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OBJECTIVES

:
 To obtain information about the Taiga biome
 Acknowledge the concerns of Environmental Engineering in the Taiga regions
 Illustrate the climate and geography of the Taiga biome
 Gather facts about the flora and fauna in a Taiga environment
 Attest the threats, protection and natural disturbance in the Taiga biome

TAIGA
Taiga, also known as boreal forest or snowforest, is a biome characterized by
coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

Taiga is the Russian word for forest and is the largest biome in the world. A
biome is the type of habitat in certain places, like mountain tops, deserts, and tropical
forests, and is determined by the climate of the place. The taiga is the biome of the
needleleaf forest. Living in the taiga is cold and lonely. Coldness and food shortages
make things very difficult, mostly in the winter. Some of the animals in the taiga
hibernate in the winter, some fly south if they can, while some just cooperate with the
environment, which is very difficult.

In North America it covers most of inland Canada and Alaska as well as parts of
the extreme northern continental United States (northern Minnesota through the Upper
Peninsula of Michigan to Upstate New York and northern New England) and is known as
the Northwoods. In Eurasia, it covers most of Sweden, Finland, much of Norway, some
lowland/coastal areas of Iceland, much of Russia from Karelia in the west to the Pacific
Ocean (including much of Siberia), and areas of northern Kazakhstan, northern
Mongolia, and northern Japan (on the island of Hokkaidō). However, the main tree
species, the length of the growing season and summer temperatures vary. For example,
the taiga of North America mostly consists of spruces; Scandinavian and Finnish taiga
consists of a mix of spruce, pines and birch; Russian taiga has spruces, pines and
larches depending on the region, the Eastern Siberian taiga being a vast larch forest.

A different use of the term taiga is often encountered in the English language,
with "boreal forest" used in the United States and Canada to refer to only the more
southerly part of the biome, with taiga used to describe the more barren areas of the
northernmost part of the biome approaching the tree line and the tundra biome.

Birds migrate there every year to nest and feed. ground water. Within this biome. to provide healthy water. including conservation lands.  Environment Prevents and reduces the impact of human activities on the environment. Taiga Environmental Laboratory & The Department of Environment and Natural Resources The department works to promote and support the sustainable use and development of natural resources and to protect.  Forest Management . conserve and enhance the Northwest Territories environment for the social and economic benefit of all residents. there is a wide range of temperatures between winter and summer seasons. Winters are long and cold. and to remediate polluted sites. It shares those responsibilities with Aboriginal and municipal governments. industrial effluents. and the review of proposed development activities within the regulatory system.Hoffman discusses the origin of this differential use in North America and why it is an inappropriate differentiation of the Russian term. air. Assessment and Monitoring Ensures NWT environment figures prominently in land use planning. The taiga doesn't have as many plant and animal species as the tropical or the deciduous forest biomes. and/or land resources). and land for human habitation and for other organisms. Responsibilities:  Conservation. Precipitation is moderately high throughout the year with snow occurring during the winter months. federal and territorial departments. water. Taiga Environmental Laboratory is a full-service analytical laboratory that performs a wide range of organic and inorganic chemical analyses on samples of water (freshwater. It does have millions of insects in the summertime. sewage) and soil. and the summers are short and cool. drinking water. boards and agencies and every resident of the Northwest Territories. TAIGA AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air.

