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Characteristicks of

Men, Manners, Opinions, Times

haracteristicks
 
An Inquiry concerning V and M.
The M; a Philosophical Rhapsody.

Printed in the Year M.DCC.XXXII.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of, –.
Characteristicks of men, manners, opinions, times /
Anthony, Third Earl of Shaftesbury;
introduction by Douglas Den Uyl.
p. cm.
Originally published: th ed., cor., with the addition
of a letter concerning design.
London: Printed by J. Purser, –. With new introd.
Includes bibliographical references.
 ---x (hc: set)
 --- (pbk.: set)
. Ethics. I. Title.
.  
—dc -

 , .
 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 
Indianapolis, Indiana -


Foreword vii
A Note on the Text xiii

 
A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm. 
Sensus Communis; an Essay on the
Freedom of Wit and Humour. 
Soliloquy, or Advice to an Author. 

 
An Inquiry Concerning Virtue and Merit. 
The Moralists; a Philosophical Rhapsody. 

 
Miscellaneous Reflections on the Said
Treatises, and Other Critical Subjects. 
A Notion of the Historical Draught, or
Tablature of the Judgment of Hercules.
With a Letter Concerning Design. 


Shaftesbury’s Index 
Index to This Edition 

v

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let us inquire about serious matters. *Amoto quaeramus seria ludo. Sat.          V I Z.DC.  he jest set aside.IX. I. .* Hor. or Merit.XC. A N I N U I RY C ONC E R N I NG Virtue. and Publish’d intire. Printed first in the Year M. Formerly Printed from an Imperfect Copy: Now Corrected.

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in this respect. A N I N U I RY. It may however be question’d. We have known People. And so willing we are toA believe well [] of their Union. INQUIRY. that they are generally presum’d insepa. be answerable to our Specula- tion. or even think of ’em apart. ’Tis certain that we sometimes meet with Instances which seem to make against this general Supposition. that we hardly allow it just to speak. have  . who having the Appearance of great Zeal in Religion. whether the Prac- tice of the World. c. ook      R ELIGION and V IRTUE appear in many respects so Occasion of this nearly related. rable Companions.

and is of so nice and dangerous Speculation. and at the same time preserves any [] regard for the Principles of Natural ReAligion. Others. till we hear something further of their Character. if the Method of explaining Things shou’d appear somewhat unusual. that they look upon a Man as guilty of foul Play. if he allows the least Advantage to any other Prin- ciple. or share any real degree of Honesty. For so much is the religious part of Man- kind alarm’d by the Freedom of some late Pens. he will gain little Credit in the Cause. ‘‘What are his Morals?’’ But if we hear at first that he has honest moral Principles. who as- sumes the air of a Free Writer. and been consider’d as mere A. a Man is religious. we still ask. consider’d by it-self. and shewn themselves extremely degenerate and corrupt. ‘‘What Honesty or V is. . have yet been observ’d to practice the Rules of Mo- rality.          Sect. and whether it be a true Saying. are so desperately afraid of being drawn into any serious Thoughts of it. and act in many Cases with such good Meaning and Affec- tion towards Mankind. as might seem to force an Acknowledg- ment of their being virtuous. or M. again. and in what manner it is influenc’d by Reli- gion: How far Religion necessarily implies Virtue. the Men of Wit and Raillery. and so great a Jealousy is rais’d every-where on this Account.’’ And here it cannot justly be wonder’d at. And. If we are told. That it is impossible for an Atheist to be virtuous. we find mere moral Principles of such weight. who have paid little regard to Religion. ‘‘Whether he be religious and devout?’’ A This has given occasion to enquire. that whatever an Author may suggest in favour of Religion. we seldom think of the [] other Question. whose pleas- antest Entertainment is in the exposing the weak sides of Religion. we are seldom satisfy’d by the fullest Assurance given us of their Zeal in Religion. in general. as their Antagonists can possibly . and is a Man of natural Justice and good Temper. yet wanted even the common Affections of Humanity. They are apt to give as little quarter as they receive: And are resolv’d to think as ill of the Morals of their Antagonists. since the Subject-Matter has been so little examin’d. that in our dealings with Men. On the other side.

but allowing to each its proper Province.                        think of theirs. must imply a possibility in the nature of the thing to have been better contriv’d. Whatsoever in the Order of the World can be call’d ILL. Sect.A [] . and the most agreeable to a general Interest: or there is that which is otherwise. ’tis hop’d. must be caus’d or produc’d. who dares plead for Religion and Moral Virtue. However it be: If we wou’d pretend to give the least new light. is perfectly good. And if we can happily get clear of this thorny part of our Philosophy. or of the Whole. have been better constituted. between both. in defect of this. Whatsoever is really ILL. and for the best. within the intended Compass of this Inquiry. whether natural or unnatural. then of necessity there is no such thing as real ILL in the Universe. vantage to the other. or any way better order’d.A []   I N the Whole of Things (or in the Universe) either all is ac- cording to a good Order. by some short Scheme. may prove more plain and easy. it is perfect. therefore. So that. ’Tis as hard to persuade one sort. an Author must past his time ill. either by Design. . more wisely contriv’d. or explain any thing effectually. ’tis necessary to take Things pretty deep. wou’d hinder their being made Enemys by Detraction. and endeavour. and might possibly State of Opinions. with Knowledg and Intelligence) or. or order’d. without lessening the force of either. and due Rank. by Hazard. (that is to say. that there is any Virtue out of the Verge of their particular Community. For if it cou’d not. then. relating to the D. is so as that it cou’d not really have been bet- ter. Neither of ’em. that there is any Virtue in Religion. will allow the least Ad. and as it shou’d be. the rest. and mere Chance. to represent the Original of each Opin- ion. If every thing which exists be according to a good Order. and with more advantage to the general Interest of Beings. it seems. Whatsoever. nothing ILL with respect to the Whole. as the other.

nor confin’d to what is best. or Rule of Things. or those several Superiors are [] notA in their nature necessarily good. And consequently. must proceed either from Impotency. If there are several such superior Minds. There are few who think always consistently. is no one good designing Principle. or of a contrary ill Design. Men call G. but Chance. is to be a perfect T. nor any Cause. To believe nothing of a designing Principle or Mind. can be said to be in the least design’d. whether Good or Bad. but cannot prevent the Ill which happens from Chance. is what. or Mind. then there can be suppos’d in reality no such thing as a superior good Design or Mind. is to be a perfect A. by universal Agree- ment. pursu’d. cannot be the Cause of all things. or more. or Minds. they rather take the name of D. or rules in Nature with Discernment and a Mind. order’d. but capable of acting according to mere Will or Fancy. is to be a D. Whatsoever is superior in any degree over the World. If there be any thing ILL in the Universe from Design. so that in Nature neither the Interest of the Whole. then a designing Principle or Mind. . and is ILL. but rather two. If there be any ILL in the Universe from mere Chance. three. or there is some other in being which operates contrarily. necessarily good and permanent. or regu- lated for the best. To believe therefore that every thing is govern’d. To believe no one supreme designing Principle or Mind. or from a contrary ill Design.          Sect. or according to . other than what is impotent and defective: For not to correct. then that which disposes all things. if there be suppos’d a designing Principle. To believe the governing Mind. or aim’d at. not absolutely and necessarily good. they are so many Gods: But if that single. For either the one designing Principle is it-self corrupt. or totally exclude that Ill of Chance. Measure. who is the Cause only of Good. nor of any Particulars. or Ill-Will. by a designing Principle. (tho in their nature good) is to be a P.

