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OPAC Design Enhancements and Their

Effects on Circulation and Resource Sharing
within the Library Consortium Environment Michael J. Bennett

A longitudinalstudy of three discrete online public access obtain materials from multiple sources. It follows that an
catalog (OPAC) design enhancements examined the pos- investigation of the possible effects such enhancements
may have on general circulation trends is warranted.
sible effects such changes may have on circulation and
resource sharing within the automated library consor-
tium environment. Statisticalcomparisons were made of
both circulationand interlibraryloan (ILL) figures from I Literature review
the year before enhancement to the year after implemen- During the mid-to-late 1980s, transaction-log analysis
tation. Datafrom sixteen libraries covering a seven-year was introduced as an inexpensive and easy method of
period were studied in order to determine the degree looking at OPAC use in primarily the academic library
environment. Peters's transaction-log survey of more
to which patrons may or may not utilize increasingly
than thirteen thousand searches executed over a five-
broader OPAC ILL options over time. Results indicated month period at the University of Missouri-Kansas
that while ILL totals increased significantly after each City remains particularly instructive today for its large
OPAC enhancement, such gains did not result in signifi- sample and transferable design as well as its interpreta-
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tion of results.
cant correspondingchanges in total circulation. Here analysis was broken into two phases. In phase
ost previous studies of online public access one, usage patterns by search type and failure rates as
measured by zero hits were examined as dependent vari-
catalog (OPAC) use and design have centered on ables with search type as the independent variable in a
transaction-log analysis and user survey results comparison study. Phase two took this one step further in
in the academic library environment. Measures of patron the assigning of what Peters termed "probable cause" of
success or lack thereof have traditionally been expressed zero hits. These probable causes fell into patterns that, in
in the form of such concepts as "zero-hit" analysis or turn, resulted in the identification of fourteen discernable
the "branching" analysis of Kantor and, later, Ciliberti.1 error types that included such things as typographical
Missing from the majority of the literature on OPAC errors and searches for items not in the catalog. Once
study, however, are the effects that use and design have again, search type formed the independent variable while
had on public library patron borrowing practices. error type shaped the dependent variable in a simple
Major drawbacks to transaction-log analyses and user study of error types as a percentage of total searches.
surveys as a measure of successful OPAC use include a Peters found that users rarely employed truncation or
lack of standardization and the inherent difficulties in any advanced feature searches and that failures were due
interpreting resulting data. As Peters notes, "[s]urveys primarily to such consistent erroneous search patterns as
measure users' opinions about online catalogs and their typographical errors and misspellings. More importantly,
perceptions of their successes or failures when using however, he cogently reassessed transaction-log analysis
them, while transaction logs simply record the searches as a tool and critiqued its limitations. Zero hits, for exam-
conducted by users. Surveys," he concludes, "mea- ple, need not necessarily construe failure when a patron
sure attitudes, while transaction logs measure a specific performs a quality search and finds that the library
form of behavior."2 In both cases it is difficult, in many simply does not own the title in question. Concerning
instances, to draw clear conclusions from either method. intelligible outputs from transaction-log study, Peters
Circulation figures, on the other hand, measure a more found that, "if the user is seen as carrying on a dialog of
narrowly defined level of patron success. Circulation is a sorts with the online catalog, then it could be said that
discrete output that is the direct result of patrons' initiated most transaction logs record only half of the conversa-
interaction with one or many library collections, one or tion. More information about the system's response to
many levels of library technology. With the recent advent the user's queries would help us better understand why
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of such enhanced OPAC functionality as patron-placed patrons do what they do."'
holds on items from broader and broader catalogs, online A look at subsequent transaction-log analyses into the
catalogs now more than ever not only serve as search 1990s reveals somewhat differing research approaches
mechanisms but also as ways for patrons to directly yet strikingly similar results. Wallace (1993) duplicated
Peters's methods at eleven terminals within the University
of Colorado Library System.5 Her efforts spanned twenty
hours of search monitoring and resulted in 4,134 logged
Michael J. Bennett (mbennett@cwmars.org) is Digital searches. These were defined by CARL system search
Initiatives Librarian, C/W MARS Library Network, Worcester, type, (e.g., word, subject), then analyzed as cumulative
Massachusetts. totals and percentages of all searches. In this case, how-

36 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES I MARCH 2007

termed "zero asked to identify the data elements used to inform their OPAC DESIGN ENHANCEMENTS I BENNETT 37 . 7 ment in patron searches followed by an unexpected lowering of patron performance over time. searching for. sophisticated search statements and arguments. searches missing search statements. tion and randomly assigned to one of the four experi- viously described. the ques. A fourth interface viewed This study did. Wallace three incremental OPAC enhancements. failed searches (Peters's zero hits) were eliminated postings" by the authors. the command-based OPAC to better understand if users obtain the materials they was increasingly being surrounded by Web-based journal need through the online catalog. As a result their Longitudinal studies.. Participants were then library system. the same two search tasks. Ciliberti et al. purely experimental. Current.ever. entered in incorrect order) fell into seven separate catego- results were comparable to Peters's. changes in user populations was made.10 The survey itself along eighty-two first-year undergraduates at the University of with the loss of accuracy that can be expected from patrons Pittsburg utilized four separate experimental screen inter- attempting to describe their searches on paper. The second task involved Further refinement of the transaction-log analysis asking participants to examine twenty bibliographic methodology may be seen in Blecic's et al.9 Sampling was accom. failed searches. no attempt at tracking such possible work combined Kantor's branching-analysis methodol. As users tion from undergraduate. Enhancements remarked. and a third that contained not necessarily their behavior. Search errors were subsequently categorized as pre.8 Their but variable.'s These interfaces included one that mimicked the these same searches re-created by research staff lead this current catalog with data labels and brief bibliographic author to question the data's validity. The study was unclear as to the actual design. though prone to the confound- effectiveness remains questionable.2 Though branching analysis is adept at mental interface groups.. graduate. Reasons for zero postings self with questions of search success or failure.. users were tion of why patrons are not able to obtain materials). design of these forms and their queries.g.. Z-test analysis of the level of equality between percentages of zero postings from log set to log set was mation search process continue to stymie researchers' efforts to understand that process . screens. enhancements affect actual OPAC use over time. Each group was then given examining on a holistic. the asked to select items that they would examine further method's inherent breadth of focus does not lend itself to for a hypothetical research paper on big-band music and fine scrutiny of OPAC design issues in and of themselves. a second interface with the same bibliographic surveys are good for assessing OPAC users' opinions but display but no data labels. 