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PANZERKRIEG

PANZERKRIEG RULES OUTLINE

  • 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  • 2.0 GAME EQUIPMENT

    • 2.1 THE GAME MAP

    • 2.2 THE PLAYING PIECES

    • 2.3 SCENARIOS AND STUDY FOLDER

    • 2.4 CHARTS AND TABLES CARDS

  • 3.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY

    • A. WEATHER DETERMINATION

    • B. THE FIRST PLAYER TURN

      • 1. SUPPLY DETERMINATION PHASE

      • 2. MOVEMENT PHASE

      • 3. COMBAT PHASE

        • a. Combat Segment

        • b. Exploitation Segment

    • 4. ADMINISTRATION SEGMENT

      • C. THE SECOND PLAYER TURN

      • D. GAME-TURN END

  • 4.0 WEATHER

  • 5.0 SUPPLY

    • 5.1 SUPPLY LINE

    • 5.2 SEABORNE SUPPLY

    • 5.3 SUPPLY EFFECTS

  • 6.0 MOVEMENT

    • 6.1 TERRAIN EFFECTS ON MOVEMENT

    • 6.2 SEA TRANSPORT

    • 6.3 RAILROAD MOVEMENT

    • 6.4 ENTERING AND EXITING THE MAP

    • 6.5 UNIT MOVEMENT TYPES

  • 7.0 STACKING

  • 8.0 ZONES OF CONTROL

    • 8.1 MOVEMENT EFFECTS

    • 8.2 SUPPLY EFFECTS

    • 8.3 COMBAT EFFECTS

  • 9.0 AIR OPERATIONS

    • 9.1 AIR BASES

    • 9.2 COMBAT AIR PATROL (CAP)

    • 9.3 GROUND SUPPORT

    • 9.4 AIR SUPPLY

  • 10.0 COMBAT

    • 10.1 COMMAND CONTROL

    • 10.2 RESERVES

    • 11.0 LEADERS

    • 11.1 LEADER COMBAT STRENGTH

    • 11.2 LEADER DIE ROLL MODIFICATIONS

    • 12.0 ARMOR SUPERIORITY

    • 13.0 BATTLEGROUPS

    • 13.1 BATTLEGROUPS IN COMBAT

    • 13.2 REBUILDING BATTLEGROUPS

    • 14.0 RETREAT GUIDELINES

    • 15.0 BREAKTHROUGH AND EXPLOITATION

    • 15.1 EXPLOITATION REQUIREMENTS

    • 15.2 RESOLVING EXPLOITATION

    • 16.0 PANZER DIVISION BREAK DOWN

    • 17.0 SPECIAL UNITS

    • 17.1 ARTILLERY UNITS

    • 17.2 ANTI-TANK UNITS

    • 17.3 SOVIET AIRBORNE UNITS

    • 18.0 FORTIFICATIONS AND BRIGDEHEADS

    • 18.1 FORTIFICATIONS EFFECTS

    • 18.2 BRIDGEHEAD EFFECTS

    • 19.0 AXIS SATELLITES

    • 19.1 SATELLITE LEADERS

    • 19.2 SATELLITE AIR UNITS

    • 20.0 OPTIONAL UNITS

    • 20.1 SOVIET TANK ARMIES

    • 20.2 GERMAN PANZER ARMIES

    • 20.3 PUTTING OPTIONAL UNITS IN PLAY

    • 20.4 OPTIONAL UNIT EFFECTS

    • 21.0 VICTORY CONDITIONS

    • 22.0 STARTING A SCENARIO

    • 23.0 SCENARIO DEPLOYMENT INSTRUCTIONS

    • 24.0 SCENARIO MAP START LINES

    • 25.0 SCENARIO TURN RECORD TRACK

    • 26.0 SCENARIO REINFORCEMENTS AND

    REPLACEMENTS

    DESIGN CREDITS

    GAME DESIGN: John Prados

    GRAPHICS: Kevin Zucker, J. A. Nelson, Larry

    Catalano

    RULES: Bruce C. Shelley RULES UPDATE: Wah June Hwang

    Original Copyright 1978 Operational Studies Group Copyright 1983 The Avalon Hill Game Company

    RULES OF PLAY

    • 1.0 INTRODUCTION

    PANZERKRIEG is an operational level simulation of various Axis and Soviet campaigns in southern Russia during the period 1941-1944. These campaigns, more than any others, display the large forces and vast distances of protracted combat between two industrial giants. The simulation presents nine scenarios, each describing a different period of operations. Each of these scenarios is played as a separate game and all scenarios use the same rules and components. The game is an examination of the battles which shaped the campaign and is based upon evaluation of the combat forces, the leaders, the logistical limitations, and the terrain over which the antagonists struggled.

    PANZERKRIEG has been designed primarily as a two player game, with one player commanding the Axis forces and the other the Soviet forces. When played solitaire, the competitive value of the game is eliminated, but it remains a tool with which to study the history presented.

    • 2.0 GAME EQUIPMENT

    • 2.1 THE GAME MAP

    The 22"x32" game map represents the area in southern Russia where the campaigns simulated took place. A field of hexagons (hexes) has been superimposed upon the map to regularize the positioning and movement of the playing pieces (counters). Each hex is identified by a unique four-digit number for easy reference. For example, the city of Odessa is in hex 1115.

    • 2.2 THE PLAYING PIECES

    Playing pieces, also known as counters, are provided of three types: combat units, leaders, and information markers. Combat units represent the fighting formations of the various armies. Leader counters represent individual commanders (and their staffs) included in the game because of the significant impact of their leadership on the conduct of the relevant cam- paigns. Information markers are included as playing aids.

    SAMPLE UNITS

    RULES OF PLAY 1.0 INTRODUCTION PANZERKRIEG is an operational level simulation of various Axis and Soviet
    RULES OF PLAY 1.0 INTRODUCTION PANZERKRIEG is an operational level simulation of various Axis and Soviet

    2.3 SCENARIOS AND STUDY FOLDER

    PANZERKRIEG offers nine different scenarios for play, each placing the players at the beginning of a crucial passage of the war in southern Russia. The first eight scenarios are found in the 16 page Scenarios and Study Folder (the ninth scenario, a hypothetical situation, is included on a separate card). The scenarios in the folder are described in three ways: a map show- ing the placement areas for each side, a set-up display giving each side its deployment instructions, and a brief historical commentary.

    2.4 CHARTS AND TABLES CARDS

    The various charts and tables which are used in play and an additional ninth hypothetical scenario are included on three separate cards. Included on the cards are the Combat Results Table (CRT), the Weather Intensity Table, the Weather Effects Table, and the Terrain Effects Chart (TEC).

    3.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY THE GAME-TURN

    PANZERKRIEG is played in sequenced turns called Game-Turns. Each Game-Turn consists of two player- turns. The player whose turn is in progress is called the phasing player, all actions must take place in the sequence outlined below. Any action attempted out of sequence is not allowed. All Game-Turns are identical and follow one another until the scenario being played is ended and the winner determined. The length of the

    scenario is the number of Game-Turns shown on the scenario Turn Record Tack.

    A. WEATHER DETERMINATION

    The first player to move in a scenario, as listed in the scenario "Deployment Notes", rolls the die and consults the Weather Intensity Table to determine the weather for this Game-Turn. The weather result is then noted by placing the appropriate weather state marker on the scenario Turn Record Track.

    B. THE FIRST PLAYER-TURN

    • 1. Supply Determination Phase

    The first player determines the supply status of his units. Those units that were marked as being out of supply on previous turns, and that are now in supply, have the out of supply markers removed. Place out of supply markers on those units now out of supply that were not previously marked. Units marked as being out of supply have their combat and movement capabilities halved.