Polytheism. That alone. upon any Subject so abstruse and intri. In the same manner.) Theism with Atheism: (. even by their own Confession. when Two distinct and contrary Principles subsist. the other of all Ill. (. that there are Times when their Faith hardly can support ’em in the Belief of a supreme Wis- dom. but several corrupt Minds who govern. he is to be esteem’d more an A than a Theist. may be *mix’d. and denotes Goodness in the superior Deity) with Polytheism: (. and that they are often tempted to judg disadvantageously of a Providence. is (in the Believer’s sense) divided between a good and an ill Nature. from that which most predominates. if a Man’s Thoughts are not at all times steddy and resolute against all Imagination of Chance.A [] All these sorts both of Daemonism.) As when there is not one. is to be call’d a Man’s Opinion. and Theism. or has the ascendent. and may be justly so call’d. he is no perfect A. and on all Occasions.) Theism (as it stands in opposition to Daemonism. steddily bent against all Supposition or Imagination of Design in Things.                        one certain Hypothesis. . So that ’tis hard to pronounce certainly of any Man. Religion excludes only perfect Atheism. from the Side to which the Balance of his Judgment most inclines. and the OEconomy or Government of the UnivA erse. Sect. * As thus: (. than of a good one. and occurs upon most occa- sions. the Author of all Good.) The same Theism or Polytheism with Dae- monism: (. he is no perfect T. Fortune. he is rather a D. because unless his whole Thoughts are at all Sea- sons. or Sovereign Being. But if anyone believes more of Chance and Confusion than of Design. Atheism. cate as the Cause of all Things.) Daemonism with Atheism: (. .) Polytheism with Atheism: (.) As when the one chief Mind. For ’tis evident in the Case of the most devout [] People. which is of any other the most habitual to him. (. And in case he believes more of the Preva- lency of an ill-designing Principle.) Theism with Daemonism: (. therefore. one.) Or with Daemonism and Atheism. by being the Cause of Ill as well as Good: Or otherwise. and just Administration in the Whole. or ill Design in Things. which Opin- ion may be call’d Polydaemonism. that he is an Atheist.) Daemonism with Polytheism: (.

who have no form’d Opinion at all upon this Subject. or with several contrary Principles or governing Minds. how any of these Opinions. and since there may be found perhaps some Persons. many things relating to the Constitution and Frame of Nature her- self. in reality on no other account than because they fear him.) As when an evil Daemon and Chance divide. either thro’ Scepticism.) As when the same System of Deity or corresponding Deity subsists. Perfect Daemonists undoubtedly there are in Religion. . (. (. or Confusion of Judgment: the Consideration is. there are those who expresly give no other Idea [] of G. with one and the same Will and Reason. without aA competent Knowl- Whole and edg of the Whole: we need not wonder to find our-selves at a loss in Parts. violent. together with a contrary Principle.) As when many Minds and Chance divide. (. . [] W HEN we reflect on any ordinary Frame or Constitution either of Art or Nature. causing Ill. but agreeing in Good. to whom they sacrifice and offer Prayers and Supplications.     A Constitution. thanA of a Being arbitrary. (. or this want of any certain Opinion.) As when Chance is not excluded. which in effect is the same as to substitute a D- . may possibly consist with V and M. because we know whole Nations who worship a Devil or Fiend.          Sect. and ordain- ing to Misery.) As when the last Case is. And we know very well that. For to what End in Nature many things. but God and Chance divide. or Devil. in some Religions. Now since there are these several Opinions concerning a su- perior Power. even whole Species (. or be compatible with an honest or moral Character. and consider how hard it is to give the least account of a particular Part. (.) As when there are more principal Minds than one. together with Chance. Negligence of Thought. in his room.

will be hard for Sect.We know that there is in reality a right and a wrong State of every Creature. refer. or to what purpose they serve. with respect to othersA of his kind. make him ill also to Him- self. a real Good Goodness. which Nature has compel’d him to seek. ture of a more solitary Disposition than ever was yet heard of. be not con- ducing. to which every Interest or thing in his Constitution must naturally refer. thing. for which he had the least Passion or Concern: we might be apt to say perhaps. Of this we shall consider particularly in the latter part of our Inquiry. by the help of Study and Observation. and by himself affec- tionately sought. the same Irregularitys of Appetite which make him ill to Others. with respect to himself. . if any End in Creatures. [] sions make him any-way injurious to them. and if the same Regularity of Affections.                        of Creatures. to see if we can clearly determine what that Quality is to which we give the Name of Goodness. nor any thing without. or Affections. we must of necessity own it ill to him. to demonstrate. either in his Appetites. and that his right-one is by Nature forwarded. then is that Goodness by which he is thus useful to others. by all the Advan- tages afforded him. and Advantage to himself. And thus Virtue and Interest may be found at last to agree. which causes him to be good in one sense. one who had neither Mate nor Fellow of any kind. Now. And in this manner he is ill. causes him to be good also in the other. Private Good. within the compass of his Make. ‘‘That this was doubtless a very melancholy . if by the natural Interest of the Species. towards which he stood well-affected or inclin’d. but the contrary. any-one justly to determine: But to what End the many Propor- tions and various Shapes of Parts in many Creatures actually serve. as he certainly is. with great exactness. Shou’d a Historian or Traveller describe to us a certain Crea. Our first Design is. with- out much hesitation. We know that every Creature has a private Good and Interest of his own. Passions. nothing of his own Likeness. There being therefore in every Creature a certain Interest or Good. To this E. we are able. or V. or beyond himself. Constitution of any rational Creature. when any such Appetites or Pas. there must be also a certain E.

in general. ‘‘That such as he was. who have some one common Nature. by some one Order or Con- stitution of things subsisting together. So that the Creatures are both of ’em to be consider’d as Parts of another System: which is that of a par- ticular Race or Species of living Creatures. there be [] any thingA which points beyond himself. to have a joint-relation to another Existence and Order of things beyond themselves. and by which he is plainly discover’d to have relation to some other Being or Nature besides his own. ‘‘That he was a good Creature. ‘‘That he was a good Creature. ‘‘That the Private Creature was no Monster. For instance. doubt- less. If therefore in the Structure of this or any other Animal. and that in thisA unsociable and sullen State he was like [] to have a very disconsolate kind of Life. indeed. if a whole Species of Animals contribute System. And the respective Proportions both of the Male and Female will be allow’d. then cou’d he no-wise be allow’d good. without any real relation to any thing in the Universe besides. shou’d it be urg’d against us. . that notwithstanding all Appearances. a Part only of some other System.’’ However. the Creature enjoy’d him- self extremely. or are provided for.’’ SYSTEM. .’’ But if we were assur’d. and co-operating towards their Conservation. and therefore to be esteem’d good: For what had he to do with others?’’ In this sense. to the Existence or Well-being of some other. Creature. of which this living Creature was to be consider’d as a Part. if an Animal has the Proportions of a Male. then will this Animal undoubtedly be esteem’d a Part of some other System.          Sect. whilst he plainly appear’d to be such a Part. the Species. and Support. be induc’d to say of him. and was in nothing want- ing to his own Good. nor absurdly constituted as to himself. we might acknowledg perhaps.’’ For shou’d there be any where in Nature a Sys- System of tem. the Creature was still perfect in himself. after all. Animal In the same manner. then is that whole Species. it shews he has relation to a Female. we might be forc’d to acknowledg. if he cou’d be understood to be absolute and compleat in himself. But we shou’d hardly. as made rather to the harm than good of that System or Whole in which he was included. had a great relish of Life.

