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``Drafting is the primary method of communication between designers and

clients, architects, and builders, engineers and production personnel and

between advertisers and customers. A drawing, when used to show the
material, dimensions, and shapes of product, is known as a technical
drawing (French 1974).

Fundamental Elements of Drafting

1. Sketching techniques

Horizontal lines are generally drawn from left to right.

Vertical lines are generally drawn from top to bottom.

Inclined lines are generally drawn in upward or downward direction.

Short lines are drawn with finger movements

Long lines are drawn with arm movements

Very long lines are drawn with segments with very small gaps of about
1/ 32/1 mm.

2. Technical terms used in connection with lines

A point indicates the position only; It has no length, breath or thickness.

A line has only one dimension and it is called length.

A straight line is the shortest distance between two points

A curve line is a line no part of which is straight

Parallel line are those which are equal distance apart through their
entire length.

Perpendicular lines are those which intersect with an angle of 90

when two lines cross each other they are said to intersect and the point
at which they meet is the point of intersection.

3. Arcs and Circles.

A circle is a plane figure enclosed by curved lines

The distance around circle is a circumference.

The diameter of the circle is a straight line passing through the center of
the circle and terminated at both ends by the circumference.

Radius is one-half of the diameter

One fourth of the circle is a quadrant.

One half of the circle is semi-circle.

Tangent is a line that touches only one point of the circles


Ref: TLE reviewer for LET; Mark Raguindin, MAEd

Financial Statements for
Business Enterprises

Financial statements (or financial reports)

are formal records of the financial activities of a business, person, or other


are often referred to as accounts

provide an overview of a business or persons financial condition in both short

and long term.

all relevant financial information of a business enterprise, presented in a

structured manner and in a form easy to understand.

Purposes of financial statements

to provide information about the financial position, performance and changes

in financial position of an enterprise that is useful to a wide range of users in making
economic decisions

owners and managers require financial statements to make important

business decisions that affect its continued operation
employees also need these reports in making collective bargaining
agreements (CBA) with the management, in case of labor unions or for individuals in
discussing their compensation, promotion, rankings.

prospective investors make use of financial statements to assess the viability

of investing in a business.

banks and other lending institutions use them to decide whether to grant a
company fresh working capital or extend debt securities to finance expansion and
other significant expenditures.

Business enterprises are individuals or associations of individuals that control and

use resources for a variety of purposes, specially that of yielding return to the
enterprise owner (Daughtney 1981).

Basic Types of Financial Statements for a Business Enterprise

1. Balance sheet, also referred to as statement of financial position or condition,

reports on a companys assets, liabilities, and ownership equity as of given point in

2. Income statement, also referred to as Profit and Loss Statement (or a

P&L), reports on a companys income, expenses, and profits over a period of time.

3. Statement of retained earnings explains the changes in a companys

retained earnings over the reporting time.

4. Statement of cash flows reports on a companys cash flow activities,

particularly its operating, investing, and financing activities.

Business Transactions

Business transactions are events or exchanges which affect the assets, liabilities or
owners equity of an organization (Druker 1977)

Each transaction consists of debits and credits and for every transaction they must
be equal.
For Every Transaction

Value of debits = Value of Credits

A + E = L + OE + R


A = Assets

E = Expenses

L = Liabilities

OE = Owners Equity

R = Revenues

Debit Accounts (A + E) = Credit Accounts (L + OE + R)

Debits are on the left and an increase in a debt account reduces a credit
account. Credits are on the right and an increase in a credit account decreases a
debit account.


1. When you pay with cash, you increase rent (expense) by debiting and
decrease cash (asset) by crediting.

2. When you receive cash for a sale, you increase cash (asset) by debiting and
increase sales (revenue) by crediting.

3. When you buy equipment (asset) with cash, you increase equipment (asset)
by debiting and decrease cash (asset) by crediting.
4. When you borrow cash with a loan, you increase cash (asset) by debiting and
increase loan (liability) by crediting.

Assets are economic resources acquired through a transaction or event that can
provide economic utility in future production or revenues.

Assets are classified (Julian 1974) thus:

1. Current assets are cash or other types of assets that can readily converted
into cash. These assets are expected to consume or sold within one year or within
the normal operating cycle.

Classification of current assets:

Cash on hand are currency or cash items on hand. Includes checks, bank
drafts, money orders, treasury warrants, etc.

Cash in bank are deposits in a bank which can be withdrawn or used for
current operations without any restrictions

Accounts receivable are open accounts without any formal written promise
to pay.

Notes receivable are open accounts with any formal written promise to pay.

Prepaid expenses are short term prepayments of current operating

expenditures. Ex: prepaid rent, prepaid insurance, office supplies, and store supplies

2. Property, plant and equipment are long term or long-lived tangible assets with
an estimated life of more than one year and re acquired for the purpose of using
them in the business to generate revenues.




Equipment plant equipment, office equipment, store equipment, delivery or

transport equipment
Furniture & Fixtures

Liabilities are economic obligations resulting from past transactions or events which
can be measured in monetary terms. They are settled through the performance of
economic resources.

Classifications of Liabilities

1. Current liabilities are obligations which must be liquidated by using current

assets or the creation of other current liabilities within one year of normal operating


Accounts payable refers to the indebtedness arises from purchase of goods

& services, materials, supplies in an open charge business.

Account payable non-trade are those that do not arise from purchase of
merchandise, materials, supplies in the ordinary course of business

Notes payable are short term obligations which are evidenced by promissory

Accrued liabilities are accumulated debts arising out of services rendered to

the business enterprise before the balance sheet date but payable at later time.

Unearned income includes revenues that are collected in advance but have
not been earned.

2. Long term Liabilities are obligations which are not expected to require the use of
current assets or the creation of current liabilities within one year operating cycle.

1. Dont prick pimples.

2. Drink lots of water.

3. Keep astringents away from irritated skin.

4. Go easy on the stress.

5. Check diet. Fruits and vegetables are important for healthy skin and overall

6. Research on products before using them to make sure that they are right for

7. Do facial exercises and get facials.

8. Use olive oil to keep the skin supple.

9. Keep hands away from your face. Hands carry germs that are often
transferred to our faces.

10. Dont smoke.

11. Cut down on alcoholic beverages. They dehydrate the skin.

12. Use makeup, in moderation.

13. Wash your face at least twice a day.

14. Dont sleep with make-up on. Your pores need to breathe.

15. Take a steam bath. Its great for the skin and reduces stress.

16. Exercise.

17. Use homemade body-buffing salt, made from coarse kosher salt, safflower oil,
and a favorite essential oil.

18. Get a shower brush to reach the middle of your back. Those may reduce the
appearance of blackheads.
19. Try vitamin E oil for scars.

20. Condition the lips. Our lips are often overlooked until they begin to peel.

21. Take a skin softening milk bath.

22. Dont forget suntan lotion and sunscreen.

23. Lemon juice is excellent for embarrassing skin discolorations.

24. A full body massage is a great relaxing agent as well as a way to get
circulation flowing through your entire body to improve the skin.

25. Never scrub the skin.

26. Use soap that is skin-friendly. Some soap can be very harsh on the skin and
leave a build up that keeps your skin from looking its best.

27. Keep all beauty accessories and tools clean to reduce the risk of germs
infecting your skin.

Good Grooming for Personal and

Professional Development

Cosmetology is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of

specialty include hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicure/pedicure, and

In order to help others become beautiful, a cosmetologist should have good health
and personal hygiene, and be properly groomed (Reyes 1979).

Good health is required for the successful practice of cosmetology. Without it, a
cosmetologists cannot work efficiently nor enjoy the pleasures of life.

Personal hygiene is concerned with intelligent care given by the individual to ones
health by following the rules and healthful living such as: cleanliness, correct
posture, exercise, relaxation, adequate sleep, balance diet, and wholesome

Grooming is shown in ones personal appearance. It includes personal hygiene,

suitable or appropriate attire and neatness.


Always wash face with soap and water before doing any facial cleaning or treatment.
Cleansing creams or lotion may also be used. Mud packs and honey packs are
applied to remove blemishes and tone the skin.

Skin whiteners and astringent lotions may be used to peel off the outer layer of the

Pimples and blackheads may be removed with an instrument. Be sure to disinfect

your hands and the instruments before and after removing the pimples.

Whether skin is oily or dry, there are always an equivalent lotions or creams that can
be used for face.

Various aids used in maintaining the face (Reyes 1986):

1. Face cleaners. cleansing the face is an important step in making care of your
skin. Cleansing helps to remove any excess skin oil or dirt that accumulated
throughout the day or night. Face cleansers are effective, yet gentle enough not to
disturb the skins natural moisture balance. They help to maintain a healthy
complexion, and rare a perfect addition to the face care routine.

2. Face toners. It is important to use a toner after washing the face. It helps to
return the skin to its proper pH. This is important because it can take the skin up to
six hours to return to its proper pH level without the help of a toner. Face toners get
rid of any left behind dirt and oil, and they allow moisturizers to penetrate more
effectively and so are a vital step in any face care routine.
3. Face creams. It is important to moisturize the face as part of face care
routine since restoring lost moisture and hydrating the skin helps to slow down the
skins aging process. A cream is an excellent option for a face moisturizer.

4. Face lotions. Is another great way to hydrate without being too rich. In many
cases an oily skin type may prefer a lotion over cream.

5. Face serums. Using a face serum is one of the most powerful ways to see
fast dramatic results. Serums are generally formulated with a lightweight texture so
they can penetrate quickly and effectively into the skin. Serums are excellent for all
skin types to boost skins function. It is designed for use after cleansing and toning
the face, and before moisturizing as part of daily face care routine.

6. Anti-aging face creams. For those who want to help fight the signs of aging,
an anti-aging face cream is an excellent option for a face moisturizer. There are two
anti-aging face creams, one for day (perfect by itself or under make-up) and one for
night (nourishes the skin throughout the night).

7. Face exfoliators. Are essential to keep soft and glowing. They help slough off
dead skin cells keeping pores clear. This sloughing action also smooths and
clarifies the faces complexion. An exfoliator is a great pick-me-up for tired, dull
looking skin. It is also a good way to deal with rough of flaky skin.



Baking is the process of cooking by dry, indirect heat usually in an oven and is
considered the best method of cooking to retain the nutritution value of food. The
appropriate mixing method applied for biscuit-making is called the pastry
method (Rojo 1986).

Basic Baking Ingredients

1. Flour is the main ingredient or framework of baked products.

Kinds of Wheat flour

Rice flour is made into cookies

Soybean flour is made from soy beans using the same procedure in making
rice flour used for baking cookies, biscuits, pastries & cakes.

Cornmeal is coarsely ground flour used in making native cookies, quick

breads & cakes.

Cassava flour (tapioca) is made from dried slices of cassava roots which
are ground finely.

Sweet potato flour are sliced thinly, dried & ground finely to produce the

Sago flour is made from the roots of sago plant

2. Water the cheapest liquid in baking, is indispensable in transforming the protein

of the flour into gluten form.