    • 2. Movement Phase

    The first player moves each unit or stack of units individually through the hex grid of the map, tracing a path of contiguous hexes and spending a portion of its movement allowance (one or more movement points) for each hex entered or hexside crossed. A unit may never exceed its movement allowance. Rail, sea, and road movement may be used to speed friendly movement. The first player now brings on any reinforcements that are due. The first player also "flies" his air units to any hexes on the map not containing enemy CAP markers, and within range of his air bases. These air units may attack enemy units they are stacked on during the upcoming Combat or Exploitation Segments, either alone, or in conjunction with friendly ground units. The first player continues the Movement Phase of his player-turn until he has moved all units he wishes to move.

    • 3. Combat Phase

    After all movement has ceased, the first player may now attack enemy units that occupy hexes adjacent to his own ground combat units, or which occupy the

    same hexes as his own air units. The phasing player is never obligated to attack, and does so at his own option.

    a. Combat Segment

    First, all attacks against enemy ground combat units made solely by friendly air units must be resolved. Note that attacks involving solely air units on one side are resolved on the Combat Results Table and that they involve a special result that applies only to these attacks (air units ignore adverse combat results; if a "*" appears the targeted unit(s) is disrupted). Then ground units which are adjacent to hexes occupied by enemy ground units make their attacks, either alone or in conjunction with friendly air units. The phasing player continues to resolve attacks until he wishes to make no more, or until he has no more units eligible to make

    attacks. Each

    attack is conducted according to the

    following procedure:

    Combat Procedure (for each attack)

    All attacking units and a maximum of one leader total their combat strength and compare it with the total strength of the defending units and leader (if present). Both sides' strength may be modified by terrain and supply considerations, and the defender may be able to commit reserves. The ratio of attacker/ defender strength, after all modifications are included, is reduced to one of the simply odds ratios found on the Combat Results

    Table (e.g., 16 to 6 becomes 2 to 1). The attacker then rolls a die, and modifies the number rolled for the presence of attacking leaders, terrain effects, and weather effects. The net number is cross-referenced with the previously determined odds column, and the result of this attack is read off and immediately applied to the units involved. Each attack is resolved separately and completely, before proceeding to the next attack.

    The Combat Results Table (CRT)

    The results read off the CRT indicate to the players the various actions that must be taken with the units involved in a given attack. Combat generally results in the retreat and/or elimination of at least one player's involved units. A complete explanation of the results is given with the CRT.

    Breakthrough Results and Exploitation Eligibility

    Attacks made at high odds with the die roll modified by an attacking leader may result in a breakthrough. All defending units in such cases are immediately eliminated or reduced to battlegroups. If there is at least one attacking armored or mechanized infantry unit involved in the attack, other friendly armored or mechanized units adjacent to the original attackers which have not yet attacked and which are not in an enemy Zone of Control (see section 8.0), are eligible for exploitation and are marked with an exploitation marker.

    b. Exploitation Segment

    After the phasing player has conducted all of his attacks in the Combat Segment, all units marked with exploitation markers may move again and conduct attacks. Only units marked with exploitation markers may move and attack. No air units may be flown to targets during the Exploitation Segment, but air units flown to targets during the Movement Phase may withhold their attack strength and attack in conjunction with exploiting units. No air units may attack alone during the Exploitation Segment.

    4. Administration Phase

    After all exploitation attacks have been resolved, the first player may create or put under construction fortresses or bridgeheads, and may incorporate replacements into his units which have been reduced to battlegroups, and/or break divisions down into battlegroups. Each of these activities may only be

    undertaken by ground units that have not moved or participated in combat during the preceding player- turn, and are not now adjacent to any enemy units. The phasing player removes all disruption markers from friendly units placed due to air attacks. Lastly, the phasing player may place CAP markers on the hexes he wishes to protect from enemy air units during the subsequent enemy player-turn.

    C. THE SECOND PLAYER TURN

    The second player then repeats the phases listed under the First Player-Turn, moving and attacking with his own units.

    D. GAME-TURN END

    Upon the completion of the Second Player-Turn, the Game-Turn marker is advanced on the scenario Turn Record Track to signal the completion of one Game- Turn, and the beginning of the next. The first player then begins this new Game-Turn with the Weather Determination Phase, and proceeds through each phase in order. Play proceeds in this manner until the last turn of the scenario is completed, at which point the winner of the game is determined.

    • 4.0 WEATHER

    The first player in a scenario determines the weather for each Game-Turn by consulting the Weather Intensity Table and rolling one die. Cross-reference the month of the Game-Turn (indicated on the scenario Turn Record Track) with the die roll to determine the weather condition for this Game-Turn. Conditions shown on the table are Clear, Rain, Snow, or Storm. Two additional weather conditions are possible—Mud and Ice. Mud occurs if the weather condition Rain continues for more than one consecutive Game-Turn. Ice occurs if either Snow continues for more than one consecutive Game-Turn, or immediately upon the appearance of the condition Storm. See the Weather Effects Table to determine how weather effects move- ment and combat.

    • 5.0 SUPPLY

    Units must be in supply in order to exercise their full movement and combat capabilities. Supply status is determined and indicated during the Supply Determination Phase at the beginning of the player- turn, and remains in effect until that player's next turn. Out of supply units are marked with an out of supply marker. To be in supply, a unit must be able to trace a supply line. In addition, Axis and Soviet units are in supply if they are able to trace five hexes free of enemy Zones of Control (see section 8.0) to the western or eastern map edges, respectively. A limited number of Axis units may also be supplied by air (see section 9.4, Air Supply).

    • 5.1 SUPPLY LINE

    A supply line consists of a path of hexes leading cross-

    country from the unit to

    a railroad, and

    along the

    railroad to a friendly rail hex on the edge of the map. Any railroad hex on the map may be used to trace

    supply, regardless of which side of the scenario start line it is on (see section 24.0, Scenario Map Start Lines), so long as that rail line can be traced to a friendly map edge.

    • 5.11 The supply line path may extend a maximum of

    ten hexes (regardless of terrain type from the unit (exclusive) to the friendly railroad hex (inclusive). The path must be free of enemy units and their Zones of Control (see 8.0). It may cross major rivers only at bridges or through bridgeheads (see 18.2), and may not cross sea hexsides unless the unit is operating on a seaborne supply line as described below.

    • 5.12 Once a supply line has reached a railroad, it may

    not deviate from the rail line in reaching the board

    edge. Rail lines, which are cut by the presence of enemy units or their Zones of Control, cannot be used to convey supply. An enemy unit moving across (but not occupying) a friendly rail line has no effect on friendly supply (which is determined at the start of friendly player turn.)

    • 5.13 A unit is also considered to be in supply if it can

    trace an overland supply line often hexes directly to a

    friendly reinforcement entry hex.

    • 5.2 SEABORNE SUPPLY LINE

    Units that are located in or near town or city port hexes on the Black Sea coast may trace a seaborne supply line if the player controls Black Sea ports suitable for sea transport (see 6.2) which are themselves in supply. Seaborne supply is traced as follows:

    —from the unit (exclusive), up to five hexes to any friendly port hex (inclusive).

    —by any number of sea hexes from the first port hex to any other friendly port hex.

    —from the second port hex (exclusive), along a maximum ten hex path to a friendly rail line which can be traced off a friendly map edge.

    A seaborne supply line is blocked if any of the paths or the rail line is occupied by enemy units or their Zones of Control (see 8.0).

    • 5.3 SUPPLY EFFECTS

    Out of supply ground and air units and headquarters have their combat value and movement allowance halved, with all fractions rounded down. Headquarters which are out of supply may not dispatch reserves (see 10.2). Supply has no effect upon the combat or movement capabilities of leaders. Airfields which are out of supply may not support CAP (see 9.2), and are eliminated if out of supply for more than one Game- Turn. Out of supply units can construct fortifications.

