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LITERATURE COMPONENT

MODULES
ON
POEMS & NOVELS
(FORMS 1 5)

Prepared By
Azalina Bt Mohd Yusoff
SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra
Kelantan

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PREFACE

In our secondary school syllabus, the aim of the literature component is primarily to
enhance and enrich our students English proficiency. Different texts are used in various
forms such as short stories, dramas or plays, poems and novels. These texts are a mix
of local and non-local literary texts. The literature component in the classroom is also to
contribute to our students personal development and character building, and to widen
their outlook of the world (The Education Blueprint 2013-2025).

This compilation of modules comprises the new poems for forms 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 as well
as the new novel for PT3, We didnt Mean to Go to Sea and for SPM, Sing to the Dawn.
The focus of this compilation is on poems and novels simply because these literary texts
are the ones tested in PT3 and SPM.

Teachers and students can benefit from the modules because they contain useful notes,
questions that are of both LOTS (Lower Order Thinking Skills) and HOTS (Higher Order
Thinking Skills) as well as suggested answers. Since these poems and the SPM novel
are new, not many references can be found in the market or on the Internet. It is with
sincere hope that this compilation will be able to make teaching and learning poems and
novels FUN and FRUITFUL.

On a more personal and lighter note, I would like to say that this compilation is made
sincerely from my heart, based on my knowledge, skills and experience as a teacher,
facilitator, key personnel and an examiner in the past. What is written may not be the
most complete or the best guide but I do hope that the modules can help both teachers
and students in some ways. Feel free to adopt and adapt to suit the ability or proficiency
of the students and to share these modules with others. By the way, you may also have
to make some adjustments to the font or print due to the possible incompatibility or
difference of Microsoft word document type when the modules are copied or downloaded.
~ AZALINA ~

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

1. Sad I Ams (Form 1 poem) 4 - 10

2. News Break (Form 1 poem) 11 - 16

3. My Hero (Form 2 poem) 17 - 23

4. What is Red? (Form 2 poem) 24 - 30

5. The Day the Bulldozers Came (Form 3 poem) 31 - 35

6. Poisoned Talk (Form 3 poem) 36 - 40

7. The Living Photograph (Form 4 poem) 41 - 45

8. The Charge of the Light Brigade (Form 4 poem) 46 - 54

9. A Poison Tree (Form 5 poem) 55 - 61

10. What Has Happened to Lulu? (Form 5 poem) 62 -67

11. We Didnt Mean to Go to Sea (Form 3 novel) 68 - 75

12. Sing to the Dawn (Form 5 novel) 76 - 94

13. Answers (Poems) 95114

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Literature Component:
POEMS
(Form 1)

Sad I Ams
&
News Break
Prepared by: Puan Azalina Mohd Yusoff
SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra

4
Sad I Ams

By Trevor Millum

The poets background

Trevor Millum is an ex-English teacher and has been Director of the National Association
for the Teaching of English (NATE). He has written widely on poetry, creativity and the use of ICT
in English and is also well known as a childrens author. Trevor Millum has published several
books of poetry for children including Warning Too Much Schooling Can Damage Your Health,
A Stegosaurus is for Life and other animal poems and, in collaboration with Bernard Young,
Double Talk. His poems also appear in many childrens anthologies. Trevor has also published
many short stories and one novel The Curious Case of Dr Mann. In addition to raising money
through sonnet-writing marathons, he writes educational materials, books and articles on ICT,
creativity and English.

Sad I Ams

I am
the ring
from an empty Cola can
the scrapings
from an unwashed porridge pan
the severed arm
of last years Action Man.

I am
the envelope
on which the gum is gone
the Sellotape
where you cant find the end
the toothless stapler, springless bulldog clip
the dried up liquid paper
that mars instead of mends
the stamped addressed reply
that you forgot
to send.

5
I am
the battery in which no charge is left
the starter motor which remains inert
the tyre on which the tread is worn
the sparking plug which shows no sign of spark
the carburettor choked by bits and dirt
the chromium trim from which the shine has gone.

I am
a garden
overgrown with weeds
a library book
that no one ever reads
a stray
which no one thinks to feed
the piece of good advice
which no one seems to need.

Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I am The persona thinks/feels that he is like
2 the ring The ring of a can which people always
throw after opening the can before drinking
3 from an empty Cola can
4 the scrapings The food that is stuck at the bottom of a
pan which people scrape off/remove
5 from an unwashed porridge pan
before washing the pan
6 the severed arm The broken arm of a toy (called Action
Man) which was bought/used last year.
7 of last years Action Man.

Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I am The persona thinks/feels that he is like
2 the envelope The envelope which cannot be used
because the glue is not sticky anymore
3 on which the gum is gone
4 the Sellotape The cellophane tape that angers/annoys/
Irritates people because they cannot find
5 where you cant find the end
the end of it
6 the toothless stapler, springless bulldog clip The things that anger/annoy/irritate people
such as a stapler that has no
bullets/staples in it or a clip that has no
spring/grip, so they are useless when
people need them
7 the dried-up liquid paper The liquid paper that cannot be used
anymore because it has dried up. It
8 that mars instead of mends
smudges/dirties the paper (mars) than it
helps (mends) to erase/correct the mistake

6
9 the stamped addressed reply The letter (as a reply to someone) which
you already wrote the address and put a
10 that you forgot
stamp on, but sadly you forgot to post it!
11 to send.

Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I am The persona thinks/feels that he is like
2 the battery in which no charge is left The battery that cannot be charged at all,
so it is now useless
3 the starter motor which remains inert The motor/engine that has no power
4 the tyre on which the tread is worn The tyre that is already worn out and
dangerous to be used, so it has to be
replaced with a new one
5 the sparking plug which shows no sign of The sparking plug that does not work
spark
6 the carburettor choked by bits and dirt The carburettor cannot function because it
is filled with dirt and dust
7 the chromium trim from which the shine has The metal plating that is no longer shiny.
gone.

Stanza Four
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I am The persona thinks/feels that he is like
2 a garden A garden which is neglected (not being
taken care of)
3 overgrown with weeds
4 a library book A book in the library that nobody is
interested to borrow/read
5 that no one ever reads
6 a stray A stray animal that is not being given food
by anybody
7 that no one thinks to feed
8 the piece of good advice An advice which is very good but nobody
wants to follow it.
9 which no one seems to need.

FOCUS on FEELINGS:
STANZA1 : feeling unwanted
STANZA2 : feeling useless
STANZA 3 : feeling old
STANZA4 : feeling neglected

7
THEMES:
Sadness
Self-pity
Loneliness

MORAL VALUES:
Confidence
Determination
Positive attitude
Courage
Appreciation
Gratitude

MORAL LESSONS:
Self-confidence is the key to personal success
We must be determined to improve ourselves for the better
Always try to be positive in life
Be brave/courageous in everything we do
Appreciate what we have
Appreciate others
Be grateful to God for His blessings

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Where does the ring come from? ______________________________________


2. Where do the scrapings come from? ___________________________________
3. What is Action Man? _______________________________________________

STANZA 2

List the problems of the following:

(a) Envelope ____________________________________


(b) Sellotape ____________________________________
(c) Stapler ______________________________________
(d) Bulldog clip __________________________________
(e) Liquid paper _________________________________

STANZA 3

1. What type of vehicle is referred to in this stanza?


_______________________________
2. Write the lines to suggest that the vehicle cannot start or move
a) Line ___ : ______________________________________
b) Line ___ : ______________________________________
c) Line ___ : ______________________________________
d) Line ___ : ______________________________________
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STANZA 4

List the items mentioned in this stanza:

a) ___________________
b) ___________________
c) ___________________
d) ___________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

STANZA 1

1. Who do you think love to drink from cans?


a) ___________________
b) ___________________
c) ___________________
2. Who do you think broke the arm of the Action Man? __________________________

STANZA 2

1. Describe how you feel when you cannot find the end of a cellophane tape.
____________________________________________________________________
2. What would you do to correct your written mistake when your liquid paper is dried
up?_________________________________________________________________
3. How would you feel when you suddenly found a letter which you forgot to post?
____________________________________________________________________

STANZA 3

1. What would you do if your vehicle cannot start or move?


a) ________________________________________________________________
b) ________________________________________________________________

2. Would you buy a new vehicle if you cannot use the one you have? Why?
a) ________________________________________________________________
b) ________________________________________________________________

STANZA 4

1. What should you do if your garden is overgrown with weeds?


__________________________________________________________________
2. Who should be looking after your garden at home? Why?
__________________________________________________________________
3. In your opinion, what makes a library book uninteresting?
a) _______________________________________________________________
b) _______________________________________________________________

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4. Suggest ways to solve the problems of stray animals in your neighbourhood.
a) ________________________________________________________________
b) ________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Scrapings 5 Inert
2 Severed 6 Tread
3 Mars 7 Choked
4 Mend 8 Stray

Note :

The title Sad I Ams tells us that the whole poem is about the overall feeling of sadness.
I Ams is used because I am is the beginning of every stanza used FOUR times in the
poem.

10
News Break

By MaxFatchen

The poets background

Maxwell Edger Max Fatchen (3 August 1920 14 October 2012, died at the age of 92)
was an Australian journalist and childrens writer. His mother, Isabel, had taught him always to
remember where you came from, remember the land. And he did. The sense of being a farm boy
never left him and it was to become one of the secrets to the connection he made with his vast
readerships.

Fatchen won myriad awards in 1980 an Order of Australia for literature, in 1991 an
Advance Australia Award for literature and a Walkley Award for journalism in 1996. For his
childrens books and poems, he was awarded the primary English Teaching Associations Award,
the SA Great Award for literature and a Centenary of federation Medal. There were three
childrens Book of the Year Award commendations and, for his mentorship and support for other
writers, he was made Inaugural Life member of SA Writers centre.

News Break

Now why so loving, darling,


And why the sudden kiss?
Youd help me with some little jobs?
For goodness sake, whats this?

Your face is clean for once, dear,


Your clothes without a crease
You saved your luncheon money?
Will wonder never cease?

No dropping of your school books,


No shrieking, childish treble,
Today you are a lamb, love,
Where yesterday a rebel.

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But surely youre some stranger,
No rage or hullabaloo,
Come closer, let me look, dear,
Can this be REALLY you?

Now were you struck by lightning


Or were you stunned at sport?
Ah now I see the reason.
Youve brought your school report!

Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Now why so loving, darling, The persona, who is the
parent(father/mother), is asking
his/her child the reason for being in
a loving mood
2 And why the sudden kiss? The child does not usually kiss
his/her parent, so the sudden kiss is
a surprise
3 Youd help me with some little jobs? The persona/parent asks if the child
wants to help him/her
4 For goodness sake, whats this? The persona/parent finds the childs
behaviour quite strange / not normal

Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Your face is clean for once, dear. The childs face is normally dirty but
not today
2 Your clothes without a crease. His/her clothes are neat and not
crumpled/creased
3 You saved your luncheon money? The persona/parent is shocked that
the child does not spend all the
money given to him/her to buy lunch
4 Will wonders never cease? The persona/parent finds it amazing
and still cannot believe what he/she
sees

Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 No dropping of your school books, Usually, the child would just drop
his/her schoolbooks when he/she
gets home
2 No shrieking, childish treble. and would be making a lot of noise
3 Today, you are a lamb, love, but today, he/she is very well
behaved just like a lamb
4 Where yesterday a rebel. It was just yesterday when the child
was behaving badly

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Stanza Four
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 But surely youre some stranger, The persona/parent still cannot
believe that the child is very good
today almost like a stranger
2 No rage or hullabaloo. The child is not angry or making a
fuss
3 Come closer, let me look, dear, The persona/parent asks the child to
come nearer to him/her
4 Can this be REALLY you? Still, the persona/parent cannot
believe the changes in the child
today (sudden & drastic changes)

Stanza Five
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Now were you struck by lightning The persona/parent asks jokingly if
the child was struck by lightning
(something very tragic or dramatic)
2 Or were you stunned at sport? Or maybe the child was shocked or
surprised by bad sports news
3 Ahnow I see the reason. Now, the persona/parent realises
the reason for the childs strange but
good behaviour today
4 Youve brought your school report! The child has brought home his/her
school report, and from his/her good
behaviour, it seems that he/she
does not want to be scolded by
his/her parent

Note : darling, dear & love are terms used by most parents when talking to their
children.

Focus:
STANZA1 : Surprise
STANZA2 : Confusion
STANZA3 : Comparison
STANZA4 : Wonder
STANZA5 :Realisation

13
THEMES:
Honesty is the best policy
Courage
Respect your parents
Truth hurts but works
Hard work pays off

MORAL VALUES:
Honesty
Courage
Determination
Confidence
Respect
Truthfulness

MORAL LESSONS:
We must struggle for success
Always speak the truth
Respect our parents and those older than us
Always be on our best behaviour

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Who is asking the question? _____________________________________________


2. How many questions are asked in this stanza? ______________________________

STANZA 2

1. Describe the childs face. ________________________________________________


2. Quote the line which shows that the child is being careful.
______________________________________________________________________

STANZA 3

1. List the things that the child would normally do when he/she got home.
a) _____________________________________________
b) _____________________________________________
c) _____________________________________________
2. What does it mean when the persona/parent says that the child is a lamb?
______________________________________________________________________

STANZA 4

1. What does the persona/parent ask the child to do?


______________________________________________________________________
2. Which line suggests that the persona/parent cannot believe what he/she sees?
______________________________________________________________________

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STANZA 5

1. Which line suggests that the persona/parent has just realised what is happening.
______________________________________________________________________
2. What does the child bring back from school?
______________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)


1. Describe the persona/parents feelings when he/she says For goodness sake, whats
this? in stanza 1.
____________________________________________________________________
2. What would the child normally do with his/her luncheon money at school (stanza 2)?
____________________________________________________________________
3. Give an example of what the child did when the persona/parent says Where yesterday
a rebel (stanza 3)
____________________________________________________________________
4. Why does the persona/parent feel that the child is a stranger (stanza 4)?
____________________________________________________________________
5. What do you think the child would say to his/her parent when he/she gives the school
report?
____________________________________________________________________
6. Describe your own feelings every time you give your school academic report to your
parents.
____________________________________________________________________
7. Do you think examinations are important for students? Give TWO reasons.
a) _________________________________________________________________
b) _________________________________________________________________
8. Why are parents concerned about their childrens studies?
____________________________________________________________________
9. Suggest TWO ways students can follow in order to get success in their studies.
a) _________________________________________________________________
b) _________________________________________________________________
10. What is your future career? Why?
____________________________________________________________________

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PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Crease 5 Rebel
2 Cease 6 Rage
3 Shrieking 7 Hullabaloo
4 Treble 8 Stunned

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Literature Component:
POEMS
(Form 2)

My Hero
&
What is Red?