3. Milk usually pasteurized, is commonly used in baked products.

4. Sugar is made from either sugarcane or sugar beets, It may be: Refined best
variety for most light cakes; Brown added color to baked products, is less
refined; Honey is twice as sweet as sugar; Molasses is a by-product in the
manufacture of sugar from sugercane

5. Shortening refers to the fat or oil used to tenderized baked products or to fry
food. It nay be: Hog fat (lard) is best for bread, biscuits, dip crust and few types of
cake; Butter -is used mainly for cakes and cookies; Coconut oil is taken from the
meat of coconuts.

6. Egg can provide the cake mixture with structural framework. Egg yolk will serve
as an emulsifier in order to make mixing of both liquid possible.

7. Leavening agents make baked products light and porous

8. Salt is used to control and regulate the fermentation process in bread making
9. Flavors and spices are extracts from plants, seeds and aromatic vegetable
products which usually available in liquid or finely ground state.

10. Cocoa and chocolate are widely used in the production of cakes and

Cookies are tiny cakes often served as snacks or at festive occasions.

Classifications of cookies (Navaro 1985):

Drop cookies are made from butter dropped onto the baking sheet from a

Bar cookies are made by spreading the dough on a pan, sliced into pieces
and then baking

Model cookies are those which are formed into designed shapes with the

Refrigerator cookies are made from the dough which must be chilled in
the refrigerator before baking

Pinwheel is a cookie in which two portions of dough of contrasting cookies

are rolled cut to the same size

Press cookies are formed with a cookie press

Ingot cookies are made from flour, liquid, baking powder, sugar, shortening
and flavoring.

Pastry Includes a variety of products made from dough containing medium to a

large amount of fat. Ingredients include flour, fat, water, salt.

Ref: Reviewer in TLE for LET, M.Raguindin, MAEd.

Cooking Terms (Bennion 1975)

1. BAKE (paghuhurno) to cook in oven.

2. BARBECUE (pag-iihaw) to cook piece of meat by direct heat over coals in a

grill, in an oven or under a broiler.

3. BASTE to moisten food while it is being baked to prevent it from drying out
with a mixture like marinade and others.

4. BLANCH or SCALD (pagbabanli) to pour boiling water over food or dip the
food into boiling water and then into cold water to prevent it from being overcooked.

5. BOIL to cook in liquid until bubbles appear, rise and break at the top

6. BROIL to cook by direct hear over charcoal or electric grill especially fish,
seafood, vegetables.

7. BRAISE to brown meat or vegetables in fat and simmer in a small amount

of water.

8. FRY (pagpriprito) to cook in hot oil without cover.

9. FRICASSEE to cook meat in shortening and sauce mixture.

10. MELT (pagtunaw) to change a solid substance into liquid by heating.

11. POACH to cook foods in hot liquid just below the boiling point, i.e., poached

12. ROAST (paglitson) to cook meat or poultry uncovered in oven without any
added moisture.

13. SAUTE (paggisa) to cook garlic, onions, pork and seasoning in small
amount of fat with vegetable or noodles added.

14. SCALD in milk to heat liquid like milk in the upper part of double boiler until
tiny bubbles appear around the edge. Heating indirectly will prevent scorhing of milk
that has adhered to the pan.

15. STEAM (pagpapasingaw) to cover tea leaves with boiling water and allowed
to stand, to extract the flavor, color and aroma from he leaves.

16. SIMMER (pagpapakulo ng atay-atay) to cook just below the boiling point.
Reference: A reviewer in TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION for the

Food Selection and Preparation

Terms (Bennion 1975)

1. BAKE to cook in an oven.

2. BEAT (pagbati) to make mixture smooth and light by lifting food over and

3. BLEND (paghalo) to mix two or more ingredients until one ingredient cannot
be distinguished from the other.

4. BREAK (pagputol) to divide into pieces.

5. CHOP (pagtadtad) to cut into small pieces.

6. CREAM (pagpalambot) to rub, mash or work shortening against the side of

a bowl with the back of wooden spoon until it is smooth and creamy.

7. CUBE (malalaking cuadrado) to cut into square pieces of uniform length,

width and thickness.

8. DICE (padhiwa ng maliliit na cuadrado) to cut into smaller cube pieces of

uniform size and shape.

9. DREDGE to coat solid foods with dry ingredients such as flour, bread
crumbs or sugar by springkling, dipping or rolling it into one of the ingredients.

10. FLAKE (paghimay) to separate fish into pieces by means of the fingers.

11. FOLD to add beaten egg whites or slipped to a mixture without losing what
has been beaten into them like air.

12. GRATE (pagkudkud) to cut into fine pieces by rubbing against a grater in a
circular or back and forth motion.

13. JULIENNE to cut carrots, sayote, potatoes, etc into thin, match-like strips.
14. MARINATE (pagbabad) to let stand in French dressing or an oil-acid
mixture to add flavor like in barbecue.

15. MASH (pagdurog ng pino) to press food from small pieces into a pulp with
an up and down motion with a masher or beating action of a fork.

16. MINCE to cut garlic, ginger, onions, etc. chop into tiny pieces.

17. PARE (pagtalop) to cut off outer skin or rind with a knife.

18. PEEL (pagbalat) to pull off outer skin by means of the fingers.

19. PUREE to rub food through a sieve or blender to make a smooth semi-liquid
mixture for use in soup or sauces or as food for babies or for juices

20. SCRAPE (pagkudkod) to remove the skin of carrots, potatoes, etc. by

rubbing it with a sharp edge of a knife.

21. SLICE (paghiwa) to cut accross into flat pieces.

22. SOFTEN to cream butter, margarine or shortening until smooth and creamy
or let it stand at room temperature until it becomes creamy.

23. STIR (paghalo) to mix the ingridients in a bowl by circular movements of a

our and salt overspoon.

24. SPRINKLE (pagbugbod) to scatter sugar, flour and salt over food.

25. WEDGE to cut into the shape of a wedge each piece thick at one end and
thin at the other.

26. WHIP to beat rapidly to incorporate air and increase volume.

Ma'am/Sir sana po makatulong..


stimulus boundedness -- teacher's attention interrupted by extrateneous stimulus

Thrust -- teacher interrupts students engaged in activities w/o considering whether the
student is ready or not.

Dangels -- teacher interrupts activity of student and return to it again.

Truncations -- teacher does not return to current act. after being interrupted.

Overdwelling -- teacher focuses on a certian topic that will lead to too much time
consupmtion, the lesson will slow down.
Fragmentation -- chunks of lesson for students to understand his/her lesson effectively or
breakibg down of act. to cause too much time.

Flip Flop -- teacher changes its activity from current activity to new one and vice versa

whenever he/she changes his/her mind.



Wilhelm Woundt = german psycologist "founder of modern psychology.

Titchener = structuralism psychology

William james, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell.... these three promote "functionalism

Charles darwin = theories to mental characteristics as human think, feel & behave("
evolutionary psychology")

Herman Ebbinghaus = associationism psychology

Edwin Guthrie = (stimulus and response ) :; temporal conguity

Edward Lee Thorndike = "satisfaction" "the law of effect".

Ivan Pavlov = involuntary behavior

Max Wertheimer = gestalt psychology

Otto Loewi = discovered "acetylchloline" respobsible in stimulation of muscles

Ulf von Euler discovered "norepinephrine" bringing our nervous system into "high alert"
Arvid Carlsson discovered "dopamine" the reward mechanisms in the brain

Jean Piaget -- cognitive dev't , info processing , dynamic interrelation.

Sigmund Freud -- psychosexual , psychoanalytic

Erik Erickson -- psychosocial

Lawrence Kohlberg -- moral dev't,

Burrhus Frederic Skinner -- operant cond.

Ivan Pavlov -- classical cond.

Edward Lee Thorndike -- connectionism

Albert Bandura -- social learning, neo - behaviorism

Robert Gagne -- sequence of instruction

Abraham Maslow -- hierarchy of needs , motivation theory

William Kohler -- insight learning

Robert Havighurst -- devt task theory

Benjamin Bloom -- bloom's cognitive taxonomy

Simpsons / Anita Harrow -- psychomotor domain

David Krathwohl -- affective domain

Jerome Bruner -- constructivist, spiral curr, instrumental conceptualism

Lev Vygotsky -- socio-cultural theory of cognitive devt , linguistic theory, Scaffolding

Edgar Dale -- cone of exp. (20% remember)

kohler,koffka, weirtheimer -- gestalt psychology

John Locke -- tabularasa , empiricism

Howard Gardner -- multiple int.

Noam Chomsky -- language acquisition theory , fr of linguistic, nativism

David Ausubel -- meaningful learning, graphic organizer, assumption

Charles Cooley -- looking glass self theory

John Flavel -- metacognition

Sandra Bem -- gender schema theory

Elliot Turriel -- social domain theory

Robert Sternberg -- triachic theory of int.

Johm Watson -- behaviorial theory

Maria Montessory -- transfer of learning, kinder garten preparation of children.

Edward Tolman -- purposive behaviorism and goal oriented

Edward Torrance -- creative problem solving

Bernard Weiner -- attribution theory

Daniel Goleman/coleman? -- emotional intelligence

Wolfgang Ratke -- used vernacular for approaching the class.

mencius -- idealistic wing of confucianism

hzun tzu -- realistic wing of confusianism

taoism -- lao tzu

Herbart spencer -- moral devt

Pestallozi -- symmetrical and harmonious devt of child

John Jacques Rosseau -- nature of child

Arnold Gesell - maturation theory

John Dewey - Learning by doing

David Froebel - Father of kinder garten

John Bowly - Attainment Theory

Edward Boro - Six Thinking Hats Theory

Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology

Carlos Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy.

John Amos Comencius - Fr. of modern education.

Erasmus Desiderius - Fr. of humanism/ social humanism

William Kilpatrick - Project method.

IDEALISM -- plato

REALIAM -- aristotle






PERENNIALISM -- hutchins



BEHAVIORISM -- skinner or watson

STRUCTURALISM -- helmholts or wundt?

FUNCTIONALISM -- james,nugell, or carr?



NATURALISM -- only nature exist, nature is better than civilization (NATURALESA ng isang

IDEALISM -- spiritual, values, moral, socratic method

REALISM -- natural world, values arenatural and absolute, reality exist undercieved

PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM -- practical, problem solving research, knowledge is what

works, values are related, truth is warranted assertion.

ESSENTIALISM -- 3r's (4r's ngayon), achievement test, certain knowledge&skills are essential
for rational being.

PROGRESSIVISM -- process of development, higher level of knowledge, the child's need and
interest are relevant to curriculum.
EXISTENTIALISM -- knowledge is subjective, man shapes his being as he lives, we are what we
do, deciding precedes knowing.

PERENNIALISM -- education that last for century, universalist, knowledge is eternally valid.

SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIVISM -- for better society, community based learning

RECONSTRUCTUONALISM -- the school should help rebuild the social order thus social

BEHAVIORISM -- learning is change in behavior, S-R relationship

EMPIRICISM -- knowledge comes thru senses, 5 senses (observatory learning)

STRUCTURALISM -- complex mental exp. such as image,feeling and sensation

FUNCTIONALISM -- focus to motivation, thinking & learning.

PURPOSIVISM -- individual hormones are responsible for the motive to strive towards
fulfillment of his/her objective.

PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- reality is what verifiable, truth correspondes to reality, usage

determines meaning


9155 -- Governance of basic educ. act of 2001

6728 -- GASTPE

7722 -- creating CHED

7784 -- " " of center of excellence

7796 -- creating TESDA

6655 -- Free public secondary act of 1988

4090 -- creating a state scholarship council to intergrate, systematize, administer and implement
all program scholarships and appropriating funds.

5447 -- creation of a special educ. fund act enacted in 1968

-- organization and extension of classes

-- adding classroom to remote areas,barrios and provincial schools

6139 -- regulated the secretarian schools/private school in charging higher tuition fee

7687 -- science and technology scholarship act of 1994

7743 -- establishment of city and municipal libraries.

8292 -- higher educ. modernization act of 1997

6850 -- an act to grant Civil Service eligibility under certain conditions to Gov. employees
appointed under provisionap or temporary status who rendered 7 years of efficient service

8545 -- amending RA 7628 Expanded GASTPE Act

8525 -- Adopt a school program

8491 -- Flag and Heraldic code of the Ph.

7797 -- lengthen the school prog. to 200 days and not more than 220 days

8190 -- act of granting priority to residents of the brgy. where school is located in the
appointment and assignment of school.

6972 -- act of stablishing DAY CARE CENTER FOR EVERY BRGY.

7624 -- integrating of drug prevention and control in the intermediate & secondary curricula
and indigeneous learning system

7743 -- act providing libraries and reading centers throughout the Ph.

7877 -- anti-sexual harassment act of 1995

9163 -- NSTP of 2001

6193 -- regulation of tuition fees of private educ. institution

10627 -- anti-bullyinh act of 2013

10533 -- enhance basic educ. act of 2013 (K-12 PROGRAM)

9485 -- anti-red tape act

Executive Order (E.O.) 66 -- rule of cancellation of classes due to typhoon, flooding and other


Philosophers Related to Learners Development

SIGMUND FREUD -- "the mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk avove


ID -- pleasure center

EGO -- reality center

SUPER EGO -- conscience / judgment center.


ORAL -- thumb sucking, biting

ANAL -- toilet training, control of their bowel.

PHALLIC -- sexual interest, genital stimulation.

LATENCY -- sexual urges & interest were temporary

GENITAL -- adult sexual interest and activities come to dominate.

Odipus complex - son vs father towards mother/wife feelings . (excessive attachment)(Phallic


Electra complex - daugther vs mother towards father/husband feelings. (excessive attachment)

(Phallic stage)

Personality Dynamics




ERIK ERICKSON -- "healthy children will not fear in their elders have integrity enough to fear
of death.


CRISIS -- a person goes through

MALADAPTATION -- result from failure to effectivity resolve the problem


VIRTUE -- emerges when balance & resolution of crisis attained.


Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)

Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Important Events: Toilet Training

Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense
of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and

Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)

Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt

Important Events: Exploration

Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in
this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience
disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.

Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)

Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority

Important Events: School

Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a
sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.

Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)

Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Important Events: Social Relationships

Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an
ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)

Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Important Events: Relationships

Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success
leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.

Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)

Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation

Important Events: Work and Parenthood

Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having
children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of
usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.

Stage: Maturity(65 to death)

Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Important Events: Reflection on life

Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this
stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.


LEV VYGOTSKY -- "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's devt in the childs but
on tomorrow's.

SCAFFOLDING -- is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to effectively

acquire skills.

MKO(More Knowledge Others) -- higher level of performance.


JEAN PIAGET -- " the school should be creating men & women who are capable of doing new
things not simply repeating what other generation have done.


SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) -- infants knowledge.

PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) -- pretent to play but still struggle with logic,mental symbols

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) -- think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve problems

FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) -- deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract ideas,

think symbolically.


LAWRENCE KOHLBERG -- "right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights
and standards that have been critically examined & agreed upon by the whole society.


PRE-CONVENTIONAL -- obidience & punishment (consequences) , individualism & exchange

CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.

POST-CONVENTIONAL -- social contract and individual rights , universal principles, set of values
and beliefs.




MICROSYSTEM -- sorroundings of individual: family, friends, neighborhood

MESOSYSTEM -- connections between context, school experiences to church experience.

EXOSYSTEM -- includes other people and places that the child herself may not interact with
often herself but that still have a large effect on her.

MACROSYSTEM -- which is the largest and most remote set of people and places and things to a
child but which still has a great influence over the child.



: environment affects child's personality : learninh occurs by simply observing people, people
learned from what they see and the consequences of what they did



LEANING TO KNOW -- focuses on combining broad gen. knowledge and basic educ. with the
opportunity to work on a small number of subjects in the light of rapid changes brought about
by scientific progress ang new forms of economic and social acitivity.

Learning how to learn and to discover, as to benefit from ongoing educational opportunities
continuously arising throughout life.

Developing the faculties of memory, imagination, reasoning and problem solving.

Understanding about one's environment.

Communicating with others.

LEARNING TO DO -- emphasizes on the learning of skills necessary to practice a profession or


applying in practice what has been learned.

developing vocational / occupational and technical skills

developing social skills in building meaningful interpersonal relationships.

developing competence, social behavior, aptitude for teamwork

enhancing the ability to communicate and work with others

managing and resolving conflicts.

LEARNING TO BE -- prioritizes the development of the human potencial to the fullest.

tapping the talents hidden with individual.

developing personal commitment and responsibilty for the common good.

LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER -- emphasizes understanding of others, their history, tradition

and cultures, and also living and interacting peacefully together.

appreciating diversity of human race

being receptive to others and encounter others through dialogue and debate.

caring about others

working toward common objectives in cooperative undertakings.

managing and resolving conflicts.


German word means "whole, form, pattern or configuration"

the focus of this theory is on Perception and how people assign meaning to visual stimuli
"The whole is more than the sum of all parts"

LAW OF PROXIMITY -- elements that are closer together be percieved as a coherent object.

LAW OF SIMILARITY -- similar will percieved as part of the same form.

LAW OF CLOSURE -- ignoring gaps in the figure.

LAW OF CONTINUATION -- patterns establish an impled direction, people tend a good continous

LAW OF PRAGNANZ -- stimulus will be organize into a good figure as possible.

LAW OF FIGURE/GROUND -- we tend to pay attention and percieved things in the foreground

INSIGHT LEARNING -- Gestalt adheres to the idea of learning takes place by discovery.


Ripple Effect -- spreading effect of series of consequences caused by singlr action or event.

Hawthorne Effect -- type of reactivity effect in which individuals improve an aspect of their
behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.

Halo Effect -- cognitive bias which an observer overall impression of a person, influences the
observers feeling and thoughts about the entity's character or property

Pygmalion Effect -- Shows the teacher's expectation (self-fulfillment)

Golem Effect -- low expection leads to decrease in performance.


Positive -- presence of stimulus

Negative -- absence of stimulus

Escape -- removes stimulus

Avoidance -- prevents stimulus

Reinforcement -- increase of behavior

Punishment -- decrease of behavior

1. A schematic diagram shows the components of an electronic circuit by means of ____?

A. Symbol

B. Construction

C. Physical appearance

D. Linear appearance

2. The word electron was derived from the Greek word which means ____?

A. To rub

B. To flow

C. Amber

D. Friction

3. MilliHenry is equal to ____?

A. 10th Henry

B. 100th Henry

C. 1000000th Henry

D. 1000 Henry

4. One of the following is non-polarized electronic component.

A. Resistor

B. Transistor

C. Diode

D. Capacitor

5. The voltage rating found in capacitor is called ________?

A. Peak-revearse voltage

B. Blow-up voltage

C. Breakdown voltage

D. Working voltage

6. The actual flow of current is from ______?

A. Negative to positive

B. Positive to negative

C. Positive to positive

D. Negative to negative

7. The rate of doing work is called _____?

A. Energy

B. Voltage

C. Power

D. Resistance

8. The diode that acts as regulat is the _______?

A. Zener diode

B. Silicon diode


D. Crystal diode
9. You will find an electrode nearest the white band of rectifier. What is it?

A. Gate

B. Main terminal

C. Cathode

D. Anode

10. When a diode is tested and the reading is zero, it means the diode is _____?

A. Shorted

B. Open

C. Leaky

D. Good

11. An inductor opposes any change in _______?

A. Frequency

B. Modulation

C. Current

D. Voltage

12. A circuit having two or more current path is ________ connection.

A. Series

B. Parallel

C. Series-parallel

D. Complex series

13. If the transistor is NPN type the base is ______?

A. Negative and positive

B. Negative

C. Common
D. Positive

14. If the arrow of the transistor is pointing inward it tells us that the transistor is:



C. Bipolar

D. Common

15. Which is an electrical unit of measuring power?

A. Ampere

B. Ohms

C. Watt

D. Volt

16. In the electronic symbol of a transistor, the electrode with an arrow is the ______?

A. Emitter

B. Base

C. Collector

D. Cathode

17. An instrument thatvis used to measure the amount of resistance in a circuit is called?

A. Ohmmeter

B. Ammeter

C. Voltmeter

D. AC voltmeter

18. An ordinary radio can be turned in different stations. The electronic component responsible
for this function is the ______?