and may soon disappear completely into the big world. habitat. such as Moscow and Toronto. and pollution. but it has damaged the taiga by changing stream habitats and flow patterns. Regrowth of mature forests takes a long time because of the climate and soil conditions of the taiga. losing their unique culture. Narym Selkups. PEOPLE AND THE TAIGA There are a few large cities in the southern parts of the taiga. The indigenous people of the northern part of the region are beginning to forget their native tongue. but most of it is relatively unpopulated. Hydroelectric development may seem beneficial because it uses water to generate power. communities and values at risk from wildland fire. There are also a few native communities of people who still live indigenously in the taiga. they prefer comfortable houses to mud huts. Many large vertebrates who live in the taiga are sensitive to human presence. CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY . there are slightly less than 1. property.500 Selkups in the region. and hydroelectric development. These activities have had negative impacts on areas of this biome and may continue to negatively affect it in the future. A majority of the logging in the taiga is done by clear-cutting. habitat alteration. mining. specifically acid rain. Ensures sustainable use of NWT forest resources and protecting people. The major industries of the taiga include logging. also known as “taiga people.  Wildlife Responsible for the stewardship of wildlife resource by assessing and monitoring wildlife populations. their numbers having declined by 400 people over the last ten years. At present. and flooding large areas and changing the landscape. Mining is a concern because it may result in pollution of surrounding soils and water.  Water Resources Ensures water stewardship and works closely with NWT boards issuing water licenses by providing technical advice and reviewing applications and coordinating Ministerial approval for Class A water licences. using heavy machinery to remove much of the surrounding forest.” have lived in the Tomsk region since time immemorial. wildlife health and biodiversity. species at risk.

The closed canopy boreal forest in Kenozersky National Park near Plesetsk. Data for locations in southwest Yukon gives 80–120 frost-free days. when the vegetation in the taiga comes alive. Some sources claim 130 days growing season as typical for the taiga. and makes up 29% of the world's forest cover. Scandinavia and Finland. Taiga is the world's largest land biome. growing season varies from 80 to 150 days. Dfd and Dwd in the Köppen climate classification scheme. This climate is classified as Dfc. Extreme winter minimums in the northern taiga are typically lower than those of the tundra. whilst the extreme south and (in Eurasia) west of the taiga reaches into humid continental climates (Dfb. whilst in the Dfd and Dwd climate zones continuous permafrost occurs and restricts growth to very shallow-rooted trees like Siberian larch. The taiga is the terrestrial biome with the lowest annual average temperatures after the tundra and permanent ice caps. In much of the taiga. The taiga or boreal forest has a subarctic climate with very large temperature range between seasons. (14 °F). The mean annual temperature generally varies from -5 °C to 5 °C. while short. the growing season is often estimated by using the period of the year when the 24-hr average temperature is +5 °C (41 °F) or more. the boreal forest grades into a temperate mixed forest when mean annual temperature reaches about 3 °C. Dwc. but the long and cold winter is the dominant feature. must deal with the coldest winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere. . Dwb) with longer summers. is usually slightly longer than the climatic definition of summer as the plants of the boreal biome have a lower threshold to trigger growth. The winters. In Canada. the largest areas are located in Russia and Canada. The taiga in the river valley near Verkhoyansk. Dsc. are generally warm and humid. on average has 108 frost-free days. and in the Taiga Shield from 100 to 140 days. but the extreme continentality of the climate gives an average daily high of 22 °C (72 °F)in July. Russia. meaning that the short summer (24-hr average 10 °C or more (50 °F) lasts 1–3 months and always less than 4 months. The summers. The lowest reliably recorded temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere were recorded in the taiga of northeastern Russia. There are also some much smaller areas grading towards the oceanic Cfc climate with milder winters. -20 °C (-4°F) would be a typical winter day temperature and 18 °C (64 °F) an average summer day. (37 °F) Discontinuous permafrost is found in areas with mean annual temperature below 0 °C. According to some sources. For the Taiga Plains in Canada. Arkhangelsk Province. last five to seven months. Russia. with average temperatures below freezing. Temperatures vary from −54 °C to 30 °C (-65 °F to 86 °F) throughout the whole year. Other sources mention that 50–100 frost-free days are characteristic. at 67°N. The growing season. (23 °F to 41 °F) but there are taiga areas in eastern Siberia and interior Alaska-Yukon where the mean annual reaches down to -10 °C.