Prepared by: Puan Azalina Mohd Yusoff


SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra

17
My Hero

By Willis Hall

The poets background

Willis Edward Hall (6 April 1929 7 March 2005) was an English playwright and radio
and television writer who drew on his working class roots in Leeds, England for much of his writing.
His best-known work was a stage adaptation of the 1959 novel Billy Liar (1960), co-written with
the book's author and Hall's lifelong friend and collaborator Keith Waterhouse. Hall continued this
successful partnership with Waterhouse and, over the next thirty years, the two men produced
more than 250 scripts for theatre, film and television.
Hall also wrote more than a dozen children's books, including a series about a family called
The Hollins who meet a vegetarian vampire called Count Alucard. He also wrote a book, Henry
Hollins and the Dinosaur. He wrote 40 radio and television plays, as well as contributing to many
TV series. He also wrote the script for the successful project, Peter Pan: A Musical Adventure
(1996).Following a long fight with esophageal cancer, Hall died at his home in West Yorkshire on
7 March 2005.

My Hero

My dads as brave as a dad can be,


I rate him Number One,
Hes not afraid of the dead of night,
Or anything under the sun.

Hes not afraid of a late-night film,


Full of horrors on the telly,
And is he afraid of skeletons?
Not dad, not on your Nelly!

Hes not afraid of meeting ghosts,


Hed even smile and greet em,
And things that scare most dads the most,
My dad could just defeat em.

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Hes not afraid of vampires,
Or a wolf-man come to get him,
If Frankensteins monster knocked on our door,
He wouldnt let that upset him.

My dads as brave as a dad can be,


And hes always ready to prove it.
So why, when a spiders in the bath,
Does Mum have to come and remove it?

Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 My dads as brave as a dad can be The persona makes a statement about
his/her father as a brave/courageous
person (a father is normally brave)
2 I rate him Number One, In his/her opinion, his/her father is the best
3 Hes not afraid of the dead of night, His/her father is not scared of the quietest
and darkest part of the night
4 Or anything under the sun. Or anything that exists around us. (It can
also mean that his/her father is not afraid
of anything during the day)

Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Hes not afraid of a late-night film, The personas father is not scared of
2 Full of horrors on the telly, watching horror movies on television late
at night
3 And is he afraid of skeletons? He is also definitely not scared of
4 Not dad, not on your Nelly! skeletons. (not on your Nelly! is a British
expression which means Certainly not!)

Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Hes not afraid of meeting ghosts, The personas father does not fear
meeting ghosts (something that most of us
are scared of)
2 Hed even smile and greet em, He can even smile and greet or talk to the
ghosts.

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(em informal British or American, short
form of them)
3 And things that scare most dads the most, His/her father can also beat/overcome
4 My dad could just defeat em. many things or problems that other fathers
are afraid of/cannot do.

Stanza Four
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Hes not afraid of vampires, The personas father does not fear
vampires
2 Or a wolf-man come to get him, Or a wolf-man that is going to attack him
3 If Frankensteins monster knocked on our He would not be worried or scared even if
door, the horrible Frankensteins monster came
4 He wouldnt let that upset him. to their house.

Stanza Five
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 My dads as brave as a dad can be, The persona makes a statement about
his/her father as a brave/courageous
person (a father is normally brave) it is
repeated to emphasize his fathers
bravery/courage
2 And hes always ready to prove it. He is willing and confident to show his
bravery/courage
3 So why, when a spiders in the bath, The persona admires his/her father and is
4 Does Mum have to come and remove it? proud of him, but he/she cannot
understand why his/her mother has to get
rid of a spider (just a small insect) that is in
the bathtub.
(Perhaps, his/her father is scared of tiny
insects!)

IS NOT AFRAID OF IS AFRAID OF

DAD STANZA 1
The darkness or quietness of the night
Anything or everything around him /during the STANZA 5
day Spider
STANZA 2
Horror movies on television at night
Skeletons
STANZA 3
Ghosts
Things that scare other fathers
STANZA 4
Vampires
Wolf-man
Frankensteins monster

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Note:
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by the English author Mary
Wollstonecraft Shelley that tells the story of a young science student Victor Frankenstein, who
creates a grotesque but human like creature in a scientific experiment. Shelley started writing the
story when she was 18, and the first edition of the novel was published anonymously in London
in 1818, when she was 20. Shelley's name first appeared on the second edition, published in
France in 1823.

THEMES:
Bravery / Courage
Heroism
Admiration
Father and child
Leadership by example

MORAL VALUES:
Bravery / Courage
Admiration
Confidence
Love
Respect
Helpfulness

MORAL LESSONS:
We should appreciate the qualities of our fathers
We have to be brave/courageous in any situation
We should show good examples to others
Parents are brave/courageous in their own ways
Family unity is important
We should show our gratitude to our parents by helping them

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Which line suggests that the persona thinks of his father as the best hero?
__________________________________________________________
2. What is the meaning of the dead of night?
__________________________________________________________

STANZA 2

1. List two things that do not scare the personas father.


(i) ____________________________________________________

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(ii) ____________________________________________________
2. Which line tells us that the persona is confident about his fathers bravery?
__________________________________________________________

STANZA 3

1. What would the personas father do to prove that he is not afraid of ghosts?
____________________________________________________________
2. Which line suggests that his father is better than other fathers?
____________________________________________________________

STANZA 4

1. List the three types of monsters mentioned in this stanza.


(i) ______________________________________________________
(ii) ______________________________________________________
(iii) ______________________________________________________
2. The word him refers to ________________________________________

STANZA 5

1. Which line suggests that the personas father is very confident?


____________________________________________________________
2. What does his mother have to do in the bathroom?
____________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

1. Who do you think the persona is talking to about his father? Why?
____________________________________________________________

2. How does the persona know that his father is not afraid of watching horror movies late at
night?
_____________________________________________________________

3. In your opinion, which line is the best description of his fathers bravery? Why?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

4. What would his father do to the monsters (in stanza 4)? How?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

5. Why do you think the personas mother has to remove the spider in the bathtub?
_____________________________________________________________

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6. Suggest two ways to show your appreciation to your father.
(i) _______________________________________________________
(ii) _______________________________________________________
7. Apart from your father, who would you consider your hero? Why?
_____________________________________________________________

8. What would be the best present you could give to your father on his birthday? Why?
_____________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Horrors 4 Vampires
2 Skeleton 5 Upset
3 Defeat 6 Remove

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What is Red?

By Mary ONeill

The poets background

Mary Devenport O'Neill (3 August 1879 1967) was an Irish poet and dramatist. She
was born in Loughrea, County Galway, Ireland in 1879. From 1898-1903 she studied teaching at
the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art (the present-day National College of Art, Dublin).
When she was fifty, she published a collection of poetry Prometheus and Other Poems
(London: Jonathan Cape 1929) which consists of thirty-three lyric poems, four "dream poems",
one long poem, and a verse-play. This was the first collection of poetry published by an Irish poet,
besides Yeats, which could be considered modernist. She is one of a small number of known
early 20th century Irish modernist women poets. One of her most popular books, ''Hailstones and
Halibut Bones: Adventures in Color,'' illustrated by Leonard Weisgard, was published by
Doubleday in 1961 and printed in several languages. In it, Mrs. O'Neill identified and interpreted
the most familiar colours through verse. The book was used as a supplementary text in schools
in the United States and abroad.

What is Red?

Red is sunset
Blazing and bright.
Red is feeling brave
With all your might.
Red is a sunburn
Spot on your nose.
Sometimes red
Is a red, red, rose.
Red squiggles out
When you cut your hand.
Red is a brick
And the sound of a band.
Red is hotness
You get inside
When youre embarrassed
And want to hide.
Fire-cracker, fire-engine
Fire-flicker red

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And when youre angry
Red runs through your head.
Red is an Indian, VALENTINE
A Valentine heart.
The trimmings on
A circus cart.
Red is a lipstick
Red is a shout
Red is a signal
That says: Watch out!
Red is a great big
Rubber ball.
Red is the giantest
Colour of all.
Red is a show-off,
No doubt about it -
But can you imagine
Living without it?

This poem is all about the colour RED

Line no. Line Interpretation:


RED is the colour of
1 Red is sunset Hot and bright sun
2 Blazing and bright.
3 Red is feeling brave Bravery and strength/power
4 With all your might.
5 Red is a sunburn Nose that is burnt by the sun (when you are under the
6 Spot on your nose. hot sun for too long)
7 Sometimes red A rose (the flower)
8 Is a red, red, rose.
9 Red squiggles out Blood that comes out of a cut finger/hand
10 When you cut your hand.
11 Red is a brick Brick that is used to build houses and buildings

12 And the sound of aband. Loud and high pitch sound of a musical band

13 Red is hotness The great feeling of embarrassment makes you feel like
14 You get inside hiding from other people
15 When youre embarrassed (Some people blush when they are embarrassed their
16 And want to hide. faces turn red)
17 Fire-cracker, fire-engine Fire crackers, fire brigade
18 Fire-flicker red or an unsteady movement of flame like a candle or
flickering light (like a police car/ambulance/fire brigade)
19 And when youre angry Your head feels hot with anger (hot temper)
20 Red runs through your head.
21 Red is an Indian, Reference to the native American tribe
22 A Valentine heart. Romantic love

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23 The trimmings on The bright red decorations on a circus cart
24 A circus cart.
25 Red is a lipstick The colour of lipstick that women love to wear

26 Red is a shout Loud call or cry (to show a strong emotion)

27 Red is a signal A warning of danger (to be on the look-out / to be alert)


28 That says: Watch out!
29 Red is a great big A big rubber ball
30 Rubber ball. (small children are always attracted to a red ball)
31 Red is the giantest Red is the most widely seen colour around us / the
32 Colour of all. colour that we will notice immediately around us
(giant already means very big. giantest is just to make
it sound extremely big)
33 Red is a show-off, Obviously easy to see/notice/display
34 No doubt about it - (Some people use red simply to attract attention
maybe for personal reasons)
35 But can you imagine The question emphasizes the fact that our life would be
36 Living without it? dull and boring without red as a colour in the world.

Positive and Negative Traits of Red:

Positive keywords include:


action
energy and speed
attention-getting
assertive and confident
energizing
stimulating
exciting
powerful
passionate
stimulating
courageous and strong
spontaneous
determined
adventure

Negative keywords include:


aggressive
domineering
tiring
angry
quick-tempered
cruel

26
fearful
intolerant
rebellious
hateful
violent

#################################
THEMES:
Courage
Red is the warmest of all colors.
Positive versus Negative
Prosperity
Life and vitality

MORAL VALUES:
Bravery/Courage
Determination
Love
Positive attitude
Confidence

MORAL LESSONS:
We should have a positive attitude in our daily life
Have self confidence in doing everything and anything
Be brave/courageous in facing the challenges in life
We must try to control our anger or temper
We should not be hateful towards others
We must try to change our bad behaviour

PRACTICE 1
1. From the poem, list the positive examples of red.
(i) _____________________________________________________________
(ii) _____________________________________________________________
(iii) _____________________________________________________________
(iv) _____________________________________________________________
(v) _____________________________________________________________

27
2. From the poem, list the negative examples of red.
(i) _____________________________________________________________
(ii) _____________________________________________________________
(iii) _____________________________________________________________
(iv) _____________________________________________________________
(v) _____________________________________________________________

3. What is the meaning of with all your might?


___________________________________________________________________
4. What causes a sunburn?
___________________________________________________________________
5. In the poem, you refers to
_______________________________________________________
6. Red squiggles out refers to ____________________________________________
7. What flower does red refer to in this poem?
___________________________________________________________________
8. Which line suggests that red is also the colour of love?
___________________________________________________________________
9. Which line tells us that some people wear red to attract attention?
___________________________________________________________________
10. What does it in the last line refer to?
___________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)


1. Why do you think red refers to the sunset and not the sunrise?
_________________________________________________________________
2. How is it possible for you to get a sunburn? Explain.
_________________________________________________________________
3. Based on your own experience, why do people dislike feeling embarrassed?
_________________________________________________________________
4. Why do you think people give red roses to their loved ones?
________________________________________________________________
5. How could a visit to a circus make you happy?
________________________________________________________________

6. In your opinion, is red the best colour for a lipstick? Why?


________________________________________________________________

28
7. Who do you think would be interested in playing with a big red rubber ball? Why?
________________________________________________________________
8. Do you think red is the best choice of colour for a school uniform? Why?
________________________________________________________________
9. Would you want to live in a red bungalow? Why?
________________________________________________________________
10. Some people do not like red. Give two possible reasons.
(i) __________________________________________________________
(ii) __________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Blazing 4 Embarrassed
2 Might 5 Flicker
3 Squizzles 6 Trimmings

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

1. Red captures attention. It is one of the most visible colours, second only to yellow -
which explains why it is used on fire engines and stop signs to trigger alertness.
2. Red is one of the top two favourite colours of all people.
3. Red is the most popular colour used on flags in the world. Approximately 77% of all
flags include red.
4. Red is the international colour for STOP.
5. Red represents beauty in many languages and cultures.
6. Red is the colour of good luck in Asia and is the most popular colour in China.
Red is associated with fire, south, and summer. It is also associated with good luck
and fortune.
7. In England, red phone booths and red double-decker buses are national icons.
Standard British pillar boxes (mail boxes) have been painted red since 1874.
8. In India, a red mark on the forehead is said to bring good luck. To the Hindu, red
symbolizes joy, life, energy, and creativity.
9. Red is an auspicious colour for marriage. Brides in India and Nepal wear red saris; in
Japan, a red kimono symbolizes happiness and good luck.

