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More Practice Problems Related to Open Channels

CIVL 252, Spring 2002


1. Water flows in a rectangular, concrete, open channel that is 12.0 m wide at a
depth of 2.5m. The channel slope is 0.0028. Find the water velocity and the flow
rate.
( )( )
v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s1 / 2 n = 0.013
R = A / p w = (12.0)(2.5) / (2.5 + 12.0 + 2.5) = 1.765m
( )(
v = (1.0 / 0.013) 1.765 2 / 3 0.00281 / 2 = 5.945m / s )
Q = Av = (12.0 )(2.5)(5.945) = 178m / s 3

Water flows in the symmetrical trapezoidal channel lined with asphalt shown in
Fig. 1 The channel bottom drops 0.1 ft vertically for every 100ft of length. What
are the water velocity and flow rate?

4.5ft 1

16ft

2. Water is to flow at a rate of 30 m3/s in the concrete channel shown in Fig 2. Find
the required vertical drop of the channel bottom per kilometer of length.

A = (3.6 )(2.0 ) + (4.0 2.0 )[(1.6 + 3.6) / 2] = 12.40m 2


( )( )
v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 = Q / A = 30 / 12.40 = 2.419m / s

p w = 3.6 + 2.6 + (4.0 2.0)2 + (3.6 1.6)2 + 1.6 = 10.03m


R = A / p w = (12.40 ) / (10.3) = 1.236m
( )( )
2.419 = (1.0 / 0.013) 1.236 2 / 3 s1 / 2 s = 0.000746

This slope represents a drop of the channel bottom of 0.000746 m per meter of
length, or 0.746 m per kilometer of length.
4 .0 m

1 .6 m

3 .6 m

2 .0 m
3. A 500-mm-diameter concrete pipe on a 1/500 slope is to carry water at a flow
rate of 0.040 m3/s. Find the depth of flow. See Fig as below.

( )( )
1. / 2
1
v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s1 / 2 = Q / A = 0.040 / A 0.040 / A = (1.0 / 0.013)(R )2 / 3
500
AR 2 / 3 = 0.01163 sin ceR = A / p w ,
A5 / 3 / p w 2 / 3 = 0.01163 (1)

Equation (1) contains two unknowns, A and pw; however, both unknowns can be
expressed in terms of the unknown depth of flow, d. The applicable area in this
problem is the shaded area (AECDA) in Fig as below. AB=BC=0.25m (both
area radii), BE = 0.25-d. Therefore, AE=CE= (0.25)2 (0.25 d )2 ,
ABE=EBC=arcos [(0.25-d)/0.25],

( )(0.5)2 (2) arccos[(0.25 d ) / 0.25] 0.25 d


( Area ) ABCDE = = 0.001091 arccos
4 360 0.25

(0.25 d ) (0.25)2 (0.25 d )2


( Area ) ABEA = ( Area )BCED =
2
( Area ) AECDA = ( Area ) ABCDA 2( Area ) ABEA
(0.25 d ) (0.25)2 (0.25 d )2
0.25 d
= 0.001091 arccos 2
0.25 2


p w = ADC = ( )(0.5)
(2 ) arccos [(0 .25 d ) / 0 .25] 0.25 d
= 0.008727 arccos
360 0.25

Therefore, substitution into Eq. (1),

5/3
0.25 d 2
(0.25 d ) (0.25) (0.25 d )
2
0.01091 arccos
0.25 m3
2/3
= 0.01163
0.25 d s
0.008727 arccos
0.25
This equation is not readily solvable, but a trial-error solution (not shown here)
reveals that d=0.166m or 166mm.

4. Calculate the discahrege in cubic feet per second through the channel and
floodway of Fig for steady uniform flow, with s=0.0009 and y=8ft.

( )( )
Q = A(1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 y = 8 * 0.3048 = 2.438m
A1 = 12 * (5 + 2.438) + 2 * (5 + 2.438)(5 + 2.438) / 2 2.438 * 2.438 / 2 = 141.6m 2

( p w )1 = (5 + 2.438)2 + (5 + 2.438)2 + 12 + 5 2 + 5 2 = 29.59m

(0.0009 )= 482.5m
2/3
141.6 1/ 2 3
Q1 = 141.6 (1.0 / 0.025) /s
29.59
A2 = 120 * (2.438) + (2.438)(2.438) / 2 = 295.5 m 2

( p w )2 = 120 + (2.438)2 + (2.438)2 = 123.4m

(0.0009 )= 396.7 m
2/3
295.5 1/ 2 3
Q2 = 295.5 (1.0 / 0.040) /s
123.4
Q = Q1 + Q2 = 482.5 + 396.7 = 879.2m 3 / s = 879.2 / 0.3048 3 = 31.050 ft 3 / s

n=0.040
n=0.025 5m

12m 120m

Hint for problem 4


A1 2 / 3 1 / 2 A2 2 / 3 1 / 2
Q1 = R1 S 0 Q2 = R2 S 0
n1 n2
A1 A2
R1 = R2 =
P1 P2
P1 perimeter from point 1 to point 4 P2 wetted perimeter form point 4 to point6
Q = Q1 + Q2
1
6

A 2
A 1

4 5

2 3 n2

n1

5. Uniform water flow in a wide brick channel (n=0.015) of slope 0.02 moves
over a 10 cm bump as in Fig below. A slight depression in water surface results.
If the minimum water depth over the bump is 50 cm, compute the velocity over
the bump and the flow rate per meter of width.