13 Once again. Confounding In 1998. rules and principles of thus improving searching behavior. where the concept of errors extends beyond just OPAC and Variations of transaction-log analysis also include the its design to include such things as library collection devel. and plausible conclusions. more subject-oriented fields. four-year longi. widely then made in order to assess whether or not the enhance- ments had any affect on diminishing said percentages and used and described guidelines. nevertheless form a persuasive A seven-category scheme was developed to code search template for further research into how incremental OPAC failures that closely followed Kantor's branching analysis. Also of note was ogy with transaction-log analysis of OPAC use in order the fact that. database search interfaces that did not require the use of plished during random open hours and drew informa. (e. became accustomed to this type of searching. included redesigns of general Introductory and Explain intriguing vagaries in human behavior during an infor. and faculty users. ries.. conducted a materials avail. Sadly. Among 6 searches analyzed. the music of Duke Ellington. use transaction logs after the the same brief displays as the third group but with the initial survey analysis and indeed found discrepancies labels removed. thus limit. author names ing the scope of her findings. then having faces. found was temporary improve- aspects of what is really going on when an individual is using a computer to search for information. As Peters has noted. logical data analysis." It would seem that in this the data labels but modified the brief display to include instance the tool did not fit the task. between the self-report (survey) and actual transaction-log Users were pretested for basic demographic informa- data. ing variables described. their com- 14 Survey forms included questions of what patrons were mand syntax skills may have suffered as a result. searching simply do not take into account important What Blecic et al. displays. were examined as dependent entirely from the sample as Wallace focused primarily on variables and percentages of the total number of searches patterns of completed searches and did not concern her. entire-library scale (e. records and to decide whether they would choose to tudinal study of OPAC use within the University of Illinois look into these records further. and were used as a control.g. as time passed. attributes to the study include its longitudinal nature in ability study of 441 OPAC searches at Adelphi University an academic setting where user groups are not constant over a three-week period during fall semester. Thomas's 2001 simulation study of opment and circulation practices. For the first task. however. Forms were then picked randomly by staff Merits of the study include its straightforward for re-creation. Subsequent transaction-log sets were then culled after In keeping with Peters's line of thinking.

both academic and public libraries have also made over the course of four calendar years.520 new authority records and 2. ated that suggested alternate search strategies. examined OPAC subject searching and no. a third party was issues. Most recently. however. online catalogs. Lack of standardization among general study sive. the number of variables analyzed and the artificiality of 2. 1998 through June 2005. Resulting user behavior was subse. time interface made a difference in users' experiences. Among these 38 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES I MARCH 2007 . both the direct results of patron initiation. this study Graham then attempted to improve subject searching tracked. Though spent viewing them. Second. never tested through the analysis of real outcomes. assume clearer measures of patron success or failure in hit results and considered two possible experimental OPAC end use. incre- appropriate to the searcher's original intentions. major weaknesses of the transaction-log ers. a pathfinder record was cre. Lack of standards on measurable levels of search One of the fields that previous researchers said that "success" or "failure.521 no-hit subject searches were first sampled and placed into nine categories by error type. such as the relative complexity of pathfinders and hired to administer the experiment. without the call number. This important analysis allowed the researchers a include: higher level of confidence in their subsequent findings. two methods of adding value to an existing OPAC search Quantitative data were tracked for screens visited. total number creative in its suggested ameliorations to no-hit searches. Results in many instances were. quently tracked through transaction logs. is a logical approach to consider. Lack of standardization of OPACs themselves: the test design itself. 10. through a longitudinal analysis of discrete circulation and tion. 1. namely circula. of bibliographic citations examined at each level of speci. form. To what extent have these types from the two studies were then compared and were improvements affected the use of library materials by found to be similar with "non-Library of Congress Subject public library patrons? Headings" being the predominant area of concern. In summary. Because data among sample years. No in earlier comparative studies.987 no-hit findings was In recent years. over a seven-year period dating back from July by systematically enhancing the catalog in two ways.relevance choices. total number of screens. In this experi. invested substantial capital in improving OPAC design ing a longitudinal approach. inconclu. 3.312 pathfinder records For Thomas's experimental purposes. participants were not asked to retrieve not directly address the first two points of emphasis. the items they selected. In this way. Possible problematic design of the obtrusive nature of the project. pant groups in terms of their experience in using comput.16 it was this author's expectation that the lack of stan- dardized notions of OPAC search success or failure Here is further evidence that a study of OPAC activity found throughout the literature may be better addressed viewed in the context of actual outcomes. thus. their perceived need for the call number may well have been mitigated. ILL statistics. First. were created over the course of the longitudinal study. All total. only went this far. 17 Over a one-week period. During this time a number of discrete. While the following study of OPAC design enhance- ments in the public library consortium environment did ment. would better Alberta.18 action logs took on a higher level of sophistication than The experiment. Factors impairing the clarity of conclusions included methodologies." library users found important was the call number field. trans. In order to better examine the question. Subtotals I Purpose and methodology were then expressed as percentage distributions of the total. the study also lacked any statistical testing of comparative ficity. these quantifiable outcomes. Graham at the University of Lethbridge. Thomas comments on one particular Command structure and screen layout differ example of this: among software vendors. Chi-square analysis how this might affect their end use were discussed but of demographic data found no significance among partici. locating the actual item on the shelf is greatly complicated. A similar examination of 37. the circulation and systemwide cross-references were created based upon the original no. or prior knowledge of the problem analysis model as demonstrated through the literature topic. and total time it took to complete the task. unfortunately. ously had required library staff mediation. enhancement types in order to allow users the ability to conduct more accurate searches. Obviously. Percent distribution of error and automated systems. 1. a Massachusetts automated library network of subject headings (LCSHs) that Graham interpreted as 140 libraries. however. holds statistical trends of sixteen member libraries of C/ hit search term and linked to existing Library of Congress W MARS. though. mental OPAC modifications granted patrons the ability to in instances where the original search could not be easily accomplish tasks remotely through the OPAC that previ- linked to an existing LCSH. Here participants' actions attempt was subsequently made to test whether these were monitored with a greater level of granularity.