A. Oscillator

B. IF transformer
C. Detector diode

D. Tuning capacitor

19. Solder is mixture of _______.

A. Lead and tin

B. Zinc and lead

C. Zinc and tin

D. Copper and lead

20. Printed on the dial of an AM radio is an RF band covering _______.

A. KHz 76-90 MHz

B. 88-108 MHz

C. 16 Hz-20 kHz

D. 535-1605 kHz

21. The commonly used soldering lead is _____.

A. 60-40

B. 50-50

C. 40-60

D. 30-70

22. The condition of loud speaker is tested more accurately using one of the ranges.

A. Rx1K

B. Rx1

C. Rx10

D. Rx10K

23. A low frequency speaker is sometimes called as _____.

A. Tweeter
B. Squeaker

C. Howler

D. Woofer

24. The three leads of a common transistor are a/an ______.

A. Collector, base, emitter

B. Collector, bias, emitter

C. Base, collector, case

D. Emitter, collector, bias

25. Working efficiently is a good work habit. Tinning the tip of the soldering iron refers to:

A. Cleaning the tip by sanding paper

B. Making the tip pointed

C. Applying flux to the tip

D. Cutting the tip

26. The 10k resistor in parallel with 10k produces ______.

A. 5k

B. 10k

C. 20k

D. 100k

27. The common cause of an erratic or distorted sound of a transistor radio is a defective.

A. Amplifier

B. Volume control

C. Antenna

D. Tuner

28. If two resistors are placed in series, the final resistance is?
A. Higher

B. Lower

C. The same

D. Neutral

29. A 100n capacitor in parallel with 10n produces ______.

A. 90n

B. 110n

C. 110n

D. 1000n

30. An electronic device that is used to limit or oppose the flow of current.

A. Capacitor

B. Resistor

C. Diode

D. Inductor

31. Which tool is needed in removing soldered components in a circuit board?

A. Long nose plier

B. Desoldering pump

C. Side cutting plier

D. Wire stripper

32. Which tool is used in joining bod desoldering electronic components in a circuit board?

A. Soldering iron

B. Desoldering pump

C. Electrical plier

D. Screwdriver
33. Which tool used in Turin slotted screws?

A. Phillips screwdriver

B. Flat screwdriver

C. Electrical plier

D. Wire stripper

34. If 10k resistor is placed across a 10v supply, the current will be _____?

A. 10mA

B. 1mA

C. 100mA

D. 0.001mA

35. To prevent transistor from getting hot, use ______?

A. Silicon grease

B. Heat sink

C. Insulator

D exhaust fan

36. Which presents the rise and fall of alternating current and voltage?

A. Graph

B. Cycle

C. Sine wave

D. Fluctuation

37. What does LED stand for?

A. Light emitting display

B. Light emitting diode

C. Low energy display

D. Light emitting detector

38. A low voltage power supply converts ______?

A. AC voltage output

B. DC output voltage

C. AC-DC voltage output

D. Pulsating DC voltage

39. The production of magnetic field by current in a conductor is called ______?

A. Ferromagnetism

B. Electromagnetism

C. Magnetism

D. Diamagnetism

40. An appliance with 110 volts AC supply is accidentally plugged to a 220 volts AC outlet. What
component usually destroyed?

A. Switch

B. AC plug

C. Line fuse

D. Power transformer
Prof ed...80% lalabas sa exam

1.what is known as learning a new word by studying its roots and affixes?


2.According to Nagel's Acronym PPPF, what is important to follow Up in the proper use of Instructional

Ans:LESSON OBJECTIVE Grace Goddell's Reading Skill ladder, which step should come last, and only when needed?


4.what is aroused among viewing learners by dramatic educational films in what is known as "cliff

Ans:EXPECTANCY the 5'S Formula to create a conducive learning environment , which S stands for Cleanliness of
work place?


6.In a problem-based learning Group, who take notes, join discussion and review materials?


7.what correlation is determined when there are three raters of an essay test?


8.which of the following are alternatives assessments?


9.what is the active learning strategy useful in sharing ideas about controversial

10.what kind of plan ca be developed by keeping track of assessment results from one periodic rating
to the next?


Nabasa ko lang


He established the tobacco monopoly during the Spanish era.