    • 6.0 MOVEMENT

    During the Movement Phase, the phasing player may move any and all of his ground, air, leader, and headquarters units. Movement is voluntary, and is regulated by the hex grid superimposed on the map. A unit expends movement points for each hex entered or hexside crossed, as detailed on the Terrain Effects

    Chart (TEC). The movement points that a unit has available (the right hand number on each counter) can be modified by its supply status and by the prevalent weather conditions. To enter a hex of clear terrain costs one movement point. Air units moving to and from their airbases ignore all terrain and each hex entered counts as one movement point of their allowance expended. No unit can expend more than its net movement allowance (possibly modified by supply and weather). Movement points cannot be accumulated from one turn to the next, nor can they be transferred from one unit to another. No unit can enter a hex unless it has sufficient movement allowance remaining to pay the full cost. A hex that does not contain a town, city, rail line or road is unplayable unless it contains at least approximately 50% land.

    6.1 TERRAIN EFFECTS ON MOVEMENT

    The movement point cost to enter the various type of hexes or cross hexsides is detailed on the Terrain Effects Chart (TEC), which is found on the separate chart and tables card. Additional notes for certain terrain types are included below.

    RIVERS: Major rivers can be crossed only at bridges or at river crossing hexes, which are printed on the map. The cost specified on the TEC for crossing a river is for crossing the river hexside only, and it is a movement point cost that does not include the cost for entering the hex which the unit crosses into. This holds true for all rivers, including major rivers.

    RIVER CROSSING HEXES: River crossing movement costs only apply when moving across a

    Major

    River

    between

    two

    River Crossing Hexes.

    Otherwise, River

    Crossing

    hexes

    count

    as

    Clear

    terrain.

    KIEV: Units may move from Kiev to hex 3215 as if Kiev was a River Crossing hex.

    KERCH STRAITS: The Kerch Straits (between hexes 0531-0631) and hexes (0532-0632) separate the Crimea from the Taman Peninsula, joining the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov. For all game purposes, this strait is considered to be the same as a major river crossing hex.

    BRIDGEHEADS: A player may improve the crossing facilities of a major river crossing hexside and make it the equivalent of a bridged hexside. (See 18.2 Bridgehead Effects.)

    ROADS: Units may move along roads at twice their normal movement rate, with the road canceling the normal movement costs of the terrain in the hex. Units derive this benefit only when following a road exactly, but units may combine road and off-road movement freely in one turn.

    RAILROAD BRIDGES: All ground unit types may cross rivers at rail bridges when performing either rail or normal movement. When crossing a rail bridge during normal movement, the unit is assessed one additional movement point over the cost of entering the next hex.

    ROAD BRIDGES: All ground unit types may cross rivers at road bridges when performing normal movement. When crossing a road bridge during normal movement, the unit incurs no additional movement point costs over the cost of moving by road.

    THE CAUSEWAY: Hex 0926 is the causeway hex. No ground unit may move into or through this hex except when using rail movement. No unit using rail movement may end the Movement Phase in this hex.

    LAKE HEXSIDES: The black lines on the hexsides in the lake bordering hexes 1247, 1148, and 1149 may not be crossed by ground units.

    No ground unit may move through an all sea hexside unless using sea transport (see section 6.2 below).

    • 6.2 SEA TRANSPORT

    Both players may make troop movements in the Black Sea by naval transport. Each side has the capacity to move one unit by sea each turn. Sea transport may only take place between coastal port cities and towns friendly to the moving units. Only the following cities and towns marked with a port symbol are considered ports: Constanta (0109), Odessa (1115), Sevastopol (0222), Yalta (0224), Feodosia (0427), and Novorosisk (0335). A unit to be moved by sea must begin its Movement Phase in one of these ports. It may not land in a port in any enemy Zone of Control (see 8.0), but may leave from such a port. A sea transported unit may make no movement in a turn other than the naval transport movement. A unit transported by sea is not eligible for exploitation the turn that it is moved.

    • 6.3 RAILROAD MOVEMENT

    Both sides may make use of railroad movement. There is no limit to the number of units that can use rail movement. To be moved by rail, a unit must begin the Movement Segment located on a hex containing a rail line. It may then move by rail to any other rail line hex on the appropriate (beginning) side of the start line to which it is connected by a continuous rail line not interrupted by opposing units or Zones of Control. No unit may ever enter or exit an enemy controlled hex using railroad movement. Rail movement may not be used to place a unit adjacent to an enemy unit. Units moved by rail may not use regular movement on the same turn, nor may it conduct Exploitation movement.

    • 6.4 ENTERING AND EXITING THE MAP

    When reinforcements are called for in a specific entry hex (or range of entry hexes) the reinforcing units are simply placed in that hex; they may then move normally (including by rail) that turn. The reinforcing units pay no movement point cost for the entry hex and an unlimited number of units may use a single entry hex on a Game-Turn, as long as stacking restrictions are observed at the end of the Movement Phase.

    6.41

    If

    a

    given reinforcement hex is occupied

    by

    enemy units and that hex is scheduled for reinforcing

    units,

    those

    units

    may

    enter

    at an alternate

    reinforcement hex.

    Axis

    units

    enter

    at

    alternate

    reinforcement hexes bearing the next higher number

    which is unoccupied by enemy units. Soviets reinforcements enter at the next lower number reinforcement hex unoccupied by enemy units. Units may enter reinforcement hexes covered by enemy Zones of Control (see section 8.0, Zones of Control), but are not obligated to do so. They may instead enter at the appropriate alternate reinforcement hex. Units which enter at an alternate entry point on the same map edge as the blocked hex enter the same Game-Turn. Reinforcing units entering on another map edge than they would have normally must delay one turn before entering.

    6.42

    Units may never

    move

    off the

    map.

    In

    one

    instance withdrawals are called for. These units are

    simply removed from the map during the

    Administration Phase.

    Only units

    in

    supply at

    the

    moment can be withdrawn.

    If units of the

    type and

    strength specified do not meet these conditions, a unit

    of higher strength must be withdrawn instead.

    • 6.5 UNIT MOVEMENT TYPES

    The following units are armor type units for purposes of movement point costs on the TEC: armor, mechanized, artillery, anti-tank, headquarters and the Luftwaffe airborne division. All other types are non- armor units for movement purposes. Leader units may be considered either type and may alternate between the two freely during a single Movement Phase.

    • 7.0 STACKING

    Players may generally stack more than one unit together in the same hex. The Axis player may stack up to three friendly ground combat units in a hex at the end of a phase. The Soviet player may stack up to two friendly ground combat units in a hex at the end of a phase. Stacking limitations apply only at the end of a given phase and must be observed strictly at that point. Any units in a hex stacked in excess of these limits are eliminated (the owning player chooses which to eliminate). During the Movement Phase, units may freely pass through a hex ignoring the stacking restrictions. (See also Axis Satellite restrictions, 19.0).

    In addition to these stacking limits, either player may have one of each of the following units and marker types in a hex: a leader, a CAP marker, a bridgehead marker, an artillery unit, an anti-tank unit, and a headquarters unit. Also, either player may stack an additional combat unit on a bridgehead marker to maintain the bridgehead. The Soviet player may place an additional airborne brigade unit on any stack.

    One Air Base and its Air Units may stack in a hex in addition to stacking of land units.

    The following unit and marker types are exempt from stacking restrictions, and may be placed in a hex in any quantity: air units (flying ground support operations— see 9.6); stalemate, exploitation, out of supply, and disruption markers.