depending on latitude. Lakes and other water bodies are very common.[22] The southern limit is more variable. taiga grows to the south of the 10 °C July isotherm. but more typically extends south to the 18 °C (64 °F) July isotherm. . depending on rainfall. High latitudes mean that the sun does not rise far above the horizon. 1. The Helvetinjärvi National Park. and less solar energy is received than further south. especially predominant in low-lying areas during and after the thawing of frozen Arctic seas. and Manchurian Fir. with more warmth-loving species such as Korean Pine. and is sufficient to sustain the dense vegetation growth. but occasionally as far north as the 9 °C (48 °F) July isotherm. creating lakes and bogs (especially muskeg soil) found throughout the taiga. In general.The longest growing season is found in the smaller areas with oceanic influences. more locally (on the Pacific Ocean coasts of North America and Asia). Finland. but also as fog and snow.000 mm in some areas). In these warmer areas the taiga has higher species diversity. into coniferous temperate rainforests. The area currently classified as taiga in Europe and North America (except Alaska) was recently glaciated. The areas of the taiga inside the Arctic Circle have midnight sun in mid-summer and polar night in mid-winter. and locally where rainfall is higher (notably in eastern Siberia and adjacent Outer Manchuria) south to the 20 °C (68 °F) July isotherm. the growing season of the closed boreal forest can be 145–180 days. As the glaciers receded they left depressions in the topography that have since filled with water. Snow may remain on the ground for as long as nine months in the northernmost extensions of the taiga ecozone. as the sun stays above the horizon nearly 20 hours each day. This fog. means that sunshine is not abundant in the taiga even during the long summer days. in coastal areas of Scandinavia and Finland. situated in the closed canopy taiga (mid-boreal to south-boreal) with mean annual temperature of 4 °C (39 °F). Jezo Spruce. precipitation exceeds evaporation. The taiga experiences relatively low precipitation throughout the year (generally 200–750 mm annually. As evaporation is consequently low for most of the year. primarily as rain during the summer months. and merges gradually into mixed temperate forest or. with only around 6 hours of daylight occurring in the dark winters. taiga may be replaced by forest steppe south of the 15 °C (59 °F) July isotherm where rainfall is very low. But the high latitude also ensures very long summer days.

are both in the tundra and taiga SHIELD. Fallen leaves and moss can remain on the forest floor for a long time in the cool. In clearings in the forest and in areas with more boreal deciduous trees. which hinders the development of soil and the ease with which plants can use its nutrients. Diversity of soil organisms in the boreal forest is high. Since the soil is acidic due to the falling pine needles. The thinness of the soil is due largely to the cold. creating spodosol. acids from evergreen needles further leach the soil. moist climate. It lacks the deep.composed of Precambrian and other ancient rock outcrops exposed at the surface. there are more herbs and berries growing. comparable to the tropical rainforest.SOILS Taiga soil tends to be young and poor in nutrients. . the forest floor has only lichens and some mosses growing on it. TYPES OF SOIL: SPODOSOL. also known as podzol. which limits their organic contribution to the soil.is not very fertile since it contains few nutrients and forms slowly although it is home to coniferous trees GELISOL. organically enriched profile present in temperate deciduous forests.