As such these numbers gave insight into what (MBLC) data files for fiscal years 1999 through 2004. distributed and used by the consortium's libraries them- ments that allow for broader choices of patron-placed selves each fiscal year for reporting circulation and ILL holds would result in increases in both total circulation statistics to MBLC. renovations.05. and the subsequent introduction of a ILL had not yet been compiled by MBLC at the time of link from the existing OPAC to the Massachusetts Virtual this writing. correlated to this study's statistical reporting: ments. seven-year longitudinal for statistical significance. significance from one FY sample to the next in ILLs August 2004 received as a percentage of total circulation. four University from reports run off of C/W MARS's network servers. sorted by ures prior to a schedule of substantial OPAC ILL enhance- library. received from FY '99 to FY '00 were made to analyze the founding variables that may have skewed the resulting level of changes in circulation and ILL statistics between data. of Massachusetts System Libraries) were examined.277. W MARS OPAC screens). Yearly comparisons in total circulation and total ILLs ing the study period in order to better avoid potential con. Totals for circulation and ILLs received for culation and total ILL grew. As both total cir. these statistics were in turn taken directly Catalog (nine Massachusetts consortiums. (All tables and charts (requests mediated through library staff only). spreadsheets. charts 1 through 10. C/W MARS participation in the Massachusetts study years were also entered into subsequent spread- Virtual Catalog (additional button for pass through sheets (tables 6 through 10) for additional z-tests (two OPAC searches and requests from C/W MARS samples for means) to analyze the level of change for catalog into the Massachusetts Virtual Catalog). it was hypothesized that ILL all libraries by FY of OPAC enhancement were totaled as a percent of total circulation would likewise increase and then compared to FY data prior to enhancement due to the fact that each OPAC enhancement was targeted as a percent change value. Libraries chosen were a random sample from both Over the course of the study a total of 22. all fifteen libraries one year after initial adoption of a new In addition.05. and total network transfers (ILL) of library materials one Raw data by library were entered into Microsoft Excel year after initial enhancement adoption. were then employed to run t-tests (paired two sample OPAC enhancements followed the schedule below: for means) in tables 1 through 5 to analyze the level of change for significance from one sample to the next in 1. ILLs received as study of total circulation and total ILLs-received statistics a percentage of total circulation (dependent variable) for are outlined in tables 1 through 5. or closures dur. tion and 624.changes.19 changes. Here tests for significance employed two-tailed z-tests with an alpha These dates served as independent variables in a study level set to . T-test comparisons to fig- ures from the year prior to enhancement were then made The results of a sixteen-library. if any. the initiation of intra-consortium (C/W MARS) As fiscal year (FY) 2005 figures for circulation and patron-placed holds. Excel's Data Analysis Tools directly toward facets of ILL procurement. Raw circulation and ILL figures were taken directly years before any OPAC ILL enhancements were under- from the Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners' taken. In addition. Although the year-to-year comparisons over the course of subsequent enhancement rollouts were made "DIRCIRC" = "Circulation" to test for the statistical significance of the year prior and "LOAN FROM" = "ILL" following a particular functionality addition. For the sake of continu- ity the terms Holds and ILLs were used interchangeably I Results and discussion throughout this examination. an analysis of ILLs received as a percentage enhancement were also calculated and compared to the of total circulation during this same time period among year prior to enhancement through Z-test analysis.286 ILL transactions were examined from Sampled institutions did not go through any substantial July 1998 through June 2005.) Tests for sig- November 2000 nificance employed two-tailed t-tests with an alpha level 2. of separate dependent variables (total circulation and total ILLs received) for all eight libraries one year after initial adoption of a new enhancement. the following fields.245 circula- central and western geographic regions of the network. the '99 to '00 OPAC DESIGN ENHANCEMENTS I BENNETT 39 . Patron-placed holds (request button placed on C/ set to . December 2002 Raw data for these same libraries across identical 3. sampled libraries is represented in tables 6 through 10. can be found in appendix following article. normally occur in circulation and ILL fig- In the MBLC's data files. drastic open hours changes. General C/W MARS network systemwide holds both total circulation and total ILLs. It should be noted that similar C/W MARS reports are This author hypothesized that such OPAC enhance.

number and view such things as a list of their checked- Yet data from this sample suggest that both circulation out items. transit to the borrowing location. Finally. ated by library staff. circulation from FY '00 to FY '01 (table 7) indicated a sig- Results showed that this yearly comparison prior to nificant increase of 0. The lation clients.52 percent (z = -4. the network first allowed patrons the ability. button addition and its facilitation of patron-placed ment to another. patrons were The introduction of systemwide holds led to the sec. accepted requests in a similar fashion. it should be noted that during FY '02 increased 3. next in total circulation (t = 1. chart 5). all material requests had been medi- 0. charts 1 p < 0. p > 0.05) did not translate for patrons to take beyond C/W MARS's list of holdings into a significant increase in total circulation. strongly suggesting that the OPAC request- through e-mail or faxed requests from one ILL depart. next!) from the network's OPAC to the Virtual Catalog's ing mechanism. percent) to FY '03 (3. From there. they began to place requests that this study examined was an additional link for directly into the network's Innovative Millennium circu. but instead of The last augmentation to the network's OPAC design using the fax or e-mail. the con. to log into their own accounts remotely. total ILLs received as a percentage or electronic form. Patrons deeper understanding beyond this two-year comparison were given the ability to set up a personal identification of normal year-to-year trends was impossible to achieve.20. Unlike the previous request-button enhancement that By this time in the network's development. but by 2. ILLs received through the addition of an OPAC screen request button.94. FY '03 saw the original direct ILL enhancement to Additionally. not significantly (t member libraries did not own. p > 0. C/W MARS rolled Comparative total circulation results from the year out automated systemwide holds functionality whereby before enhancement to FY '03 (table 3. Patrons would request material either holds had a positive effect upon total ILL activity as was verbally with staff or through the submission of a paper hypothesized. ILLs-received figures (table 3. During this year patrons were first given the ILLs received to total circulation were made between '99 opportunity to directly place ILL requests of their own and '00 (as will be seen in table 6) and were found to be (patron-placed holds) for material found in the catalog insignificantly different (z = -0.05).35 percent.05).76.05) or total ILLs Though no statistical evaluations were made between received (t = -0.42 percent while total ILLs received over this period). p < 0. During FY '01 (November 2001).40 percent nonetheless (table tion and ILL trends may look like between years of no 2. materials at other C/W MARS member libraries through p < 0. chart 5) showed library staff were first able to place patron requests for only a slightly significant 4.comparison was made to form a control of what circula.05). through tive data set currently only goes back to FY '99. But the catalog. so a OPAC. the Virtual Catalog acted as an additional step from FY '00 to FY '01 (t = -4. the automated system not only Massachusetts Virtual Catalog at the time of this study randomly chose the lending library within the system was an online union catalog of nine Massachusetts net- but also automatically queued paging slips at the lending work consortia and four University of Massachusetts library for material that would subsequently be sent in System Libraries.65 percent of total circulation in FY '00. cir. The MBLC's available retrospec. p > 0. required to login to the Virtual Catalog and re-create their ond largest jump in ILL figures out of all comparative search queries from scratch as previous searches were not samples (table 2. the beginning of OPAC enhancements (table 1.51. In siderably significant 127. this point. own dedicated OPAC interface. the consortium's automated circulation system. made up 0. the Massachusetts Virtual Catalog link to a smoother Web design. Once there. p > 0. Circulation from '99 to '00 FY '01 and FY '02 (as no novel ILL changes were made declined slightly by 3. if any alteration of ILL design to the next.87.04 percent) (table 8) but did not rep- With the advent of systemwide holds. chart 6).66. p > 0. In fact.07. = 1.81.23. chart 4).05). ILLs through the Massachusetts Virtual Catalog.23-percent gain in ILL activity essence. 