A. Jose Basco
B. Rafael Izquierdo
C. Basilio Agustin
D. Francisco Rizzo
2. Technology ______ dramatically in the twenty-first century.
A. Was improved
B. Has improved
C. Is improved
D. Did improve
3. A bread and butter sandwich ________ my favorite morning snack.
A. Is
B. Has been
C. Are
D. Have been
4. This is a segmented worm that can be used to facilitate anticoagulation.
A. Leeches
B. Maggots
C. Earthworms
D. Bloodworms
5. The ______ of the story is that friendship is sacred.
A. Morale
B. Message
C. Moral
D. Lesson
6. What are the prime factors of 273?
A. 3x3x7x7
B. 2x3x13
C. 3x7x13
D. 3x3x6x9
7. This is the surface of the earth between the Tropic Cancer and Arctic Circle.
A. Plane
B. Circle
C. Zone
D. Cone
8. Political idealists advocate ideals in politics such as justice, and fairness.
Political realist have a more realist viewpoint of politics, aptly stated by Might is
right. Who among the following is more of a political realist rather than political
A. Julius Caesar
B. Mohatma Ghandi
C. Martin Luther King
D. Benigno Jr. Aquino
9. Even when her friends betray her, Becky bears no rancor in her heart because
she is not _____.
A. Insulted
B. Embarrassed
C. Consoled
D. Bitter
10. If I _____ known you before, we could have become partners for a project.
A. Will
B. Could
C. Had
D. Have
11. These are the thin structures of cytokinesis amoeboid movement changes in
the cell shape.
A. Pseudofilaments
B. Myosinfilamints
C. Microfilamints
D. Nanofilamints
12. All important factors must be considered to arrive at a sound ________.
A. Query
B. Change
C. Problem
D. Decision
13. The cause of power outage was a ______connection.
A. Lose
B. Loose
C. Lost
D. Losing
14. Virtual face-to-face communication is made possible by this software.
A. Google
B. Skype
C. Twitter
D. Facebook
15. My head is bloody, but unbowed
A. Metaphor
B. Simile
C. Alliteration
D. Hyperbole
16. The shakesperean classic saw the predicament of two lovers from warring
A. Hamlet and Ophelia
B. Anthony and Cleopatra
C. Ana and the King
D. Romeo and Juliet
17. If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal, the figure is a _______.
A. Shambers
B. Rectangle
C. Square
D. Parallelogram
18. The proposed equipment ______within the budget of the school.
A. Are
B. Is
C. Is appearing
D. Are appearing
19. The Philippine Legislature has two houses: senate and House of
Representatives. What term best describes this setup?
A. Bicameralism
B. Bipartisanship
C. Unicameralism
D. Co-legislative power
20. How do you call the tax imposed on all employed and practicing
A. Income Tax
B. Real estate tax
C. Community Tax
D. Inheritance Tax
21. This field with the study of how human beings behave.
A. Philosophy
B. Morality
C. Psychology
D. Ethics
22. Which of the following is considered the lowest form of learning?
A. Perceiving
B. Responding
C. Conditioning
D. Teaching
23. Reason must be used in understanding the existence of God. Who advocated
this philosophy?
A. St. Benedict
B. St. Peter
C. St. John
D. St. Thomas Aquinas
24. If the principles and theories of human behavior were to be applied to
teaching and learning. The field will be called ______.
A. Educational Theory
B. Educational Philosophy
C. Educational Psychology
D. Educational Sociology
25. In July 1901, Isabelo delos Reyes founded the first labor union in the country.
What was its name?
A. Association of the Philippine Labor
B. Union Obrera Democratica
C. Union Trabajadores de Filipinos
D. Association De Compania Tabacalera
26. The Philippine lies in the _____, an area where volcanoes are active.
A. Archipelagic fault line
B. Ring of fire
C. Wheel of fire
D. Volcanic Rim
27. During the June 12, 1898 Declaration of Independence, a band played the
Marcha Nacional Filipino What band was this?
A. Pangkatkawayang ng Pateros
B. Kawit Cavite Band
C. Malabon Band
D. San Francisco de Malabon
28. This is modern technologys response to message previously sent over
couriers or post offices
A. E-shopping
B. E-Registry
C. E-Mail
D. Frailocracia
29. Among the not-easily-observable skills are cognitive abilities. This is because
they are _______.
A. Overt
B. Psychological
C. Hidden
D. Mental
30. Among all the religious missionaries, who arrived first?
A. Dominicans
B. Franciscans
C. Jesuits
D. Augustinians
31. What is the LCM of 5,2, and 7?
A. 35
B. 140
C. 15
D. 70
32. ``My concept of inner peace came from my mothers daily activities which I
now recall with fondness and awe. She was a full-time housewife wholly
dependent on my fathers monthly salary. How she made both ends meet, guided
us in our studies and did small acts of charity on the side was beyond me. Based
on the recount, the mothers financial resource were ______
A. More than enough
B. Abundant
C. Enough
D. Limited
33. I am a retired public school teacher. As a teacher, I was branded as a terror in
school. The pupils dreaded the day they would enter my class. Little did they
know that behind my unpopular faade was a heart full of compassion. But how
did I learn this moniker? I did not tolerate dirty pupils in my class. I wanted them
to know that cleanliness of body was good of their health. I inspected their teeth,
nails, footwear, handkerchiefs, clothes, ears, noses and hair.
Based on the recount, the teacher values __________
A. Cleanliness
B. Study
C. Absence
D. Posture
34. The students request to reset the test ______ reasonable.
A. Will
B. Very
C. Are
D. Is
35. This person served as the brains behind the arena theater
A. Carpio
B. Tinio
C. Montano
D. Avellana
36. Ano ang tawag sa tatlong magkaka sunod na tuldok na ginagamit upang
ipabatid na may bahaging hindi sinipi mula sa talata?
A. Ellipsis
B. Abstrak
C. Synopsis
D. Sisntesis
37. Ito ang humahadlang sa maayos na pakikinig.
A. Ingay
B. Okasyon
C. Oras
D. Salita
38. Kung bibilangin ang pantig sa bawat taludtod ng tula, ito ang makukuha.
A. Talinghaga
B. Kariktan
C. Tugma
D. Sukat
39. Ito ay uri ng pangungusap na tumutukoy sa pangyayaring pangkalikasan o
A. Temporal
B. Eksistensyal
C. Penomenal
D. Modal
40. What do you think will mostly happen when a plant cell is placed in a
hypotonic solution?
A. There will be no effect on the plant cell
B. The plant cell will swell
C. The plant cell will shrivel
D. The cell wall of the plant cell will thicken
41. A toothpick can float on the surface of the water because of
A. Surface tension
B. Viscosity
C. Buoyant force
D. Liquid pressure
42. Which of the following organisms is considered heterotophic?
A. Algae
B. Moss
C. Grasshopper
D. Fern
43. Below are different sources of energy. Which do you think is the most
DISADVANTAGEOUS because of its possible threat to human sources of food?
A. Geo-Thermal
B. Sun
C. Wind
D. Fauna
44. ``The prodigal son, who is the black sheep of the family, has returned home.
What figure of speech was used in the given statement?
A. Metaphor
B. Simile
C. Irony
D. Oxymoron
45. Anong dulog pampanitikan ang kilala rin sa tawag bilang reader-response
A. Antropolohiya
B. Impresyonista
C. Patalambuhay
D. Pansikolohiya
46. Ano ang tinataglay ng mga sumusunod na salita: tanaw, aliw, kamay, reyna?
A. Diptonggo
B. Pares minimal
C. Klaster
D. Ponema
47. What do you call the molecule that contains the genetic information of the
A. Nucleic Acid
B. Nucleolus
C. Ribosomes
D. Organelles
48. Which power of the state enables it to impose charge of burden upon persons,
property or property rights for the use and support of the government
expenditures for social services and a way of revenue collection?
A. Eminent domain
B. Expropriation
C. Value added tax
D. Taxation
49. What was the first term given by Marcelo H. Del Pilar to the notorious
invisible influence and domination by Spanish religious priests over the colonial
A. Lassuertpartidas
B. Pase Region
C. Frailocracia
D. Complace
50. The fundamental right invoked by filing the writ of amparo is _____
A. The right to self defense
B. The right to due process
C. The right to life, liberty and security
D. The right to be defended by a public attorney
1. A
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. C
11. A
12. D
13. C
14. B
15. D
16. D
17. D
18. B
19. A
20. A
21. C
22. D
23. D
24. C
25. B
26. B
27. D
28. C
29. C
30. D
31. D
32. D
33. A
34. D
35. C
36. A
37. A
38. D
39. C
40. B
41. A
42. C
43. A
44. A
45. B
46. A
47. A
48. D
49. C
50. C
What is the name of the very first library in the world?
a. Beijing Imperial Library
b. Ashurbannipal Library
c. UST Library
d. Alexandria Library
DNA means?
A. Data nurturing analysis
B. Deoxytribonucleic acid
C. Deoxyribonucleic acid
D. Deotrixyl nucleic acid
1. The child fainted in your class because she has not eaten her breakfast. What
is the best thing for you to do in this situation?
a. Ignore the situation
b. Comfort the child
c. Give the child food
d. Call the parent
2. Who perpetuated the idea that reason is superior to experience as a source of
knowledge, thus schools must develop human reason?
a. Humanist
b. Stoics
c. Hedonists
d. Rationalists
3. Faith, hope, and love are values now and forever whether they will be valued by
or not. Upon what philosophy is this anchored?
a. Idealism
b. Existentialism
c. Realism
d. Pragmatism
4. When teachers are convinced that it is best to teach students the skill to
adapt to change since change is the only thing permanent in this world, they
subscribe to the philosophy of
a. Realism
b. Existentialism
c. Pragmatism
d. Idealism
5. The old adage Do not do to others what you want others do to you is a
teaching of
a. Lao Tse
b. Confucius
c. Mohammad
d. Buddha
6. If the student is encouraged to develop himself to the fullest, which of
Maslows hierarchy of needs should be satisfied?
a. safely needs
b. Physiological needs
c. Belongingness
d. Self actualization
7. Which is unethical for teachers to do?
a. obeying the legitimate policy of the school administration
b. cordial relation parents
c. refusing to serve in worthwhile neighborhood activities as these will adversely
affect her teaching
d. conferring with the next of kin about the problems and needs of a student
8. Which characteristic of a good test will pupils will assured of when a teacher
constructs a table of specification for test construction purpose?
a. Scorability
b. Reliability
c. Economy
d. Content validity
9. Which of the following is the most important contribution of Gestalt
psychology to the theories of learning?
a. Cognitive insights
b. Use of the multimedia approaches
c. Concept of readiness
d. Importance of reinforcement in the learning process
10. Which of the following could produce more than one value?
a. mean
b. mode
c. median
d. mean of grouped data
11. Which statement on test result interpretation is CORRECT?
a. a raw score by itself is meaningful
b. A students score is a final indication of his ability
c. The use of statistical technique gives meaning to pupils score
d. Test scores do not in any way reflect teachers effectiveness
12. This embodies the teachers duties and responsibilities as well as the proper
behaviour in performing them?
a. Code of Ethics for teachers
b. Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
c. Bill of Rights
d. Philippine Constitution of 1987
13. What type of validity is needed if a test must course objective and scopes?
a. Content
b. Concurrent
c. Criterion
d. Construct
14. Which applies when there are extreme scores?
a. The median will not be very reliable measure of central tendency
b. The mode will be the most reliable measure of central tendency
c. There is no reliable measure of central tendency
d. The mean will not be very reliable measure of central tendency
15. What does a negatively skewed score contribution imply?
a. The scores congregate on the left side of the normal contribution curve
b. The scores are widespread
c. The students must be academically poor
d. The score congregate on the right side of the normal contribution curve
16. The more in direct the classroom instruction, the more ______________ it is.
a. Topic focused
b. Student centered
c. Teacher centered
d. Individualized
17. Which terms to the act of educating a child with special education needs
partially in a special education classroom and partially in regular classroom?
a. Mainstreaming
b. Inclusion
c. Individualization
d. Head Start
18. It is good to give students challenging and creative tasks because
a. development is aided by stimulation
b. the development of individual is unique
c. development is effective by cultural changes
d. development is the individuals choice
19. The process of ones thinking to develop critical thinking is known as
a. Metacognition
b. Hypothesizing
c. Reflection
d. Meditation
20. It is an intensive investigation of a particular individual, institution,
community or any group considered as a unit which includes the development,
adjustment, remedial or corrective procedures that suitably follow diagnosis of
the causes of maladjustment or of favorable behaviors.
a. Experimental
b. Descriptive
c. Historical
d. Case study
21. Which of the following test is used as a basis in giving grades or rating?
a. Mastery
b. Formative
c. Summative
d. Post test
22. It is the process of judging an attribute based on certain goals or standards.
a. Counseling
b. Measuring
c. Evaluating
d. Testing
23. Which of the following criteria is the most important in test construction?
a. Preparation of Table of Specification
b. Items must jive with the objectives
c. Arrange events in occurrence
d. The stem should contain the central problem
24. Which of the following type of test is not advisable to be used as a diagnostic
a. Multiple choice
b. Short response
c. essays
d. true false
25. Why should negative terms be avoided in the stem of multiple choice items?
a. They may be overlooked
b. It increases the difficulty of scoring
c. It increase the length of the stem
d. They make the construction of alternatives more difficult
26. It is equivalent to the average score of the group or class?
a. Mean
b. Median
c. Mode
d. Standard Deviation
27. The result of the item analysis showed that item no. 4 has a discrimination
index of
0.67. What could be true about this item?
a. Difficult
b. Valid
c. Easy
d. Average
28. What is the norm of a test?
a. The mean of grouping scores
b. The standard of for adequate performance
c. The standard deviation of a group of scores
d. The typical performance of a certain group of individuals who took the
29. Which of the following is the most important stage in testing process?
a. Constructing test items
b. Establishing test reliability
c. Improving test items
d. Interpreting test result
30. What does a Table of Specification establish?
a. construct validity
b. content related validity and criterion reference
c. content validity and construct validity
d. content validity and content related validity
31. Aura Vivian is one half standard deviation above the mean of his group in
arithmetic and one standard deviation above in spelling. What does this imply?
a. she excels both in spelling and arithmetic
b. She is better in arithmetic than in spelling
c. She does not excel in spelling nor in arithmetic
d. She is better in spelling than in arithmetic
32. Given the scores 1,3,3,3,5,5,6,6,6 and 10, the mode(s) is (are)
a. 3
b. 3 and 6
c. 5
d. 6
33. NSAT and NEAT results are interpreted against set mastery level. This means
NSAT and NEAT fall under?
a. criterion reference test
b. intelligence test
c. aptitude test
d. norm reference test
34. These are significant in formation about a student, gathered through the use
of various techniques, assembled, summarize and organized in such a way that
they may be used effectively. What is referred to?
a. Cumulative record
b. Case studies
c. Test profiles
d. personnel inventory
35. Which measure(s) of central tendency is (are) most appropriate when the
score distribution is badly skewed?
a. Mean and mode
c. Median
b. Mode
d. Mean
36. The inclusion of the study of Rizal and other national heroes in the school
curriculum in order to inculcate love of country is based on a(an).
a. pragmatist philosophy
b. existentialist philosophy
c. idealist philosophy
d. realist philosophy
37. What concept of education makes every individual a useful citizen to the
a. Conformity
b. Security
c. Humanitarianism
d. Utilitarianism
38. It is an area of philosophy which on the nature of knowledge and the best
method of teaching is.
a. Epistemology
b. Ethics
c. Metaphysics
d. Aesthetics
39. A test is considered reliable if
a. it is easy to score
b. it served the purpose for which it is constructed
c. It is consistent and stable
d. it is easy to administer
40. Which is an element of norm referenced grading?
a. the students pat performance
b. an absolute standard
c. the performance of the group
d. what constitutes a perfect score
41. Mario obtained an NSAT percentile rank of 80. This indicates that
a. He surpassed in performance 80% of her fellow examinees
b. He got a score of 80
c. He surpassed in performance 20% of her fellow examinees
d. He answered 80 items correctly
42. In the problem solving method of teaching, which is the primary role of the
a. Director
b. Clarifier
c. Lecturer
d. Judge
43. Which element should be present for brainstorming to be effective?
a. Lax atmosphere
b. Teachers non judgmental attitude
c. Teachers use of put down strategy
d. Threatening atmosphere
44. Which is a selective reading technique meant at getting important facts very
a. Silent reading
b. Skim reading
c. Oral reading
d. scanning
45. The study type of reading exercises gives practice in.
a. picking out the main ideas
b. all sorts of study methods
c. reading skills needed in other subjects
d. recognizing the precise meaning of words
46. Which is the best reason why Mr. Cruz begins a lesson in Math by checking
and reviewing on the previous days assignment practice and drills?
a. Prepare the students for the mastery test
b. Make learning interesting and enjoyable for students
c. Check if parents guide their children in the making of assignment
d. Make sure that the students understand the pre requisite skills of the
47. The test item Group the following items according to shape is a thought
question on.
a. creating
b. generalizing
c. comparing
d. classifying
48. Which one should teacher B use if he wants to teach to pupils the
relationship among details?
a. Journal entries
b. Story frame
c. Graphic organizers
d. Learning log
49. What I hear, I forget. What I see I remember. What I do, I understand. This
means that pupils learn best when they.
a. learn independently
b. work with groups
c. watch TV
d. take active part in the learning process
50. Which is a type of graph in which lines represent each score or set of scores
a. Scattergram
b. Histogram
c. Frequency polygon
d. Scatterplot