10. In Malaysia and Singapore, the colour red traditionally symbolizes joy. Chinese New
Year is celebrated by wearing red clothing and decorating the house with red. Red

29
envelopes with luck money are given to unmarried children to bring good fortune
to them for the rest of the year.
11. Most Japanese children draw the sun as a big red circle.
12. Red roses symbolize passionate love.
13. Red is the colour of Mars. This planet is known as the God of War.
14. Bees cannot see the colour red, but they can see all other bright colors. Red
flowers are usually pollinated by birds, butterflies, bats, and wind, rather than
bees.

POPULAR PHRASES THAT INCLUDE RED


Red carpet treatment (giving privileged treatment to an important person)
Caught red-handed (found guilty doing something bad)
Red in the face (to become embarrassed)
Seeing red (getting angry)
Red flag (a warning of danger)
Not worth a red cent (no value)
Red letter day(a memorable, joyful day)
Red tape (extra formalities in governmental process)
In the red (a term to describe an economic loss)

30
Literature Component:
POEMS
(Form 3)

The Day the Bulldozers Came


&
Poisoned Talk
Prepared by: Puan Azalina Mohd Yusoff
SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra

31
The Day the Bulldozers Came

By David Orme

The poets background

David Orme is a children's writer and poet from England. He has written or edited more
than 250 books. His recent work has been specifically aimed at reluctant readers or children
with learning difficulties and includes the Boffin Boy series of manga-style graphic novels. Orme
lives in Winchester, Hampshire, England and was the chair of the Education Writers Group of
the Society of Authors. With Helen Orme, he has volunteered to assist in literacy programmes. He
was also the director of the Schools Poetry Association (SPA).

The Day the Bulldozers Came

The day the bulldozers came


Rooks were building
Crazy egg baskets in the oaks;
Green flies sizzled by the pond
And a cold-eyed toad
Waited for them.

The day the bulldozers came


Squirrels were scattering
Up tree trunks,
And leapt from branches
That were hardly there.

The fox
Stirred in his sleep
As the ground trembled.
Ha ha! he thought,
Im quite safe,
Deep down in the Earth,
No one can get me here.
Then the bulldozers came.

32
Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 The day the bulldozers came The bulldozers came into the forest during the
day
2 Rooks were building Rooks (the black crows) were busy building
3 Crazy egg baskets in the oaks; their nests on the trees
4 Green flies sizzled by the pond The flies were flying noisily in the pond area
5 And a cold-eyed toad The emotionless toad was waiting to catch the
6 Waited for them. flies.

Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 The day the bulldozers came Repetition of the title : to suggest disaster and
destruction in the forest
2 Squirrels were scattering The squirrels panicked and got scared. They
3 Up tree trunks, ran up the tree trunks
4 And leapt from branches The squirrels jumped but the tree branches
5 That were hardly there. were no longer there because they had been
chopped off.

Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 The fox The sleeping fox was disturbed
2 Stirred in his sleep
3 As the ground trembled. When he felt the ground shake
4 Ha ha! he thought, But he did not worry
5 Im quite safe, And felt that he was not in danger
6 Deep down in the Earth, Because he was underground
7 No one can get me here. No danger or harm would come to him
8 Then the bulldozers came. But the bulldozers were powerful machines
and could destroy anything.

THEMES:
Deforestration is destructive
Development affects environment
Progress affects forest
Machines versus nature

MORAL VALUES:
Love and care
Respect
Concern
Consideration
Co-operation
Kindness

33
MORAL LESSONS:
We should preserve our forest
Be kind and protect animals
Love nature
Save our environment

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. What are the creatures mentioned in this stanza?


________________________________________________________________
2. What are rooks? __________________________________________________
3. The crazy egg baskets refer to _______________________________________
4. The word them refers to ___________________________________

STANZA 2

1. What animal does this stanza focus on? _______________________________


2. Describe what they did when the bulldozers came. _______________________
_______________________________________________________________
3. branches that were hardly there What happened to the branches? _______
_______________________________________________________________

STANZA 3

1. What disturbed the foxs sleep?_____________________________________


2. Where was the fox when the bulldozers came? __________________________
3. Which line suggests that the fox was not worried? _______________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

STANZA 1

1. Give a possible reason for the rooks to be building their nests on trees.
_______________________________________________________________

34
2. Why would a toad be waiting for the green flies? ________________________

STANZA 2

1. If you were the squirrel, how would you feel when the bulldozers came into the forest?
_______________________________________________________________
2. What would happen to the squirrels if they fell off the trees?
_______________________________________________________________

STANZA 3

1. What could possibly cause the ground to tremble?


_______________________________________________________________
2. Do you think the fox would survive? Give a reason for your answer.
_______________________________________________________________
3. Suggest TWO ways to save the fox and other animals from destruction caused by the
bulldozers.
a) ________________________________________________________________
b) ________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 rooks 5 scattering
2 oaks 6 leapt
3 sizzled 7 hardly
4 Cold-eyed 8 stirred

Note :

Bulldozers were invented in the early twentieth century. They are very powerful machines that
are specially created to clear land, forests or areas for agriculture or housing development.

Deforestration destroys the natural habitat of native wildlife and the creatures would have
nowhere to live. Such is the negative effect of modernisation on our environment.

35
Poisoned Talk

By Raymond Wilson

The poets background

Raymond Wilson was a writer and an educationalist, born on 20 December, 1925.He


was an English master at Dulwich College (1957-1961), Chief English Master (1961-1965)
Lecturer in English Education, Southampton University 1965-68; Professor of Education, and at
Reading University 1968-89 (Emeritus), Chairman of the School of Education (1969-76, 1980-
89). He married Gertrude Russell and they had two sons and one daughter. He died in Reading
on 21 March 1995. Frequently, Wilson's own poetry reflected his dislike of reckless technology.
He believed that, without an education of the emotions, science and technology cannot (on their
own) bring happiness.

Poisoned Talk

Who killed cock robin?


I, said the worm
I did him great harm.
He died on the branch of a withered tree
From the acid soil that poisoned me.

Who killed the heron?


I, mouthed the fish,
With my tainted flesh
I killed tern, duck and drake,
All the birds of the lake.

36
Who killed the lake?
I, boasted Industry,
I poisoned with mercury
Fish, plant and weed
To pamper mens greed.

Who killed the flowers?


I, moaned thewind,
I prowled unconfined,
Blowing acid rain
Over field, flood and fen.

Who killed the forest?


I ensured that it died,
Said sulphur dioxide.
And all life within it,
From earthworm to linnet.

Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Who killed cock robin? The person wanted to know who killed the cock
robin (a male bird)
2 I, said the worm The worm admitted that it killed the bird in a
3 I did him great harm. cruel way
4 He died on the branch of a withered tree The robin died on a tree that was weak and
dying
5 From the acid soil that poisoned me. The acid soil was toxic and the worm was
affected. The bird was affected too after eating
the worm.

Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Who killed the heron? The person wanted to know who killed the
heron (a bird that feeds on fish)
2 I, mouthed the fish, The fish confessed that it killed the bird
3 With my tainted flesh because the fish was already poisoned or
polluted.
4 I killed tern, duck and drake, In fact, the birds that fed on the fish in the lake
5 All the birds of the lake. died because of the poisoned flesh of the fish.

Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Who killed the lake? The person wanted to know who
killed/destroyed the lake.
2 I, boasted Industry, The lake was destroyed by the industry around
it
3 I poisoned with mercury Note: Mercury is an industrial waste that is
4 Fish, plant and weed released into the water.
This toxic waste killed the fish, plant and weed
in the lake

37
5 To pamper mens greed. To please people who were greedy and selfish,
not caring about the environment.

Stanza Four
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Who killed the flowers? The person wanted to know who
killed/destroyed the flowers
2 I, moaned the wind, The wind sadly admitted that it blew acid rain
3 I prowled unconfined, all over the place, without any control
4 Blowing acid rain
5 Over field, flood and fen. Acid rain destroyed the plants and trees,
affected the water and wetland too.

Stanza Five
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Who killed the forest? The person wanted to know who
killed/destroyed the forest
2 I ensured that it died, The forest was destroyed by sulphur dioxide
3 Said sulphur dioxide. (gas or liquid from the industrial processes and
the burning of coal & petroleum. It dissolves in
water to form acid and is harmful to plants and
animals.)
4 And all life within it, Sulphur dioxide destroyed all the creatures in
5 From earthworm to linnet. the forest, including the worm and the linnet
(small bird).

THEMES:
Destruction of the environment and the wildlife
Industries lead to destruction
Development versus environment
Crime against nature
Mans greed versus nature

MORAL VALUES:
Love and care
Moderation
Responsibility
Concern
Co-operation
Kindness

MORAL LESSONS:
We should protect our environment
We should be kind and protect plants and animals
Love nature
Save our environment

38
PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Where did the cock robin die?________________________________________


2. What poisoned the worm?__________________________________________

STANZA 2

1. How did the fish kill the heron? _______________________________________


2. What else did the fish kill?___________________________________________

STANZA 3

1. What did Industry poison the lake with? _______________________________


2. Why did Industry kill the lake? ______________________________________

STANZA 4

1. Which word suggests that the wind was sad? __________________________


2. Which phrase has the same meaning as move freely)?
_______________________________________________________________

STANZA 5

1. What destroyed the forest? _________________________________________


2. Which line tells us that everything in the forest was destroyed?
_______________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

1. How could the robin be poisoned by the worm?


______________________________________________________________
2. Why did the birds go to the lake?
______________________________________________________________
3. Give TWO negative effects of modern industries.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
4. Name TWO types of pollution.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
5. How can we save the environment? Suggest TWO ways.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

39
PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 withered 5 moaned
2 tainted 6 prowl
3 boasted 7 unconfined
4 pamper 8 fen

Note :

BIRDS mentioned in the poem:

Cock robin, heron, tern,


drake, duck, linnet

cock robin tern

heron duck

drake linnet

40
Literature
Component:
POEMS
(Form 4)

The Living Photograph


&
The Charge of the Light Brigade

Prepared by: Puan Azalina Mohd Yusoff


SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra

41
The Living Photograph

by Jackie Kay

The poets background

Jackie Kay was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1961 to a Scottish


mother and a Nigerian father. She was adopted by a white couple at
birth and was brought up in Glasgow, studying at the Royal Scottish
Academy of Music and Drama and Stirling University where she
majored in English.
The experience of being adopted by and growing up within a white
family inspired her first collection of poetry, The Adoption
Papers (1991). The poems deal with an adopted child's search for a
cultural identity.

The Living Photograph

My small grandmother is tall there,


straight-back, white broderie anglaise shirt,
pleated skirt, flat shoes, grey bun,
a kind, old smile round her eyes.
Her big hand holds mine,
white hand in black hand.
Her sharp blue eyes look her own death in the eye.

It was true after all that look.


My tall grandmother became small.
Her back round and hunched.
Her soup forgot to boil.
She went to the awful place grandmothers go.
Somewhere unknown, unthinkable.

But there she is still,


in the photo with me at three,
the crinkled smile is still living, breathing.

42
Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 My small grandmother is tall there, The persona is describing her
grandmother in the photograph (tall :
healthy & well)
2 straight-back, white broderie anglaise shirt, Her physical appearance (straight-
back) & what she wears (very neat &
3 pleated skirt, flat shoes, grey bun,
proper)
Note: broderie anglaise is French for
English embroidery
4 a kind, old smile round her eyes. Her smile shows that she is kind &
gentle
5 Her big hand holds mine, Her grandmother is loving & caring
6 white hand in black hand. The white hand belongs to her
grandmother & the black hand is the
personas (togetherness)
7 Her sharp blue eyes look her own death in the eye. Her grandmothers vision is still
good but she is actually dying
Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 It was true after all; that look. that look refers to the look of
someone dying
2 My tall grandmother became small. Her grandmothers condition got
worse when she was sick and dying
3 Her back round and hunched.
4 Her soup forgot to boil. She was too ill to take care of
herself
5 She went to the awful place grandmothers go. She died
6 Somewhere unknown, unthinkable. The place her grandmother was sent
to(afterlife) - was a mystery to the
persona
Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 But there she is still, The persona is looking at the
photograph of her grandmother and
2 in the photo with me at three,
her when she was three years old
3 the crinkled smile is still living, breathing. To her, the memory of her old
grandmother is still new and fresh

TIME>>> STANZA 1 : Present (Looking at the photograph)

STANZA 2 : Past (Remembering what happened)

STANZA 3 : Present (Looking at the photograph again)

Without love, life isnt worth living.


Jackie Kay

43
THEMES:
Family love
Appreciation
Loving memories

MORAL VALUES:
Love& care
Appreciation
Kindness
Thoughtfulness
Gratitude

MORAL LESSONS:
We must try our best to have a good and strong relationship with our grandparents
We should love and appreciate our elders especially in our family
We should spend as much time as we can with our loved ones before they die
We should take photographs with our loved ones and keep them
We must not forget those who have died
We must learn to move on and accept life and death as part of life cycle

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Give three descriptions of the personas grandmothers appearance.