    • 8.0 ZONES OF CONTROL

    Only armored and mechanized units of both sides, and the German parachute unit can exert a Zone of Control (ZOC). The hex one of these units occupies, and the six hexes immediately surrounding the occupied hex, constitute that unit's ZOC. ZOC's inhibit movement, and may block supply lines and retreat routes after combat.

    ZOCs do not extend across lake hexsides or Major River hexsides. This is not changed by the presence of River Crossing hexes or Bridges.

    Air

    units

    in

    a

    hex have

    no

    movement or ZOC's.

    effect on ground unit

    • 8.1 MOVEMENT EFFECTS

    All units must expend 3 movement points to enter a controlled hex, in addition to the normal terrain costs for that hex as detailed on the Terrain Effects Chart. The presence of friendly units in the controlled hex does not negate the effect of the ZOC for purposes of movement. Units may move from one enemy con- trolled hex to another, so long as they have sufficient movement points to do so. Ground units may not enter enemy occupied hexes (Exception: Hexes occupied solely by enemy Leaders, Artillery and Anti-Tank units may be entered, and passed through, destroying the occupying units.)

    • 8.2 SUPPLY EFFECTS

    Supply lines cannot be traced through enemy ZOC's, neither before nor after the supply line reaches a railroad. The presence of friendly ground units does negate enemy ZOC's for purposes of tracing supply. Also, units which normally have a ZOC retain it when out of supply.

    • 8.3 COMBAT EFFECTS

    Units disrupted by enemy air unit attack do not have a ZOC. Units forced to retreat by a combat result may not enter an enemy controlled hex, and are eliminated instead. The presence of other friendly units in the controlled hex does negate the effect of the enemy ZOC for purposes of retreat. Units can thus retreat through enemy ZOC's if the controlled hex is occupied by non-retreating friendly units.

    • 9.0 AIR OPERATIONS

    Both players may use air operations in support of their ground forces. All such air operations are conducted by the air units which the player has available for the scenario being played. Air operations are founded on a system of air bases which are strategically positioned by each player. There are two types of air operations in the game: Ground Support and Air Supply (Axis player only). There is no air transport. Combat Air Patrol (CAP) markers are a special type of unit, whose use is explained below. To conduct an air operation, the air unit is moved from its base to any hex within its range.

    • 9.1 AIR BASES

    Each player is provided with a number of air base counters specified by the set-up display of the scenario

    being played. Air bases must be placed in cities or towns that contain a railroad line, and can trace a supply line. No more than one air base may ever occupy a given hex. Each air base has the capacity to operate four air units. All air units to be used must be placed on air bases (only) during the set-up, before the start of play.

    • 9.11 Once placed on the map, the owning player may

    move any one air base per Game-Turn, and the move must be to a city or town under friendly control and located on a railroad hex. The air base is simply removed from the map, placed upside down in its new position, and then flipped over during the Administra- tion Phase. Air units may not conduct any air operations from a base on the turn in which it is being moved.

    • 9.12 Air bases may never retreat. If a hex containing

    an air base is attacked and a retreat result is rolled, then

    the air base is instead destroyed. Any air units stacked on an air base when it is eliminated are also eliminated.

    • 9.13 Air bases may never be attacked by enemy air

    units.

    • 9.14 Air bases which are out of supply may not support

    CAP, and are eliminated if out of supply for more than one Game-Turn (see section 5.0, Supply).

    • 9.15 Air units return to their bases immediately after

    the attacks in which they have participated are resolved, and they may return to bases different from those from which they flew.

    • 9.15 An airbase has an intrinsic defense capability

    against ground attack of one combat strength point. This defense factor is doubled or tripled normally for towns and cities.

    • 9.2 COMBAT AIR PATROL (CAP)

    Defensive air power is represented by CAP markers. These signify concentrations of protective air activity on a sector sufficient to deny use of the airspace to opposing air forces.

    • 9.21 The presence of a CAP marker on a hex prohibits

    the enemy player from flying air units into or through

    that hex.

    9.22

    CAP

    markers

    are

    placed

    at

    the

    end

    of

    the

    Exploitation Segment of the player-turn, and remain in

    place throughout the enemy player-turn.

    • 9.23 CAP markers must be placed within 12 hexes of a

    friendly air base which is in supply. Any one air base

    can support all of the CAP markers available for the scenario.

    • 9.24 The number of CAP markers each player has

    available each turn is shown on the set-up display of the scenario.

    • 9.3 GROUND SUPPORT

    Both players have

    air

    units representing major

    formations of bomber and ground support aircraft.

    These are based

    on

    air

    bases, move to

    their target

    hexes during the player's Movement Phase, and attack during either the Combat or Exploitation Segments. Air units on a ground support mission must fly to an enemy occupied hex. They may never fly into or through hexes containing an opposing CAP market. Air units may attack only the hexes upon which they are stacked. Adverse combat results have no effect upon air units.

    9.31

    If

    a

    hex

    being

    attacked

    by

    air

    units

    is

    simultaneously being attacked by ground units, the air units must combine their combat value with that of the ground units into one total attack strength.

    • 9.32 Air units alone may attack hexes which are not

    being simultaneously attacked by ground units. In this case, the attacker may choose which of the defending units to attack, ignoring the others. These attacks must be resolved at the beginning of the Combat Segment before the attacking player proceeds to resolve pure ground attacks or combined ground/air attacks. Attacks made solely by air units are resolved on the Combat Results Table (see the separate card) and all combat calculations are made normally (defending units receive any benefits for terrain, except those for defending in River Crossing hexes or behind River hexsides). However, these attacks are resolved using only the disruption result as outlined on the CRT. Attacks made solely by air units never benefit from the presence of friendly leaders.

    • 9.33 Axis satellite air

    units are restricted

    in their

    ground support ability (see section 19.2, Satellite Air

    Units).

    9.4 AIR SUPPLY

    German 5-20 air units may be diverted from combat functions in order to supply units that cannot trace a normal supply line. Their bases must be within range of the units they supply, and the Soviet player must be informed of the details of any such activity. Air units are committed to air supply during the Axis player's Supply Determination Phase.

    • 9.41 The Axis player points out to the Soviet player the

    units that he is supplying by air, and flips over enough of his 5-20 air units in range to fulfill the supply

    requirements. The units supplied in this manner are considered to be in supply until the beginning of the Axis player's next Supply Determination Phase.

    • 9.42 The first two 5-20 air units diverted may supply

    two divisions each. Thereafter, for each three additional 5-20 air units diverted, one division may be supplied. Air units engaged in supply activity may conduct no other air operations in that turn. KGs, BGs, AT units and Artillery units each count for 1/3 of a division. HQs are supplied for free.

    • 9.43 Air supply is not allowed into a hex containing an

    enemy CAP marker.

    • 10.0 COMBAT

    Combat occurs between opposing units after all

    movement has ceased, and

    at

    the

    discretion of the

    phasing player. The phasing player is the attacker, and the non-phasing player is the defender. Ground units must be under command control (see 10.1) in order to attack. Attacks are made by air units against enemy ground units in the hex occupied by the attacking air units. Attacks by ground units are made against enemy units in hexes adjacent to them. All defending units in a hex must be attacked as a combined force. Separate units in a hex cannot be attacked individually. A friendly leader stacked with attacking units adds his combat factor to the attacker's strength (see 11.0). The defender may be able to increase his defense strength by committing reserves to the battle (see 10.2). Terrain and supply considerations may modify the attacker's and defender's strength. Armor superiority for either side will shift the odds of the attack in that sides favor (see 12.0). Each attack is resolved according to the procedure outlined below, and the results of the attack are implemented immediately before resolving the next attack. Explanations for each combat result are presented on the Combat Results Table. A player may make as many attacks as he desires during a turn, subject only to his command control capabilities and to the number of adjacent enemy occupied hexes. The attacker decides which opposing units shall be engaged in battle and in what order such battles will be re- solved.