Teorya ng Wika - Pinagmulan ng wika
Ding Dong - bagay. Ipinalagay sa teoryang ito na ang lahat ng bagay sa
kapaliran ay may sariling tunog na siyang kumakatawan sa nasabing
bagay. Mga tunog ang nagpapakahulugan sa mga bagay tulad ng
kampana, relo, tren, at iba pa.
Bow Wow kalikasan. Dito ang tunog ng nalikha ng kalikasan, anuman
ang pinagmulan ay ginagad ng tao.
Halimbawa, ang tunog-kulog, ihip ng hanging, at iba pa.
Pooh Pooh tao. Ipinalalagay na ang tao ang siyang lumikha ng tunog
at siya ring nagbibigay ng kahulugan. Dito ang tunog mula sa mga tao.
Kahariang Ehipto Ayon sa haring si Psammatichos, ang wika ay
sadyang natutuhan kahit walang nagtuturo o naririnig. Natutunan kahit
walang nagtuturo. Unconsciously learning the language.
Charles Darwin Ito ay nakasaad sa aklat na Lioberman (1975) na may
pamagat na On the Origin of Language, sinasaad niya ang
pakikipagsapalaran ng tao para mabuhay ang nagtuturo sa kanya
upang malikha ng ibat ibang wika. Wika natutunan tungkol sa mga
Genesis 11: 1-9 Tore ng Babel. Story of Tower of Babel. Based on the
Wikang Aramean Believes that all languages originated from their
language, Aramean or Aramaic. Syria. May paniniwalang ang kauna-
unahang wikang ginagamit sa daigdig ay ang lenggwahe ng mga
Aramean. Sila ang mga sinaunang taong nanirahan sa Syria (Aram) at
Mesopotamia. Tinatawag na Aramaic ang kanilang wika
Karagdagan sa teorya ng wika mula kay Myan ng TristanCafe Pinoy
Teoryang YO-HE-HO. pinaniniwalaan na ang wika ay galing sa ingay na
nililikha ng taong magkatuwang o nagtutulungan sa kanilang gawain.
Ito ay ay unang nasapantaha ni NOIRE, isang iskolar noong ika-19 na
Teoryang Musiko. kilala sa teoryang ito ang DANISH na si OTTO
JERPERSON. sinasaad dito na ang wika ay may melodya at tono at
walang kakayahan sa komunikasyon o hindi nakakakomunika sapagkat
taglay nito ang kakulangan sa mga detalye at impormasyon.
Teorya ng Pakikisalamuha. ayon kay G. Revesz, isang propesor sa
Amsterdam Germany, ang tao mismo ang gumagawa ng kaniyang wika
upang may magamit sa kaniyang pakikisalamuha. Naniniwala ito na
ang wika sa likas na pangangailangan ng tao upang makipagsalamuha
sa kaniyang kapwa.
Teoryang Muestra. pinaniniwalaan sa teoryang iyo na nuuna ang
pagsasalita sa pamumuestra. Magkaugnay ang pagsasalita at
pagmumuestra at ang sentro sa utak na kumokontrol sa paggalaw at
pagsasalita ay magkalapit at magkaugnay.
Mga Uri ng Matalinghagang mga Pananalita
Pahayag Idyomatiko (Idiomatic Expression)
Isang pariralang ang kahulugan ay di mahahanago sa alinmang
bahagi ng pananalita.
Ang kahulugan ng mga ito ay di bunga ng pagsasama ng kahulugan
ng mga salitang bumubuo sa mga ito kundi isang natatanging
kahulugang naiiba sa mismong parirala.
Malayo ang kahulugang literal o tuwirang kahulugan sa
kontekstuwal o tunay na kahulugan.
Matatag na ang pagiging gamitin ng mga pahayag idyomatiko dahil
ginagamit na sa mahabang panahon at bahagi na ng talaslaitaan ng
Nagpasalin-salin ito sa bibig ng mg tao.
alagang ahas taksil, walang utang-na-loob, kalawang sa bakal
gagapang na parang ahas maghihirap ang buhay, maghihikahos,
magiging miserable ang buhay
parang ahas na kuyog galit na lahat ang buong angkan sa kagalit ng
isa sa kanila
bagong ahon baguhan sa pook, bagong salta
alanganin bakla, tomboy
lumilipad sa alapaap walang katiyakan, alinlangan
inalat minalas, inabot ng alat
pinakain ng alikabok tinalo sa isang karera ng takbuhan
nasagap na alimuom nakuhang tsismis, sabi-sabi, bali-balita,
Patayutay na Pananalita ((Figurative Word or Phrase)
Isang salita o parirala na ang kahulugan ay ipinahihiwatig ng salita o
ilan sa mga salita sa parirala.
Nasisinag ang kontekstuwal na kahulugan sa mga salitang ginagamit.
magulo pa sa sangkuwaltang abaka masalimuot, napakagulo,
nakalilito, walang-walang kaayusan
abo ang utak walang pang-intindi, bobo, tanga, mahina ang ulo
anay lihim na kaaway
anak sa labas anak sa di tunay na asawa, anak sa ibang babae
parang iniihan ng aso di mapakali, di mapalagay, balisa
buhol-babae mahina o madaling makalas ang pagkakatali, di
agawin ang buhay iligtas ang buhay sa kamatayan
mag-alsa ng boses sumigaw (sa galit), magtaas ng tinig
mabigat ang katawan masama ang pakiramdam o di maganda ang
pakiramdam, tamad
Eupemistikong Pananalita (Euphemistic Expression)
Pananalitang ipinapalit sa mga salita o pariralang kapag ipinahayag
sa tuwirang kahulugan ay nagdudulot ng pagkalungkot o
pagdaramdam, pagkarimarim, pagkalagim o ibang di kanais-nais na
damdamin sa pinagsasabihan o nakakarinig.
Ginagawa ang ganitong pagpapalit upang maging kaaya-aya sa
pandinig ang pahayag at nang maiwasan ang makasugat ng damdamin
ng iba.
Madalas na ginagamit ang mga eupemistikong pananalita sa mga
pahayg kaugnay ng kamatayan, maseselang bahagi ng katawan ng tao
at sa malalaswang gawain.
Eupemistikong Pananalita Kahulugan
sumakabilang buhay
o binawian ng buhay namatay
pagsisiping o pagtatalik pag-aasawahan

Pagbabagong Morpoponemiko
Asimilasyon - pagbabagong nagaganap sa (n) dahil sa impluwensya ng
ponemang kasunod nito.
Asimilasyong di ganap - pagbabago sa unang morpema
Halimbawa: pang + bansa = pambansa, sing + bait = simbait, mang +
batas =
Asimilasyong ganap: pagbabago ng kapwa panlapi at salitang-ugat.
Halimbawa: mang + tahi = manahi, pang + palo = pamalo, pang + takot
= panakot
Pagpapalit ng ponema = kapag ang (d) ay nasa pagitan ng dalawang
patinig kaya ito'y pinapalitan ng ponemang "r".
Halimbawa: ma + damot = maramot, ma + dunong = marunong
Paglilipat (Metatesis)=-paglilipat ng posisiyon ng panlaping "-in" kapag
ang kasunod na ponema ay ang mga ponemang (l, y)
Halimbawa: lipadin-nilipad, yakapin-niyakap
Pagkakaltas ng ponema - mayroong pagkakaltas o pagtatangal ng
Halimbawa: takip + an = takpan, sara + han= sarhan, labahan = labhan,
dalahin = dalhin

FOCUS: Professional Education

Facilitating Learning

LET Competencies:
1. Analyze the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational and socio-
cultural factors that affect learning
2. Organize the learning environment that promotes fairness
regardless of culture, family background and gender, responsive to
learners needs and difficulties

PREPARED BY: Aggarao, Marivilla Lydia B.

PART I: Content Update
Basic Concepts
Schema - Prior knowledge
Principle - Universal truths/facts
Public pronouncement of what a scientist or an independent/group of
minds that have done something and is subject for further
Concepts/propositions that help to describe and explain observations
that one has made.
- involves acquisition of new elements of knowledge, skills, beliefs and
specific behavior
- - may mean one or
- more of all these things:
the act of gaining knowledge (to learn something), the knowledge
gained by virtue of that act (that which is known) the process of
gaining knowledge (learning how). -Banner and Cannon, 1997
LEARNING - It is an ongoing process of continued adaptation to our
environment, assimilation of new information and accommodation of
new input to fit prior knowledge.
Adaptation - to become adjusted to new or different conditions
Assimilation - to make or become similar; to become absorbed, as
Accommodation - to settle; reconcile, adapt, adjust
- is characterized by:
a change in behavior or the capacity to change ones behavior in the
a relatively permanent observable/demonstrable change in the
behavior of a person as a result of interaction of the environment
occurring through practice or experience
it is not being the same as thinking as its focus is on manifest
behavior rather than simply on
Principles/Conditions of Learning
1. Learning is an active, continuous process: it involves more than
acquiring information.
2. Styles and rates of learning vary: learners may be auditory, visual, or
3. Readiness affects motivation and desire to learn.
4. Learning is very effective when there is immediate application of
what is being taught.
5. Life experiences influence learning.
6. Learning is facilitated when learners have knowledge of their
progress towards a goal.
7. Repetition (practice) helps perfect learning.
8. Principle of effect: learning is strengthened when accompanied by
satisfying feeling.
9. Principle of primacy: what is taught must be taught right at the first
10. Principle of intensity: teaching requires provision of vivid, exciting
learning of experiences.
11. Principle of recency: the things most recently learned are the best