( )( )
v = (1.0 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 = Q / A = 0.040 / A v1 = (1.0 / 0.015)( y1 )2 / 3 (tan 0.02)1. / 2 = 1.246 y12 / 3

From continuity, v1 y1 = v 2 y 2 , (1.246 y12 / 3 )( y1 ) = (v 2 )(50 / 100 ), v 2 = (2.492 y15 / 3 ) . Applying


the Bernoulli equation and neglecting bottom slope.
y1 + v12 / 2 g = y 2 + v22 / 2 g + hmax
(
y1 + 1.246 y12 / 3 ) /(2 * 9.807) = 50 / 100 + (2.492 y ) /(2 * 9.807) + 10 / 100
2 5/3 2
1
2/3
y1 = 0.623m by trial and error v1 = 1.246 * 0.623 = 0.9098 m / s
v2 = 2.492 * 0.623 5/3
= 1.13 m / s (
q = v1 y1 = 0.9089 * 0.623 = 0.566 m 3 / s / m )

6. In Fig water flows uniformly at a steady rate of 14cfs in a very long triangular
flume, which has side slopes of 1:1. The bottom of this flume is on a slope of
0.006, and n=0.012
a. Is the flow subcritical or supercritical?
( )( )
Q = A(1.486 / n) R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2
A = y * 2y / 2= y2 p w = 2 * 2 * y = 2.828 y


(
14.0 = y 2 (1.486 / 0.012) y 2 / 2.828 y ) (0.006 )
2/3 1/ 2
y = 1.49 ft (by trial and error)

Q 2 / g = A3 / B ( ) / 2y
14 2 / 32.2 = y c2
3
c y c = 1.65 ft

Since y < yc, flow is supercritical.

b. Find the relation between v c2 / 2 g and yc for this channel.


v c2 / g = Ac / Bc = y c2 / 2 y c = y c / 2 y c2 / 2 g = y c / 4
Consequently, we see that the relation between v c2 / 2 g and y for critical-flow
conditions depends on the geometry of the flow section. If the vertex angle of
the triangle had been different, the relations would have been different.

7. Water in a horizontal channel accelerates smoothly over a bump and then


undergoes a hydraulic jump, as in Fig as below. If y1=1m and y3=40cm, estimate
v1, v3, and y4. Neglect friction.

E1 = E 3 y1 + v12 / 2 g = y 3 + v32 / 2 g 1 + v12 / (2 * 9.807 ) = 40 / 100 + v32 / (2 * 9.807 )


y1v1 = y 3 v3 v1 = y 3 v3 / y1 = 40 / 100 + v3 / 1 = 0.4000v3
1 + (0.4000v3 )2 / (2 * 9.807 ) = 40 / 100 + v32 / (2 * 9.807 )
v3 = 3.74m / s v1 = 04000 * 3.74 = 1.50m / s

[
2 y 4 / y 3 = 1 + 1 + 8(N F )32 ]
1/ 2
N F = v / gy

(N F )3 = 3.74 / (9.807 )(40 / 100) = 1.89 [


2 y 4 / (40 / 100 ) = 1 + 1 + 8 * 1.89 2 ]
0.5

y 4 = 0.888m
8. In Fig 8., uniform flow of water occurs at 27 cfs in a 4-ft-wide rectangular flume
at a depth of 2.00 ft. (a) Is the flow subcritical or supereritical? (b) If a hump of
height t = 0.30 ft is placed in the bottom of the flume, calculate the water depth
on the hump. Neglect head loss in flow over the hump. (c) If the hump height is
raised to z = 0.60 ft, what then are the water depths upstream and downstream
of the hump? Once again neglect head loss over the hump.

(a) First find critical depth: yc=(q2/g)1/3=[(27/4)2/32.2]1/3 =1.12 ft. Since the
normal depth (2.00 ft) is greater than the critical depth, the flow is subcritical
and the channel slope is mild.
(b) Find the critical hump height. Write the energy equation between sections 1
and 2, assume critical flow on the hump and apply continuity.

2.00 + (V12/2g) = (z)critical +1.12 + (V22/2g) (1)


V1=271(4 x 1. 12) = 6.03 fps (2)
V2 = 271(4 X 2) = 3.38 fps (3)

Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) gives (z)critical = 0.49 ft. Thus the minimum-
height hump that will produce critical depth on the hump is 0.49 ft.
Since the actual hump height, z = 0.30 ft, is less than the critical hump height,
0.49 ft, critical flow occur on the hump and there is no damrning action.
Let us now find the depth yz on the hump:

Energy: 2.00 + (V12/2g) = 0.30 + y2 + (V22/2g) (4)


Continuity: (4 2) V1 = 4y2V2= 27 cfs (5)
Eliminating V1 and V2 from Eqs. (4) and (5) gives three roots for y2; y2= 1.6Oft,
0.82ft, or a negative answer that has no physical meaning. Since the hump
height is less than (z)critical, the flow on the hump must be subcritical (that is, y2
>yc). Hence y2 = 1.60 ft and the drop in the water surface on the hump = 2.00 -
(0.30 + 1.60) = 0.10 ft.

(c) In this case the hump height z = 0.60 ft which is greater than the critical
hump height. Hence critical depth (yc = 1. 12 ft) will occur on the hump.
Writing the energy equation for this case, we have
y1 + (V12/2g) = 0.60+1.12- (V22/2g) (6)

From continuity, (4 y1) V1 = 27 cfs (7)


and, for critical flow, V22/2g=0.5y2 = 0.56 ft (8)

Combining Eqs. (6), (7), and (8) gives y1+[(27/4)2/(2g) y12] = 2.28 from which y1= 2.12
ft, 0.66 ft, or a negative answer which has no physical meaning. In this case, damming
action occurs and the depth y, upstream of the hump, is 2.12 ft. On the hump the depth
passes through critical depth of 1.12 ft and just downstream of the hump the depth will
be 0.66 ft. The depth will then increase in the downstream direction following an M2
water-surface profile until a hydraulic jump occurs to return the depth to the normal
uniform flow depth of 2.00 ft.