    PROCEDURE

    The attacker and the defender each determine their respective strength, including ground units, attacking air units, leaders present, defensive reserves, and any modifications due to supply or terrain. The total strengths for each side are then compared, and the resulting ratio of attacker's strength divided by defender's strength is rounded down in favor of the defender to the nearest ratio found across the top of the Combat Results Table (CRT). This is the column of the CRT on which the attack will be resolved, unless the column is shifted due to the presence of armor superiority for either side. The attacker then rolls one die and cross-indexes the number rolled with the column on the CRT noted above to determine the result of this combat. The number rolled on the die may be modified by terrain effects, the weather, and by the presence of leaders on either side. Explanations for each combat result are presented with the CRT.

    EXAMPLE:

    The German player is the attacker and moves three 13- 11 panzer units and a 13 leader adjacent to Rostov, which is occupied by 2 Soviet infantry units, a 4-7 and a 3-7. The German player also flies four 5-20 air units to Rostov to support the attack. Both sides are in supply and the Soviet player has no reserves available. The defending Soviet unit is tripled in a major city, giving it a strength of 21. The total attack strength is 72. The ratio of 72 attack factors to 21 defense factors is rounded down in favor of the defender and reduces to the ratio of 3 to 1 found on the CRT. The attacker rolls a 4 on the die, but this is increased to a 6 due to the presence of an attacking leader. The modified die roll of 6 is cross-indexed with the 3 to 1 odds column

    to give the result of "DE"-defender eliminated. The defending Soviet units are removed from play and the attacker occupies Rostov.

    10.1 COMMAND CONTROL

    In order to make an attack on an adjacent hex, ground combat units and leaders must be located within seven hexes of a friendly headquarters units. Opposing units, enemy ZOC's and terrain located between the headquarters and the units which it is commanding have no effect on command control. A headquarters unit may exercise command control over any number of units within its range.

    • 10.11 Headquarters

    in

    enemy

    ZOC's

    may

    provide

    command control for units within their range.

    • 10.12 German headquarters may provide command

    control to all Axis units.

    • 10.13 Satellite headquarters may provide command

    control only to units of their nationality. The command

    control range for satellite headquarters is four hexes, rather than seven.

    10.2 RESERVES

    Once the attacking player has stated his total strength, the defender must decide whether to commit reserves to the battle. Reserves are defined as any combat units of the defender which are stacked with headquarters units and which are located on town or city hexes within five hexes of the hex under attack. Reserves must be dispatched after the statement of attacking strength and before the combat die roll is made. Units committed as reserves share the fate of the friendly units in the combat hex. They do not return to the headquarters after the attack is resolved.

    • 10.21 Combat units dispatched as reserves do not pay

    normal terrain movement costs, but may move a maximum of five hexes only. Reserves may cross major rivers only at bridges or bridgeheads, and not at river crossing hexes. Reserves cannot enter any hex occupied by enemy units or ZOC's except the hex they are reinforcing.

    10.21a Reserves may not be committed if it will cause the reinforcing hex to overstack.

    • 10.22 Units committed as reserves do not receive

    defense strength improvements due to the terrain of the combat hex on the turn that they reinforce that hex.

    (Defending units already in the hex retain any terrain benefits which they would normally receive.)

    • 10.23 Leaders cannot be used as reserves. Leaders are

    not headquarters, and cannot be used to dispatch

    reserves.

    10.24

    Disrupted

    headquarters

    and

    headquarters

    in

    enemy ZOC's may not disptach reserves.

    • 10.25 Reserves not committed during the Combat

    Segment are available for use during the Exploitation Segment (see section 15.2).

    • 10.26 German headquarters may dispatch reserves of

    any Axis nationality. Satellite headquarters may only

    dispatch reserves of their nationality, and only to hexes

    already containing at nationality.

    least

    two

    units

    of

    their

    10.3 COMBAT STRENGTH AND DIE ROLL MODIFICATIONS

    The combat strength of participating units on both sides of an attack, as well as the die roll to resolve the attack, may be modified by several factors. Combat strength may be modified by terrain (see the TEC) or by lack of supply (see section 5.0). The combat die roll may be modified by terrain, by the presence of leaders, and by the weather (see the Weather Effects Table).

    If more than one Combat Strength modifier applies simultaneously, they are considered in this order:

    (1)Command Control, (2)Supply, (3)Disruption from air attack, and (4) Terrain, dropping fractions after each modification is applied.

    • 10.31 Terrain effects may modify the combat strength

    of both the attacker and defender. In cases where several modifications could apply to the attacker, only the least harmful modification takes effect. For instance, units attacking across a Minor River (attacker strength -5) at a Bridge (attacker strength xl/3), would have their total strength either reduced by 5 strength points or reduced by two thirds. If several units were participating in this attack, it would probably be least harmful for the attacker to reduce his total attack strength by 5.

    10.31a In an attack over both a Major River (bridge or crossing) and Minor River hexside, the attacker has the choice of using the modifiers for either. He may not chose the strength modifier of one and the die roll modifier of the other.

    • 10.32 In cases where several stacks are attacking a

    single hex and different terrain modifications would apply to the attacking stacks, each stack is considered separately for strength modification. For example, if several stacks were attacking over a combination of cross-river and non-river hexsides, or in a combination of the two river types, each attacking stack's strength would be calculated separately before being added to the total.

    • 10.33 The die roll modifications for terrain, leaders,

    and weather are each considered separately, and added together to derive a net modification. If several modifications due to terrain are possible, the modification most favorble to the attacker is used. For example, an attack over a Bridge (die roll -1), over a Minor River (die roll -2), and into a Swamp hex (die roll -2) would be modified by -1 to the die roll, the most favorable modification to the attacker of the three.

    Note—STALEMATE CLARIFICATION: Only the player in whose player-turn the stalemate resulted (see the CRT) is obligated to repeat the attack. The defending units in a stalemate must remain stationary throughout their player-turn and may not attack in their Combat Phase. Reserves committed to a defense which results in a stalemate do receive the terrain benefits

    when the attack is resolved in the next Game-Turn. Ground units of either side may not enter any stalemated hex, nor participate in any stalemate attack or defense. CAP markers and phasing air units are not affected by these retric-tions, and may be freely altered. Attacking stalemated units may not be attacked by the defending player's air units.

    • 11.0 LEADERS

    Leader counters represent generals of exceptional ability exercising close tactical command over given sectors of the battle front. Each leader has a movement allowance and moves like a combat unit. The presence of a leader in combat affects the strength of the forces with which he is stacked and can affect the combat die roll. Leaders must be stacked with combat units in order to use their combat strength. Only one Leader may stack in a hex. Leaders may be used in combat only once in each player-turn, and only one friendly leader may participate in a single combat. A leader cannot attack or defend by himself, and is eliminated from play if all of the units with which he is stacked are destroyed (and no battle-groups remain [see 13.0, Battlegroups]). A Leader may pass through a hex containing a lone enemy Leader.

    • 11.1 LEADER COMBAT STRENGTH

    Leaders add their improvement strength (combat strength) to the total strength of the combat units they are stacked with, both when attacking and defending. A leader may not add more improvement strength points than the combined printed combat strengths of the units he is stacked with. Leader strength is determined after any downward modification of combat unit strengths in the hex, and is never affected by lack of supply, command or terrain.

    • 11.2 LEADER DIE ROLL MODIFICATIONS

    When attacking, a leader adds 2 to the die roll used to resolve combat. (This is in addition to his strength addition above.) When defending, a leader cancels any die roll modification due to an attacking leader. A defending leader has no die roll effect if not attacked by an opposing leader.