both Fowls and Fish. be prop- erly comprehended in one System of a Globe or Earth: And if. and consequently ill in the general System. and the ensnaring part. one thing is generated from the Corruption of another. as in the Branches or Leaves of a Tree. fit and determine him as much a Prey. To the Existence of the Spider. or. Watchfulness. and all. Therefore if any Being be wholly and really I. And if it be allow’d. So that there is a System of all Animals. absolutely necessary. and all other things in this inferior World. or one . and tender Body of this latter Insect. And in the Structure of each of these Animals. fit [] him for Rapine. as. that there is in like man- ner a S of all Things. we see a relation of each to the other. and CunningA of the former. or its Fellow-Planets. as being Parts of a certain System. it is a Fault or Imperfection. Vegetables. as the rough Make. as in our own Bodys there is a relation of Limbs and Organs. And thus are other Species or Kinds subservient to one another. then is it inA reality a P only of [] some other System. according to which the animal Affairs are regulated and dispos’d. there can be no Universal System. again. . But if the Ill of one private System be the Good of others. and then the System of the Universe is ill. In the same manner are Flies also necessary to the Existence of other Creatures. together with that of System of the Earth.                        For instance. the Galaxy. The Web and Wing are suted to each other. an Animal-Order or OEconomy. either on its Sun. The heedless Flight. (as when one Creature lives by the Destruction of another. weak Frame. it must be ill with respect to the Universal System. that of the Fly is Sect. in common. particular Being or System which is not either good or ill in that general one of the Universe: For if it be insignificant and of no use. on something still beyond. Now. if it makes still to the Good of the general Sys- tem. there is as apparent and perfect a relation to the other. to one Root and Trunk. or imperfect. and a Universal Nature. for example. and included in one and the same Order of Beings. this Globe or Earth it-self appears to have a real Dependence Planetary System. if the whole System of Animals.

to examine which are the good and natural. natural or unnatural.A Since it is therefore by Affection merely that a Creature is es- teem’d good or ill. that he is a good Man. when having his Hands ty’d up. Absolute So that we cannot say of any Being. as being ill in the Animal-System.          Sect. he is hinder’d from doing the Mischief he designs. planetary System or Vortex may swallow up another) then is the Ill of that private System no real Ill in it-self. is the immediate Object [] of some Passion or Affection moving him. Relative But were there in the World any intire Species of Animals de- ILL. Affection at all. that he is an ill Man because ill Man. lutely ill. any more than the pain of breeding Teeth is ill. that which is not done thro’ any thro’ Affection. it may be justly call’d an ill Species. Good and We do not however say of any-one. And if in any Species of Animals (as in Men. who then only is suppos’d Good. that what we call I is no where G besides. for example) one Man is of a nature pernicious to the rest. thro’ a fear of some impending Punishment. or (which is in a manner the same) when he abstains from execut- ing his ill purpose. that it is wholly and abso- ILL. or with [] reAspect to any other Order or OEconomy whatsoever. Goodness So that in a sensible Creature. our business will be. . unless we can positively shew and ascertain. . he has the Plague-Spots upon him. and which the ill and un- natural Affections. that without this occasion of Pain. makes neither Good nor Ill in the nature of that Creature. or because he has convulsive Fits which make him strike and wound such as approach him. by being defective. he is in this respect justly styl’d an ill Man. Nor do we say on the other side. or thro’ the allurement of some exterior Reward. when the Good or Ill of the System to which he has relation. in any other System. in a System or Body which is so con- stituted. structive to every other. it wou’d suffer worse.

this may indeed be call’d still a vitious Affec- tion: And on this Supposition a Creature *cannot really be good and natural in respect of his Society or Publick. then is the immoderate degree of the Affection truly vitious. it may be observ’d. this must in every re- spect be esteem’d an ill and vitious Affection. as for the good of the Species in general. which is not really such. And thus. pag. ’tis so far from being ill. every Individual ought to share. And this is what we commonly call † S. &c. but not the moderate. † VOL. . But if the Affection beA then only [] injurious to the Society. and detracting from the Force of other requisite and good Affections. pag. that if there be an Af- fection towards any Subject consider’d as private Good. . without being ill and unnatural toward himself. but in some measure contributing to it. . when it is immoderate. I * N the first place then. as is actually.                          Sect. . in what- ever Creature we happen to discover it. perhaps. or blameable in any sense. and disapprove so much. is in it-self vitious and ill. &c. however selfish it may be esteem’d. If there can possibly be suppos’d in a Creature such an Affection towards Self-Good. that it must be acknowledg’d absolutely necessary to constitute a Creature Good. conduc- ing to his private Interest. if there be found in any Creature a more than ordinary Self- concernment. which is inconsistent with the Interest of the Species or Publick. and at the same time inconsistent with the publick Good. this Affection. as being super- Private or Self- Affection. duly temper’d. fluous. even in respect of the private Interest or Happiness of the Creature. . For if the want of such an Affection as * Infra. or Regard to private Good. and not so when it is moderate. in its natural degree. I. On the other side. is in reality not only consistent with publick Good. if it be such. and allay’d. . if the Affection towards private or Self-good. but imaginary.

to push him on towards the performance of any one good Action. when the Passion towards Self-good. Temper. or an ill-one. till his Temper be so far chang’d. it be that selfish Affection alone which moves him. is his real Motive in the doing that. act ever so well. Let him. Nor can any Creature be con- sider’d otherwise. a Crea- ture is ill and unnatural as well thro’ this Defect. is vitiously mov’d. than a Man is the more an honest or good Man either for pleading a just Cause. that towards Self-preservation. may be a good Affection. and can never be otherwise than vitious in some degree. And indeed whatever exterior Helps or Succours an ill-dispos’d Creature may find. And this no-one wou’d A doubt to pronounce. and of consequence unfit- ted him thro’ Illness of Temper (and not merely thro’ a Defect of Constitution) for the propagation of his Species or Kind. Thus the Affection towards Self-good. a Creature be accidentally induc’d to do Good. if he saw a Man who minded not any Precipices which lay in his way. to which a natural Affection for his Kind ought by right to have inclin’d him. or whatever else related to his Health and Being. tho ever so moderate. that in the issue he comes in earnest to . for the [] sake merely of his Fee or Stipend. if at the bottom. as thro’ the want [] of any other natural Affection. be injurious to the Species. or fighting in a good one.          Sect. Clothing. . (as when the excessive Love of Life unfits a Creature for any generous Act) then is it undoubtedly vitious. he is in himself still vitious. The same wou’d be aver’d of one who had a Disposition which render’d him averse to any Commerce with Womankind. (as he might be upon the same terms induc’d to do I) he is no more a good Creature for this Good he executes. Therefore if thro’ such an earnest and passionate Love of Life. the Creature who is mov’d by it.A Whatsoever therefore is done which happens to be advanta- geous to the Species. nor made any distinction of Food. in any particular. thro’ an Affection merely towards Self-good. when mov’d by that Affection. and if vitious. does not imply any more Goodness in the Creature than as the Af- fection it-self is good. there can no Goodness arise in him. For if this private Affection be too strong. Diet.