(a) _______________________________________________________
(b) _______________________________________________________
(c) _______________________________________________________
2. Based on Stanza 1, describe the grandmothers personality.
(a) _______________________________________________________
(b) _______________________________________________________
3. What does line 7 tell you about the grandmother?
__________________________________________________________

STANZA 2

1. Describe the grandmother when she was old and sick.


(a) _______________________________________________________
(b) _______________________________________________________
2. Why did she forget to boil her soup?
__________________________________________________________

3. What happened to the grandmother in the end?


__________________________________________________________

44
STANZA 3

1. How old was the persona when the photograph was taken?
__________________________________________________________
2. Describe the personas feelings when she looks at the photograph.
__________________________________________________________
3. Quote the phrase that describes the grandmother as being old.
__________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

1. In stanza 1, why does the grandmother look tall in the photograph?


_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

2. Based on stanza 1, describe how the persona feels about her grandmother.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

3. Why do you think the persona describes the afterlife as awful, unknown and
unthinkable?
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

4. Is it good to keep photographs of your loved ones? Give two reasons.


(a) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

(b) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

5. Do you consider the grandmother as courageous? Give your evidence from the poem.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

6. In your own words, describe the relationship between the persona and her grandmother.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 pleated 4 unknown
2 hunched 5 unthinkable
3 awful 6 crinkled

45
The Charge Of The Light Brigade

by Alfred, Lord Tennyson


(1809-1892)

The poets background

This poem was written to memorialize a suicidal charge by light cavalry


over open terrain by British forces in the Battle of Balaclava (Ukraine) in
the Crimean War (1854-56). 247 men of the 637 in the charge were killed
or wounded. Britain entered the war, which was fought by Russia against
Turkey, Britain and France, because Russia sought to control the
Dardanelles. Russian control of the Dardanelles threatened British sea
routes.
The poem was written in the same year.

The Charge Of The Light Brigade

Half a league, half a league,


Half a league onward,
All in the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
'Forward, the Light Brigade!
Charge for the guns!' he said.
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.

'Forward, the Light Brigade!'


Was there a man dismayed?
Not though the soldier knew
Some one had blundered.
Theirs not to make reply,
Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs but to do & die.
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.

46
Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them
Volleyed& thundered;
Stormed at with shot and shell,
Boldly they rode and well,
Into the jaws of Death,
Into the mouth of Hell
Rode the six hundred.

Line STANZA 1 INTERPRETATION


no.
1 Half a league, half a league, A league is an old way to measure
distance, and it was equal to about 3
2 Half a league onward,
miles. So half a league is roughly a mile
and a half the brigade/battalion was
charging forward in the battlefield
3 All in the valley of Death The place where many soldiers would die
in the battle (very scary & uncertain)
4 Rode the six hundred. The exact number of soldiers was 600,
riding horses
5 Forward, the Light Brigade! The captain commanded the soldiers to
move forward bravely
Note: they are called "Light" to separate
them from the "Heavy Brigade," another
kind of cavalry unit at the
time.Tennyson's poem is based on real
events. In 1854, there was a Charge of
the Light Brigade during the Crimean
War.
6 Charge for the guns! he said. The soldiers were ordered to attack
7 Into the valley of Death The soldiers moved to the battlefield,
prepared to fight and to die fighting.The
brigade was ordered into the valley, even
though they knew that they were going to
die.
8 Rode the six hundred. Emphasis on the small number of
soldiers few but brave soldiers riding
on horseback

Line STANZA 2 INTERPRETATION


no.
1 Forward, the Light Brigade! Again, the captain commanded the
soldiers to move forward
2 Was there a man dismayed? Was there any soldier who would lose his
courage, be terrified or sad?

47
3 Not though the soldier knew Of course the Light Brigade was too
tough and loyal to feel dismayed. These
men did not feel discouraged at all. They
were ready to do their job, even though
the order might be crazy (to meet their
death).
4 Some one had blundered. The soldiers knew that this charge was
not a good idea, that someone had made
a mistake.
5 Theirs not to make reply, The soldiers were loyal and obedient
they did not talk back to their commander
6 Theirs not to reason why, Or to figure out the point of the attack
7 Theirs but to do and die. All they could do was to ride and fight
and possibly die
8 Into the valley of Death Repetition of stanza 1 to emphasize
courage/bravery, loyalty, commitment,
9 Rode the six hundred.
duty

Line STANZA 3 INTERPRETATION


no.
1 Cannon to right of them, The soldiers were surrounded by enemy
cannon on their left, right and front. Bad
2 Cannon to left of them,
news for the Light Brigade they were
3 Cannon in front of them actually surrounded by enemies.
4 Volleyed and thundered; So the huge walls of cannon all around
them were firing and making a sound
like thunder
5 Stormed at with shot and shell, The soldiers in the Light Brigade were
being shot at with bullets and big
explosives fired from the cannon - a
violent, noisy, destructive force that
sounded like a storm.
6 Boldly they rode and well, These soldiers were not scared of the
gunfire. They rode bravely, confidently
and with determination. It shows us how
heroic these men were.
7 Into the jaws of Death, They were ready/willing to die of honour
8 Into the mouth of Hell Hell suffering and torture but the
soldiers were brave
9 Rode the six hundred. 600 brave/courageous soldiers men of
honour

48
THEMES:
Bravery / Courage
Honour
War and conflict
Death and destruction

MORAL VALUES:
Bravery / Courage
Loyalty
Determination
Confidence
Honour
Sacrifice

MORAL LESSONS:
We must struggle for peace, not war.
We must be loyal to our superiors.
Discipline is important in life.
Always be brave in facing challenges in life.

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. What does the Light Brigade refer to?


_________________________________________________________________
2. Who said Forward, the Light Brigade!?
_________________________________________________________________
3. What was the order?
_________________________________________________________________
4. Into the valley of Death
What would happen to the men?
_________________________________________________________________

STANZA 2

1. Based on this stanza, describe the personality of the soldiers.


(a) ________________________________________
(b) ________________________________________
(c) ________________________________________
2. The word Theirs refers to ____________________________________________
3. What is the meaning of blundered?
__________________________________________________________________

49
STANZA 3

1. Describe the scene of the battlefield.


__________________________________________________________________
2. What Volleyed and thundered?
__________________________________________________________________
3. What do you think happened at the end of the poem?
__________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

1. In your own words, describe how the soldiers felt when they went into the battlefield.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

2. In your opinion, was it the right thing to do for the soldiers to follow the captains
command? Give a reason.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

3. What do you think of the captains command?


_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

4. Give two suggestions on how we should show our appreciations to those who defend
our country.
(a) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

(b) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 league 5 volleyed
2 valley 6 shell
3 dismayed 7 boldly
4 blundered 8 jaws

50
History

A major conflict of the 19th century, the Crimean War claimed at least 750,000 lives, more than
even the American Civil War, and had a profound impact on such renowned personalities as British
nurse Florence Nightingale and Russian author Leo Tolstoy. It got its start in and around Jerusalem,
then part of the Ottoman Empire, where Orthodox Christian and Catholic monks had been engaging
in fierce, sometimes deadly brawls for years over who would control various holy sites. Following
one such violent squabble in 1852, Czar Nicholas I of Russia, a self-proclaimed defender of
Orthodox Christianity, demanded the right to exercise protection over the Ottoman Empires
millions of Christian subjects. Upon being rejected, he then sent his army, the largest in the world,
to occupy two Ottoman principalities in present-day Romania. The czar also purportedly had his
eyes on Constantinople, the Ottoman capital, which if taken would give his navy unfettered access
to the Mediterranean Sea. Unnerved by this expansionism, Britain and France sent their own
warships to the area and vowed to defend Ottoman sovereignty.

Fighting officially broke out in October 1853, and the following month the Russians decimated the
Ottoman fleet in a surprise attack. But although Nicholas referred to the declining Ottoman Empire
as the sick man of Europe, his land forces made little progress in their push south, underscored
by the failed siege of a fortress in present-day Bulgaria. Meanwhile, in March 1854, Britain and
France declared war and immediately bombarded the then-Russian city of Odessa. With Austria
likewise threatening to jump into the fray, Nicholas withdrew from Romania. Rather than declare
victory, however, Britain and France decided to punitively target the Russian naval base in
Sevastopol, located on the Crimean Peninsula. On September 13, 1854, a joint allied force of over
60,000 troops sailed into Kalamita Bay, about 33 miles north of their objective. Due to stormy
weather, it took five days for them to fully disembark. Believing the conflict would be over quickly,
they brought neither winter clothing nor medical supplies. They moreover lacked accurate maps,

51
had little idea how many Russian troops opposed them and flouted the dietary restrictions of the
Muslim Ottoman soldiers within their ranks. To make matters worse, a cholera outbreak erupted.

Nonetheless, the British and French defeated the Russians in their first run-in near the Alma River,
causing a panicked retreat with the help of their long-range Mini rifles. They then commenced a
roundabout march to Sevastopol, where they spent two-and-a-half weeks digging trenches and
lugging artillery into position prior to initiating a bombardment of the city on October 17. By that
time, however, the Russians had significantly strengthened their defenses. After holding out for
eight days, they tried to break the siege with a dawn attack on Britains supply base in the nearby
fishing village of Balaclava. That morning, having forced Ottoman troops to abandon four defensive
redoubts, they were able to occupy the Causeway Heights just outside town. But they failed to
progress any further thanks to a regiment of Scottish highlanders and the Heavy Brigade, each of
which repelled a Russian advance.

With Balaclava now safe, Lord Fitzroy Somerset Raglan, the British commander-in-chief in Crimea,
turned his attention back to the Causeway Heights, where he believed the Russians were
attempting to make off with some of his artillery guns. He ordered the cavalry, consisting of both
the Heavy and Light brigades, to advance with infantry support and take advantage of any
opportunity to recover the lost ground. Lord Raglan expected the cavalrymen to move immediately,
with the infantry to come later. But George Bingham, the earl of Lucan, who commanded the
cavalry, thought he wanted them to attack together. As a result, Lucans men sat around for 45
minutes waiting for the infantry to arrive. At that point, Raglan issued a new order, telling the cavalry
to advance rapidly to the front and try to prevent the enemy carrying away the guns. From his
vantage point, however, Lucan could not see any guns being removed. Confused, he asked
Raglans aide-de-camp where to attack, but instead of pointing to the Causeway Heights, the aide
allegedly waved his arm in the direction of a Russian artillery battery at the far end of an exposed
valley.

Lucan next approached his brother-in-law James Brudenell, the earl of Cardigan, who commanded
the Light Brigade. The two men loathed each other so much they were barely on speaking terms.
And neither was apparently respected by the troops. One officer in the Light Brigade went so far
as to call them both fools. Cardigan, he wrote in a letter home, has as much brains as my boot.
He is only equaled in want of intellect by his relation the earl of Lucan. Though perturbed by
Raglans order, Lucan and Cardigan obeyed it without first checking back in to make sure they

52
understood it correctly. At their bidding, the roughly 670 members of the Light Brigade drew their
sabres and lances and began their infamous mile-and-a-quarter-long charge with Russians
shooting at them from three directions (though never from all three at once). The first man to fall
was Raglans aide-de-camp. Another soldier then had his head clean carried off by a round shot,
yet for about 30 yards further the headless body kept in the saddle, according to a survivor. Other
survivors spoke of being splattered with horse blood, of watching their companions lose limbs, of
seeing brains on the ground and of going through smoke so thick it was like riding into the mouth
of a volcano.

The Heavy Brigade, which, its name notwithstanding, resembled the Light Brigade except with
regard to uniform color, was supposed to follow in support but only went a short way down the
valley before Lucan directed it to turn back. Somehow, the Light Brigade reached its destination
anyway, crashing into the enemy lines with a vengeance. A few Russians even shot at their own
comrades in a desperate bid to clear an escape route. The Light Brigades members didnt hold the
ground for long, though, before being forced to stagger back from whence they came. En route,
Russian artillery pounded away again from the Causeway Heightsbut not from the other two
sides, as the Light Brigade had taken out one battery itself and the French had taken out another
while Russian cavalrymen attempted to entrap them. In the end, of the roughly 670 Light Brigade
soldiers, about 110 were killed and 160 were wounded, a 40 percent casualty rate. They also lost
approximately 375 horses.

Despite failing to overrun Balaclava, the Russians claimed victory in the battle, parading their
captured artillery guns through Sevastopol. Yet they would surrender the city and naval base nearly
a year later, after which they agreed to give up a small chunk of territory and to keep their warships
out of the Black Sea in exchange for peace. Meanwhile, the Light Brigades exploits had already
become legendary in Britain, thanks largely to Alfred Tennysons poem The Charge of the Light
Brigade. Named poet laureate a few years earlier by Queen Victoria, he praised the bravery of the
men as they rode into the valley of death. His poem The Charge of the Heavy Brigade at
Balaclava, on the other hand, never quite captured the publics imagination.

Additional Information on the Poem :

Stanzas 4, 5 & 6

Flash'd all their sabres bare,


Flash'd as they turn'd in air
Sabring the gunners there,
Charging an army while
All the world wonder'd:
Plunged in the battery-smoke
Right thro' the line they broke;
Cossack & Russian

53
Reel'd from the sabre-stroke,
Shatter'd & sunder'd.
Then they rode back, but not
Not the six hundred.

Cannon to right of them,


Cannon to left of them,
Cannon behind them
Volley'd and thunder'd;
Storm'd at with shot and shell,
While horse & hero fell,
They that had fought so well
Came thro' the jaws of Death,
Back from the mouth of Hell,
All that was left of them,
Left of six hundred.

When can their glory fade?


O the wild charge they made!
All the world wonder'd.
Honour the charge they made!
Honour the Light Brigade,
Noble six hundred!

Remember &honour...

54
Literature
Component:
Poems
(Form 5)

55
A Poison Tree
&
What Has Happened to Lulu?

Prepared by: Puan Azalina Mohd Yusoff


SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra
A Poison Tree

by William Blake

56
The poets background

William Blake (28 November 1757 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and
printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered an influential figure
in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. Although Blake was considered
mad by contemporaries for his strange views, he is admired by critics later on for his
expressiveness and creativity, and for the philosophical and mystical feelings in his work. Blake
was mainly influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American Revolutions.

A Poison Tree
I was angry with my friend;
I told my wrath, my wrath did end.
I was angry with my foe:
I told it not, my wrath did grow.

And I watered it in fears,


Night & morning with my tears:
And I sunned it with smiles,
And with soft deceitful wiles.

And it grew both day and night.


Till it bore an apple bright.
And my foe beheld it shine,
And he knew that it was mine.

And into my garden stole,


When the night had veiled the pole;
In the morning glad I see;
My foe outstretched beneath the tree.

Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I was angry with my friend: The persona was angry with his friend.
2 I told my wrath, my wrath did end. When he told his friend about it, his anger
disappeared.
3 I was angry with my foe: He was once angry with his enemy
4 I told it not, my wrath did grow. But the persona did not talk about his anger, so his
anger got bigger and bigger. (The feeling became
worse).
Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 And I watered it in fears, The persona treated his anger very much like a
plant. (A plant needs water and sun in order to
grow).He developed his anger more with his fears.

57
2 Night and morning with my tears; The anger got worse when he cried almost night and
day
3 And I sunned it with smiles, The persona topped up his anger with fake smiles
(pretending to be happy in front of his enemy)
4 And with soft deceitful wiles. And he added deceit and tricks, maybe he was
planning something mischievous or bad.
So, the personas anger was growing bigger and
stronger (just like a growing tree).
Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 And it grew both day and night, Because of the persona's efforts, his tree of anger
eventually bore a bright and delicious apple.
2 Till it bore an apple bright.
3 And my foe beheld it shine. His enemy saw the shiny apple (the fruit of the
personas anger)
4 And he knew that it was mine. And knew that the apple tree belonged to the
persona.
Stanza Four
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 And into my garden stole The enemy secretly sneaked into the personas
garden, like a thief.
2 When the night had veiled the pole; He went into the garden at night when it was
extremely dark to steal/eat the apple
("the pole possibly refers to the pole star, also
known as the North star or Polaris. It is a very bright
star and it stays fixed in the sky, which is normally
used in navigating folks safely through danger.)
But this star was not visible.
3 In the morning glad I see In the morning, the persona sees (maybe with a
happy feeling)
4 My foe outstretched beneath the His enemy is lying under the tree (dead/unconscious
after eating the poison apple the fruit that was
tree.
poisoned with the personas anger).

The poem is like someone narrating/ telling a story


about what happened or what he/she did.

STANZA 1 :BEGINNING

STANZA 2 : DEVELOPMENT (process)

STANZA 3 : DEVELOPMENT (product)

STANZA 4 : ENDING

THEMES:

58
Anger
Hatred
Deceit
Friend versus Foe
The power of communication
Good versus Evil

MORAL VALUES:
Friendship
Tolerance
Patience
Forgiveness
Honesty/Sincerity
Peace/Harmony

MORAL LESSONS:
We must be cautious of the motives of other people
Do not manipulate others, especially innocent people
Have open communication in life
Do not nurture hatred because it is destructive
Anger management is important in life
We should make friends with anybody and everybody
Make peace, not war

Additional Information:

In A Poison Tree, William Blake intends to warn his readers that if they ignore his message
regarding the "deceitful wiles" that cause hatred to intensify due to a lack of communication, they
too can end up "outstretched beneath the tree" or be a person destroyed by his own "wrath." In the
poem, the persona's "foe" becomes less afraid of the persona, and does not realise the depth of
his hatred as the persona "sunned it with smiles" to mislead his enemy. The deceit becomes so
intense that it bears "an apple bright." Similar stories that involve apples are Adam and Eve (when
Eve first ate the apple, then deceived Adam and effectively poisoned his mind, and how they lost
their innocence before being sent down to Earth) and also in Snow White (when the wicked queen
deceives Snow White - she disguises as an old woman who gives Snow White a red poison apple)
.

PRACTICE 1
STANZA 1
1. What did the persona do when he was angry with his friend?
__________________________________________________________
2. What happened when the persona was angry with his foe?
__________________________________________________________
3. In your own words, describe my wrath did grow about the persona?

59
__________________________________________________________

STANZA 2
1. Name four things the persona did to make his anger grow.
(i) ___________________________________________________
(ii) ___________________________________________________
(iii) ___________________________________________________
(iv) ___________________________________________________

2. What did the persona do to pretend that he was not angry?


_________________________________________________________
3. Which phrase suggests that the persona had planned a devious strategy?
_________________________________________________________

STANZA 3
1. What does it refer to?
__________________________________________________________
2. Which line suggests that the tree is growing very well?
__________________________________________________________
3. Which line tells us that the personas enemy noticed the apple?
__________________________________________________________

STANZA 4
1. What does And into my garden stole tell us about the enemy?
__________________________________________________________
2. In your own words, describe the night.
__________________________________________________________
3. What may have happened to the enemy in the end?
__________________________________________________________
PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)
1. In stanza 1, what may have caused the persona to be angry with his friend?
(i) _______________________________________________________
(ii) _______________________________________________________[2 marks]

2. In stanza 1, why do you think the persona did not want to tell his enemy that he was
angry?

60
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

3. Why did the persona do all the things described in stanza 2?


_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

4. Based on stanza 2, in your opinion, did the personas enemy realise his deception?
Why?
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

5. Based on stanza 3, why do you think the persona let his tree of anger grow so well?
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

6. How did the persona manage to attract his enemys attention?


_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

7. Based on stanza 4, describe the personas feelings in the end. Why does he feel that
way?
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

8. Based on the whole poem, explain what you understand by a poison tree.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

9. Honesty is the best policy. Do you agree? Support your answer with a reason.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]
10. Anger management is very important. Give two reasons to support this statement.
(i) _______________________________________________________
(ii) _______________________________________________________[2 marks]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)
No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning
1 wrath 4 foe
2 deceitful 5 Veiled
3 wiles 6 outstretched

61
Additional HOTS Activity (AHA) :
Look at the above picture. The two people are obviously arguing and both are extremely
angry with each other. How could you help to solve their problem? Explain and justify.

What Has Happened to Lulu?

62
ByCharles Causley
(1917 2003)

The poets background

Charles Causley (1917-2003) was a poet and writer from Cornwall, England. His father
died when he was only fifteen years old. When he was 16, his mother announced she had got
him a job in a builders office, something that filled him with despair. Later Causley became a
teacher at a school in Launceston.

His work is characterised by its simplicity; his poems for adults are very similar in style to
those written for children. His poetry often has deeper meanings hidden behind the simplicity.
Causley often includes spiritual references and takes inspiration from the folklore of his native
Cornwall. His poems for children were popular. Even though he was an extremely private person,
he was nevertheless a very approachable man.

What Has Happened To Lulu?

What has happened to Lulu, mother?


What has happened to Lu?
There's nothing in her bed but an old rag-doll
And by its side a shoe.

Why is her window wide, mother,


The curtain flapping free,
And only a circle on the dusty shelf
Where her money-box used to be?

Why do you turn your head, mother,


And why do tear-drops fall?
And why do you crumple that note on the fire
And say it is nothing at all?

I woke to voices late last night,


I heard an engine roar.
Why do you tell me the things I heard

63
Were a dream and nothing more?

I heard somebody cry, mother,


In anger or in pain,
But now I ask you why, mother,
You say it was a gust of rain.

Why do you wander about as though


You don't know what to do?
What has happened to Lulu, mother?
What has happened to Lu?

What Has Happened to Lulu? is a poem told in a childs voice about his/her
older sister who is missing. A child is asking his/her mother what has happened to
his/her sister, Lulu. There is nothing in her room, and her money-box has gone, with
only an open window and an old rag-doll left behind. His/Her mother is crying and
burning a note. He/She thinks he/she heard voices and a vehicle in the middle of the
night, but his/her mother tells him/her that he/she was only dreaming.

Stanza One
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 What has happened to Lulu, The persona (the child) is asking his/her mother
mother? about his/her older sister, Lulu.
2 What has happened to Lu? The question is repeated but using the name Lu
(showing that the child and Lulu are very close)
3 There's nothing in her bed but an Lulu is not in her bed. Only her rag-doll is there
old rag-doll
4 And by its side a shoe. There is a shoe (Lulus) by the side of the bed.
Stanza Two
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Why is her window wide, mother, The persona is asking his/her mother about Lulus
bedroom window that is wide open
2 The curtain flapping free, The curtain is moving because of the wind from the
open window
3 And only a circle on the dusty shelf Lulus money-box is also missing (sign of a circle
4 Where her money-box used to be? where the money-box was)
Stanza Three
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Why do you turn your head, The persona is asking his/her mother why she turns
mother, her head away from him/her
2 And why do tear-drops fall? He/She asks why mother is crying
3 And why do you crumple that note Why does his/her mother crumple the note she is
on the fire reading and throw it into the fire (in the fire place)

64
4 And say it is nothing at all? The mother simply says that there is nothing to worry
about.
Stanza Four
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I woke to voices late last night, The persona tells his/her mother that he/she woke
up from his/her sleep because he/she heard some
people talking
2 I heard an engine roar. He/She also heard the sound of a vehicle at that time
3 Why do you tell me the things I The persona is asking his/her mother why she says
heard what he/she heard were only in his/her dream
4 Were a dream and nothing more?
Stanza Five
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 I heard somebody cry, mother, The persona tells his/her mother that he/she also
2 In anger or in pain, heard someone cry in anger or in pain
3 But now I ask you why, mother, But when he/she asks his/her mother, she says it is
just the sound of the rain.
4 You say it was a gust of rain.
Stanza Six
Line no. Line Interpretation
1 Why do you wander about as The persona is asking his/her mother why she is
though walking or moving aimlessly as if she is nervous,
2 You don't know what to do? worried and in panic.
3 What has happened to Lulu, Again, the persona is asking his/her mother about
mother? Lulu.
4 What has happened to Lu? The repeated question shows that the child is really
missing his/her sister / is worried about her / in
confusion.

Based on the personas observations:


Stanza 1: Lulu is missing
Old rag-doll & Lulus shoe

Stanza 2: Lulus open window & flapping curtain


A circle on the dusty shelf

Stanza 3: Mother is crying


Mother crumples the note

Stanza 4: Voices late at night


Engine roar

Stanza 5: Somebody cried in anger/pain


Stanza 6: Mother is wandering / looking worried

65
THEMES:
Family love
Family values
Grief
Adult versus child

MORAL VALUES:
Love and care
Responsibility
Helpfulness
Honesty
Co-operation

MORAL LESSONS:
Honesty is the best policy
We should help others in need
Two heads are better than one
Many hands make light work
We have to show our concern towards our family members
Blood is thicker than water

PRACTICE 1
STANZA 1
1. Why does the persona ask his mother about Lulu?
_________________________________________________________________
2. Name two things that the persona notices in Lulus bedroom.
(i) ___________________________________________________________
(ii) ___________________________________________________________
STANZA 2
1. What causes the curtain to flap free?
__________________________________________________________________
2. Where did Lulu put her money-box?
__________________________________________________________________
STANZA 3
1. Why does the mother turn her head away from the persona?
__________________________________________________________________
2. What phrase refers to the paper the mother is reading?

66
__________________________________________________________________
STANZA 4
1. What woke the persona from his sleep?
_________________________________________________________________
2. the things in line 3 refer to
(i) ___________________________________________________________
(ii) ___________________________________________________________
STANZA 5
1. Describe what the persona heard that night?
_________________________________________________________________
2. What excuse does the mother give as an answer to the personas question?
_________________________________________________________________
STANZA 6
1. What does the persona notice about his mother?
_________________________________________________________________
2. Based on You dont know what to do, describe the mothers feelings.
_________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)


1. How do you know that the persona is close to Lulu?
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

2. In your opinion, did Lulu run away or was she kidnapped? Give a reason for your
answer.
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

3. What do you think of the mothers answers to the personas questions?


_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]

4. Why doesnt the mother tell the truth to the persona? Give two possible reasons.
(c) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]
(d) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

5. Suggest two things that the mother should do about Lulus disappearance.
(a) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

67
(b) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

6. In your opinion, where was the personas father when Lulu disappeared?
_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]
7. Why do some teenagers run away from home? Give two possible reasons.
(a) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]
(b) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

8. What should be done to prevent child kidnapping? Suggest two ways.


(a) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]
(b) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

9. How would you feel if a family member disappears from home?


_____________________________________________________________[2 marks]
10. How can social media help in cases of child kidnapping?
(a) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]
(b) __________________________________________________________[1 mark]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)
No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning
1 Rag-doll 4 roar
2 flapping 5 gust
3 crumple 6 wander

Additional HOTS Activity (AHA) :

68
Your friend is seriously thinking of running away from home because of
some family problems. What advice would you give him and how could you help him in
this situation?

MODULE
on
We Didnt Mean to Go to Sea

NAME : __________________________________________

FORM : __________________________________________

69
Prepared by
Pn. Azalina Mohd Yusoff
SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra, Kelantan
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Arthur Ransome (18 January 1884 3 June 1967) was an English author and journalist. He is
best known for writing the Swallows and Amazons series of children's books about the school-
holiday adventures of children, mostly in the Lake District and the Norfolk Broads. Many of the
books involve sailing, while fishing and camping are other common subjects.
Ransome's writing is noted for his detailed descriptions of activities. He used many actual features
from the Lake District landscape but he also invented his own geography, mixing descriptions of
different places. Ransome's own interest in sailing and his need to provide an accurate description
caused him to undertake a voyage across the North Sea to Flushing. His book We Didn't Mean
To Go To Sea (1937) reflects this, and he based the fictional Goblin on his own boat Nancy
Blackett (which in turn took its name from a character in the series).

Ransome won the inaugural Carnegie Medal from the Library Association, and Durham
University made him an honorary Master of Arts. Leeds University made him an honorary Doctor
of Letters. Translations of his books have been published in several languages and he became
popular in many countries.

70
SYNOPSIS
John, Susan, Titty and Roger Walker move with their mother and younger sister Brigit to
Pin Mill, to await their fathers return to Britain from service overseas (China). There, they befriend
Jim Brading, owner of the yacht Goblin, who invites them on a quiet cruise on the River Orwell.
With their mothers permission to spend a night on board the Goblin, on condition that they do
not go outside Harwich Harbour, all goes well, until a series of events leaves the cfour Walkers
alone and drifting out to sea in a fog which leads to a few days being at sea.
Meanwhile, Jim has bad luck. Going ashore, he meets with an accident that lands him in
hospital where he remains unconscious for forty-eight hours (2 days). As the children wait for his
return, the Goblin has an accident and loses her chain and anchor and drifts out to sea.
John proves to be the worthy son of a sailor father, Susan heroic over sea-sickness,
Roger and Titty resourceful, brave and sensible. They finally find themselves in the North Sea.
Not everyone could be so sturdy and so intelligent as John to steer the yacht to safety. The
children use their skills and keep their wits when they are shrewdly tested with so many problems
while at sea until their father appeared to help them sail the Goblin back safely.