40 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES I MARCH 2007 . More on the possible effects to circulation that and 2) showed no significant change from one year to the rising levels of ILLs may elicit will be touched upon. Up until jumped by a considerable 25.18 percent increase (t = -2. automatically passed through to the second catalog.05). staff still resent a significant shift (z = -1. Patrons were also allowed to place checks next and ILLs may trend statistically flat from one year of little to such items and to renew these items remotely. in terms of was not a button but a descriptive hyperlink (Can'tfind directly assisting in the placing of ILL requests. comparisons of the percent of total OPAC. A comparison of the percent of ILLs to total drastic workflow or design changes.58 percent margin (t = -4. however. Staff would then look up the item in of total circulation increased slightly from FY '02 (2. the title you want here? Try the Massachusetts Virtual Catalog tioned as it always had-it was still individually a search.52 the electronic catalog and make the request. func. holds (ILLs) were placed primarily by staff p < 0. Interestingly enough.65 percent to 1. OPAC allowed for seamless patron-placed holds within the C/ had also graduated from a character-based telnet system W MARS catalog.61 percent of total circulation in FY '99 and Up until this time. to broaden their search for materials that the network's culation declined during this period.05).05).

T. Peters. In other words. and FY '05 were examined. a fertile next step toward a greater knowledge of ILLs and lowed by significant increases in ILL activity in each circulation as a whole. software packages and automated statistical programs. patron types who borrow. OPAC DESIGN ENHANCEMENTS I BENNETT 41 . to a point where ILL has not only taken up a sig- holds Request button) to one year after the latest addition nificantly greater proportion of total circulation than ever (Virtual Catalog hyperlink from OPAC). chart 9) the circulation and ILL statistical picture farther back in increased insignificantly by 3. tistically significant (z = -3. rose 30. increase that occurred after the introduction of patron. Finally. Total circulation ILLs as a percent of total circulation rose from 4. excluding FY '03. In turn.05) and pointed to not It is clear from this longitudinal study that incremen- only gains in ILL itself after the introduction of the Virtual tally granting patrons access to online tools for them to Catalog link but also to the ever increasing proportion of initiate such traditional library business as ILLs spurs sig- total circulation that ILL activity accounted for. p < ronments may shed further light on evidence discussed 0. ILLs as a percent of total circulation also increased throughout this writing. p time than this investigation covers to better clarify trends > 0.20. leading up to such major enhancement rollouts. any. the positive effect that such enrich- link was added to the C/W MARS OPAC screen found ments had on not only total ILL but also on total circula- circulation down an insignificant 2.47. These results. 20 In a similar vein.05). p < 0. in turn. These results pointed toward the substantial effect that References these enhancements made in total ILL activity and sup- ported hypothesized expectations.28. if and literally grasped. The final statistical comparison accomplished in this these online tools are not ignored but are intellectually study was a look at what possible cumulative effect. however. then a succession of OPAC design enhancements and interconnected through the Web. Tail statistical analysis and its relation to library catalogs. a future look at the effects that similar OPAC placed holds in FY '03. Also. 1) Comparative figures for total circulation between FY past fiscal year (FY '05) compared to the year before their '04 and FY '05 (table 4. Chris as ILL enhancements were rolled out.04 percent (t = 0. no. p tion becomes clearest.27 percent in FY '05 (table 9). p < 0.05) (table 10). This was fol.03. that allowed for a broader range of patron-initiated ILLs a more granular examination of such concepts as possible suggested that these totals run statistically flat from one circulation and ILL-activity trends in terms of discrete year to the next. With the advent of systemwide holds.05). year to year with only one significant differing circulation and ILL methodologies. total samples from heterogeneous library sources that are rela- circulation remained relatively flat. increased by 157. What may be surprising.05). material types borrowed. com. sons discussed up to this point.71. the highest significant similar longitudinal studies from different consortia envi- increase of any two comparative samples (t = -7.70 percent was surprisingly impervious to change and ran statisti- in FY '04 to 6. cally flat during this time. how. before but also appears to be changing the very nature of parative numbers for circulation and ILLs between FY '02 circulation itself. For it is through this comparison > 0. Over the course of the seven-year study. Consortia are uniquely poised significantly from 2. oscillating slightly tively uncorrupted by scattershot recording methods and back and forth. 1.52 percent in FY '02 to 6. ILL enhancements may have on borrowing trends beyond ran against hypothesized expectations that predicted that general raw transactional figures is warranted. network systemwide rials are hypothesized as collections become more visible holds. which ran counter to hypothesized expectations. which proved to be a tion also increased significantly from the time before the highly significant increase (t = -7. began to change dramatically cross-tabulation of these data points would appear to be with a significant increase in total ILLs. certain trends become This. Here outwardly shifting demand curves for library mate- parison) before the advent of first. correspondingly Anderson. p < 0. chart 10). Transaction Log of an Online Public Access Catalog." The Journal lative influence through the prism of ILL levels of this of Academic Librarianship15. however.85 percent.46 percent (t = -1. nificantly large increases in such activity. Total ILLs received (table 5.97.27 percent in to offer large statistical sample sizes and standardized FY '05 (z = -7.05). for example. study year that came after an OPAC ILL enhancement. which was sta. consistent data evident. that it was found that not only did total ILLs increase Total ILLs received between FY '04 and FY '05 (table 4. however. 5 (1989): 267-73. has recently commented on Long significant increases in circulation would result. chart 7) when the Virtual Catalog initial advent (FY '02).47 percent. Additionally first OPAC enhancement to the present. "When Smart People Fail: An Analysis of the When such OPAC rollouts were examined as a cumu. Future studies may include a deeper examination of Total circulation over this time (table 5. or a the ILL picture. workflows within their network-wide ILL and circulation If one steps back and examines the various compari. both OPAC enhancements may have had from the is the degree to which ILL has increased as a result of year before the first enhancement's rollout (patron-placed them. ever. Total ILLs received (the FY '99 to FY '00 control com. significantly but that ILLs as a percentage of total circula- chart 8). results in high-quality.