Learning Theories
They are sets of conjectures and hypothesis that explain the process
of learning or how learning takes place
Conjectures -to conclude or suppose from incomplete evidence; guess;
an indecisive opinion
Hypothesis - a set of assumptions, provisionally accepted as a basis of
reasoning or unsupported or ill supported theory
A. Behaviorism/Associative Learning Theory
It operates on a principle of Stimulus-Response
Prefers to concentrate on actual behavior
Ivan Petrovich PavlovsClassical Conditioning
Classical means in the established manner
Individual learns when a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly
paired with an unconditioned stimulus until a neutral stimulus evokes
a conditioned response.
Feature of Classical Conditioning Classroom Implications
1. Stimulus Generalization a process by which the conditioned
response transfers to other stimuli that is similar to the original
conditioned stimulus.
Ex. stern teacher A child should be convinced that not all teachers in
school are bad or anything that associates to school matters are bad.
2. Discrimination a process by which one learns not to respond to
similar stimuli in an identical manner because of previous experiences.
Help the child to distinguish the difference between two or three
identical stimuli or to discriminate their distinct differences.
3. Extinction a process by which a conditioned response is lost.
Ex. anxiousness Fear of anxiety towards a terror teacher gradually
vanishes if in the succeeding days you experience pleasant treatment
with the teacher.
Classroom Application
Relate learning activities with pleasant events.
Build positive associations between teaching and learning activities.
Edward Lee Thorndikes Connectionism
Connectionism means learning by selecting and connecting
Thorndike Theory of Learning Classroom Implications
1. Multiple response variation of responses that would lead to
conclusion or arrival of an answer A child tries multiple responses to
solve a certain problem.
2. Law of Set and Attitude attitude means disposition, pre-
judgment, and prior instruction/experience affects towards a given
task. Giving of homework, advanced reading affects learning
3. Law of Readiness interfering with oral directed behavior causes
frustration, causing someone to do something they do not want to do is
also frustrating.
a. When someone is ready to perform some act, to do is satisfying.
b. When someone is ready to perform some act, not to do is annoying.
c. When someone is not ready to perform some act and is forced to do,
it is annoying. Asking a child to write the alphabets when he/she did
not learn the basic strokes of writing gets frustrated and annoyed.
4. Law of Exercise the organism learns by doing and forgets by not
a. Law of use connections between stimulus and response are
strengthened as they are used.
b. Law of disuse connections between a stimulus and response are
weakened when practice is discontinued. Practice makes perfect
Provide varied enhancement activities/exercises, seatwork.
5. Law of Effect reward increases the strength of a connection
whereas punishment does nothing. Praise students achievements;
encourage those low performing students to do better.
Classroom Application
Do not force the child to go to school if he/she is not yet ready.
Indications of readiness: sustained interest, improved performance
(Ex. Writing, reading)
Practice what has been learned
Consider individual differences.
Burrhus Frederic Skinners Operant Conditioning and Reinforcement
Operant Conditioning - using pleasant or unpleasant consequences to
control the occurrence of behavior.
Reinforcers any consequence that strengthen a behavior
Primary reinforcer related to basic needs. Ex. food
Secondary reinforcer value of something is acquired when
associated with primary reinforcer. Ex. money to buy food
Positive reinforcer consequence given to strengthen a behavior
Negative reinforcer release from an unpleasant situation to
strengthen behavior.
Reinforcement it is a key element to explain why and how learning
Verbal praise, encouragement
Physical touch, pats, hugs
Non-verbal smiles, winks, warm looks
Activity games, enjoyments
Token points, stars
Consumable cookies
Punishment any unpleasant consequence to weaken a behavior
Classroom Application
Teachers may use pleasant or unpleasant consequence to control the
occurrence of behavior
Act on a situation right away. Be sure to make students understand
why they are being reinforced or punished
B. Cognitive and Metacognition
Main focus is on memory (the storage and retrieval of information)
Prefer to concentrate on analyzing cognitive processes
Believe in the non-observable behavior
Basic Concepts:
1. Perception - a persons interpretation of stimuli.
2. Encoding putting information in memory
3. Storage changing the format of new information as it is being
stored in memory
4. Rehearsal mental repetition of information
5. Dual Coding holds the complex networks or verbal representations
and images to promote long term retention.
6. Retrieval finding information previously stored in memory;
Meaningful learning occurs when new experiences are related to what
a learner already knows.
May occur through:
rote learning
discovery learning
David Ausubels Meaningful Reception Theory
Meaningful learning occurs when new experiences are related to what
a learner already knows.
May occur through:
rote learning
discovery learning
Two Dimensions of Learning Processes:
The first dimension relates to the two ways by which knowledge to be
learned is made available to the learner The second dimension relates
to the two ways by which the learner incorporate new information into
his existing cognitive structure
1. Meaningful Reception Learning
2. Rote Reception Learning 3. Meaningful Discovery Learning
4. Rote Discovery Learning
Meaningful Reception Learning
material is presented to the learner in a well-organized/final form and
relates it to his/her existing knowledge
Rote Reception Learning
material is presented to the learner in a well-organized/final form and
is memorized
Meaningful Discovery Learning
learner arrives at the solution to a problem or other outcome
independently and relates it to his/her existing knowledge.
Rote Discovery Learning
the solution is arrived at independently but is committed to memory
Classroom Application
Teachers to take note that before actual learning is expected, the
teachers may use advance organizers
Jerome Bruners Discovery Learning Theory or
Inquiry Method/Theory of Instruction
Posits that learning is more meaningful to learners when they have the
opportunity to discover on their own the relationships among the
concepts or to actively search for a solution to a problem
An approach to instruction through which students interact with their
environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with
questions and controversies or performing experiments. The idea is
that students are more likely to remember concepts they discover on
their own.
Calls his view of learning instrumental conceptualism
Classroom Application
Teachers must strive to see a problem as the learner sees it and
provide information that is consistent with learners perspective.
Wolfgang Kohlers Insight Learning/Problem Solving Theory
Insight the capacity to discern the true nature of situation
- imaginative power to see into and understand immediately
Gaining insight is a gradual process of exploring, analyzing, and
structuring perception until a solution is arrived at.
The more intelligent a person and the more experiences he has, the
more capable he will be for gaining insight.
Held that animals and human beings are capable of seeing
relationships between objects and events and act accordingly to
achieve their needs.
The power of looking into relationships involved in a problem and in
coming up with a solution
Classroom Application
Allow students to go through trial and error method especially in doing
laboratory experiments and in solving mathematical equations
Teachers should help students in gaining insights by giving/presenting
activities/situations to do so, they will be able to solve their problems.
Jean Piagets Cognitive Constructivism
It emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding
and making sense of information.
It is about how the individual learner understands things, in terms of
developmental stages and learning styles
Two major parts:
1. Ages what children can and cannot understand at different ages
2. Stages how children develop cognitive abilities through
developmental stages
Developmental Stages - it is a distinct period in the life cycle
characterized by a particular sets of abilities, motives, behavior and
emotion that occur together and form a coherent pattern.
Classroom Application
Consider the developmental stages and learning styles of learners in
presenting ideas
Teachers should provide necessary resources and rich environment
filled with interesting things to explore, thus become active instructor
of their own knowledge
Richard Atkinsons and Richard Shiffrins Information Processing
The individual learns when the human mind takes in information
(encoding), performs operation in it, stores the information (storage),
and retrieves it when needed (retrieval)
Memory the ability to store information so that it can be used at a
later time.
Stages of Human Memory
1. Sensory Memory utilizes sense organs such as visual, auditory;
lasts less than a second
Ex. color, shape, blowing of horn
2. Short Term Memory (STM) selected by attention; lasts up to 13-30
Ex. telephone number
3. Long Term Memory (LTM) lasting retention of information
- Minutes to lifetime
- Information on The LTM, if not rehearsed, can be forgotten through
trace decay
Three components:
Episodic Memory associated with our recall of particular times and
places and a storage place for many personal experiences.
Procedural Memory refers to knowing how as opposed to knowing
Semantic Memory knowledge of general facts, principles and
concepts that are not connected to particular times and
places.Organized in networks of connected ideas or relationships
referred grouped under larger more generic categories.
To be unable to recall (something previously known) to the mind
Causes of Forgetting
1. Retrieval Failure- forgetting is due to inability to recall the
2. Decay Theory information stored in LTM gradually fades when it is
not used.
3. Interference Theory forgetting in LTM is due to the influence of
other learning
Retention- the ability to recall or recognize what has been learned or
Interference the act or an instance of hindering, obstructing or
Classroom Application
Hold learners attention in all cognitive tasks.
Assist learner to assess materials considered most important to learn
Employ interesting rehearsal activities
Organize information to be learned
Robert Gagnes Cumulative Learning
Learning skills are hierarchically arranged
Progression from stimulus-response associations to concepts,
principles and problem solving.
7 Levels of Learning
1. Signal Learning involuntary responses are learned
Ex. hot surface touched
2. Stimulus-response Learning voluntary responses are learned.
Ex. Getting ready to move at the sound of a fire alarm
3. Chaining/Motor two or more separate motor/verbal responses
maybe combined or chained to develop a more complex shell
Ex. house + wife = housewife
4. Discrimination Learning learner selects a response which applies
to stimuli.
Ex. sound of fire engine is different from other sounds/sirens
5. Concept Learning involves classifying and organizing perceptions
to gain meaningful concepts
Ex. Concept of triangle, discriminate triangle from other shapes and
deduce commonality among different shapes
6. Principle Learning (Rule Learning) involves combining and relating
concepts to form rules
Ex. Equilateral triangles are similar in shapes
7. Problem Solving considered the most complex condition: involves
applying rules to appropriate problem situations
Ex. Solving mathematical problems using a given formula (find the
area of a square A = 1xW)
Teaching for Transfer (Gagne)
Transfer to convey or cause to pass from
one place, person or things to another; direct
(a person) elsewhere for help or information.
Transfer of Learning
1. Lateral transfer occurs when the individual is able to perform a
new task about the same level. (e.g. solving word problems given in
text and later solving a similar problem on the board)
2. Vertical transfer occurs when the individual is able to learn more
advanced/complex skills (e.g. being able to add and multiply; being
able to read and write)
Classroom Application
Observe strictly sequence in teaching in terms of level of learning
skills and capabilities required.
Check students capabilities in each level before moving to the next
Make sure that pre-requisite learning is required before proceeding to
the target level.
Kurt Lewins Field Theory
Known for the terms: life space (reality, need, aspirations, desires,
goals) and field theory (forces-social environment; function of both
the person and environment
Learning is more effective when it is an active rather than a passive
Classroom Application
In a classroom for instance teachers must try to suit the goals of the
activities of the lessons to the learners needs along with his
C. Socio-cultural
Learning involves participation in a community of practice
Society and culture affects learning
Social learners become involved in a community of practice, which
embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired; social
Culture and Learner Diversity
Relationship of culture and learning style affect students
* students color, way of life vs. cultural values, beliefs and norms of
Teachers cultures
- teachers own cultural orientations impede successful learners
guided by another cultural orientation.
Albert Banduras Social / Observational Learning Theory
Known for his Bobo doll experiment
People learn through observation, simulation, modeling which means
watching (observing), another called a model and later imitating the
models behavior.
Concentrates on the power of example
Models are classified as:
Real life exemplified by teachers, parents and significant others
Symbolic presented through oral/written symbols, e.g. books
Representational presented through audio-visual measures, e.g. films
Concepts in Social Learning Theory
1. Vicarious Learning learning is acquired from observing the
consequences of others behavior.
2. Self regulated Learning occurs when individuals observe, assess
and judge their own behavior against their own standards, and
subsequently reward or punish themselves.
4 Phases of Observational Learning
1. Attention mere exposure does not ensure acquisition of behavior.
Observer must attend to recognize the distinctive features of the
models response.
2. Retention reproduction of the desired behavior implies that student
symbolically retains that observed behavior
3. Motor Reproduction Process after observation, physical skills and
coordination are needed for reproduction of the behavior learned.
4. Motivation al Process although observer acquires and retains
ability to perform the modeled behavior, there will be no overt
performance unless conditions are favorable
Classroom application:
Model desirable behaviors, making sure that the students are paying
attention while doing so
Make sure that the students are physically capable of doing the
modeled behavior and that they know why they should demonstrate
this behavior
Expose students to a variety of exemplary models
Situated Learning by Jean Lave and Wenger
The nature of the situation impacts significantly on the process of
Learning involves social relationships situations of co-participation.
Learning is in the relationships between people.
Learning does not belong to individual persons, but to the various