now. the Creature is still as ill as ever. as above-mention’d. any requisite Passion be wanting. and against Good. gentle. Sect. but that it proceeds only from the fear of his Keeper.                        be led by some immediate Affection. Malice. or other such hateful Passions. in some measure corrupt and ill. comes to lose his Fierceness. that the Creature has indeed a tame and gentle Carriage. directly. which if set aside. to Good. by good Fortune [] or right Management. then is [] the natural Temper intirely good. and own the Creature to be unnatural and corrupt. viz. if one of those Creatures suppos’d to be by Nature tame. and is made tame. . and favourable to Mankind. ’tis acknowledg’d that the Creature thus restor’d becomes good and natural. or who is carry’d by other Affections directly to Ill. to Good. the same Creature. on the contrary. but. and against Ill. and bear him out against Ill. gentle. be. THERE is no need of mentioning either Envy. or any-wise disserviceable. ‘‘A good Crea- ture is such a one as by the natural Temper or Bent of his Af- fections is carry’d primarily and immediately. or contrary to that main End. orA good of the Species. and consequently the Creature himself. his true and genu- ine Nature or natural Temper remaining just as it was. we instantly remark the Breach of Temper. or weak. If at any time afterAwards. and against Ill’’: And an ill Creature is just the contrary. For instance. fierce and savage. or if there be any one supernumerary. and not accidentally. ‘‘One who is wanting in right Affections. If. all the Affections or Passions are suted to the publick Good. except what is from natural Temper.’’ When in general. Suppose. then is the natural Temper. contrary to his natu- ral Constitution. Nothing therefore being properly either Goodness or Illness in a Creature. and treatable. to shew in what manner they . of force enough to carry him directly towards Good. like other Creatures of his Kind. and not secondarily and accidentally. his predominant Passion instantly breaks out: then is his Gentleness not his real Temper. Froward- ness.

ArArangement and Disposition of their several Parts. there arises another kind of Affection towards those very Affections themselves. to that which is call’d V or M. For thus over-great Tenderness destroys the Effect of Love. and their Contrarys. Hence the Excess of motherly Love is own’d to be a vitious Fondness. . and is allow’d to Man only. it is undoubtedly viti- ous. there necessarily results a *Beauty or Deformity. and the Affections of Pity. and Proportions of these latter being presented to our Eye.          Sect. and are now become the Subject of a new Liking or Dislike. or the common Subjects of Sense. by means of this reflected Sense. So in Behaviour and Actions. a Passion leading to [] Self-destruction) a mad and desperate Depravity. (such as that of any Creature for its Offspring) if it be immoderate and beyond a certain degree.A   B UT to proceed from what is esteem’d mere Goodness. or that which is contrary. and excessive Pity renders us uncapable of giving succour. So that. . over-great Pity. become Objects. Rashness. Reflex In a Creature capable of forming general Notions of Things. only the outward Beings which offer themselves to the Sense. The Shapes. ac- [] cording to the different Measure. Kindness. as in ordi- nary Bodys. but the very Actions themselves. are ill. Mo- tions. and lies within the reach and capacity of all sensible Creatures. are the Objects of the Affection. and constitute an ill Creature. over-great Concern for Self-preservation. that even as to Kindness and Love of the most natu- ral sort. and none at all. not Affection. being brought into the Mind by Reflection. too little. which have been already felt. . The Case is the same in mental or moral Subjects. pag. Meanness and Cowardice. Colours. But it may be necessary per- haps to remark. Gratitude. (viz. when presented to * Infra. Effeminacy and Weakness.

&c. . . it. even when we sleep. . and carrys still about with it. there must be found. Sect. pag. an appar. which is Spectator or Auditor of other Minds. so in the moral and intellectual kind. It feels the Soft and Harsh. Colours. one Behaviour. and even when the real Objects themselves are absent. Now as in the sensible kind of Objects. which the Mind of necessity figures to it-self. It can let nothing escape its Censure. † VOL. Thus the several Motions. so as to discern Proportion. it finds the difference. * Infra. the Agreeable and Disagreeable. I. and finds a Foul and Fair. a Harmonious and a Dissonant. VOL. . and Sounds. one Turn of Affection. any more in what relates to one than to the other of these Subjects. the Forms and Images of Things are no less active and incumbent on the Mind. one Sentiment and another. but constantly takes part one way or other. between one Heart and another. So that to deny the common and natural Sense of a S and B in Things. . Inclinations. Passions. and scan each Sentiment or Thought which comes before Deformity. Nor can it *with-hold its Admiration and Extasy. . as to Beauty and Comeliness. of necessity. or in the outward Forms or Repre- sentations of sensible Things. cannot Moral Beauty be without its Eye and Ear. at all Seasons. must approve in some measure of what is natural and honest. its Aversion and Scorn. &c. in all disinterested Cases. distinguish and Sound. are perpetually moving beforeA our [] Eyes. the Species or Images of Bodys. p. and acting on our Senses. and disapprove what is dishonest and corrupt.                        our Understanding. and accordingly. as in any musical Numbers. ent Difference. . will appear an †Affectation merely. The Mind. However false or corrupt it be within it- self. to any-one who considers duly of this Affair. III. according to the Regularity or Irregularity of the Subjects. In these vagrant Characters or Pictures of Manners. the Heart cannot possibly remain neutral. . Dispositions. . in the Affections. as really and truly here. p. .

tho ever so good-natur’d. nor of any mere Beast. what is worthy and good. wicked. yet if he cannot reflect on what he himself does. and no otherwise. or. found. and can attain the Speculation or Science of what is morally good or ill. or the contrary. wou’d do a Wrong) but when any thing is done thro’ insufficient or unequal Affection. or sees others do. a Sentiment or Judgment of what is done. or Changeling. thro’ just. his Affection. he is capable of having a Sense of Right or Wrong. So that if a Creature be generous. and disaffect. NESS and VIRTUE. so as to take notice of what is worthy or honest. and good Affection. tuous. yet we never say of a good one. admirable or blameable. kind. Affection. is iniquous. W is not such Action as is barely the Cause of Harm. equal. there arises a new Trial or Exercise of the Heart: which must either rightly and soundly affect what is just and right. or Iniquity. Publick And in this Case alone it is we call any Creature worthy or vir- Good an Object. and wrong. corruptlyA affect what is ill. (as when a Son shews no Concern for the Safety of a Father. Idiot. but by mistake or ill chance happening to kill his Father. where there is need of Succour. . which readily discerns the Good and Ill towards the Species or Publick. compassion- ate. or affected. Unequal Whatsoever is done thro’ any unequal Affection. or. that he is worthy or virtuous. being in several Views or Perspectives represented to the Mind. right or wrong. constant. when it can have the Notion of a publick Interest. prefers an indifferent Person to him) this is of the nature of Wrong. and [] the Subject of the Affection such as may with advantage to SoAciety be ever in the same manner prosecuted. . and make that Notice or Conception of Worth and Honesty to be an Object of GOOD. (since at this rate a dutiful Son aiming at an Enemy. For tho we may vulgarly call an ill Horse vitious. this must nec- essarily constitute what we call Equity and Right in any Action. he has not the Character of being virtuous: for thus. For. and consequent Carriage and Behaviour of Creatures in the vari- ous Parts of Life. and good.          Sect. If the Affection be equal. [] and disaffect what is contrary.