In clearings in the forest. the middle boreal (closed forest). Finland and western Russia) this subzone is commonly used for agricultural purposes. dominated by larch. The southern part is the closed canopy forest. typically with each genus having several distinct species. and there is usually a gradual transition into a temperate mixed forest. others grow in most areas of the taiga (such as cranberry and cloudberry). In the interior of the continents with the driest climate. ice pruned asymmetric Black Spruce (in North America) are often seen. Taigas also have some small- leaved deciduous trees like birch. moreover. elm and lime scattered among the conifers. some are confined to the southern and middle closed boreal forest (such as raspberry. such as maple. the boreal forests might grade into temperate grassland.FLORA Since North America and Asia used to be connected by the Bering land bridge. a number of animal and plant species (more animals than plants) were able to colonize both continents and are distributed throughout the taiga biome (see Circumboreal Region). each occupying different regions of the taiga. The very southernmost parts of the taiga may have trees such as oak. the boreal forest is usually divided into three subzones: The high boreal (north boreal) or taiga zone. such as the Eastern forest-boreal transition of eastern Canada. The forests of the taiga are largely coniferous. a closed canopy boreal forest with some scattered temperate deciduous trees among the conifers. spruce. bunchberry. In Canada. maple. with trees that are farther-spaced and lichen ground cover. Scandinavia and Finland. wild strawberry and partridgeberry). The other type is the lichen woodland or sparse taiga. The boreal forest is home to many types of berries. willow. shrubs and wildflowers are common. elm and oak. The woodland mix varies according to geography and climate so for example the Eastern Canadian forests ecoregion of the higher elevations of the Laurentian . This southern boreal forest experiences the longest and warmest growing season of the biome. There are two major types of taiga. the latter is common in the northernmost taiga. However. with diminished foliage on the windward side. consisting of many closely spaced trees with mossy ground cover. In the northernmost taiga the forest cover is not only more sparse. and poplar. such as the fireweed. alder. Others differ regionally. and in some regions (including Scandinavia. but often stunted in growth form. fir and pine. mostly in areas escaping the most extreme winter cold. the Dahurian Larch tolerates the coldest winters in the northern hemisphere in eastern Siberia. and some can grow in both the taiga and the low arctic (southern part of) tundra (such as bilberry and lingonberry). and the southern boreal.

although larch. such as ferns and occasionally ramps grow closer to the ground. Evergreen species in the taiga (spruce. The adaptation of evergreen needles limits the water lost due to transpiration and their dark green color increases their absorption of sunlight.Mountains and the northern Appalachian Mountains in Canada is dominated by balsam fir Abies balsamea. while taiga of the Russian Far East and Mongolia is dominated by larch. called "hardening". the taiga has low biological diversity. aspen. Although precipitation is not a limiting factor. In North America. fir and pine. notably birch. The narrow conical shape of northern conifers. the most cold-tolerant of all trees is deciduous. Many smaller herbaceous plants. Taiga trees tend to have shallow roots to take advantage of the thin soils. and rowan. so desiccation can be a severe problem in late winter for evergreens. and the deciduous larch. Because the sun is low in the horizon for most of the year. it is difficult for plants to generate energy from photosynthesis. however. Pine. allowing sunlight to invigorate new growth on the forest floor. fir. the ground freezes during the winter months and plant roots are unable to absorb water. willow. Grasses grow wherever they can find a patch of sun. A very few species in four main genera are found: the evergreen spruce. PLANT ADAPTATIONS . In comparison with other biomes. one or two species of fir and one or two species of spruce are dominant. some broadleaf trees also occur. Although the taiga is dominated by coniferous forests. spruce and fir do not lose their leaves seasonally and are able to photosynthesize with their older leaves in late winter and spring when light is good but temperatures are still too low for new growth to commence. the Scots pine is a common component of the taiga. while many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing. Periodic stand-replacing wildfires (with return times of between 20–200 years) clear out the tree canopies. Across Scandinavia and western Russia. Coniferous trees are the dominant plants of the taiga biome. also help them shed snow. and mosses and lichens thrive on the damp ground and on the sides of tree trunks. and their downward-drooping limbs. and pine) have a number of adaptations specifically for survival in harsh taiga winters.