105375 FY100 FY'01 Ra-1-iedFY'0 R-1. ity Study and Transaction-Log Analysis Verification.16% 16. 4.757004672 P(T.26% Shrewsbury 260948 258798 -0. D. Two Sample For Means iTet"(.. "Subject No-Hits Searches in an Academic When No One's Looking?" 239.753050325 1. 15.l Totals j 3079 viim 3191701 I02aw3026 % -3. 124101709072 1T975202201 Vlals11975202201 12294674932.php (accessed Oct.25 188041 8125 1258375.79% 64998 1358 1578 -3." (2004): 170-77. "Empty Handed? A Material Availability 20. 272. i0ta.40% 0. 919 902 -A. . 41..02% 1454 1485 3842 Westfield 284506 266151 -6. 199481. Kantor. 4 2618% 300% . no.. General systemwide holds implementation (adopted 11/00) enhancements LIBRARIES I9a10o198 I0998181 Few01." College & Research Libraries60.OB% South Hadley 155970 149607 853 1577 84. 9.oclc. 0. 20134 = I 213..63% 1634 2803 71.81% 417 610 46. 2006)." OCLC Newsletter.76% West Springfleld 198547 Westfield 302734 284506 -6. no. Wallace.22% 467 453 192087 394% 181. Wallace.mlin." The Journal 18. 6.88% Wast Springfiel 207875 198547 -4. Data Files. When No One's Looking? Transaction-Log Analysis and Impli. Ibid." 2005.20% 1191 2441 104. 10 Study and Transaction-Log Analysis Verification. OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Suc- 4.clCavona. no. 1 (2001): 20-46. "Empty Handed? A Material Availabil.9144899i97 0." 16.16% 1314 1354 3104% 71.29 - 198 14.. 19. "When Smart People Fail.3125 19266. P. 5-6 (1976): 311-19.72% Williamstown 102598 96165 -6. "How Do Patrons Search the Online Catalog 17. Ciliberti et al.753O0W325 F(T<=t)wo-tai 0. C. Ibid. 13. Anderson. Thomas.org/news/publications/news 12.795! bsfervations 16 16 11 16- Pearson00al5f 0. Ciliberti et al.3% ST0 Par." Journal of the American "Public Library Data.49% 1045 1430 36..54% Milford 203508 100939 -7.131450856 42 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES I MARCH 2007 .0'am Hudson 136458 136185 -0.. "How Do Patrons Search the Online Catalog 14..5 Totals 30260 1 3=60069 [ . Mean 192666. Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners 2005.61% 1354 2316 Pittsfield 284564 280269 2161 2069 -4. I 1-4 4. 6 (1999): 515-30.20% Milaford 188939 172672 -8.206% Holden 214275 224480 4.34% 2069 4712 127. 4 (1998): 282-89.24% Auburn 198728 192007 -3.26% Pittsfield 280269 286814 2.Totl C..67% rou'll. 13.03% HaOward 64255 1. 2005).28% 2341 1869 128084 2. Ibid.25 1217.. I .089779394 09460773344 t Crailo ane-tail 7-3051038 ..54% 1219 504137 9.03% I082 1191 10.[) oas-tai_ll 0. of Academic Librarianship24. 2859. "Empty Handed? A Material Availability letters/oclc/2005/268/interview.62%/ 470 417 67812 -30. 45." College & Research Libraries 65._amp .191 .82% 1601 3228 101. "The Effect of Interface Design on Item Selec- cations for Bibliographic Instruction and System Design.us/ Society for Information Science 27. Yearly comparison prior to the beginning of ILL OPAC Table 2.2.04% Marlborough 210268 202629 -3. 261866.131450856 2.- . cess. 7. -.tculatoa Total ILL TotalILL Fy9 o 00 ReivnedTFY99 i Received FY)90 i Mean . 220763 -1.1I ToMIl'oOtI50 %1. et al. "Q&A with Chris Anderson.17% 1430 3114 117." Wired Magazine 12.62% South Hadley 205812 155970 -24.00011658 IL80 LIBRARIES T1. advisory/statistics/public/index.. 951 I . Ibid.65. 268. Library Online Catalog: An Exploration of Two Potential Ame- 8.48% 484 493 54962 -5. 1 (2004): 36-54. liorations. 272." Appendix A: Tables and Charts Table 1. Blecic. "Availability Analysis.Conlation.950083325 0 478555261 0! HypothesizedMoan . un0 ri l4lrourtl 01111:liLLRW01 d .. Difference 0 0 Slat 1.0 -1o31•. visam.66% 1806 33.9143183291 obsolvtions 16 10 10 10i Hlypothesized Main Penison.960884409 6..5625." RQ tion in an Online Catalog. 4 294% I .ulalo.. Ibid.. Graham.ma.813687961.12% 1869 3413 82.1100181 501725 -2.022% 453 199170 195170 AlbInO 198728 -0. 11.95% Marlborough 207336 210268 1.9W.28% Beollngham 98004 Dudley 60064 57974 -3.61% Belchertown 125424 Bellingham 93412 98004 4.76% 1411 1806 27. no. no. 5.. Peters.htm (accessed July 20.33% 1708 1601 -6. Study and Transaction-Log Analysis Verification. 09 . no..20% 493 149 7D% Dudley 57974 1231 Harvard 66262 64255 1397 1358 -2. "When Smart People Fail.22% 927 853 -4.74% Shrewsbury 252549 260948 3. P. "The Long Tail. http://www. Peters. "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of 3. 2.84% 198203 -0. Ibid.75305138 =C=ical100tail 2." http://www. 2 (1993): 239-43. 10. Ciliberti et al.13144953& P(T<-t) to-tail 0081512831 09001000305 I Criticaltwo-tail 2. IL TotalILL F TRtYC-10a74ni7 Tt C.41% 1350 1634 21. R.lib.aded Fi01 2990771958 261866. no." Library Resources & Technical Services 33.95% 902 3163 250.4375.65% Williamstown 96165 104767 8.45% 1485 158. A.48% 1219 1219 0941 55964% 467 951 Amherst 501725 504137 1274 8041 .. D..2303116672 I Criticalone-tail 1.131449536 2..34% 453 1274 Betchertown 148051 125424 -15.22% Holden 224480 2406 Hudson 128692 136458 6..40% 20134 45751 127.24% 55964% 514799 514799 0. 0. nos..2n..65 3068950.