conversations they share.
Classroom Application
Engage students in group activities/participatory works
Allow students to do/participate in community based activities
Relate teaching- learning to real life situations
UrieBrofenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory/Environmental
Learning is greatly affected by the kind of environment we are in.
Learners are understood within the context of their environment.
These environmental contexts are interrelated.
Environmental Contexts: Major Levels
1. Microsystem innermost level
- contains the structure that has direct contact with child
2.Mesosystem connection between the structures of the childs
3.Exosystem 3rd level
- social system which the child does not function directly
4.Macrosystem outermost level
- values, customs, laws, beliefs and resources of a culture/society
5 . Chronosystem
If the relationships in the immediate microsystem break down, the
child will not have the tools to explore other parts of his environment
resulting to behavioral deficiencies. Learning tends to regress / slow
down when the environment of the child is in turmoil
Classroom Application
School and teachers should work to support primary needs of the
learner to create an environment that welcomes and nurtures school
home relationship through: parent-teacher conferencing, home
visitation, telephone brigade, family day
Lev Vygotskys Social Constructivism
It emphasizes how meaning and understanding grow out of social
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) - gap between actual and
potential development
*Actual development what children can do on their own
* Potential development what children can do with help
competent assistance or support through mediation of the
environment (significant others) in which cognitive, socio-emotional
and behavioral development can occur.
Classroom Application
Engage students in group activities and let them share their schema
on a particular subject within the groups (small groups) and synthesize
it in the big group
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence refers to general mental ability of a person
- capacity to resolve problems or to fashion products that are valued in
a more cultural setting
Achievements refers to the previous learning of a person in a certain
subject area.
Multiple Intelligence capacity of a person to possess and adapt two
or more intelligences.
Intelligence Competence Examples
1. Linguistic sensitivity to spoken and written language - Ability to
learn language
- Capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals Writers, poets,
lawyers, speakers
2.Logical/mathematical analyzes problems logically, carry out
mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. - Ability
to detect patters, reason deductively and think logically. Scientists,
3. Musical skill in the performance, composition and appreciation of
musical patterns. - Capacity to recognize and compose musical
pitches, tones and rhythms. Musicians, composers
4. Bodily kinesthetic using ones whole body or body parts to solve
and convey ideas. - Ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily
movements. Athletes, dancers
5. Spatial recognize and use patterns of wide space and more
confined areas. Capacity to understand, appreciate and maximize the
use of spaces Engineers
6. Interpersonal working effectively with others. - Capacity to
understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people.
Educators, sales people, religious counselors, politicians
7. Intrapersonal working effectively with oneself - Capacity to
understand oneself, appreciate ones feelings, fears and motivations
8. Naturalist appreciation of the environment/nature. - Ability to
recognize, categorize and grow upon certain features of the
environment Nature lover, environmentalist
Classroom Application
Make use of various activities which will address the different
intelligences of your students in the class (e.g. art activities to
accommodate art inclined students, song writing for musically
inclined, etc)
Robert Sternberg Triarchic Intelligence (1988), focuses on three main
components of intelligence:
Practical intelligence--the ability to do well in informal and formal
educational settings; adapting to and shaping one's environment;
street smarts.
Experiential intelligence--the ability to deal with novel situations; the
ability to effectively automate ways of dealing with novel situations so
they are easily handled in the future; the ability to think in novel ways.
Componential intelligence--the ability to process information
effectively.Includes metacognitive, executive, performance, and
knowledge-acquisition components that help to steer cognitive
Classroom Application
Engage students in practical, experiential and classroom-based
Daniel Golemans Emotional Intelligence
Highlights the role of emotion in the success or happiness of an
individual which eventually affects behavior or learning.
Classroom Application
Surface the emotions manifested by students in a certain situation.
Dont suppress it.
William Glassers Control Theory
Behavior is inspired by what satisfies a persons want at any given
Classroom Application
Make schoolwork relevant to students basic human needs.
David Kolbs Learning Styles
Learning Styles are tools utilized by learners to cope and adjust to
the learning environment
Four learning styles
Learning Styles Educational Implications
1. Convergers rely on abstract conceptualizing and experimenting
- they like to find specific, concrete answers and move quickly to
- unemotional, since they prefer to deal with things rather than with
Ex. physical sciences and engineering Teacher should provide learning
tasks that have specific answers like numbers and figures/units.
2. Assimilators rely most on abstract conceptualizing and reflective
- interested in theoretical concerns than in applications.
Ex. research and planning Teacher should provide learning tasks that
call for integration of materials/situational activities
3. Divergers rely on concrete experience and active participation
- generate ideas and enjoy working with people.
Ex. counseling and consulting Teacher should provide group activities
since learners enjoy working in groups.
4. Accommodators rely on concrete experience and active
- risk taking, action oriented, adoptable in new situations.
Ex. marketing, business, sales Teacher should provide learning tasks
that call for hands-on approach.
Types of Learners
Types of Learners/Perceptual Channel Educational
Implications/Learning Preferences
1. Auditory learners prefer to learn by listening/auditory perceptual
channel. Lecturing is the teaching approach that works best for them.
Songs/poems are useful and effective learning tools.
2. Visual learners prefer print materials/visual perceptual channel
Reading/responding to visual cues, such as the chalkboard or
Textbooks and pictures are useful and effective learning tools.
3. Tactile learners like to manipulate objects/tactile perceptual
channel Hands-on or laboratory methods of learning are most
appropriate for learners.
Tracing diagrams or using texture examples.
4. Kinesthetic or whole body learners like to learn through
experiential activities/kinesthetic perceptual channel. Simulations,
exploratory activities and problem-solving approach of teaching.
Pacing or dancing while learning new material.
Part II
What is meant by Motivation?
An internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire
or want) that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it
Although motivation cannot be seen directly, it can be inferred from
behavior we ordinarily refer to as ability. Ability refers to what a
person wants to do.
In order to do this effectively, it is necessary to understand that
motivation comes in two forms.
Two Kinds of Motivation:
Extrinsic Motivation
When students work hard to win their parents favour, gain teachers
praise or earn high grades; their reasons for work and study lie
primarily outside themselves.
- Is fuelled by the anticipation and expectation of some kind of payoff
from an external source
Intrinsic Motivation
when students study because they enjoy the subject and desire to
learn it, irrespective of the praise won or grades earned; the reasons
for learning reside primarily inside themselves
- Fuelled by ones own goal or ambitions
Principles of Motivation
The environment can be used to focus the students attention on what
needs to be learned.
Incentives motivate learning
Internal motivation is longer lasting and more self directive than is
external motivation, which must be repeatedly reinforced by praise or
concrete rewards.
Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn, that is
when one want to know something.
Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material
is organized.
Theories of Motivation
1. Drive Theory (Clark Hull)
Drive is a condition of arousal on tension that motivates behavior
Drives most typically have been considered to involve
physiological survival needs; hunger, thirst, sleep, pain, sex.
A drive results from the activation of a need
Need a physiological deficiency that creates condition of
disequilibrium in the body
2.Self Efficacy (Albert Bandura)
Self efficacy it is the belief that one has capabilities to execute the
courses of actions required to manage prospective situations. Unlike
efficacy, which is the power to produce an effect (in essence
competence) self efficacy is the belief (whether or not accurate) that
one has the power to produce that effect.
Self efficacy relates to a persons perception of his/her ability to
reach a goal while, self esteem relates to a persons sense of self
3. Self Determination (E. Deci)
Self determination comes from the sense of autonomy that a person
has when it comes to things that he does and the choices he makes.
4. Theory of Achievement Motivation (Atkinson)
Motivation to perform is affected by two variables
Expectancy people must believe than they can accomplish a task,
that is, they should have expectancy about what they want to achieve.
Value they should place an importance or value in what they are
5. Attribution Theory (B. Weiner)
Peoples various explanations for successes and failures their beliefs
about what causes attributions.
Dimensions underlying peoples attribution. People can explain events
in many different ways. For example, a tennis player may attribute
his/her wins and successes in matches to things like luck, health,
effort, mood, strengths and weaknesses of his/her opponents, climate,
his/her fans etc.
Challenge them - offer students opportunities to undertake real
challenges. Encourage them to take intellectual risks.
Build on strengths first - Opportunity to use their talents to achieve
Offer choices - offering choices develop ownership. When child makes
decisions he/she is more likely to accept ownership and control of the
Provide a secure environment which permits children to fail without
penalty. Learning how to deal with failure is critical for developing
motivation and successful learning.
A. Definitions
- Learning outcomes specify what a learner is expected to know,
understand or to be able to do as a result of a learning process.
- Measuring learning outcomes provides information on what particular
knowledge (cognitive); skill or behavior (psychomotor and affective).
Students have gained after instruction is completed.
B. Importance
Communicate expectations to learners
Review curriculum and content
Design appropriate assessment
Evaluate the effectiveness of learning
C. Three learning domains (KSA)
C.1. Cognitive Learning Domain
development of knowledge and intellectual skills
- mental skills (knowledge)
Basic Concepts: Cognitive Learning
1.Fact something that is true, something that actually exists
2. Concept basically the main idea
3. Generalization the formation of a general notion by putting together
general concepts
4. Thinking rational; reasoning
Types of Thinking
1 Problem Solving process involved in the solution of a problem.
2. Critical Thinking
a. Careful and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject,
suspend judgement on a claim
b. Reasonable reflective thinking that is focused in deciding whether
to believe or do
c. Comprises the mental processes, strategies and representations
people use to solve problems, make decisions, and learn new concepts
3. Creative Thinking
Involves the ability to produce new forms in an art or mechanics or to
solve problems by novel methods
Creativity consist in coming up with a new and relevant ideas
Creativity has two kinds
a. Cognitive involved in problem solving
b. Aesthetic relating to artistic creation
4. Metacognition
-meta after; beyond; higher
-cognition way of thinking; perceiving; knowing
Refers to the idea of knowing about knowing, involves the study of
how we think about our own thinking in order to develop strategies for
Is the capacity to monitor and regulate ones own thinking or mental
From of thinking in which an individual develops an awareness of his
characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and actions.
Principles in Achieving Cognitive Learning and Their Classroom
Content: Teach tacit heuristic knowledge as well as textbook
Situated Learning: Teach knowledge and skills that reflect the way the
knowledge will be useful in real life.
Modeling and Explaining: Show how a process unfolds and tell reasons
why it happens that way.
Coaching and Feedback: Pay personalized attention to performance,
coupled with appropriate hints, helps, and encouraging feedback.
Articulation and Reflection: make students think about and give
reasons for their actions/own performance.
Exploration: Encourage students to try out different strategies and
observe their effects.
Sequence: Proceed in an order from simple to complex, with
increasingly diversity.
C.2. Affective Learning Domain
- deals with attitudes, motivation, willingness to participate
- valuing what is being learned
- incorporating the values of a discipline as a way of life
- growth in feeling or emotional areas (attitude)
Basic Concepts: Affective Learning
Beliefs an accepting of something or someone as true or reliable
without asking for proof.
Attitudes a particular feeling or way of thinking about something.
Values important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by the
members of a culture about what is good or desirable and what is not.
Principles in Achieving the Development of Attitudes and Values and
Their Classroom Implications
Every interaction with children provides an opportunity to teach
Children learn about our values through daily interaction with us.
Children learn through our example
Children learn values through the way we do things as a family.
Children learn values and beliefs through their exposure to the larger
Children learn values through our explanations of the world.
C.3 Psychomotor Learning Domain
(Anita J. Harrow)
Includes physical movement that involves coordination of the mind and
Manual of physical skills
Basic Concepts: Psychomotor Learning
Capacity the facility or power to produce, perform or deploy.
Ability competence in an activity or occupation because of ones
skill, training, or other qualification.
Skill learned capacity to carry out predetermined results often with
the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both.
1. The psychomotor domain is best assessed in a face to face
2. It focuses on performing sequences of motor activities to a
specified level of motor operations for a child of given age.
3. Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate
level of motor capabilities.
4. Use teaching methods that actively involve students and present
5. Psychomotor learning is facilitated by providing activities or
situations that engage learners to perform.
Acknowledgement goes to various authors