Goblin

71
The Compass
N : North NE : North-east
E : East SE : South-east
W : West NW : North-west
S : South SW : South-west

CHAPTER SUMMARIES
CHAPTER SUMMARY

72
1 John, Susan, Roger and Titty help Jim Brading to tie a rope to the buoy. In return
On the he invites them to sail aboard Goblin. Mother agrees provided that they stay within
River the estuary of the rivers Orwell and Stour, do not pass the Beach End buoy at the
mouth of the rivers, and do not go out to sea. These conditions are imposed
because of the important arrival of their father, who is expected to return by ferry
at any time from Holland. The children agree to these conditions.

2 Unfortunately, on the second morning Goblin runs out of petrol because Jim
In Harbour forgets to fill up before they start the journey. So, Jim rows ashore to buy some
petrol and promises to return in ten minutes but does not return. The children
wait for the whole day until an unexpected fog drifts over the river, and the
Goblin is without her captain.

3 Some hours later, after hearing the anchor drag in the fog, the children realise that
Drifting out the tide has risen, the anchor chain is now too short, and they are drifting down
to Sea the river. While John tries to put out more chain, John loses the anchor, and the
yacht drifts out beyond Beach End into the North Sea. Aboard the drifting boat,
John decides that it is safer to hoist the sails and go farther out to sea rather than
take the risk of being wrecked in the fog. They plan to return to the river, but find
that sailing against the wind is impossible, so they have to sail eastward with the
wind.

4 The Goblin sails east through the night in hazardous conditions, being nearly run
A Stormy down as the navigation lights are out of paraffin. John has to leave Susan at the
Night helm while he reefs the mainsail. He is almost swept overboard, but manages to
save himself and the rest in the yacht.

5 John persuades Susan to continue moving to the nearest port rather than trying
Sinbad to return to Harwich. Along the way, they rescue a kitten floating on a packing-
and the case. They find themselves approaching an unknown coast - it is the Southern
Pilot Netherlands. They see a pilot ship and pick up a Dutch pilot who decides to help
the children and it is free of charge. As they are approaching Flushing, a ferry is
leaving to Harwich. Their father happens to be on that ferry and sees John and
shouts to him in surprise.

6 Their father leaves the ferry just in time and returns to help them sail the Goblin
Arriving in back to Harwich. Susan is terribly upset about their mother who will be worrying
Holland about them, so their father sends a telegram from Harwich to their mother.

7 On arriving in England, the Goblin and its crew are reunited with their mother and
Coming with Jim Brading, who is looking for his missing yacht. Their mother feels angry
Home because she thinks that they actually and secretly go to meet their father. Jim was
unconscious and in hospital for two days, suffering from concussion after being
involved in a collision with a bus. Roger keeps telling their mother that they met
Father in Holland. Hence, Father has to tell their mother about the mishap. Finally,
the children hope that their mother will understand that they didn't mean to go to
sea.

73
Characters
John, Susan, Titty, Roger, Bridget Walker
Jim Brading
Mary Walker (Mother)
Commander Ted Walker (Father)
Miss Powell
Sinbad the kitten
the Flushing Pilot

MAIN CHARACTERS

Read each chapter and write notes about each of the characters below. Find the evidence to
support your description. An example has been given.

CHARACTER DESCRIPTION EVIDENCE


JOHN 1)Reliable When the yacht drifts out to sea, he uses his skills and
experience to steer the yacht to avoid any danger or
accidents to make sure that everyone is safe.

SUSAN

JIM

TITTY

ROGER

FATHER

74
MOTHER

THEMES

Togetherness
Through thick or thin
Man proposes, God disposes
Expect the unexpected
Man versus nature

MORAL VALUES

Love & Care Responsibility Bravery


Patience Co-operation Courage
Honesty Kindness Determination
Perseverance Helpfulness Obedience
Gratitude Appreciation Confidence
MORAL LESSONS

1. We should always be positive and courageous.


2. Have confidence in everything we do.
3. Never give up.
4. We should try to solve a problem wisely and rationally.
5. We must always stick together as a family
6. Always be prepared for unexpected events in life.

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

In PT3, the novel is


included in SECTION D
10 marks
written in not less than 50 words in continuous form (not in point form)

PLAN YOUR ANSWER :


NOTE: You are required to use your higher order thinking skills (HOTS) when answering the
question on the novel. So, you need to be systematic and organised in your approach.

PARAGRAPH ANSWER

75
1 INTRODUCTION
2 3 POINTS + EVIDENCE
3 CONCLUSION

??? Paragraph 1

Point 1 Point 2 Point 3

Paragraph 2

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Conclusion Paragraph 3

NOTE: As you read the question, highlight/underline the key words.

Based on the novel that you have studied, write about the character that you like the most.
Provide evidence from the text to support your answer.

John Paragraph 1

Brave Intelligent Caring

Paragraph 2

Manages to knows how to concerned about


control the steer the yacht his siblings during
yacht in the to safety the journey
bad weather

Conclusion Paragraph 3

EXAMPLE:
PARAGRAPH 1 Based on the novel We didnt mean to go to sea by Arthur Ransome, the
character that I like the most is John Walker. This is because he is very brave,
intelligent and caring.

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PARAGRAPH 2 John is a very brave boy. When the four siblings are at sea, he manages to control
the yacht in the bad weather, calmly and using his skills, for example when he
tried to avoid the buoys and the shoals. He is also intelligent because he knows
how to steer the yacht to safety, such as when he always refers to the chart and
watches the compass carefully. He can think and act fast to make sure that they
are safe from the fog and the storm. I like John because he is a very caring
brother. He is concerned about Susan, Roger and Titty, especially when Susan
suffered from sea sickness.
PARAGRAPH 3 In conclusion, the character I like the most is John because he is a very brave,
intelligent and caring person. He will be a good role model for all students.

Now, try to answer the following questions based on the example given.

Do you like the story? Give reasons to support your answer, with evidence from the text.

Write about an event that makes you feel happy. Give reasons why you feel that way, with close
reference to the text.

Choose one character in the story and describe how he or she is an important character in that story.

Write about an event that makes you worried. Give reasons why the event makes you feel this way.

MODULE
on
77
Sing to the Dawn

NAME : __________________________________________

FORM : __________________________________________

Prepared by
Pn. Azalina Mohd Yusoff
SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra, Kelantan

ABOUT THE AUTHOR...

Minfong Ho is an award-winning ChineseAmerican writer. Her various types of writing


frequently deal with the lives of people living in poverty in Southeast Asian countries. Her stories
are always set against the backdrop of real events, such as the student movement in Thailand in
the 1970s and the Cambodian refugee problem with the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime at
the turn of the 1970s and 1980s. Her simple yet touching language and her optimistic themes
have made her writing popular among children as well as young adults. Minfong Ho was the
winner of S.E.A. Write Award in 1996.

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Sing To The Dawn by Minfong Ho

SYNOPSIS
The story is about a young Thai girl called Dawan, living in a small village, who won a
scholarship to study in a city middle school. She faced the disapproval of her father who
thought that studying was not for girls and she should have given the scholarship to her
brother as he was second in the test. Dawan tried many ways to persuade her father to
let her further her studies. She fought for her right to get basic education to see more of
the world beyond her small village. Even though she failed many times, she managed to
convince her father in the end. When the bus arrived to take her to the city, she almost
changed her mind because she was reluctant to leave everything and everyone in the
village. After her grandmother convinced her, she finally went, leaving the village behind
her to pursue her dream.

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A village Thai family

Typical village boys

A Thai girl in school uniform The city

80
Note :
Sing to the Dawn is set in a time period in which
women are considered inferior to men and are perceived
to be undeserving of education.

CHAPTER SUMMARIES
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Dawan (14 years old) and Kwai(13 years old) spent the morning talking about
the scholarship to study in a city school.
1 Kwai was quite hopeful and Dawan felt that she would not get the scholarship
because she was a girl.
Their parents thought that it was foolish and wasteful to send girls to school.
The teacher asked his students what they saw beneath their houses in the
morning.
He had a long discussion with the students about the landlord taking away sacks
of rice beneath their houses.
2
The headmaster headed to their class and listened to the discussion before
going off.
The teacher and students discussed what they should do if they won the
scholarship.
The teacher announced that Dawan won the scholarship.
The classmates surrounded Dawan as soon as they heard that she won the
scholarship.
Kwai was unhappy and upset that Dawan won the scholarship, not him.
Dawan told her family that she got the scholarship and that made her father
angry.
3 He accused Dawan of taking her own brother's chance away from him.
Dawans mother was reluctant to give her opinion (being scared and loyal to her
husband).
Dawan's grandmother however supported her.
Dawan and her grandmother planned to go to Noi's house. However, halfway
there, Dawan's mother decided to go with Dawan instead of her grandmother -
her grandmother was too old and it was a long journey (3 kilometres) to walk
under the hot sun.
The conversation at Nois house - Dawans mother, Noi (Dawans cousin, 5-6
years older than her, married and had a small baby) and Ghan (Nois husband).

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Noi said that going to the city was useless, not good and not healthy. She went
to the city to work, not to study but had to come back home because the city was
an ugly and cruel place to work.
4 Ghan worked in the city as part of a work crew.
Noi and Ghan tried to discourage Dawan from going to the city because it would
bring more harm than good.
Mr Phaspras (Army officer) made a deal with Noi's family in order not to take
Ghan into the army (Noi and Ghan had to pay him a lot of money)
After listening to what Noi and Ghan said, Dawan was still determined to go to
the city.
Kwai was upset when he knew that Dawan and their mother went to see Noi and
Ghan.
Kwai and Dawan argued over the issue of winning the scholarship.
5
Kwai came in second in the examination but he was hoping to go to the city.
At the same time, Kwai was scared of telling their father his result because
Dawan might not be allowed to go. He was in a confused state.
Dawan's father was very unapproachable. He did not want her to go to the city.
He thought that boys going to the city to study would be better than girls.
Kwai was hopeful after he heard that.
6
Dawans father would not listen to her reasons. She decided to see the gentle
old monk of the village temple. Maybe he could influence her father to change
his mind.
Dawan went to the busy and crowded market place alone early in the morning
because she wanted to meet the monk at the temple.
She met a girl, Bao who sold lotus buds and caged sparrows.
Dawan wanted to buy a lotus bud but Bao gave it for free to her.
7
She also wanted to free a caged bird to make merit but she did not have enough
money (only ten cents).
From their conversation, Dawan found out that Bao was Vichais sister (Dawans
classmate the boy who sat behind her in class).
Dawan went to see the old monk/head monk/elderly abbot in the temple.
They talked in the open courtyard outside the temple.
Dawan's teacher and the old monk were good friends, so he already told the
monk about Dawans scholarship.
8
Dawan pleaded with the monk so that he could persuade her father to let her go
to study in the city (her father respected the monk and would listen to what he
said).
The old monk did not see the need for Dawan to go to the city school. He
refused to help her because he did not believe in the idea of girls furthering their
studies.
He talked much about the Holy Ones teaching and Heaven.
Dawan ran off in bitterness and tears.
Bao allowed Dawan to release a bird for free.
Bao's brother, Vichai, came to the market stall and hit her because of that.

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Kwai stopped Vichai from hitting Bao.
After realising that Bao knew about what happened between Dawan and Kwai,
9 Kwai wanted to slap Bao. Bao accused of both Vichai and Kwai as big bullies.
Kwai pushed Dawan away when she tried to stop him from hitting Bao.
Dawan landed on top of a pile of broken birdcages, injuring herself.
Cousin Noi helped Dawan with her bleeding ankle.
Dawan limped off alone to return home.
In the heavy rain, Dawan went to the river to sit on the old bridge but Kwai was
already there.
Kwai was thinking about Dawan's words (about him being a bully).
10
The siblings talked about what happened and expressed their feelings about the
whole issue.
Kwai realised that Dawan was a caring sister and he finally made his decision.
Both of them returned home together.
On their way home in the heavy rain, they saw their father leading the buffalo
home (which Kwai forgot to do).
They decided to hide from him because he looked angry but later they
approached him.
Their father heard from the teacher that Kwai got second in the test and was
angry at him for not telling him about it.
11
Back at home, their grandmother tried to comfort the scared Dawan.
Father had a good and serious discussion with Kwai and Dawan about the
scholarship.
Father was very reluctant to let Dawan go to the city school but Dawan and Kwai
managed to convince him. He finally allowed Dawan to go.
Kwai was both happy and sad at the same time about their fathers decision.
Dawans last morning at home.
At dawn, she went to the top of the old wooden bridge and saw that Kwai was
already there.
12
The siblings talked about Dawans leaving the village.
Kwai would miss Dawan because no one would be there to watch the sunrise
with him.
He cried and ran off.
Dawan started singing her morning song one last time before going home to get
ready to go to the city.
At first Dawan was unsure if she wanted to leave because she would miss
everything and everyone in her village.
Her grandmother gave her a lot of advice and encouragement to persuade her
to go. She gave Dawan a glass jar of lotus bud.
When she was boarding the bus to go to the city, Kwai was nowhere to be seen.
13
Although many people in the village sent her off, she was not happy as Kwai
was not there.

83
During the bus journey, she saw Kwai on the bridge that they usually went to, he
was waving goodbye at her, singing their favourite morning song, which she
continued singing until she could not see him anymore.

MAIN CHARACTERS

Read each chapter and write notes about each of the characters below. Find the evidence to
support your description. Some examples have been given.

CHARACTER DESCRIPTION EVIDENCE


DAWAN 1)Determined/ Dawan tried very hard to convince her father that he
Ambitious should give her the chance to study. She never gave
up and continued until she succeeded in going to a
city school.
2)

KWAI 1)Bad tempered When Dawan tried to stop Kwai from hitting Bao at the
marketplace, he pushed her until she fell and injured
her ankle.