    • 12.0 ARMOR SUPERIORITY

    When resolving combat between ground units, either the attacker or the defender may benefit from armor superiority. The armor superiority benefit is only possible if the defender occupies a Clear terrain hex. Any armor superiority is negated if the defender occupies a Major City, Town, Fortification, Mountain, Swamp, or Woods hex.

    If one player's forces contain armor type units and the other players do not, the player with the armored type units receives a shift in his favor of one column on the CRT. Armor type units are ground combat units having a movement allowance of 11 (not headquarters or leaders). For example, if a defending player's forces contain one mechanized infantry unit (an armor type unit) and the attacking player's forces include only infantry, artillery, air, and leader units (no armor type

    units), the defender receives a column shift. If the odds column in this case would normally be 4-1, the shift drops the column to 3-1.

    Anti-tank units stacked in a defending hex negate the armor superiority advantage of any attack made on that hex (see 17.2).

    • 13.0 BATTLEGROUPS

    Certain combat units depicted in PANZERKRIEG were in reality much superior to the average units in terms of the ability to continue functioning after taking heavy losses. In these units a core of experienced and highly motivated troops could continue fighting where the average unit would have completely disintegrated. To reflect this fact, these units are not completely destroyed when their loss is called for by the CRT. Instead, all such units are battlegrouped when their loss is called for. The battlegroup is a reduced value unit which is printed upon the reverse side of the parent unit's counter. When an elimination result is obtained, the counter is flipped over to expose its reduced strength. Not all units in the game have battlegroups, only those with the battlegroup printed on the reverse side. Battlegroups function in all respects identically to normal combat units.

    • 13.1 BATTLEGROUPS IN COMBAT

    In any situation where a unit is reduced to a battlegroup, that battlegroup must immediately retreat two hexes or be eliminated. In any exchange situation, the opponent must remove combat strength points equal to the full face value of the parent unit before it is battlegrouped, regardless of its battlegroup strength. For example, if a defending 7-7 infantry division is in- volved in an exchange, the attacker must lose at least 7 strength points. This is regardless of the fact that the 7- 7 division is immediately replaced by a 3-7 battlegroup for a net loss of only 4 strength points to the defender. When a unit is itself battle-grouped in response to an exchange requirement, the full value of the parent unit is counted for exchange purposes, again regardless of the battlegroups strength.

    • 13.2 REBUILDING BATTLEGROUPS

    Both the Axis and Soviet forces are capable of rebuilding units reduced to battlegroups in combat back to full strength units through the use of replacements. Each scenario specifies the total number of units which may be rebuilt in this manner throughout the scenario, by type. To be rebuilt, a battlegroup must be in supply, must be stacked with a headquarters unit in a town or city hex not adjacent to any enemy ground units, and must not have participated in combat during the current player-turn. Replacement capability may not be accumulated from turn to turn, and if unused is considered to have been diverted to another front and lost. Only units reduced to battlegroups in the course of the current scenario may be rebuilt.

    • 14.0 RETREAT GUIDELINES

    When a retreat is called for by a result on the CRT, the owning player determines the retreat path of his units (except in the case of a breakthrough, see the CRT notes for breakthrough). All retreats are subject to the following guidelines:

    a)

    Units

    must

    retreat

    toward

    or along a friendly

    railroad supply source.

     

    b)

    Units must retreat into or through vacant hexes, if

    possible.

     

    c)

    Units may only retreat into or through any hex or

    hexside through which they may normally move.

    d)

    Units

    may not retreat into

    or through any hexes

    covered by enemy ZOC's unless those hexes are

    occupied by friendly ground units.

    Units unable to retreat due to a combination of impassable terrain and/or enemy units are eliminated instead. Units may retreat into hexes containing friendly units if no completely vacant hexes are available. Units may end their retreats in such hexes provided that stacking restrictions are strictly observed at the end of the Combat Phase. Units which would end the Combat Phase overstacked must retreat an additional hex. If friendly units end their retreat in a friendly occupied hex which comes under subsequent attack during the Combat Phase, they do not add their strength to the defense, but suffer all combat results with the other units in the hex (and may be selected to fulfill exchange results).

    • 15.0 BREATHROUGH AND

    EXPLOITATION

    Very high modified die rolls on the CRT can result in breakthroughs which allow the attacker to conduct a special movement-combat sequence called exploitation. Breakthrough results are more likely as the attacker's margin of superiority (odds-ratio) increases over the defender, and allow unengaged armor type units to exploit the hole torn in the enemy defense.

    • 15.1 EXPLOITATION REQUIREMENTS

    In order for exploitation to take place after a breakthrough result is achieved, several requirements must be met. First, at least one armor type unit must have participated in the original attack. (Armor type units are non-headquarters, non-leader ground combat units with a movement allowance of 11). Second, additional armor type units must occupy hexes adja- cent to the units making the original attack. If the original attack results in a breakthrough, then the adjacent armor type units become eligible for movement in the Exploitation Segment and are marked with an exploitation marker. Units that are to exploit may not make any attacks during the normal Combat Segment of the player-turn.

    • 15.2 RESOLVING EXPLOITATION

    Exploitation begins after the attacker has resolved his last attack in the Combat Segment. At this time, any unit marked with an exploitation marker may move up

    to its full movement capability, according to the normal rules for movement. Leaders stacked with such units may accompany them. After all exploiting units have moved, they may attack according to the normal rules for combat. Reserves not committed by the defender during the normal Combat Segment may be committed now. The attacker may support exploitation attacks with leaders that are present and with air units flown to the target hexes during the previous Movement Segment.

    • 16.0 PANZER DIVISION BREAK DOWN

    A small number of additional German panzer battlegroups are included in the game for situations in which the player wishes to create additional mobile formations at the expense of giving up some combat strength. These battlegroups are single units and can never be built up into divisions. They can be

    distinguished by the fact that they are printed on the

    front

    of

    the

    counter

    and

    are

    blank

    on

    the

    back.

    (Remnant battlegroups, which can be rebuilt, are printed on the back of the parent unit's counter.)

    Break down takes place during the Administration Phase. Each panzer division may break down into three battlegroups. The division must be located in a town or city, in supply, and not adjacent to any Soviet unit. A division breaking down may not move or engage in any other activity during the player-turn in which it breaks down. The number of break downs allowed is limited by the countermix.

    • 17.0 SPECIAL UNITS

    The capabilities and limitations of several types of special units are detailed below. One of each of these types of units may stack on a hex in addition to the stacking limit on regular combat units (see section 7.0, Stacking). Subsequent Special Units may stack in lieu of a normal unit each.

    • 17.1 ARTILLERY UNITS

    Artillery units add their combat value to regular units with which they are stacked in both attack and defense. Artillery attack values are not reduced when attacking across major or minor rivers (This is an exception to the Terrain Effects Chart). Artillery strength in a given hex is determined after any downward modification of combat unit strengths in the hex. Artillery strength in an attack may not exceed the regular ground combat strength in that attack (any excess is ignored). When defending unit strengths are modified upward, artillery strength additions may not exceed the printed strength of the regular combat units. Artillery units are eliminated if not stacked with other regular ground combat units when the hexes they occupy are entered by enemy ground combat units. Artillery units must be the last units in a stack to be destroyed to fulfill exchange result losses.

    • 17.2 ANTI-TANK UNITS

    Anti-tank units add their strength to regular combat units in defense only when attacked by opposing armor type units (combat units with a movement allowance

    of 11). They may never attack. Anti-tank units are eliminated if not stacked with regular combat units when the hexes they occupy are entered by opposing regular combat units.