thro’ his Organs of Sense. preferably to a Parent. The beginnings of this Corruption may be noted in many Occurrences: As when an ambitious Man. were to be treated as Enemys. that to save such a Creature as a Cat. And thus whatsoever causes a Misconception or Misapprehen. in such a Person’s case. and that other Men. by the Fame of his high Attempts. Crocodiles. if the Object of the Mind it-self Impair’d Sense. or unsocial Affection. irregular. But on the other . and worship’d even as Deitys. be not at any time absurdly fram’d.                        Neither can any Weakness or Imperfection in the Senses be the Sect. Belief. Corrupt Opinion. have been esteem’d holy. For if we will suppose a Man. has nevertheless so deprav’d a Constitution or Frame of Body. For as the Extravagance of Judgment or Belief is such. or Speculation. which deserves Abhorrence: ’tis then that the Hearer becomes cor- rupt. when he secretly approves the Ill he hears. or raise any undue. but sutable. and other vile or de- structive Animals. who being sound and intire both in his Reason and Affection.A [] ’Tis otherwise in what relates to Opinion. but which is in reality vitious. raises in anotherA Person an [] Esteem and Admiration of that immoral and inhuman Character. shou’d it appear to any-one of the Religion or Belief of those Countrys. Thus he who affects or loves a Man for the sake of something which is reputed honourable. that the natural Objects are. till converted. and wicked in the Believer: and every Action. ’twill be soon observ’d. so as to diminish a due. is himself vitious and ill. as thro’ ill Glasses. wou’d be an iniquous. falsly convey’d and mis- represented. that in some Countrys even Monkeys. a Conqueror or a Pirate by his boasted Enterprizes. must neces- sarily be the occasion of Wrong. was Right. grounded on this Belief. and worthy of the Opinion and Affection apply’d to it. that since his Failure is not in his principal or leading Part. just. and vitious Action. this wou’d be certainly Wrong. Right and Wrong. wicked. he cannot in himself be esteem’d iniquous. who had not the same reli- gious Opinion. occasion of Iniquity or Wrong. or unjust. . nor any way improper. sion of the Worth or Value of any Object. Cats.

or Cruelty. . or to torment Captives of War in sport. And thus if there be any thing which teaches Men Worship. But a Mistake of Right being the Cause of unequal Affection.          Sect. I. or so complicated and frequent. . in every intelligent or rational Being. or mangle them- * VOL. . . be at any time affected or prosecuted as a good and proper object of Esteem. But as there are many Occasions where the matter of Right may even to the most discerning part of Mankind appear difficult. but only counterfeits. that nothing horrid or unnatural. nothing destructive of that natu- ral Affection by which the Species or Society is upheld.A And thus we find how far W and V depend on a VICE in knowledg of Right and Wrong. the Man who loves and esteems another. and on a use of Reason. either Treachery. nothing unexemplary. is not on this account either vitious or corrupt. p. and of doubtful Decision. as believing him to have that Virtue which he has not. may. can be no Cause of Vice. then is the Character of V forfeited. secure a right application of the Affections. III. Ingratitude. or under colour and pretence of any present or future Good to Man- kind: if there be any thing which teaches Men to *persecute their Friends thro’ Love. that a Creature cannot well live in a natural State. or thro’ any Principle or Notion of Honour or Reli- gion. ’tis not a slight Mistake of this kind which can destroy the Character of a virtuous or worthy Man. p. macerate. VOL. III. or to offer † human Sacrifice. side. For such a Principle as this must be wholly viti- ous: and whatsoever is acted upon it. there come to be very gross Mistakes in the assignment or application of the Affection. on any account. compatible with human Society and civil [] Life. † VOL. by divine Warrant. . or to torment. A Mistake therefore in Fact being no Cause or Sign of ill Af- fection. can be no other than Vice Vitious and Immorality. either thro’ Superstition or ill Custom. sufficient to Opinion. must of necessity be the Cause of vitious Action. p. But when. . nor with due Affections. when the Mistakes are either in their nature so gross. .

otherwise in Creatures capable of framing rational Objects of moral Good. be no Affection towards Goodness or Virtue it-self. More than this. which may be ill and vitious it-self. they are accordingly good or vitious. fear. as amiable or becoming: be it Cus- tom which gives Applause. we say commonly in this case. this is not. as the sensible Affections stand with them. ’tis evident. and holds him to a virtuous-like Be-A [] haviour. before their God. nor ever can be VirtueA of any kind. If by Temper any one is passionate. adheres to Virtue. but [] must remain still horrid Depravity. an angry Temper bears. if he were free of this Temptation. Tho if that which restrains the Person. and notwithstanding the force of their Impression. or Religion which gives a Sanction. or Brutality. sort of Barbarity. notwithstanding any Fashion. and these Propensitys. and immutable independent Nature of Worth and V. At the same time. the Temper still holds good in the main. For in one of this kind. But this still is evident. ful. Trial of Virtue. yet resists these Passions. in a religious Zeal. because of those other rational Affections spoken of. there is no body will say that a Pro- . ’Tis Sensible and rational Objects. and the Person is with justice esteem’d virtuous by all Men. as has been shewn before. or Religion. but towards private Good merely. tho ever so strongly tempted by his Constitution. amorous.                        selves. so that neither any cruel or immod- est Action can be forc’d from such a Person. or to commit any Sect. Vitious Custom. or an amorous one refrains. we applaud his Virtue above what we shou’d naturally do. angry. shou’d the sensible Affections stand ever so much amiss. Law. Custom. yet if they prevail not. or in any sense. that if vol- untarily. and without foreign Constraint. that the Virtue is the greater: and we say well. As to those Creatures which are only ca- pable of being mov’d by sensible Objects.   U PON the whole. he is not in reality the more virtu- ous. . but can never alter the eternal Measures.