TotalCulculal0 TotalILL I Toale LL FY V4 i FY V5ReevdY aredYV _______IFY2 F.84% 1585 23731/ Dudley 48793 1281 37700 -22.02 (T.60% 10970 14964 36.9-te.34% 6944 7594 9.nLo 135587418086l1-457783933SF.25% 27338 34294 25. 8.otaote I 1 .1herlm 136064 144356 6.9238897 09 6780493 Hypothesized Moan II 'Il -lsT<tto-tlýlz Mow an.d Fr03 Moan 196526.161909954 3.131449536 .2. Yearly comparison prior to the beginning of ILL OPAC to FY '05) enhancements of ILL received as a percentaqe of total circulation LIBRARIES I•G••d 30101800010960 t.11% 2.041nd O0 1 Amherst 5205 35% 526855 508376 -3.45% 155970 0.6 19 D7.11.-- 365% 13814 10277 3425% 8891% Amherst 526855 528855 547139 007139 3.31526E-0S 21310200 H il todt090 Moo O1to-.01D042719' 0.il 1.198U1861*i -0 023308855 PIT<..82'% WIllienurtown 10374 93.On 0. 501725 .06% 4522 5855 29.97% B918.08061E-06 P(Z-=) two-tail 0.2.008152721 Critical ICrilic1 n.5403E•0.37% 470 98004 417 4104 Harvard Dudley 560D4 0.3rMl87.73% 2809 4104 46.26% 484 493 Holden 241037 Hanne'd 66262 2.51% 13614 34294 151.83%/.65% 1634 0.80% Hudson 175127 23.. OPAC design enhancement: patron-placed Massachusetts 12/02) virtual catalog holds (adopted 8/04) LIBRARIES .91 377 76 fili>92650 48147279..72% Wesltfeld 283032 5726 11104 1045 198047 1430 Wastfild 121875 143904 1808% 5352 302734 0.ceied FYV5 Mo... ROC-otdFY102JReolve.85% TLot.n 198529 18751 2033110625' 498456.-)l90ta 0.61% South Hadley 156855 2588 7516 190.25% 2799 Amherst1 507103 508376 0. lati 0.45% 927 853 278943 West Springfield 207875 0.50% 0.46% 79273 204104 157.26% 48a8 11003 146.40% Hold. ICrtica.55% Wesl Springfield 214549 10.ml 0I tit 305921_.47% 919 902 _0181.23% 198728 0.59% Total$ 3M20SM 3253105 . 168 Db-t..d FY 02 Re. .14% West Springfield 214549 220851 2. Qn.0625 9749ý3125.316F 29WT3 l2."`d .82% 5850 12077 106.41% 5680 Wostfold 2S3032 283039 0...30% Boellngham 67667 76067 12..57% 6251 Willemstmon 139755 143904 2..1314508560 2.9O% 10165 0. .97% 8195 WiIllamstown 5352 16. -.34% Shrewsbury 333712 314398 -5. 184t5 0 LIBRARIES Py096106 -A18.15% SouthHadley 156502 154380 -1. .536'. Critics]00-tall 1.815709729 I Criticaltwcl. Hypothesized Mson df i 00 Differance 0 •S1t .77% 5252 6511 23.1875.087486609 0.58% i otlCiclaio Ttl CIautio.1M% Balchorlown 130562 134183 2.83% 1454 284W06 1485 W1I8008am wn Totalt 102598 0.s 3191701 89481 3088 2134 061% 065% TotalCtrculation vToruircurarion iT TotLl ILL FY 2 FY• I I Ro.91% 190005 199169 Auburn 195533 2.t11215.94% 4802 6215 29.:"4491421 9087 -488441 P(T-t)on.8 ILLIts Of TotalILLas % OfTotal Varoncoe 1355-7418881 7015889137 W2 8 . . 412 2.9o8 82.85% 13614 4504 18277 34.93% 12799 Hudson 142075 156275 9.125 lan207555t.42% 1708 1601 237650 South Hadley 205812 0.59% 1314 188939 1354 Pittsfield 284564 0.22% 7889 11104 40.11% 7610 30.10% 3187 23.11% 248615 -3.'Lon!r•.49% BOllnghann 67667 80408 18.00030544' Criticaltwo-tlal 2.36% Pittafteld 200770 287578 2. 0oo..... . .7151.1314495360 2.06% 9933 12077 21598% Pittsfield 301878 297840 -1.18% J 79273 899554 25. .lail 0.00% 5726 5240 -8.17% 2341 1869 5441 Bolllngham 9U412 0.495/ Wesittold 265100 278943 5.723GV419 -7.2 V.131449536 2.'. I I .84% West Springfield 233697 237650 1.84% 136458 1191 0.43% 655500 37700 -32.61% Holden 248615 27S2196 11.85% 68125 74401 U..40% 12191 17123 40.25 12756. .20% Hudson 156393 175127 41 90% 8508 11903 3990% Moaborough 191491 201183 5. :.78% Milford 180012 181661 0.48% Madborough 208188 197673 -550% 9794 12445 27.39% 2161 280269 2069 154360 Shrewbury 252549 O.7530503251 .8 3144419 3275808 4. 12756t5___ I'artance .31% 190720 020% Auburn 199170 0.. OPAC design enhancements: "Cumulative Effect" (FY '02 Table 6..48% 0.nOa 3it ncetOt 2 0! 0 01 0 If it1 _________ 15 stmi t. 5rls.m.346318204 4.18% 501725 1219 0.68% 260"48 0.tol I 2.Table 3. 16 8! L 151 Mean 0.1875 2047381 4954.r) on-I.74% 6944 17123 146.. 203319. -- ICriticaltwo-tall1 2.07% Milford 180012 103803 2.. onoltail 1 . .0 h6 Q LIRARIErS -.. 294933 241037 -1827% 11989 6.n . 024% 023% Auburn 189169 3.75% 121875 133537 9.. z Cdncal one-tall 1 844853827 P(T-o1) wtaoll 0..77% Auburn 189169 182029 182029 -3.76% 0.95% 156855 157005 0.7538983251 t3.94% 3144419 3253105 3.72'% Pittsfield 301978 287578 -4. ..3.74% Shrewsbury 266159 314398 18774 250. .19% 3418 4135 74198 74401 0.27% 5827 7494 28.24% 195533 1000m 277.81% 57974 0.23% 4522 175.On .09% 9037 13131 45. OPAC design enhancement: patron-placed holds (adopted Table 4.l...44% 1350 210268 Milford 203508 0.07% 1281 220.0284005W1 'S'" .959983985 OPAC DESIGN ENHANCEMENTS I BENNETT 43 .37% 4908 SouthHadley 2588 7516 53. .36% 2799 514799 t.53% 1397 64255 1358 142075 Holden 214275 224480 1806 0... 