    17.3 SOVIET AIRBORNE UNITS

    In some scenarios the Soviets have available one or more 1-7 airborne brigade units. These are the only units in the game capable of parachute drops (the Axis airborne units may not air drop). These airborne units may each drop once per game, during either a Combat or Exploitation Segment of a clear weather Soviet player-turn.

    To conduct an air drop, the Soviet airborne brigade is kept off the map out of play until the air drop is desired. Then the airborne unit is simply placed anywhere on the map within eight hexes of a friendly airfield. They may not land on hexes occupied by Axis units. They may land adjacent to enemy units, or in their ZOC's, and they must attack adjacent units in either case. They may not land adjacent to Axis headquarters or CAP markers. They are considered to be in supply for the turn of their drop, but may not move that turn. Following their air drop, such airborne units revert to normal infantry units. Airborne units lose their air drop capability once placed on the map (whether they are dropped into play or not). They may be included in the initial set-up on the map, brought on to the map as normal reinforcements, or kept off the map threatening an air drop. One Soviet airborne unit may be added to any stack of Soviet units, in excess of the normal stacking limits.

    18.0 FORTIFICATIONS AND BRIDGEHEADS

    Land combat units which have remained inactive for the entire player-turn (i.e., they have not moved, participated in combat, and are not now adjacent to enemy units) may construct fortifications or bridgeheads. During the initial player-turn in which units fulfill this requirement, the fortification or bridgehead marker is placed in the hex with its "under construction" side up. This indicates that the field work is being built. Provided that the hex does not undergo attack during the enemy Combat Phase, and that any unit in the hex remains inactive throughout the subsequent friendly player-turn, the fortification or bridgehead counter is flipped over to its "active" side during the subsequent turn's Administration Phase and the noted advantages then take effect. If the hex in which the fieldwork is under construction does come under attack, or if the player moves or attacks with the units constructing the fieldwork, or if enemy units move adjacent to the hex containing the fieldwork under construction, it is immediately removed from the map. It may be placed again as soon as the conditions for its placement are again fulfilled. Units may construct fieldworks adjacent to enemy units if separated from them by a river hexside of either type. Air attacks nullify construction attempts only if they achieve a disruption result on the constructing unit.

    Fortifications and

    Bridgeheads that are available

    may never even occupy hexes adjacent to each other,

    during

    scenario

    set-up

    may

    be

    placed adjacent to

    and may not participate with each other in an attack

    enemy units.

     

    against the same hex.

    • 18.1 FORTIFICATION EFFECTS

    Fortifications double the combat strength of any land combat units in the hex they occupy. A fortification is destroyed if any enemy units enter the hex it occupies. Fortifications may not be constructed in a woods, town or city hex, or in a hex already occupied by a fortification. Units which build a fortification are not required to remain in the hex. Once placed, fortifications may never be moved from one hex to another. The number of fortifications included in the game is intended as a strict limit on the number which may be constructed.

    • 18.2 BRIDGEHEAD EFFECTS

    Bridgeheads may only be constructed in a river crossing hex. They are constructed with the bridgehead marker indicating with its arrow which hexside is being bridged. After successful construction, that hexside may be treated as a bridged hexside for all purposes including supply.

    • 18.21 Supply must be traced into the hex occupied by

    the bridgehead marker first, and then across the bridged hexside to a friendly rail line. Note that this means that units must cross a river and then construct a bridgehead to supply units across that river.

    • 18.22 Bridgeheads exist only so long as the friendly

    combat units responsible for their construction remain in the hex with the bridgehead. Note that neither this unit nor the bridgehead is counted for stacking purposes. This unit adds its strength to the defense of the hex, but not to any attacks originating from the hex. If this construction and maintenance unit leaves the hex, either voluntarily or by result of combat, the bridgehead is removed from the map.

    18.23

    Bridgeheads

    may

    be

    constructed

    only

    by

    German or Soviet ground combat units, never by leaders, headquarters, air units, or Axis satellite units. The number of bridgeheads in play on the map is strictly limited by the number in the counter mix.

    • 18.24 Bridgeheads, once played, may never be moved

    from one hex to another.

    Note: In addition to the units shown on the scenario set-up displays, up to two bridgehead markers may be deployed by each side in each scenario.

    • 19.0 AXIS SATELLITES

    Axis satellite forces (Italians, Rumanians, and Hungarians) were of even less quality than their German allies and had other difficulties as well. The command control range for satellite units is four hexes rather than seven. Moreover, satellite units in hexes outside of command control defend at half their normal combat strength (round down). They may stack with other units of their own nationality or with German units, but never with satellite units of other nationalities. Further, Hungarian and Rumanian units

    • 19.1 SATELLITE LEADERS

    The two satellite leaders, Demitrescu and Messe, may only stack with, and add their improvement strength to, stacks of units of their own nationality, Rumanian and Italian respectively, plus one German unit. These leaders may never stack with solely German stacks, or with any other nationality. Satellite leaders are distinguished by a " "on their counters under their names.

    • 19.2 SATELLITE AIR UNITS

    Axis satellite air units may only attack in concert with ground units of their own nationality. German ground and air units may also be included in the attack. They may not attack together with ground forces consisting solely of German units and/or other satellite nation units. They may not attack Soviet units alone.

    • 20.0 OPTIONAL UNITS

    The Soviet tank army counters and the German panzer corps counters are optional units that may be included in the game if both players agree. They replace a number of regular divisions from each side's order of battle, allowing more combat strength in a hex.

    • 20.1 SOVIET TANK ARMIES

    Soviet tank armies are built out of any three tank units and any one mechanized unit. The number of tank armies that can be created depends on the scenario being played, as follows: Kiev Pocket—no tank armies; Winter Counteroffensive and The Drive on Stalingrad—1 tank army; Stalingrad and The Back- hand Blow—2 tank armies; and all other scenarios—3 tank armies.

    • 20.2 GERMAN PANZER CORPS

    German panzer corps are built out of any two panzer divisions and any one panzer grenadier division. The Luftwaffe parachute division may not serve as the panzer grenadier component of a panzer corps. The number of German panzer corps that can be created depends on the scenario being played. For the first 6 scenarios (Kiev Pocket, Winter Counteroffensive, The Drive on Stalingrad, The Backhand Blow, and Aftermath of Zitadelle), 3 panzer corps may be put in play. For the remaining scenarios, only 2 panzer corps may be used.

    • 20.3 PUTTING OPTIONAL UNITS IN PLAY

    Tank armies and panzer corps may be brought into play during the scenario set-up, or during play. The units that combine into an optional unit should be recorded on scrap paper in case the larger unit breaks down. At the start of a scenario, set aside the divisions combining into the optional unit and place the corps or tank army on the map in their stead. Panzer corps and tank armies must be made up of units from the same set-up area. Divisions from different set-up areas may not be combined into an optional unit. After the game

    is in progress, optional units may be formed from units on the map. Units to be combined into a panzer corps must begin the Administration Phase stacked together. During this phase, remove the divisions and replace them with the corps counter. Units to be combined into a Soviet tank army must begin the Administration Phase stacked in two adjacent hexes according to the rules for stacking units (section 7.0). Replace the Soviet divisions by placing the tank army in either of the two hexes the divisions occupied. These units may be moved before they are combined (or broken down).

    20.4 OPTIONAL UNIT EFFECTS

    The obvious advantages to creating a tank army or panzer corps are the net gain in combat strength and the ability to concentrate more strength in a hex. These units function like other combat units with the following exceptions:

    • a. They may not end any phase in a city hex.

    • b. Only one tank army or panzer corps may end a

    phase in a hex. Although they count as only one unit for stacking purposes, two of these units may not stack together.

    c. Tank

    armies and

    panzer

    corps may not move

    or

    attack in an Exploitation Segment following a breakthrough as can other armor type units.