is left more intire to Virtue. there is still something of VirtueA left. or whatever ill Rules or Principles it goes by. that is to say.A without sharing so much of a virtuous Principle as another. but on the con- trary. For it seems evident from our In- quiry. a Person may be indeed more cheaply virtu- ous. and rather than be- tray them. If there be any part of the Temper in which ill Passions or Affections are seated. and the Creature is not wholly vitious and unnatural. or Com- [] passion). losing only what is vitious in his Temper. has certainly . furious. and has possess’d it-self of the natural Temper. who has the Principle of Virtue so strongly implanted. comes at last to lose those contrary Impediments sup- pos’d in him. who out of a sense of Fidelity and Honour of any kind. which alone can constitute a just Affec- tion. the least appearance of moral Good (as if there be any such thing as Kindness. There seems therefore to be some kind of difficulty in the Case: but it amounts only to this. lustful. Degrees Thus is Virtue shar’d in different degrees by rational Creatures. but who come short of that sound and well-establish’d Reason. Gratitude. that how ill soever the Temper or Passions may stand with re- spect either to the sensible or the moral Objects. this is the greatest Proof imaginable. and possesses it in a higher degree.          Sect. yet if there be any Flexibleness or favourable Inclination towards the least moral Object. whilst in another part the Affections towards moral Good are such as absolutely to mas- ter those Attempts of their Antagonists. that a strong Principle of Virtue lies at the bottom. Thus a Ruffian. or cruel any Creature may become. however vitious the Mind be. he certainly loses nothing in Virtue. refuses to discover his Associates. pensity to Vice can be an Ingredient in Virtue.Whereas if there be no ill Passions stirring. he may conform himself to the known Rules of [] Virtue. Bounty. Yet if that other Person. a uniform and steddy Will and Resolution. of Virtue. is content to endure Torments and Death. . And thus Vice and Virtue are found variously mix’d. such at least as are call’d rational. however passion- ate. and alternately prevalent in the several Characters of Mankind. or any way necessary to compleat a virtuous Character.

there is certainly some Goodness or Virtue still in being. What it is in it-self. And. except what either in some manner nourishes and pro- motes a Sense of Right and Wrong.                        some Principle of Virtue. nothing can assist. ’Twas the Sect. who have not something of Virtue in this imperfect sense. O causes the right Sense to be oppos’d. who rather than do the Office of Executioner to his Companions. O the other side. or preserves it genuine and . so it appears altogether as hard to pronounce of any Man. E takes away the natural and just Sense of Right and Wrong: . . nothing Causes of VICE. however he may misapply it. or render it ineffectual. except what. of Virtue. ‘‘That it is as hard to find a Man wholly Ill. even of the horridest Villains. we may now consider how it stands with respect to the Opinions con- cerning a D. there being few. In short: As it seems hard to pronounce of any Man. ‘‘That he is absolutely an Atheist’’. ‘‘That he is absolutely corrupt or vitious’’. Nothing is more just than a known saying. O creates a wrong Sense of it: . can possibly in such a Creature exclude a Principle of Virtue. . as above-mention’d.A []     HE Nature of V consisting (as has been explain’d) in T a certain just Disposition. chose to keep ’em company in their Execution. as wholly Good ’’: because wherever there is any good Affection left. by contrary Affections. or proportionable Affection of a ratio- nal Creature towards the moral Objects of Right and Wrong. or advance the Principle Of VIRTUE. same Case with that Malefactor. having consider’d thus of V.

’tis sup- [] pos’d there is in such a Creature no Liking orA Dislike of Manners. byA subduing and [] subjecting the other Affections to it. As to the first Case. or produce either of these three Effects. and is conscious of what affects his Fellowship or Com- munity. may influence in these Cases. to be obey’d. ‘‘That he has wholly lost the Sense of Right and Wrong’’. when such. Thus Offence and Injury are always known as punishable by every-one. how any of the above-mention’d Opinions on the Subject of a D. So that if there be any further meaning in this Sense of Right and Wrong. So that except merely with respect to a private and narrowly confin’d Self-good. be it ever so unnatural or deform’d. we suppose that being able to discern the Good and Ill of his Species. that by this is meant the taking away the Notion of what is good or ill in the Species. relating to one or the other. not that when he voluntarily offends or does harm to any-one.          Sect. nor any Sense of Excellency or Baseness in any moral Action. So that the Offender must needs be conscious of being liable to such Treatment from every-one. For of the Reality of such a Good and Ill.When we say therefore of a Creature. no rational Creature can possibly be insensible. he cannot fail to create an Apprehension and Fear of like harm. I T will not surely be understood.  S  R  W. Of this even the wickedest Creature living must have a Sense. nor Hatred of any thing as morally ill. Loss of . . he has at the same time no Concern for either. as rewardable and well-deserving from every-one. or Love of any thing as morally good. and equal Behaviour. T    Moral Sense. therefore. if in reality . which is therefore call’d M. We are to consider. and consequently a Resentment and Animosity in every Creature who observes him. no Admiration. Moral There is in reality no rational Creature whatsoever. or causes it. who knows Sense. uncorrupt. Every one discerns and owns a publick Interest. or Society. as if he had in some degree offended All.

That which is of original and pure Nature. has not. it must consist in a real Antipathy or Aversion to Injustice or Wrong. as that from the moment he comes to be try’d by sensible Objects. which is capable immediately or directly to exclude or de- stroy it. . may as well be without Sense. nothing beside contrary Habit and Custom (a second Nature) is able to displace. in favour of this moral Distinction. and Tempers. A Soul. . Kind- ness. If there be no real Amiableness or Deformity in moral Acts. and unnatural.A [] ’Tis impossible to suppose a mere sensible Creature originally so ill-constituted. indeed. Persuasion or Belief. Sense of Right and Wrong therefore being as natural to us as How impair’d: natural Affection itself. or Colours. Minds. Gratitude. as in Figures. Love. * Infra. he shou’d have no one good Pas- sion towards his Kind. or social Affection. . Generosity. with long Practice and Meditation. Sounds. Tho perhaps the Thing itself shou’d not be allow’d in Nature. but be found absolutely indif- ferent towards whatsoever is presented to him of this sort. Coming therefore to a Ca- pacity of seeing and admiring in this new way. the Imagination or Fancy of it must be allow’d to be from Nature alone. pag. . there is at least an imaginary one of full force. Nor can any thing besides Art and strong Endeav- our.                        there be any Sense of this kind which an absolute wicked Creature Sect. there is no speculative Opinion. and in a real Affection or Love towards Equity and Right. or Dislike of their contrarys. overAcome such a natural [] Prevention. or *Prepossession of the Mind. and on the account of its own natural Beauty and Worth. or other Virtue. shou’d have no Liking of these. and being a first Principle in our Consti- tution and Make. and receiving into his Mind the Images or Representations of Justice. ’Tis full as impossible to conceive. no foundation either of Pity. as without Admiration in the Things of which it has any knowledg. . it must needs find a Beauty and a Deformity as well in Actions. for its own sake. that a rational Creature coming first to be try’d by rational Objects.

be effac’d. And this Affection being an original one of earliest rise in the Soul By opposite or affectionate Part. nor Atheism. certain Actions naturally foul and odious are repeatedly view’d with Ap- . or destroy it in the whole. according to Custom or politick Institution. or Antipathy. and ready to revolt. check and controul. but lies sullen. . we may consider of this Effect in our last Case. that no particular odd Mein or Gesture. T  S of Moral Sense. a strict Attention. even by Opinion merely. Neither Theism therefore. and the intervention of Art and Method. is hardly master’d. [] T HIS can proceed only from the Force of Custom and Educa- tion in opposition toA Nature. on the first occasion. we find. by the interven- tion of opposite or of favourable Affections casually excited by any such Belief. Much more is this the Mind’s Case in respect of that natural Affection and anticipating Fancy.          Sect. but indirectly. nothing beside contrary Affection. can operate upon it. by frequent Affection. where we come to examine the Agreement or Disagreement of other Af- fections with this natural and moral one which relates to Right and Wrong. or the contrary Bent of our Will. nor any religious or irreligious Belief of any kind. as may be noted in those Coun- trys where. so as either to diminish it in part. means of the most extravagant Belief or Opinion in the World. Such a Change cannot be effected without extraordinary Means. which is either natural to us. or accidental and by Habit acquir’d. or without much Force and Not by Violence. ever so strongly set against it. AndA even thus. nor Daemonism. being able to operate im- mediately or directly in this Case. viz. As to the second Case. Nature. and consequent to our Make. ’Tis evident in what relates to the Frame and Order of our Bodys.   I  R  W. or struck out of the natural Temper. which makes the sense of Right and Wrong. can possibly be overcome by our immediate Disapproba- tion. and re- [] peated Check.   Corruption . ’Tis impossible that this can instantly.