8848 83-3-4810 01beo-tion.9.9875258208 !_____q04782049.._ Kn-ooValrianc..5O% 0. :7S 5309 .77% 2799 4504 60.80% 10374 26.75305103IT73013 0 one-tall 1.79% 13415 18774 39..E-06 PIT-t)l hw.90%/ Amherst .23% Balchaorlwn 14..44% . 1259 332.tl 0.65% 0.10% Horvard 68125 72339 6.87% Malborough 191491 197673 3.87% 5358 7198 34.-88.47 176657 -7.l4799 0.1% 3418 7494 119.54% 1411 Hudson 128692 0. .al lt -18 18 16 16 68 18 166 Pearson Correlation 80962307371 0 97749141.500049771 J 1.46% Shrewsbury 266159 297744 11. TO1WILL Total ILL ' TotalCirclat.007875161i Pearonf .77% 5680 14804 163. . * 018% 144.38% 8719 10561 21. .05% 4802 12799 166..41% 1259 2546 102129A Bellingham 89439 8D408 -10810% 4487 5441 21. 2. D . 4 .58% 125424 1.1356 5252 190170 467 453 13131 Belchertown 148051 1.5025i 6222.r.99% 4828 5755 19.21% 1012 12445 Marlborough 2O7336 0.ot.94% 7091 24.13144t.26% Dudley 555OO 54478 -1. -.4FY99 CftFY'00 Ob-onti.04% 1 15590 1 204104 30.Ot 6t10010l019 YeelIriel.1314008981 Table 5.09% Milord 204261 181881 -11.

P(Z-zt wo-tail 0.52% o~1T.64 8 5 ... 258% 508376 34294 6.02702395 0c03271603.93% 278296 6215 2.65% Milford 204261 9933 4. 3320883 15599 14.101 ILL a0%of Tolw.1rFY02 C-OFY05 00%o017 SILL 0ta 5 ILL0s0%o1Tai M0n 0.646003627: P(Z ione: 001.72% 172672 2318 1.02% 144356 9.09% 4802 1.. Shrewsbury 333712 13415 4.76% 37700 41liA t 0. WO oT iLLC0% ofTra ILLas%ofaTiotai 11.._1131631E. z Critica ono-tail 1.80% Hudson 156393 8508 5.57% 263032 5726 2.06% 241037 12799 5.000337456 J HypothesizedMean Difference 0 -771638206i lipoikesized Mean P(Z..36% 201183 5a55 2.40% 100033 4.31% 37700 4104 10.60 ý1.34% A0mherst 501725 1219 0.Crticl0 0.00787501 U 02 64851 Knownn 00001060I WI72 000227 KnoonVarlame 2.42% Shrewsbury 260948 1601 0.507675145 0Z5.66% Salchertown 130562 5252 4.65%.25% 181661 12077 6.21% Wleiaflodon 139755 8195 5..eoooOL0 T. I 'T" ' 'I T.0cdt"lItwo-Wi0 i 1.75% Auburn 189169 2799 1.00015151 0.90% Bellingham 67667 1259 76067 2546 3.644053027 z Criical -tail 1. -111. %.Table 7.82% 0 Dudley 4 793 2809 5.10l I 1n-tl i644853627[ 2.19904E-14 I 0ne-tail oOCntIcl 1.40% 175127 11903 6.9599630601 Table 9.Un1.86% 5441 041 6.30% Westfield 283032 5726 202% 270943 11104 3.87% 54B7% South Hadley 156502 4908 3.66% 0.07% Holden 248815 S.744E-05.9952E-150i _ -9..75% 030% 000076 34264 675% 540% Amherst 507103 007103 27339 27338 5.43% 67812 610 Dudley Dudley 55500 1281 2.78% 202629 2803 191491 Marborouogh Milford 180012 5850 3.52%1 32305 204104 6.68% 96165 902 0.11 T.93% 241037 12799 5. OPAC design enhancement: patron-placed Massachusetts Table 10... 44 92 X tbosrvtos 16 7 Obtawation5 HyothOod MOo.86% 181661 12077 6. ý06 #00 oa76 .35% Bellingham 98004 417 0..07% Howvard 74198 5827 7.J 0.30% Marlborough 209168 9794 4.85% B1lehertown 125424 1869 1.24% 1578 68125 3418 5.40%1 LIBRARIES #00YoslW *woootTLoLt Terbefoastats..74% 286814 4712 1.91% 57974 493 0.44% Westfield Williamstown 3.85% Westlield 284506 1485 0052% 266151 3842 1. .02% 74401 7494 10.. 16 Known Vad0ance 0.!!Ma M.03% South Hadley 155970 653 149607 1577 1. 526855 13614 A 04 Pv%4 "Ills60 I00 Pf"400 I1.. Pt=Zz) t0o-l 1.404 -=60 1 .48% 162029 4504 2.68% 197673 12445 6.11% 64998 2.97% 5.02% 283030 524W 1.40% 5252 4.31% 4802 Holden 294933 11969 4.21% Totals j 3144419 1 MM3 2.I)00060lll1 1 3. OPAC design enhancements: "Cumulative Effect" (FY '02 virtual catalog holds (adopted 8/04) ILL received as a percentage to FY '05) ILL received as a percentage of total circulation of total circulation LIBRARIES ly0n 09 YV 1 #600ý Inoý I "Y0 5.n IT.87% 136185 2441 138% Malborough 4522 2.85% 54962 1231 2. Pittsfield a01878 6944 2.19951417 z -1.000.39% 508376 10061 34294 6. .6748BE-05 P(Z<-.01% 314396 18774 5.02702395 0007687531 FY04 0gný C FYU5 KnownV00no0s 0.049002002 0.14% Milford 188939 1354 0.36% 197673 12445 6.278050057 1 CrtIcaltone-tal 1.64% Shrewsbury 266159 5358 2.98% 278943 11104 Willamstown 121575 5352 4.01% 297744 7190 2.959963985 44 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES I MARCH 2007 .1.4t 01!..57% t 95533 10561 5. 