    • d. Tank armies and panzer corps may not be used as

    reserves.

    • e. If these optional units are forced to take losses, they are first reduced to their component divisions, and then

    the losses are deducted. The component divisions or battlegroups remaining must then retreat so as to conform to stacking limits (see section 7.0, Stacking).

    • f. Panzer corps may not be supplied by air.

    • g. Panzer corps, and

    transported.

    Tank Armies may not be sea

    Broken down tank armies and panzer corps may be rebuilt. Intact optional units may be broken down into the divisions that make it up during the Administration Phase by replacing the counter on the map with the division counters (the Soviet divisions must be placed in adjacent hexes to conform to the rules for stacking).

    21.0 VICTORY CONDITIONS

    Each scenario lists objectives for either the Axis or Soviet side. If the player whose side is assigned the objectives holds them at the end of the last turn of the scenario, he wins. If he does not fulfill the requirements listed by the end of the turn of the scenario, his opponent wins. Objectives listed in the scenario must be occupied by supplied units (see section 5.0, Supply) to be considered in control of the side assigned those objectives.

    The scenarios generally require one side or the other to capture and hold a minimum number of listed city objectives. In addition the objective cities listed, all cities on the map are potential victory point objectives. In order to win, the player assigned the objectives must

    capture that number of cities called for by the scenario, with all cities on the map being eligible. Any city on the map that starts the game on or behind an enemy start line counts as an objective if captured. If the attacker loses cities, he must increase his captures to maintain a winning margin.

    For example, in the Kiev Pocket scenario, the Axis player is required to capture 5 objectives to win. In addition to the cities listed for the scenario, all other cities in Soviet hands at the scenario's start are eligible victory objectives. The capture of any five of these cities will result in an Axis victory. If the Soviet player captures two Axis controlled cities, then the Axis player must capture 7 Soviet cities to win (maintaining the 5 city margin).

    In certain scenarios, towns are included in the list of objectives for those scenarios only. Towns listed as objectives remain objectives, in addition to the cities on the map. For example, Belgorod and Izyum are eligible victory objectives for the Backhand Blow scenario only.

    • 22.0 STARTING A SCENARIO

    Open the Scenarios and Study Folder to the scenario that is to be played. The map and the start lines overlaid on it detail where the various units of each side are to be placed before starting to play. The units of each side available at the beginning of the scenario are detailed on the set-up display on the page opposite the map. Players should assemble the number of each type of unit called for on the set-up display. These units are placed on the game map according to the deployment notes and start lines on the scenario map. The length of the scenario in terms of Game-Turns and the reinforcements for each side are shown in the center of the scenario set-up display. In all scenarios the entire map is in play. The scenario instructions indicate which player must set-up first. All of his units must be placed on their positions, ready for play to begin, before the other player begins to set-up. Also indicated is the player whose player turn comes first. There may also be certain special deployment instructions listed, such as: "60 combat strength points of units must set-up in Area D". A total specified such as this may be made up of ground combat units of any type.

    • 23.0 DEPLOYMENT INSTRUCTIONS

    The units depicted in the columns at the outside edges of the setup display under "Axis Forces" and "Soviet Forces" are the units available for initial deployment. The unit picture shows the unit type. Next to each picture is an "x" followed by a number, which indicates the total number of units of that type available to that player. In many cases this number is followed by a number/letter combination, such as "4W". This means that four units of this type must be deployed on the map in deployment area W. The notation "1VY" means that one unit of that type must be deployed in both areas V and Y. The remaining units of a certain type not specifically allocated to a

    certain area may be deployed in any non-prohibited area, within stacking limits. The players are left a large measure of discretion as to where their units are placed, though many times they will be required to place units of any type along the start line such that each start line hex is occupied by units and/or ZOC's. Only that portion of the start line shown on the map with the appropriately coded line pattern (if any) must be covered in this way. The key to the start lines is presented below. Sometimes a deployment area is limited to a single hex. In this case, the deployment letter shown on the map is enclosed in a circle. Units with a circled deployment letter must deploy in the exact hex indicated. (In a few cases a city off the page is indicated by a circled letter with an arrow pointing to the specified city.)

    Note: No CAP or other markers may be placed in initial deployment set-ups with the following exception: In addition to the units shown, up to two bridgehead markers may be deployed by each side in each scenario set-up.

    24.0 SCENARIO MAP START LINES

    The start lines shown on the scenario maps in the Scenarios and Study Folder indicate the front line hexes for one or both players. Lines in black indicate Axis deployment, and lines in red indicate Soviet deployment. The hexes containing the start line on the map represent the farthest forward location which units from that side may occupy. The scenario map outlines the entire front line (separating the units of the two sides), and also indicates whether the front line must be occupied entirely by units, or by units and their ZOC's. Start lines with no occupation requirement may be occupied, but it is not mandatory. These lines are the closest to each other that units of the two sides may be placed. For those scenarios not showing a Soviet set-up line, the Soviet forces generally may set-up in any hexes east and/or south of the Axis start line shown on the scenario map. They may set-up adjacent to the start line, but may never set-up on or to the west of the line. Units may set-up adjacent to enemy units.

    START LINE KEY

    All hexes must be occupied.

     

    All hexes must contain units or their

     

    ZOCs

    Start line with no occupational

     

    requirements.

    Deployment area boundary

    ©

    Units must deploy in specific area shown.

    Red lines indicate Soviet area; Black lines indicate Axis area.

    COUNTER ABBREVIATIONS

    LAH = Leibstandarte Adolph Hitler, DR = Das Reich,

    Wik = Wiking, Tot = Totenkopf,

    GrD = Gross

    Deutschland,

    Jag

    =

    jager,

    Sec

    =

    Security,

    Tr

    =

    Training, KG = Kampfgruppe (battlegroup) or Kampfgeschwader, ZC = Zerstoer-ergeschwader, STG = (Stuermgeschwader, LG = Lehrgeschwader, ACS = Army Group South, Comp = Composite, A.I.R. = Armata Italiana di Russia, Gds = Guards, M = Mechanized, AA = Air Army, S.W. = Southwestern Front, CAU = Caucasus Front, UK = Ukrainian, Stal = Stalingrad, BG = Battlegroup.

    • 25.0 SCENARIO TURN RECORD TRACK

    The length of the Turn Record Track indicates the number of Game-Turns in the scenario. The Game- Turn marker is placed in the first space on the track and is advanced at the end of each Game-Turn until the final Game-Turn of the scenario is over. Also shown for reference is the date of the beginning of the historical situation being simulated.

    COMPONENTS

    22"x32"Mapboard 520 Die Cut Counters Rules Booklet Scenarios and Study Folder 2 Charts and Tables Cards 1 Scenario Card 1 Six-Sided Die

    • 26.0 SCENARIO

    REINFORCEMENTS

    AND REPLACEMENTS

    Additional units for each side which will enter the game as reinforcements are shown next to the Turn Record Track at the Game-Turn of their appearance. The graphic displays show the type of unit which is available. Above each unit picture is a number or range of numbers which indicate the entry hex or hexes on which those specific units may appear. For example, "11-14" indicates that the units depicted may be brought onto the map in entry hex 11, 12,13, or 14. Below the unit picture is a number following an "x" which indicates how many units of that type now enter. Reinforcement units are brought into play according to the rules for entering the map, section 6.4. The set-up display also specifies the number of battlegroups which may be rebuilt on a given turn, by type (infantry or armor). If a battlegroup may be rebuilt on every second turn, this means turns 2, 4, 6, etc. If this option to rebuild a battlegroup is not exercised on the turn specified, it may not be saved for use on a following turn. Unused replacement capacity is lost. No more than one battlegroup of the indicated type may be rebuilt during a single turn.