and de- serving. It everywhere prescribes Esteem and Honour in company with Worship and Adoration. for instance. For notwithstanding a Man may thro’ Custom. it teaches at the same time a Love and Admiration of that Ill. and spreading the Terror of his Nation.                        plause. if in the eye of the Believer it appears not indeed in any respect the less ill or odious on this account. Man. yet it does not seem that Atheism shou’d of it-self be the cause of any estimation or valuing of any thing as fair. effect they may have in this place. as supposing it to be of con- siderable service to his Community. come in time to lose much of his natural moral Sense. which was the contrary. and permitting his Desires of this kind to wander in the loosest manner. and think it never- theless both right and honourable. . most horridly unnatural and inhuman. in its nature odious and abominable. make it be thought that the being able to eat Man’s Flesh. Atheism. or by licentiousness of Practice. Whenso- ever therefore it teaches the Love and Admiration of a D. and be consider’d as a Being naturally ill and odious. and laudable in themselves. good. in the main. and what Causes of this Corruption. is by Religion advanc’d. but against his Nature. forcing himself. it does not seem that it can directly have any effect at all towards the setting up a false Species of Right or Wrong. But to speak of the Opinions relating to a D. not only against his Stomach. many things theA Superstition. and capable of advancing the Name. and causes that to be taken for good and amiable. For thus ’tis possible that a Sect. thro’ Mistrust and Fear. then must the Deity of necessity bear the blame. who has any apparent Character of Ill. come to be receiv’d as ex. noble. It can never. may eat the Flesh of his Enemys. [] cellent. ’tis cer- . For where-ever any-thing. and sollicited. or commit Bestiality. is good and excellent in it-self. which is in it-self horrid and detestable. or S. For instance: if J be He who is ador’d and reverenc’d. As to Atheism. that by means of corrupt Religion. Nor is this a wonder. But this is certain. as the suppos’d Will or Pleasure of a supreme Deity. however courted. forbids us to imagine. and Honour ascrib’d to them. But this is what Religion. favour’d by Custom. and if his History represents him amorously inclin’d.

his Reconciliation with these Qualitys them- . furious. Constraint. must of necessity raise even an Ap- probation and Respect towards the Vices of this kind. at the bottom. and of high resentment. or doing what he esteems necessary towards the satisfying of such his D. or Revengefulness of his believ’d D. . tain that his Worshipers. But if by insensible degrees. For even Irregularitys and Enormitys of a heinous kind must in many cases appear illustrious to one. This indeed must be allow’d. and cruel to the rest: ’tis evident that such a Religion as this being strongly enforc’d. If there be a Religion which teaches the Ado- ration and Love of a G. no real Heartiness. Arbitrariness. encouraging Deceit and Treachery amongst Men. con- trary to his Inclination. is sensible of Ill in the Character of his G. then has he an Apprehension or Sense still of Right and Wrong. and revenging himself. he is compel’d only by Fear. who considers them in a Being admir’d and contemplated with the highest Honour and Veneration. as he proceeds in his religious Faith and devout Exercise. and deceit- ful Temper. and. re- vengeful. Pariality. he comes to be more and more recon- cil’d to the Malignity. partial. favourable to a few. nothing be- side what proceeds from mere Example. a capricious. If in following the Precepts of his suppos’d G. must of A course be taught a greater Love of amorous and wanton Acts. as to frame any formal or direct Opinion in the case. subject to Wrath and Anger. tho for slight causes. a fraudulent Disposition.          Sect. revengeful. or Fear. that if in the Cult or Worship of such a Deity there be nothing beyond common Form. Custom. and. whose Character it is to be captious. and breed a sutable Disposition. the Worshiper perhaps may not be muchA misled as to his Notion of Right and Wrong. or so thinking of it. believing this History to be literally and [] strictly true. on others than those who gave the Offence: and if there be added to the Char- acter of this G. according to what has been already observ’d. performs an Act which he secretly detests as barbarous and unnatural. however cautious he may be of pronouncing any thing on this Subject. no Esteem or [] Love imply’d. when offended. if there be.

the Sentence wou’d be just and equitable. Such a View of divine Providence . and worthy of imitation. represented such as to be actually a true Model and Example of the most exact Justice. But to say of any thing that it is just or unjust. and a sound Judgment or Sense of Right and Wrong. and highest Goodness and Worth. His Hon- esty will. then are these latter words of no significancy at all. they wou’d consequently become true. unjust. and the most cruel. whilst he is thus unnaturally influenc’d. than to believe a God who is ever. injury to the Affections of Men. Sect. and on all accounts. and without reason. by the power of this Example. in the same manner. not only as just and lawful. . on the other hand. and barbarous Acts. Decree. that as the ill Character of a G does Influence of Religion. a Disturbance of Thought. For thus if each part of a Contra- diction were affirm’d for Truth by the supreme Power. some Beings were destin’d to endure perpetual Ill. if arbitrarily. will. who in his History or Character is represented otherwise than as really and truly just and good. Right andA Wrong. or to speak without a meaning. Truth and Falshood. Thus if one Person were decreed to suf- fer for another’s fault. and render’d thus immorally devout.                        selves will soon grow in proportion. be supplanted by his Zeal. on such a foundation as this. be often consider’d by him. according to which he pronounces that God is [] just. must suppose that there is inde- pendently such a thing as Justice and Injustice. and true. and disturbs and impairs the natu- ral Sense of Right and Wrong. and others as constantly to enjoy Good. so. and a Corruption of Temper and Manners in the Believer. this also wou’d pass under the same De- nomination. or Law of God be said absolutely to constitute Right and Wrong.A [] To this we need only add. righteous. there must ensue a Loss of Rectitude. nothing can more highly contribute to the fixing of right Apprehensions. that where a real Devotion and hearty Wor- ship is paid to a supreme Being. and pretends formally to believe that he is just and good. If the mere Will. For whoever thinks there is a G. is to say nothing. And thus. of necessity. And thus it appears. but as divine.