0. General systemwide holds (adopted 11/00) ILL received Table 8.72% 198203 3114 1.644853627 0i 66 000.65% 23760 14964 6.30% 133537 6251 4.02% 72339 4135 5.14% 154360 7516 West Springffld 214549 5680 2.o.1604..65% 220851 7091 3.5 .39% 143904 10374 7.5..64% 144356 13131 9.70% 3253105 20o164 6.1 V-so 0.98% West pinfeld 7889 2.001643640 z Criticaltwo-tal 1.zot wo-talt 0.65% 157005 3187 2.6a% Hudson 136458 1191 0.34% Pittsfield 301878 6944 2.02% 134183 6511 4.) two-tail 013163769 '(Z..1 In r.79% Hudson 142075 4828 3.10% Auburn 190995 190005 BelChartow.61% 258798 3228 1.30% 297840 7594 2.27% Total.9n. .9599639a5'- 6 t.34% 287578 17123 Shrewsbury 266159 5358 2.25% 183803 7610 4.02% 314398 18774 South Hadley 150055 2588 t1.117% Bellingham 67667 1259 1.65% 154360 7516 4.86% 143904 10374 7.1.91% 210268 1634 0.21% West Sprngfeld 198547 1430 0..40% 156275 5755 3..02% Biwa8 6.067687531 Obsen.94% 104767 3163 Totals 3144419 j 79273 2152% 3275M 9904 3.48% 195533 10561 5.000126072 0000337456 Mean 0.77% Belchertown 6040B Bellingham 89439 4487 5.58% 547139 077 YN 3.r n T.44% 175127 11903 6ý8O% Marlboough 191491 4522 2.77% Dudley 55500 1281 2.25% South Hadley 156855 2588 1.000521024. 003.106 .ICyl.55% Pittsfield 280269 2069 0..43% Holden 248615 1.23% 192087 1274 0.30% 233697 10970 4ý69% 237650 14964 6.47% Auburn 190728 453 0. 130502 13131 136064 9037 6.04% Totals 3062660 2I134 665% 306666.31% 54478 1585 2. 16 16 -l900theslz0Meon-1 Rifference 0 i _ 1 -4.30'/o Milford 180012 5850 3.23% Holden 224480 0680% 220763 2406 1.o.49% 12B084 3413 2. 526855 13614 "t"1 2.ations 16.85% 74401 7494 10. 4I751 1.)_R 0116A 5.27% ILLas % of T.57% 8719 8719 4. OPAC design enhancement: patron-placed holds (adopted as a percentage of total circulation 12/02) ILL received as a percentage of total circulation LIBRARIES T-1I0 1sli-hO1-d1Lk00101 Ill 0030 I T_ II. 1 Zo=z)?o -ts1 1.89% 68125 3416 5...72% Hismard 64255 1358 2. Z-TOSI:Two Uml o e Q.05% West Sprlngfield 214549 568= 2.= al L CInFY'02 COnFYW03 eoan ' 0.02% Williamstown 121875 5352 4.24% 504137 0o81 18277 Auburn 189169 2799 1.31% Hudson 142075 4828 3.WIU 00y66100so4u.30% 287578 17123 595% W010-tw Pittsfield 280770 12191 4.

n FY01 . Holds received comparison before and after general systemwide holds implementation (adopted 11/00) systemwide holds implementation (adopted 11/00) 18000 -Total C FY50 taaiWOn -TOtal ILLAo.00 Ps ag9 300000 . TOtW C0l-0I. ILL received comparison prior to any ILL OPAC enhance- ment (FY '99 to FY '00) ment (FY '99 to FY '00 7000 5000 400000 . Tot IL. 00000.0 FY50 t4000 .O 0100DI719 P-0. Chart 2.0. Circulation comparison before and after general Chart 4.44 0 / 0 i/ 7•° iii '4$'/?Zi Chart 5.0051000305 3010 (V%Wo 2"0 N 0 OlIt 0 /0" Chart 3.01073394 PO.45073344 100WO N N NJ o0- Chart 1.ta. 30000 TOoCcuatiO. TotalCi=Wol30nFY 0V 0.ILLRflOgo FY00 TO 000 / PM.0FY W0 -TOt0l ILL500. FY 0 TotalIL•.0003V.054 FY01 P. Circulation comparison prior to any ILL OPAC enhance. R. .. TotalILLR404.WOJ FY03 P. Circulation comparison before and after patron-placed Chart 6. Holds received comparison before and after patron-placed holds OPAC enhancement (adopted 12/02) holds OPAC enhancement (adopted 12/02) OPAC DESIGN ENHANCEMENTS I BENNETT 45 .

.IMI0E. ILL comparison OPAC enhancements "Cumulative Effect" (FY '02 to FY '05) Effect" (FY '02 to FY '05) Index to Advertisers LITA 35.11 " Chart 9.'1. 40OO0 60M 30000 30O50 25000 20OO0 -T1. cover 2. 08215E- Chart 7. Circulation comparison before and after Massachusetts Chart 8. TOWILL00i00 F"V35 To-l Cl14t40. cover 4 Neal-Schuman cover 3 46 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES I MARCH 2007 .0 a Go- !/0 / ++/-/ // /.Fr0V V5 -TOOlILLA -C.1UILl 000. 47.o4F 5-0 1010000 I`1. FY0'0 15000 P.o00iun FYV0 -.00FY'04 ToOl 2530 000010100 TOtWILLR-ei.e. Circulation comparison OPAC enhancements "Cumulative Chart 10. Holds received comparison before and after virtual catalog OPAC enhancement (adopted 8/04) Massachusetts virtual catalog OPAC enhancement (adopted 8/04) 41W) I 35000 400000 305DDO --"ol C.. / A111// ý.

org/ . To contact the publisher: http://www.ala. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.COPYRIGHT INFORMATION TITLE: OPAC Design Enhancements and Their Effects on Circulation and Resource SOURCE: Information Technology and Libraries 26 no1 Mr 2007 PAGE(S): 36-46 The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission.