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1. Water flows in a rectangular, concrete, open channel that is 12.0 m wide at a

depth of 2.5m. The channel slope is 0.0028. Find the water velocity and the flow

rate.

( )( )

v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s1 / 2 n = 0.013

R = A / p w = (12.0)(2.5) / (2.5 + 12.0 + 2.5) = 1.765m

( )(

v = (1.0 / 0.013) 1.765 2 / 3 0.00281 / 2 = 5.945m / s )

Q = Av = (12.0 )(2.5)(5.945) = 178m / s 3

Water flows in the symmetrical trapezoidal channel lined with asphalt shown in

Fig. 1 The channel bottom drops 0.1 ft vertically for every 100ft of length. What

are the water velocity and flow rate?

4.5ft 1

16ft

2. Water is to flow at a rate of 30 m3/s in the concrete channel shown in Fig 2. Find

the required vertical drop of the channel bottom per kilometer of length.

( )( )

v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 = Q / A = 30 / 12.40 = 2.419m / s

R = A / p w = (12.40 ) / (10.3) = 1.236m

( )( )

2.419 = (1.0 / 0.013) 1.236 2 / 3 s1 / 2 s = 0.000746

This slope represents a drop of the channel bottom of 0.000746 m per meter of

length, or 0.746 m per kilometer of length.

4 .0 m

1 .6 m

3 .6 m

2 .0 m

3. A 500-mm-diameter concrete pipe on a 1/500 slope is to carry water at a flow

rate of 0.040 m3/s. Find the depth of flow. See Fig as below.

( )( )

1. / 2

1

v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s1 / 2 = Q / A = 0.040 / A 0.040 / A = (1.0 / 0.013)(R )2 / 3

500

AR 2 / 3 = 0.01163 sin ceR = A / p w ,

A5 / 3 / p w 2 / 3 = 0.01163 (1)

Equation (1) contains two unknowns, A and pw; however, both unknowns can be

expressed in terms of the unknown depth of flow, d. The applicable area in this

problem is the shaded area (AECDA) in Fig as below. AB=BC=0.25m (both

area radii), BE = 0.25-d. Therefore, AE=CE= (0.25)2 (0.25 d )2 ,

ABE=EBC=arcos [(0.25-d)/0.25],

( Area ) ABCDE = = 0.001091 arccos

4 360 0.25

( Area ) ABEA = ( Area )BCED =

2

( Area ) AECDA = ( Area ) ABCDA 2( Area ) ABEA

(0.25 d ) (0.25)2 (0.25 d )2

0.25 d

= 0.001091 arccos 2

0.25 2

p w = ADC = ( )(0.5)

(2 ) arccos [(0 .25 d ) / 0 .25] 0.25 d

= 0.008727 arccos

360 0.25

5/3

0.25 d 2

(0.25 d ) (0.25) (0.25 d )

2

0.01091 arccos

0.25 m3

2/3

= 0.01163

0.25 d s

0.008727 arccos

0.25

This equation is not readily solvable, but a trial-error solution (not shown here)

reveals that d=0.166m or 166mm.

4. Calculate the discahrege in cubic feet per second through the channel and

floodway of Fig for steady uniform flow, with s=0.0009 and y=8ft.

( )( )

Q = A(1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 y = 8 * 0.3048 = 2.438m

A1 = 12 * (5 + 2.438) + 2 * (5 + 2.438)(5 + 2.438) / 2 2.438 * 2.438 / 2 = 141.6m 2

(0.0009 )= 482.5m

2/3

141.6 1/ 2 3

Q1 = 141.6 (1.0 / 0.025) /s

29.59

A2 = 120 * (2.438) + (2.438)(2.438) / 2 = 295.5 m 2

(0.0009 )= 396.7 m

2/3

295.5 1/ 2 3

Q2 = 295.5 (1.0 / 0.040) /s

123.4

Q = Q1 + Q2 = 482.5 + 396.7 = 879.2m 3 / s = 879.2 / 0.3048 3 = 31.050 ft 3 / s

n=0.040

n=0.025 5m

12m 120m

A1 2 / 3 1 / 2 A2 2 / 3 1 / 2

Q1 = R1 S 0 Q2 = R2 S 0

n1 n2

A1 A2

R1 = R2 =

P1 P2

P1 perimeter from point 1 to point 4 P2 wetted perimeter form point 4 to point6

Q = Q1 + Q2

1

6

A 2

A 1

4 5

2 3 n2

n1

5. Uniform water flow in a wide brick channel (n=0.015) of slope 0.02 moves

over a 10 cm bump as in Fig below. A slight depression in water surface results.

If the minimum water depth over the bump is 50 cm, compute the velocity over

the bump and the flow rate per meter of width.

( )( )

v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 = Q / A = 0.040 / A v1 = (1.0 / 0.015)( y1 )2 / 3 (tan 0.02)1. / 2 = 1.246 y12 / 3

the Bernoulli equation and neglecting bottom slope.

y1 + v12 / 2 g = y 2 + v22 / 2 g + hmax

(

y1 + 1.246 y12 / 3 ) /(2 * 9.807) = 50 / 100 + (2.492 y ) /(2 * 9.807) + 10 / 100

2 5/3 2

1

2/3

y1 = 0.623m by trial and error v1 = 1.246 * 0.623 = 0.9098 m / s

v2 = 2.492 * 0.623 5/3

= 1.13 m / s (

q = v1 y1 = 0.9089 * 0.623 = 0.566 m 3 / s / m )

6. In Fig water flows uniformly at a steady rate of 14cfs in a very long triangular

flume, which has side slopes of 1:1. The bottom of this flume is on a slope of

0.006, and n=0.012

a. Is the flow subcritical or supercritical?

( )( )

Q = A(1.486 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2

A = y * 2y / 2= y2 p w = 2 * 2 * y = 2.828 y

(

14.0 = y 2 (1.486 / 0.012) y 2 / 2.828 y ) (0.006 )

2/3 1/ 2

y = 1.49 ft (by trial and error)

Q 2 / g = A3 / B ( ) / 2y

14 2 / 32.2 = y c2

3

c y c = 1.65 ft

v c2 / g = Ac / Bc = y c2 / 2 y c = y c / 2 y c2 / 2 g = y c / 4

Consequently, we see that the relation between v c2 / 2 g and y for critical-flow

conditions depends on the geometry of the flow section. If the vertex angle of

the triangle had been different, the relations would have been different.

undergoes a hydraulic jump, as in Fig as below. If y1=1m and y3=40cm, estimate

v1, v3, and y4. Neglect friction.

y1v1 = y 3 v3 v1 = y 3 v3 / y1 = 40 / 100 + v3 / 1 = 0.4000v3

1 + (0.4000v3 )2 / (2 * 9.807 ) = 40 / 100 + v32 / (2 * 9.807 )

v3 = 3.74m / s v1 = 04000 * 3.74 = 1.50m / s

[

2 y 4 / y 3 = 1 + 1 + 8(N F )32 ]

1/ 2

N F = v / gy

2 y 4 / (40 / 100 ) = 1 + 1 + 8 * 1.89 2 ]

0.5

y 4 = 0.888m

8. In Fig 8., uniform flow of water occurs at 27 cfs in a 4-ft-wide rectangular flume

at a depth of 2.00 ft. (a) Is the flow subcritical or supereritical? (b) If a hump of

height t = 0.30 ft is placed in the bottom of the flume, calculate the water depth

on the hump. Neglect head loss in flow over the hump. (c) If the hump height is

raised to z = 0.60 ft, what then are the water depths upstream and downstream

of the hump? Once again neglect head loss over the hump.

(a) First find critical depth: yc=(q2/g)1/3=[(27/4)2/32.2]1/3 =1.12 ft. Since the

normal depth (2.00 ft) is greater than the critical depth, the flow is subcritical

and the channel slope is mild.

(b) Find the critical hump height. Write the energy equation between sections 1

and 2, assume critical flow on the hump and apply continuity.

V1=271(4 x 1. 12) = 6.03 fps (2)

V2 = 271(4 X 2) = 3.38 fps (3)

Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) gives (z)critical = 0.49 ft. Thus the minimum-

height hump that will produce critical depth on the hump is 0.49 ft.

Since the actual hump height, z = 0.30 ft, is less than the critical hump height,

0.49 ft, critical flow occur on the hump and there is no damrning action.

Let us now find the depth yz on the hump:

Continuity: (4 2) V1 = 4y2V2= 27 cfs (5)

Eliminating V1 and V2 from Eqs. (4) and (5) gives three roots for y2; y2= 1.6Oft,

0.82ft, or a negative answer that has no physical meaning. Since the hump

height is less than (z)critical, the flow on the hump must be subcritical (that is, y2

>yc). Hence y2 = 1.60 ft and the drop in the water surface on the hump = 2.00 -

(0.30 + 1.60) = 0.10 ft.

(c) In this case the hump height z = 0.60 ft which is greater than the critical

hump height. Hence critical depth (yc = 1. 12 ft) will occur on the hump.

Writing the energy equation for this case, we have

y1 + (V12/2g) = 0.60+1.12- (V22/2g) (6)

and, for critical flow, V22/2g=0.5y2 = 0.56 ft (8)

Combining Eqs. (6), (7), and (8) gives y1+[(27/4)2/(2g) y12] = 2.28 from which y1= 2.12

ft, 0.66 ft, or a negative answer which has no physical meaning. In this case, damming

action occurs and the depth y, upstream of the hump, is 2.12 ft. On the hump the depth

passes through critical depth of 1.12 ft and just downstream of the hump the depth will

be 0.66 ft. The depth will then increase in the downstream direction following an M2

water-surface profile until a hydraulic jump occurs to return the depth to the normal

uniform flow depth of 2.00 ft.

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