2)

FATHER

MOTHER

GRANDMOTHER

BAO

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NOI

GHAN

HEAD MONK

TEACHER

Who do you think they are?

___________ ___________ __________ __________ ___________ ___________

THEMES

Close family ties


Gender inequality/biasness (boys versus girls)
Ideals versus reality
Village life versus city life
Poverty
Future and opportunities

MORAL VALUES

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Love & Care Responsibility Sacrifice Bravery
Courage Patience Friendship Concern
Honesty Kindness Determination Tolerance
Loyalty Perseverance Helpfulness Obedience
Gratitude Appreciation Confidence Discipline

MORAL LESSONS

1. Everyone deserves an equal right to education


2. We should work hard to improve the quality of our family life
3. Appreciate and take care of nature
4. We should have a positive attitude
5. Be open-minded and approachable
6. We have to listen to others and be more tolerant
7. Have confidence in life
8. Determination is the key to success
9. We should respect our elders
10. Focus on the family

QUICK CHECK ON YOUR UNDERSTANDING


(BASED ON EACH CHAPTER)
Use the following graphic organiser to complete the information for each chapter.

86
WHO?

WHAT MORAL
HAPPENED? VALUES?

CHAPTER:
______

WHEN?
WHY?
WHERE?

HOTS :-

Give your own opinion about the main event(s) in the chapter.

Given a chance, how would you change the event(s) in this chapter? Why?

DISCUSSION TIME (HOTS)


With your teachers help, try to discuss with your friends

87
the following quotations and pictures below.

QUOTABLE QUOTES
The object of education is to prepare the young to educate themselves throughout their lives.
~Robert Maynard Hutchins

Education's purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one. ~Malcolm S. Forbes

Children have to be educated, but they have also to be left to educate themselves. ~AbbDimnet,
Art of Thinking, 1928

Education is the movement from darkness to light. ~Allan Bloom

Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself. ~John Dewey

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT


PLAN YOUR ANSWER :

88
NOTE: You are required to use your higher order thinking skills (HOTS) when answering the
question on the novel. So, you need to be systematic and organised in your approach.

PARAGRAPH ANSWER
1 INTRODUCTION + THESIS STATEMENT
2 POINT 1 + EVIDENCE + JUSTIFICATION
3 POINT 2 + EVIDENCE + JUSTIFICATION
4 POINT 3 + EVIDENCE + JUSTIFICATION
5 CONCLUSION + REFLECTION

???

Point 1 Point 2 Point 3

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Justification Justification Justification

NOTE: As you read the question, highlight/underline the key words.

EXAMPLE:
Choose ONE character that has undergone some major changes in his/her life. Describe the
changes and support each change with evidence from the novel.

Character

Change 1 Change 2 Change 3

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Justification Justification Justification

Example:

DAWAN

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[After she won the scholarship]

more more more


POINTS : determined courageous mature

EVIDENCE : to further her approaches thinks about


studies in the the old monk her future & how
city & her father to help her family

JUSTIFICATION : To emphasize She needs to To improve the


on the equality convince others life of her family
of education about her & to get out of
(not only for boys) ability poverty

Based on the given points, try to write your answer. The introductory paragraph is already done
for you.

PARAGRAPH 1 Based on the novel Sing to the Dawn by Minfong Ho, the character
that has undergone some major changes in her life is Dawan. She is a
poor Thai village girl, aged 14 years old, who won a scholarship to study
in the city. After winning the scholarship, Dawan has become more
determined, courageous and mature in trying to pursue her dreams.
PARAGRAPH 2

PARAGRAPH 3

PARAGRAPH 4

PARAGRAPH 5 So, based on the evidence from the novel that I have given, it really
proves that Dawan has changed for the better. I wish I could be

90
determined, courageous and mature like Dawan, to be successful in my
studies and in my life.

PRACTICE

1) Write about ONE important theme in the story. Relate the theme to some of the
characters in the story.

Theme

Character 1 Character 2 Character 3

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Justification Justification Justification

2) What lessons have you learnt from one of the characters in the novel?

Character

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Justification Justification Justification

3) Did you enjoy reading the novel? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

91
YES/NO

Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Justification Justification Justification

4) State ONE event which you feel should not have happened. Explain why you think so.

Event

Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3

Evidence Evidence Evidence

Justification Justification Justification

5) Describe THREE events in the novel that have touched your feelings. Give reasons for
your choices.

Novel.

Event 1 Event 2 Event 3

Reason Reason Reason

Justification Justification Justification

6) Hope is an important factor in life. Choose ONE character in the novel. What does
he/she hope to achieve? Show how this hope affects his/her life.

92
Character + hope

Achieve 1 Achieve 2 Achieve 3

Effect Effect Effect

Justification Justification Justification

7) State an important decision made by one of the main characters. Show how the decision
changed his/her life.

Character + Decision

How 1 How 2 How 3

Justification Justification Justification

FURTHER ACTIVITIES

A picture paints a thousand words

93
Based on your understanding of each picture below, discuss with your teacher or friends on the
issue. Try to relate each picture with the characters and events in the novel.

94
95
SPM QUESTIONS:

2008 Based on the novel that you have studied, describe what happens at the end of
the story. Explain why you find the ending either happy or sad.
2009 Write about a difficult decision made by one of the characters. Do you think this
was the right decision?
2010 Write about an important incident that you remember. Give reasons why you
remember the incident.
2011 Which part of the story do you like most? Give reasons for your choice.

2012 Write about an event that makes you angry. Give reasons why the event makes
you feel this way.
2013 Write about an important decision made by one of the characters. Explain how it
affects the other character(s).
2014 One has to struggle to improve ones life.
How far is this true of the novel you have studied?
2015 Describe a life-changing event that happens to a character and what it has taught
you.
2016 Describe a scene that makes you either happy or sad. Give reasons why you feel
this way.

96
ANSWERS

97
Sad I Ams

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Where does the ring come from? Empty Cola can


2. Where do the scrapings come from? Unwashed porridge pan
3. What is Action Man? A toy

STANZA 2

Problems:

(a) The gum is gone


(b) The end cannot be found
(c) Toothless
(d) Springless
(e) Dried up

STANZA 3

1. What type of vehicle is referred to in this stanza? Car/van/lorry


2. Write the lines to suggest that the vehicle cannot start or move
a) Line 2 : the battery in which no charge is left
b) Line 3 : the starter motor which remains inert
c) Line 5 : the sparking plug which shows no sign of spark
d) Line 6 : the carburettor choked by bits and dirt

STANZA 4

List the items mentioned in this stanza

a) Garden
b) Library book
c) Stray
d) Advice

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

98
STANZA 1

1. Who do you think love to drink from cans?


a) Children
b) Boys
c) Men
2. Who do you think broke the arm of the Action Man? A child / the owner of the toy

STANZA 2

1. Describe how you feel when you cannot find the end of a cellophane tape. Frustrated /
angry / upset
2. What would you do to correct your written mistake when your liquid paper is dried up?
Cancel my mistake using a pen
3. How would you feel when you suddenly found a letter which you forgot to post?
Frustrated because the letter did not reach the person I wrote to

STANZA 3

1) What would you do if your vehicle cannot start or move?


a) Call a mechanic
b) Try to repair it myself
2) Would you buy a new vehicle if you cannot use the one you have? Why?
Yes
a) Because it is already old
b) Because I need a vehicle as a transport to move around
No
a) Because I do not have enough money to buy a new one
b) Because the vehicle is special to me and I want to keep it

STANZA 4

1. What should you do if your garden is overgrown with weeds?


Mow the lawn
2. Who should be looking after your garden at home? Why?
My mother/father because she/he knows about gardening
3. In your opinion, what makes a library book uninteresting?
a) The cover looks boring
b) It is too thick
4. Suggest ways to solve the problems of stray animals in your neighbourhood.
a) Take them as pets
b) Have a Care for Animals campaign

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning

99
1 Scrapings The food that is stuck to 5 Inert Not moving/starting
the bottom of the pan
2 Severed Cut off 6 Tread The pattern on the
surface of a tyre
3 Mars Spoils/makes something 7 Choked Full of something that
become worse stops the flow
4 Mend Repair/make better 8 Stray Wandering animal that
nobody wants

News Break

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Who is asking the question? The persona / parent / father / mother / guardian
2. How many questions are asked in this stanza? Four

STANZA 2

1. Describe the childs face. Clean


2. Quote the line which shows that the child is being careful. Your clothes without a
crease

STANZA 3

1. List the things that the child would normally do when he/she got home.
a) Dropped school books
b) Shrieked
c) Made childish treble
2. What does it mean when the persona/parent says that the child is a lamb?
He/she is very well behaved

STANZA 4

1. What does the persona/parent ask the child to do?


To come closer to him/her
2. Which line suggests that the persona/parent cannot believe what he/she sees?
Can this be REALLY you?

STANZA 5

1. Which line suggests that the persona/parent has just realised what is happening.
Ahnow I see the reason
2. What does the child bring back from school?

100
His/her school report

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. Describe the persona/parents feelings when he/she says For goodness sake, whats
this? in stanza 1.
The parent finds the childs behaviour quite strange / not normal OR
He/she is surprised or shocked
2. What would the child normally do with his/her luncheon money at school (stanza 2)?
Buy food and drinks at recess time
3. Give an example of what the child did when the persona/parent says Where yesterday
a rebel (stanza 3)
He/she did not listen to his/her parents advice OR he/she messed his/her bedroom
4. Why does the persona/parent feel that the child is a stranger (stanza 4)?
Because he/she is being very good
5. What do you think the child would say to his/her parent when he/she gives the school
report?
Mum/Dad, this is my report card. I hope you wont be angry.
6. Describe your own feelings every time you give your school academic report to your
parents.
I feel nervous and also scared because my result is not always good
7. Do you think examinations are important for students? Give TWO reasons.
a) Examinations will test them on what they have learned and understood
b) Students will be more serious in their studies because the results will be important
for their future
8. Why are parents concerned about their childrens studies?
Because they want the best for their children
9. Suggest TWO ways students can follow in order to get success in their studies.
a) Have a personal study time table
b) Study in small groups after school
10) What is your future career? Why?
I want to be a doctor because I want to help treat people, especially the poor ones.

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Crease Not smooth 5 Rebel A person who goes
against the rule/law
2 Cease Stop 6 Rage Anger
3 Shrieking Screamed 7 Hullabaloo Fuss / commotion
4 Treble Noise/loud sound 8 Stunned Shocked/surprised

101
My Hero

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Which line suggests that the persona thinks of his father as the best hero?
I rate him Number One
2. What is the meaning of the dead of night?
The night is very dark and quiet

STANZA 2

1. List two things that do not scare the personas father.


(i) Late-night film /horror movie on television
(ii) Skeletons

2. Which line tells us that the persona is confident about his fathers bravery?
Not dad, not on your Nelly!

STANZA 3

1. What would the personas father do to prove that he is not afraid of ghosts?
Smile and greet them
2. Which line suggests that his father is better than other fathers?
My dad could just defeat em

STANZA 4

1. List the three types of monsters mentioned in this stanza.


(i) Vampires
(ii) Wolf-man
(iii) Frankensteins monster
2. The word him refers to the personas father

STANZA 5

1. Which line suggests that the personas father is very confident?


And hes always ready to prove it
2. What does his mother have to do in the bathroom?
She has to remove the spider that is in the bathtub

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.
102
1. Who do you think the persona is talking to about his father? Why?
Maybe he is talking to his friends/classmates because they are making comparisons
about their fathers.
2. How does the persona know that his father is not afraid of watching horror movies late at
night?
The persona sleeps late every night / he watches the movies with his father.
3. In your opinion, which line is the best description of his fathers bravery? Why?
My dad could just defeat em because he can do what other fathers cannot do.
(Note: The student can just choose any line but he needs to justify his choice.)
4. What would his father do to the monsters (in stanza 4)? How?
He would kill them all by using his karate skills.
5. Why do you think the personas mother has to remove the spider in the bathtub?
His father is scared of spiders or tiny/furry insects.
6. Suggest two ways to show your appreciation to your father.
(i) Always help him wash his car
(ii) Play games with him
7. Apart from your father, who would you consider your hero? Why?
I choose my neighbour because he is strong and brave like my father.
8. What would be the best present you could give to your father on his birthday? Why?
I will give him a video camera so that he can record all the family activities for his video
collection.

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Horrors Fears 4 Vampires Living corpse
2 Skeleton Bones of a dead person 5 Upset Unhappy/disappointed
3 Defeat Win over 6 Remove Get rid of/throw away

What is red?

PRACTICE 1
1. From the poem, list the positive examples of red. (Choose five from the list below)
(i) Sunset (vii) fire-crackers (festive occasions)
(ii) Feeling brave (viii) fire-engine
(iii) Rose (ix) lipstick
(iv) Brick (x) rubber ball
(v) Sound of a band (xi) Valentine heart
(vi) Circus cart (xii) Red Indian

2. From the poem, list the negative examples of red.


(i) Sunburn
(ii) Anger

103
(iii) Shout
(iv) Blood from a cut
(v) Feeling embarrassed

3. What is the meaning of with all your might?


With all your power or strength
4. What causes a sunburn?
Being under the hot sun for too long
5. In the poem, you refers to the reader
6. Red squiggles out refers to blood
7. What flower does red refer to in this poem?
Rose
8. Which line suggests that red is also the colour of love?
A Valentine heart.
9. Which line tells us that some people wear red to attract attention?
Red is a show-off
10. What does it in the last line refer to?
Red

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)


NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. Why do you think red refers to the sunset and not the sunrise?
Because it is getting dark and the sun is setting
2. How is it possible for you to get a sunburn? Explain.
When I sit under the sun for too long without wearing anything to protect me from the
heat, like wearing a cap or hat I will get a sunburn.
3. Based on your own experience, why do people dislike feeling embarrassed?
Because they do not want to be laughed at / they will lose their confidence when they
feel silly.
4. Why do you think people give red roses to their loved ones?
As a symbol of love or romance / Red roses are special because they are very
beautiful and expensive.
5. How could a visit to a circus make you happy?
I can see many interesting circus acts and also animals like tigers and elephants.
6. In your opinion, is red the best colour for a lipstick? Why?
Yes, because it is a bright and can make a woman look very beautiful.
OR

104
No, because it is too bright and it will make a woman look ugly/like a clown.
7. Who do you think would be interested in playing with a big red rubber ball? Why?
Small children will like it because it will be fun trying to kick or catch a big ball.
8. Do you think red is the best choice of colour for a school uniform? Why?
Yes, because it will make the students look smart and cheerful.
OR
No, because it is not suitable for a school as a place to study.
9. Would you want to live in a red bungalow? Why?
Yes, because my house will look the most interesting in my area.
OR
No, my neighbours will think that we are a crazy family because we choose red paint.
10. Some people do not like red. Give two possible reasons.
(i) The colour is too bright
(ii) They do not like to show off.