. Boreal forest. Their name. The conical shape of the evergreens allows the snow to slide off the branches rather than pile up. This limits the risk of needle damage from freezing temperatures. the evergreens are able to use that limited energy for structural growth rather than producing leaves. leaf type. Plants get their energy from the soil and from the Sun. The taiga soil doesn't contain many nutrients.is soil at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years. The needles do. root system. and since the needles are always present. and conifers: Conifers. and the Sun usually remains low in the sky. once temperature start to get warm. These two factors limit the amount of energy available to the tree. however. the ground freezes during the winter months and plant roots are unable to get water. Evergreen needles do not contain very much sap. The adaptation from broadleaf to narrow needle-like structures limits water loss through transpiration. DEFINITION OF TERMS Permafrost or cryotic soil. If the snow can't pile up on the branches. which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season. photosynthesis quickly begins. They are always--or ever green. Some of these adaptations include their shape. Growing new leaves takes a lot of energy. Evergreens use a wide variety of physical adaptations. Although the taiga has moderately high precipitation. Because they don't drop their leaves when temperatures cool. contain a chemical that repels animals who would eat the needles.Relating to the characteristic of the climatic zone south of the Arctic. This contrasts with deciduous plants. and color.is a plant that has leaves in all four seasons. The dark green color of the needles absorbs the sunlight. evergreen. Soil is a source of nutrients. they don't have to regrow them in the spring. always green.cone bearing plants Evergreen. there is less risk of broken branches due to the weight of the snow. By keeping their leaves. describes an important adaptation. Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis to take place in the plant. especially the cold temperate region dominated by taiga and forests of birch. poplar.

various species of cisco. lenok and lake chub.000 species of insects. Other animals have adapted layers of fur or feathers to insulate them from the cold. Insects play a critical role as pollinators. supports a large range of animals. and as a part of the food web. North American porcupine and vole. various grayling species. found in northern Canada. and Canadian toad. such as moose and reindeer/caribou. northern two-lined salamander. and there are only a few species in the boreal forest including red-sided garter snake. lake whitefish. 130 species of fish. Most hibernate underground in winter. These species have adapted to survive the harsh winters in their native ranges. Mammalian . white sucker. The taiga is home to a number of large herbivorous mammals. Canada's boreal forest includes 85 species of mammals. Brown bears are among the largest and most widespread taiga Omnivores. and then go into hibernation during the winter. decomposers. Species in the taiga include Alaska blackfish. such as bears. American toad. mountain hare. wood frog. The largest animal in the taiga is the wood bison. Some areas of the more southern closed boreal forest also have populations of other deer species such as the elk (wapiti) and roe deer. walleye. Siberian taimen. or taiga. Predatory mammals of the taiga must be adapted to travel long distances in search of scattered prey or be able to supplement their diet with vegetation or other forms of food (such as raccoons).means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed" or "falling away after its purpose is finished". northern pike. Many nesting birds rely on them for food especially in the months of February and March. In plants it is the result of natural processes. FAUNA Brown bear. pygmy whitefish. round whitefish. boreal chorus frog. Fish of the taiga must be able to withstand cold water conditions and be able to adapt to life under ice covered water. Some larger mammals. northern leopard frog. The boreal forest. brook trout (including sea-run brook trout in the Hudson bay area). as well as a small number of lagomorph species such as snowshoe hare. Kamchatka peninsula. longnose sucker. Siberian salamander. Alaska and has been newly introduced into the Russian far-east. chum salmon.Deciduous. common European adder. and an estimated 32. arctic lamprey. The cold winters and short summers make the taiga a challenging biome for reptiles and amphibians. which depend on environmental conditions to regulate their body temperatures. Small mammals of the Taiga biome include rodent species including beaver. eat heartily during the summer in order to gain weight. squirrel. blue-spotted salamander.

so . coyote. More than 300 species of birds have their nesting grounds in the taiga. THREATS HUMAN ACTIVITIES Large areas of Siberia's taiga have been harvested for lumber since the collapse of the Soviet Union. American marten. but with the collapse of the Union. the adaptation of a seasonal change in color of feathers or fur protects the animal from its predators. European otter. ANIMAL ADAPTATIONS Most animals migrate to warmer climates once the cold weather begins. The ermine. wolverine. including Golden Eagle. Some animals have adapted to life in the taiga by hibernating when temperatures drop. stoat. Of the 300 species of birds that summer in the taiga only 30 stay for the winter. red fox. American mink. the restrictions regarding trade with Western nations have vanished. Previously. This adaptation helps the ermine blend into its surroundings and makes it more difficult for the ermine's predators to spot them. and Black-throated Green Warbler migrate to this habitat to take advantage of the long summer days and abundance of insects found around the numerous bogs and lakes. In some instances. Other animals have adapted to the extreme cold temperatures by producing a layer of insulating feathers or fur to protect them from the cold. Siberian weasel. and Raven. Trees are easy to harvest and sell well. a small mammal. is a good example of this adaptation. Asiatic black bear. or else seed-eating birds. Its dark brown summer coat changes to white in the winter. American black bear. including several species of grouse and crossbills. North American river otter. Asian badger. fisher. Rough-legged Buzzard (also known as the Rough-legged Hawk). sable. polar bear and Siberian tiger.predators of the taiga include Canada lynx. gray wolf. the forest was protected by the restrictions of the Soviet Forest Ministry. Eurasian lynx. least weasel. Siberian Thrush. White-throated Sparrow. These are either carrion-feeding or large raptors that can take live mammal prey. brown bear.

The number of days with extremely cold temperatures (e.. eight percent of the taiga is protected from development. In Fairbanks. Summer warming has been shown to increase water stress and reduce tree growth in dry areas of the southern boreal forest in central Alaska. Alaska. The prompt renewal of all harvest sites by planting or natural renewal is also required. business. allowing better survival for tree-damaging insects. the length of the frost-free season has increased from 60–90 days in the early twentieth century to about 120 days a century later. In summer. . newsprint. Winter temperatures have increased more than summer temperatures. provincial or national environmental laws. the provincial government allows forest management to occur on Crown land under rigorous constraints. which involves cutting down most of the trees in a given area. More than 90% of boreal forest products from Canada are exported for consumption and processing in the United States. then replanting the forest as a monocrop (one species of tree) the following season. Finland. In Canada. The main forestry practice in the boreal forest of Canada is clearcutting. northwest Russia and eastern Canada. the daily low temperature has increased more than the daily high temperature. and other environmental. copy paper. and social requirements. Precipitation is relatively abundant in Scandinavia. Some of the products from logged boreal forests include toilet paper. respect for aboriginal peoples.loggers have begun harvesting Russian taiga evergreen trees for sale to nations previously forbidden by Soviet law. especially during the last quarter of the twentieth century. Sustainable Forests Initiative (SFI). and lumber. or the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). all of them include forest stewardship. forest worker safety. While the certification process differs between these groups. compliance with local. western Canada and portions of far eastern Russia. CLIMATE CHANGE The zone of latitude occupied by the boreal forest has experienced some of the greatest temperature increases on Earth. that has changed. However with the recession and fewer US homes being built. education and training. −20 to −40 °C (-4 to -40 °F) has decreased irregularly but systematically in nearly all the boreal region.g. Most companies that harvest in Canadian forests are certified by an independent third party agency such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).

while trees on some of the coldest fringes of the forest are experiencing faster growth than previously. as the evergreen trees will absorb more of the sun's rays. In much of the boreal forest in Alaska.e. INSECTS Recent years have seen outbreaks of insect pests in forest-destroying plagues: the spruce-bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Yukon and Alaska. Lack of moisture in the warmer summers are also stressing the birch trees of central Alaska. the mountain pine beetle in British Columbia. such a change has the potential to affect areas well outside of the region. As a consequence of this warming trend. the aspen-leaf miner. NATURAL DISTURBANCE One of the biggest areas of research and a topic still full of unsolved questions is the recurring disturbance of fire and the role it plays in propagating the lichen woodland.where a longer growth season (i. it is considered to be predominant force behind community and ecosystem properties in the lichen woodland. the warmer parts of the boreal forests are susceptible to replacement by grassland. Given the vast size of the area. damaging fire occurs approximately every 70 to 100 years. This is likely to further accelerate warming. The significance of fire is clearly evident when one considers that understory vegetation influences tree seedling germination in the short term and decomposition of biomass and nutrient availability in the long term. the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). the spruce coneworm. the larch sawfly. Understanding the dynamics of this ecosystem is . The phenomenon of wildfire by lightning strike is the primary determinant of understory vegetation and because of this. the period when sap flow is not impeded by frozen water) accelerate tree growth. The recurrent cycle of large. parkland or temperate forest. the growth of white spruce trees are stunted by unusually warm summers. the taiga is converting from predominantly needle-shedding larch trees to evergreen conifers in response to a warming climate. In Siberia.

The reappearance of lichens is reasoned to occur because of varying conditions and light/nutrient availability in each different microstate. Several different studies have been done that have led to the formation of the theory that post-fire development can be propagated by any of four pathways: self replacement. species-dominance relay. or gap- phase self replacement.000 square kilometres of boreal forest by creating a new 10. the primary change agent in the boreal zone. Large insect outbreaks that occur regularly help to renew the forests. clearing the way for forest renewal and increasing biodiversity. They are home to a unique flora. and other forms of development. mining. In February 2010 the Canadian government established protection for 13. species replacement. Bogs and peatland are widespread in the taiga. The particular pathway taken after a fire disturbance depends on how the landscape is able to support trees as well as fire frequency.  Fire. Seeds that have fallen and become buried provide little help in re-establishment of a species. is as crucial to forest renewal as the sun and rain. PROTECTION Peat bog in Dalarna. oil and gas production.700 square kilometre park reserve in . and store vast amounts of carbon.  Insects are an important variable in the life cycle of boreal forests. and lichens all recover from fire-induced damage through vegetative reproduction as well as invasion by propagules. Wildland fires release valuable nutrients stored in the litter on the forest floor. It has been hypothesized by Serge Payette that the Spruce-Moss forest ecosystem was changed into the lichen woodland biome due to the initiation of two compounded strong disturbances: large fire and the appearance and attack of the spruce budworm. Trees.entangled with discovering the successional paths that the vegetation exhibits after a fire. shrubs.  Diseases contribute to the forest ecosystem by speeding up the mortality of weak and over-mature trees. Sweden. the Scots pine is common in the boreal forest. Many nations are taking direct steps to protect the ecology of the taiga by prohibiting logging. Fire frequency has a large role in shaping the original inception of the lower forest line of the lichen woodland taiga. In western Eurasia.

500 scientists called on political leaders to protect at least half of the boreal forest. In fact. work with Aboriginal and local communities and ultimately map out precise boundaries of the areas off-limits to development.the Mealy Mountains area of eastern Canada and a 3. much of it in wetlands and peatland. the measures are expected to create some of the largest protected areas networks in the world once completed.000 square kilometre waterway provincial park that follows alongside the Eagle River from headwaters to sea. more than the world's temperate and tropical forests combined. Both announcements came the following year after a letter signed by 1. current estimates place boreal forests as storing twice as much carbon per unit area as tropical forests. Ontario and Quebec. . Two Canadian provincial governments. introduced measures in 2008 that would protect at least half of their northern boreal forest. Although both provinces admitted it will take years to plan. The taiga stores enormous quantities of carbon.

Julius Angelo M. ESCI 313 – 2 TAIGA GROUP NUMBER: 3 Leader: Landicho. Kiyoshi Gaspar. Adrian Paolo M. Angelo Gozum. Lozada Instructor . Migs Fukushima. Kit Richard Junio. Mark Dj Engr. Members: Evangelista.

html http://www.wikipedia.SOURCES: http://envi-scie.ca/programs/taiga-environmental- laboratory .htm http://en.ru/analysis/20111026/168130312.com/2011/01/taiga.org/taiga.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taigaA.enr.gov.html http://www.blueplanetbiomes.nt.ht ml http://www.blogspot.cotf.org/wiki/Taiga http://en.ria.