
a0i = Nip a p , first order (vector)
a0i j = Nip N jq a pq , second order (matrix)
a0i jk = Nip N jq Nkr a pqr , third order
...
A tensor is a generalization of the above mentioned quantities

Example
The notation v0i = Ni j v j is a relationship between two vectors which are transformed to
each other by a tensor (coordinate transformation). The multiplication of a vector by a
tensor results another vector (linear mapping).
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Mathematical preliminaries
Cartesian tensors
All second order tensors can be presented in matrix form

N11 N12 N13
Ni j = N21 N22 N23
N31 N32 N33
Since Ni j can be presented as a matrix, all matrix operation for 3 3-matrix are valid
The difference between a matrix and a tensor
We can multiply the three components of a vector vi by any 3 3-matrix
The resulting three numbers (v01 , v02 v03 ) may or may not represent the vector compo-
nents
If they are the vector components, then the matrix represents the components of a
tensor Ni j
If not, then the matrix is just an ordinary old matrix
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Mathematical preliminaries
Cartesian tensors
The second order tensor can be created by a dyadic (tensor or outer) product of the two
vectors v0 and v
0
v1 v1 v01 v2 v01 v3

N = v0 v = v02 v1 v02 v2 v02 v3


v03 v1 v03 v2 v03 v3
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Mathematical preliminaries
Transformation example
The components of a first and a second order tensor in a particular coordinate frame are
given by

1 1 0 3
bi = 4 , ai j = 0 2 2
2 3 2 4
Determine the components of each tensor in a new coordinates found through a rotation of
60 about the x3 -axis
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Mathematical preliminaries

Transformation example
The rotation matrix is
1
cos 300 cos 30 cos 90 3

0
0 2 2
Ni j = cos(xi , x j ) = cos 210 cos 300 cos 90 = 3 1


2 2 0
cos 90 cos 90 cos 0 0 0 1
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Mathematical preliminaries
Transformation example
The transformation of the vector bi is

1 3
2 2 0 1
b0i = Ni j b j = 23 1 4 = ...

2 0
0 0 1 2

The second order tensor transformation is


1 T
1 3 3
0 1 0 3 0
2 2 2 2
a0i j = Nip N j p a pq = 3 1 0 2 2 3 1
0 = ...

2 2 0 2 2
0 0 1 3 2 4 0 0 1
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2.6 Principal values and directions


Mathematical preliminaries

Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor

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The tensor transformation shows that there is a coordinate system in which the components
of the tensor take on maximum or minimum values
If we choose a particular coordinate system that has been rotated so that the x30 -axis lies
along the vector, then vector will have components

0
v= 0
|v|
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Mathematical preliminaries
Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor
It is of interest to inquire whether there are certain vectors n that have only their lengths
and not their orientation changed when operated upon by a given tensor A
That is, to seek vectors that are transformed into multiples of themselves
If such vectors exist they must satisfy the equation

A n = n, Ai j n j = ni

Such vectors n are called eigenvectors of A


The parameter is called eigenvalue and characterizes the change in length of the eigen-
vector n
The above equation can be written as

(A I) n = 0, (Ai j i j )n j = 0
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Mathematical preliminaries
Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor
Because this is a homogeneous set of equations for n, a nontrivial solution will not exist
unless the determinant of the matrix (. . .) vanishes

det(A I) = 0, det(Ai j i j ) = 0

Expanding the determinant produces a characteristic equation in terms of

3 + IA 2 IIA + IIIA = 0
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Mathematical preliminaries
Principal values and directions for symmetric tensor
The IA , IIA and IIIA are called the fundamental invariants of the tensor

IA = tr(A) = Aii = A11 + A22 + A33


1  1
IIA = tr(A)2 tr(A2 ) = (Aii A j j Ai j Ai j )
2 2
A11 A12 A22 A23 A11 A13
= + +
A21 A22 A32 A33 A31 A33
IIIA = det(A) = det(Ai j )

The roots of the characteristic equation determine the values for and each of these may
be back-substituted into (A I) n = 0 to solve for the associated principle directions n.
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Mathematical preliminaries
Example
Determine the invariants and principal values and directions of the following tensor:

3 1 1
A= 1 0 2
1 2 0

The invariants are

IA = . . . , IIA = . . . IIIA = . . .

The characteristic equation is

3 + 3 2 + 6 8 = 0

The roots are 1 = 2, 2 = 1 and 3 = 4


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Mathematical preliminaries
Example
For 1 = 2 we have (A 1 I) n1 = 0

5 1 1 n11 0
1 2 2 n21 = 0
1 2 2 n31 0

The homogeneous set of equations have linear dependent equations and the solution rep-
resents only the ratio between the solution set
Applying n31 = 1 and solving the first end second equations we get

n1 = . . .

Similarly for 2 = 1 and 3 = 4


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2.7 Vector and tensor algebra


Mathematical preliminaries
Vector and tensor algebra
Scalar product (dot product, inner product)

a b = |a||b| cos

Magnitude of a vector

|a| = (a a)1/2

Vector product (cross-product)



e1 e2 e1 3
a b = det a1 a2 a3
b1 b2 b3

Vector-matrix products

Aa = Ai j a j = a j Ai j
aT A = ai Ai j = Ai j ai
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Mathematical preliminaries
Vector and tensor algebra
Matrix-matrix products
AB = Ai j B jk
ABT = Ai j Bk j
AT B = A ji B jk
tr(AB) = Ai j B ji
tr(ABT ) = tr(AT B) = Ai j Bi j
where ATij = A ji and tr(A) = Aii = A11 + A22 + A33
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2.8 Tensor calculus


Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus
Common tensors used in field equations
a = a(x, y, z) = a(xi ) = a(x) scalar
ai = ai (x, y, z) = ai (xi ) = ai (x) vector
ai j = ai j (x, y, z) = ai j (xi ) = ai j (x) tensor

Comma notations for partial differentiation



a,i = a
xi

ai, j = ai
xj

ai j,k = ai j
xk

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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus- example
Vector differentiation
a1 a1 a1
x y z
ai a2 a2 a2
ai, j = =

xj x y z
a3 a3 a3
x y z
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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus
Directional derivative
Consider a scalar function . Find the derivative of the with respect of direction s
d dx dy dz
= + +
ds x ds y ds z ds
The unit vector in the direction of s is
dx dy dz
n = e1 + e2 + e3
ds ds ds
The directional derivative can be expressed as a scalar product
d
= n
ds
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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus
Directional derivative
is called the gradient of the scalar function and is defined by


= e1 + e2 + e3
x y z

The symbolic operator is called del operator (nabla operator) and is defined as


= e1 + e2 + e3
x y z

The operator 2 is called Laplacian operator and is defined as

2 2 2
2 = + +
x2 y2 z2

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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus
Common differential operations and similarities with multiplications

Name Operation Similarities Order


Gradient of a scalar u vector
Gradient of a vector u = ui, j ei e j uv tensor
Divergence of a vector u = ui, j uv dot
Curl of a vector u = i jk uk, j ei uv cross
Laplacian of a vector 2 u = u = ui,kk ei

Note
The -operator is a vector quantity
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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus- example
Scalar and vector functions are = x2 y2 and u = 2xe1 + 3yze2 + xye3 . Calculate the
following expressions
Gradient of a scalar

= . . .

Laplacian of a scalar

2 = = . . .

Divergence of a vector

u = ...

Gradient of a vector

u = . . .
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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus- example
Curl of a vector

e1 e2 e3

u = det x y z
= ...
2x 3yz xy
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Mathematical preliminaries
Tensor calculus
Divergence (Gauss) theorem
Z Z
u ndS = udV
S V

where n is the outward normal vector to the surface S


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Mathematical preliminaries

The End
Welcome and good luck
Any questions, opinions, discussions?
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