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Blazing Burning brightly 4 Embarrassed Feeling
2 Might Power/strength 5 Flicker Glint/glimmer
3 Squizzles Wriggles/moves 6 Trimmings decorations
unevenly

The Day the Bulldozers Came

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. What are the creatures mentioned in this stanza? Rooks, green flies and toad.
2. What are rooks? Birds
3. The crazy egg baskets refer to bird nests.
4. The word them refers to the green flies.

STANZA 2

1. What animal does this stanza focus on? Squirrels.


2. Describe what they did when the bulldozers came.
They were scattering up tree trunks and leapt from the branches.
3. branches that were hardly there What happened to the branches?
The branches were chopped/cut off/broken.

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STANZA 3

1. What disturbed the foxs sleep? The ground trembled.


2. Where was the fox when the bulldozers came? Deep down in the Earth / underground.
3. Which line suggests that the fox was not worried? Im quite safe (line 5)

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

STANZA 1

1. Give a possible reason for the rooks to be building their nests on trees.
To be safe from any types of danger or wild animals.
2. Why would a toad be waiting for the green flies? To eat them.

STANZA 2

1. If you were the squirrel, how would you feel when the bulldozers came into the forest?
I would feel very scared because my life would be in danger.
2. What would happen to the squirrels if they fell off the trees?
They would have died or been injured.

STANZA 3

1. What could possibly cause the ground to tremble?


The bulldozer that was moving in the forest.
2. Do you think the fox would survive? Give a reason for your answer.
YES, because he was deep down underground where the bulldozer could not possibly
reach him.
NO, because he could die when the ground collapsed and buried him alive.
3. Suggest TWO ways to save the fox and other animals from destruction caused by the
bulldozers.
a) Move the animals in the forest to a nearby zoo or forest reserve.
b) Prevent deforestration in the forest where these animals live.

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 rooks crows/birds 5 scattering moving all over the
place
2 oaks trees 6 leapt jumped
3 sizzled flew noisily 7 hardly Not at all

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4 Cold-eyed emotionless 8 stirred moved gently

Poisoned Talk

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Where did the cock robin die? On the branch of a withered tree
2. What poisoned the worm? The acid soil

STANZA 2

1. How did the fish kill the heron? With its tainted flesh
2. What else did the fish kill? Tern, duck, drake and all the birds of the lake.

STANZA 3

1. What did Industry poison the lake with? Mercury


2. Why did Industry kill the lake? To pamper mans greed / to satisfy greedy people

STANZA 4

1. Which word suggests that the wind was sad? moaned (line 2)
2. Which phrase has the same meaning as move freely)? prowl unconfined (line 3)

STANZA 5

1. What destroyed the forest? Sulphur dioxide


2. Which line tells us that everything in the forest was destroyed?And all life within it(line 4)

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. How could the robin be poisoned by the worm?


The robin must have eaten the worm.
2. Why did the birds go to the lake?
To look for fish to eat.
3. Give TWO negative effects of modern industries.
i. Global warming
ii. Pollution
4. Name TWO types of pollution.
i. Air pollution
ii. Water pollution

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5. How can we save the environment? Suggest TWO ways.
i. Plant more trees
ii. Reduce pollution

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 withered dried 5 moaned made the sound of
pain
2 tainted contaminated/polluted 6 prowl move around
3 boasted Talked proudly 7 unconfined Not restricted/limited
4 pamper give special treatment 8 fen wetland

The Living Photograph

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. Give three descriptions of the personas grandmothers appearance.


(a) tall
(b) straight-back
(c) has a kind old smile
(Also accept : neat / properly dressed)
2. Based on Stanza 1, describe the grandmothers personality.
(a) kind
(b) warm
(Also accept : loving / caring / other suitable adjectives)
3. What does line 7 tell you about the grandmother?
Still strong / determined / courageous / brave

STANZA 2

1. Describe the grandmother when she was old and sick.


(a) small
(b) round and hunched
2. Why did she forget to boil her soup?
She was too ill / sick
3. What happened to the grandmother in the end?

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She died

STANZA 3
1. How old was the persona when the photograph was taken?
Three
2. Describe the personas feelings when she looks at the photograph.
Sad / nostalgic / other suitable adjectives
3. Quote the phrase that describes the grandmother as being old.
(the) crinkled smile

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. In stanza 1, why does the grandmother look tall in the photograph?


Because she is still well/healthy eventhough she is already old [2 marks]

2. Based on stanza 1, describe how the persona feels about her grandmother.
She loves her grandmother very much and she is very close to her grandmother.
[2 marks]

3. Why do you think the persona describesthe afterlife asawful, unknown and unthinkable?
Because she is still a child and to her, death is something that is very scary and
mysterious.[2 marks]

4. Is it good tokeep photographsof your loved ones? Give two reasons.


(a) Yes, because we can always remember how they look like [1 mark]

(b) Yes, because we can show the photographs to our children and grandchildren and
tell them about their ancestors [1 mark]

(c) Do you consider the grandmother as courageous? Give your evidence from the
poem.
Yes, she was very courageous based on the line Her sharp blue eyes look her own
death in the eye [2 marks]

(d) In your own words, describe the relationship between the persona and her
grandmother.

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They were very close and they loved each other very much. [2 marks]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 Pleated Folded sewn or pressed 4 unknown Unfamiliar/mysterious
into the cloth
2 hunched Crouched 5 unthinkable Cannot be
considered/imagined
3 Awful Terrible/bad 6 crinkled Wrinkled

The Charge Of The Light Brigade

PRACTICE 1

STANZA 1

1. What does the Light Brigade refer to?


Soldiers
2. Who said Forward, the Light Brigade!?
The commander/captain/leader of the brigade
3. What was the order?
To attack the enemies/to move forward/to go into battle
4. Into the valley of Death
What would happen to the men?
They would die/they would not survive the battle

STANZA 2

1. Based on this stanza, describe the personality of the soldiers.


(a) loyal/obedient
(b) brave/courageous
(c) confident/determined
2. The word Theirs refers to the soldiers
3. What is the meaning of blundered?
Made a mistake

STANZA 3

1. Describe the scene of the battlefield.


The soldiers were surrounded by the enemies / the soldiers were attacked with cannon
and gunshots

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2. What Volleyed and thundered?
The cannon
3. What do you think happened at the end of the poem?
Most of the soldiers died in the battle / the soldiers lost the war / other possible answers

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)

NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. In your own words, describe how the soldiers felt when they went into the battlefield.
They felt very brave and determined to win the war even though they were a small a
group of soldiers [2 marks]

2. In your opinion, was it the right thing to do for the soldiers to follow the captains
command? Give a reason.
Yes, because it was their duty to follow their leader OR
No, because the captains command means that they would die in the battle [2 marks]

3. What do you think of the captains command?


It was the right thing to do because all the soldiers were experienced OR
It was a crazy thing to do because there were only 600 soldiers to fight against so many
enemies. [2 marks]

4. Give two suggestions on how we should show our appreciations to those who defend
our country.
(a) We should have a special Hero Day to honour them [1 mark]

(b) We should give them a special award for their honorable deeds [1 mark]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)

No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning


1 league Short distance / way to 5 volleyed Hit/fired/shot
measure distance
2 valley Low, flat land between 6 shell Bullets from guns
hills/mountains / dale
3 dismayed Shocked/terrified/sad 7 boldly Bravely/courageously

4 blundered Made a serious mistake 8 jaws Lower part of your face

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A Poison Tree

PRACTICE 1
STANZA 1
1. What did the persona do when he was angry with his friend?
He told his friend about it.
2. What happened when the persona was angry with his foe?
He did not tell his foe / He just kept quiet
3. In your own words, describe my wrath did grow about the persona?
His anger increased / became worse

STANZA 2
1. Name four things the persona did to make his anger grow.
(i) Watered it in fears
(ii) Watered it with tears
(iii) Sunned it with smiles
(iv) Sunned it with soft deceitful wiles

2. What did the persona do to pretend that he was not angry?


He smiled (and became persuasive)
3. Which phrase suggests that the persona had planned a devious strategy?
with soft deceitful wiles

STANZA 3

1. What does it refer to?


Anger / Tree / Tree of anger
2. Which line suggests that the tree is growing very well?
Till it bore an apple bright
3. Which line tells us that the personas enemy noticed the apple?
And my foe beheld it shine

STANZA 4

1. What does And into my garden stole tell us about the enemy?

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He sneaked / went quietly into the personas garden
2. In your own words, describe the night.
The night was very dark / in total darkness
3. What may have happened to the enemy in the end?
He died after eating the poison apple / He fainted / He became unconscious

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)


NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. In stanza 1, what may have caused the persona to be angry with his friend?
(i) A misunderstanding
(ii) A disagreement about something [2 marks]
2. In stanza 1, why do you think the persona did not want to tell his enemy that he was
angry?
Maybe because he was afraid of his enemy / He was trying to pretend that he was not
affected by what happened [2 marks]

3. Why did the persona do all the things described in stanza 2?


He wanted to avenge his anger / He wanted to punish his enemy for what happened.
[2 marks]

4. Based on stanza 2, in your opinion, did the personas enemy realise his deception? Why?
No, I do not think so because the persona always smiled and acted nicely.[2 marks]

5. Based on stanza 3, why do you think the persona let his tree of anger grow so well?
He wanted to attract his enemy to eat the poison fruit [2 marks]

6. How did the persona manage to attract his enemys attention?


By growing such a big tree with bright and shiny apples [2 marks]

7. Based on stanza 4, describe the personas feelings in the end. Why does he feel that
way?
He feels satisfied / happy / pleased with his effort because his enemy is defeated in the
end /
Died. [2 marks]

8. Based on the whole poem, explain what you understand by a poison tree in this context.
It is actually the symbol of the personas anger which he let grow so big that it killed his
enemy
[2 marks]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)
No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning
1 wrath Anger / fury 4 foe enemy

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2 deceitful Dishonest / insincere 5 Veiled Covered / hidden
3 wiles Tricks / devious 6 outstretched Stretched out / lying
with arms and legs
strategies
apart

What Has Happened To Lulu?

PRACTICE 1
STANZA 1
1. Why does the persona ask his mother about Lulu?
Because she was not in her bedroom
2. Name two things that the persona notices in Lulus bedroom.
(i) An old rag-doll in her bed
(ii) A shoe by her bedside

STANZA 2
1. What causes the curtain to flap free?
The wind / breeze from the open window
2. Where did Lulu put her money-box?
On the dusty shelf

STANZA 3

1. Why does the mother turn her head away from the persona?
She does not want the persona to see her tears / her worried look
2. What phrase refers to the paper the mother is reading?
that note

STANZA 4

1. What woke the persona from his sleep?


Voices / people talking
2. the things in line 3 refer to
(i) voices
(ii) an engine roar

STANZA 5

1. Describe what the persona heard that night?


Somebody cried in anger or in pain
2. What excuse does the mother give as an answer to the personas question?
It was a gust of rain

STANZA 6

1. What does the persona notice about his mother?

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She is wandering about / she looks restless or worried
2. Based on You dont know what to do, describe the mothers feelings.
She feels nervous / worried / in panic

PRACTICE 2 (HOTS Questions)


NOTE : The answers for HOTS questions can be varied & wide ranging but most importantly,
they should be logical/reasonable and relevant to the question. Teachers are advised to use
their own discretion. The answers given below are simply examples of acceptable ones.

1. How do you know that the persona is close to Lulu?


He is concerned about his sister and he also calls her Lu maybe as her nickname [2
marks]

2. In your opinion, did Lulu run away or was she kidnapped? Give a reason for your
answer.
I think she ran away through her bedroom window, taking along her money-box with her.
Or
I think she was kidnapped because the persona heard her crying out, some voices
outside the house and the engine of a vehicle. [2 marks]

3. What do you think of the mothers answers to the personas questions?


Her answers are all lies and some are not logical / do not make sense [2 marks]

4. Why doesnt the mother tell the truth to the persona? Give two possible reasons.
(a) She does not want him to be scared [1 mark]
(b) she does not want to worry him [1 mark]

5. Suggest two things that the mother should do about Lulus disappearance.
(a) Report to the police [1 mark]
(b) Ask for her neighbours help[1 mark]

6. In your opinion, where was the personas father when Lulu disappeared?
He was working on a night shift / he was divorced from the mother / he was away on
business . [2 marks]

7. Why do some teenagers run away from home? Give two possible reasons.
(a) Some family problems [1 mark]
(b) Bad influence from friends [1 mark]

8. What should be done to prevent child kidnapping? Suggest two ways.


(a) Parental care and concern [1 mark]
(b) Awareness campaigns [1 mark]

9. How would you feel if a family member disappears from home?


Upset / depressed / sad / confused / stressed [2 marks]

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10. How can social media help in cases of child kidnapping?
(a) It can inform the public about what is happening [1 mark]
(b) It can lead to many types of help from many people or organizations [1 mark]

PRACTICE 3 (VOCABULARY)
No. Word Meaning No. Word Meaning
1 Rag-doll Doll made from pieces of 4 roar Loud sound
cloth
2 flapping Fluttering / waving / 5 gust strong
swinging
3 crumple Creased / crushed 6 wander Walking / moving
aimlessly

THE END

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