For however it may be indirectly an occasion of Mens losing a good and sufficient Sense [] of Right and Wrong.    A    S  R  W. it will not.A Rise of That it is possible for a Creature capable of using Reflection. but the very Sense of private Good it-self. which only false Religion. or by some sudden. which may not only subdue the Sense of Right and Wrong. to have a Liking or Dislike of moral Actions. .   Opposition NOW as to the last Case. And having once the Good of our Species or Publick in view. ’tis impossible we shou’d be misguided by any means to a false Apprehension or Sense of Right or Wrong. as Atheism merely. or fantastical Opinion. T O of the Affections. if it happens not to be oppos’d. Moral Sense. that a Creature having this sort of S or good ’ T Affection in any degree. as our End or Aim. within our Compass and Sphere. or Harm. must necessarily act according to it. and Bounty. R (according as the kind may prove) is capable of doing great Good. We are to consider only how the Opinions concerning a [] Deity can influence one way or another. either by some settled sedate Affection towards a conceiv’d private Good. and consequently a .          Sect. as of Lust or Anger. and express’d in a constant good Af- fection towards the Whole. But it is not our business in this place to examine the several Means or Methods by which this Corruption is introduc’d or in- creas’d. strong and forcible Passion. and A nothing positive in either way. to act by a like Principle and Affection. As to this second Case therefore. IS evident.A be the occa- sion of setting up a false Species of it. extended to All. deriv’d commonly from Superstition and Credulity. and overrule even the most familiar and receiv’d Opinion of what is conducing to Self-interest. must of necessity engage us. is able to effect.

he may be suppos’d to have an Apprehension or Sense of Right and Wrong. Courage. harsh. Gratitude. by it. be taken up with those Speculations. and consequently inclin’d to admire rather the Acts of Vio- lence and mere Power. as to their Characters of Honesty and Worth: some being naturally modest. kind. and to have a Sense of R and W. settled Notion of  G. that a Creature such as Man. cruel. has. that a Creature can have any plain or positive Notion one way or other. or Pity. shou’d. friendly. and how Men are influenc’d DEITY. therefore. .A [] . ’Tis certain that if you give to this Creature a reflecting Faculty. notwithstanding. who wanting Reason. at the very first. or more odious than the contrary. as we know by Experience of those. many good Qualitys and Af- fections. others proud. and in such a manner as never to have enter’d into any serious Thoughts of Religion. and think nothing more amiable than this. as Love to his Kind. as to the Belief of a D. Now. and be possess’d of Virtue and Vice in dif- ferent degrees. and being un- able to reflect. arising from his Childhood.A [] Before the time. and act in conformity to such a supreme Being. or any-way possible. who having liv’d in such places. be taken with any shew or representation of the social Passion. and conse- quently Lovers of kind and friendly Actions. slowly and gradually. as thinking it the Perfection of Nature to imitate and resemble him.                        Sense of Right and Wrong. to sev- eral degrees of Reason and Reflection. or more refin’d sort of Reflec- tions. is what will hardly be question’d: it being a thing not expected. it will at the same instant approve of Gratitude. Kindness. and Pity. before such time as he may have any Sect. as presupposing some Disadvantage or Benefit to accrue from him: or in the way of his E and W. concerning the Subject of  G. It must be either in the way of his P. we may consider. on what account Men yield Obedience. are nevertheless very dif- ferent among themselves. in the first place. And this is to be capable of V. about the Subject of G’s Existence. Let us suppose a Creature.

The greater degree of such a Submission or Obedience. or fear of Punishment. and Fear. as he is historically describ’d. there is in this Case (as has been already shewn) no Virtue or Goodness whatsoever. notwith- standing his good Conduct. and all which is done thro’ it. yet the greater Submission caus’d in this Case. when under no dread or terror of any sort. may be induc’d to act. [] whateverA may be the Object. thro’ this sole Prin- ciple or Motive. being understood to have. a Concern for the good of All. and an Affection of Be- . but Awe alone prevails and forces Obedience. or. who is consider’d only as powerful over his Creature. and implies the greater Wretchedness and Meanness in the Creature. For however orderly and well those Ani- mals. and is in his Temper so vitious and defective. as if he acted in his natural way. . thro’ hope merely of Reward. nor the Inclination wrought upon. there be a Belief or Conception of a Hope and D. as has been explain’d. If. The Creature. good Master. merely servile.          Sect. who is consider’d as worthy and good. or an ill one. such as renders him justly amiable to All: and if in the manner this Sovereign and mighty Being is represented. who has those Passions of Self-love so predominant. inforcing Obedience to his absolute Will by particular Rewards and Punishments. is only the greater Servility. the Obedience is servile. There is no more of Rectitude. If there be a Belief or Conception of Love. Piety. Honour and As to the second Case. a D. is only the lower and more abject Servitude. whilst the Will is neither gain’d. or Sanctity in a Crea- ture thus reform’d. there appears in him a high and eminent regard to what is good and excellent. For whether such a Creature has a Fear. and if on this account. he is neither more or less servile in his own nature. Be the Master or Superior ever so perfect. or Innocence and Sobriety in a Monkey under the Discipline of the Whip. or Man himself upon like terms. is intrinsecally of as little Worth. the Creature be incited to do the Good he hates. besides mere Power and Knowledg. and admir’d and reverenc’d as such. or restrain’d from doing the Ill to which he is not otherwise in the least degree averse. than there is Meekness or Gentleness in a Tiger strongly chain’d. the highest Excellence of Nature. or excellent. as in the first Case.

a Witness and Spectator of human Life.A [] Nor is this Good effected by Example merely. and H of future Re. there may be reason to apprehend lest the Temper of this kind shou’d extend it-self in general thro’ all the Parts of Life. in this religious sort of Disci. which is naturally so prevailing in How advanc’d. That neither this Fear or Hope can possibly be of the kind call’d good Affections. of well-doing. to have been a suffi- cient Cause. and conscious of whatsoever is felt or acted in the Universe: So that in the perfectest Recess or deep- est Solitude. consist [] in reality with Virtue. added to this Belief. so must the Honour be. alone. that as the Shame of guilty Actions must be the greatest of any. and how great Deficiency there is in Atheism. That. It may be consider’d withal. such an Example must un. In such a Presense. whose Presence singly must be of more moment than that of the most august Assembly on Earth. and help to submit and subdue all other Affections to that alone. even under the unjust Censure of a World. So much in the mean while may be gather’d from what has been said above. ’tis evident. . For where the Theistical Belief is intire and perfect. Self-love. there must be One still presum’d remaining with us. fection towards Virtue.                        nevolence and Love towards the Whole. we come now to consider more particularly. What the F of future Punishment. if it either stands as essential to any moral Performance. Nor can this Fear orA Hope. but rather improv’d and made stronger every day. And in this Case. Divine Presence. by the exercise of the Passions in a Subject of more extended Self-interest. being no-way moderated or restrain’d. there must be a steddy Opin- ion of the Superintendency of a Supreme Being. may further contribute towards Virtue. pline. Sect. For if the Habit be such as to occasion. us. Divine Example. ’tis very apparent how conducing a perfect Theism must be to Virtue. in every . or Goodness. Fear and Hope. doubtedly serve (as above explain’d) to raise and increase the Af. or as a considerable Motive to any Act. the Principle of Self-love. such as are acknowledg’d the Springs and Sources of all Actions truly good. of which some better Affection ought. ward. as above intimated.

which (as some pretend) is peculiarly observable in the de- vout Persons and Zealots of almost every religious Persuasion. and introduce a certain Narrowness of Spirit. ward. and Hope of future Re- future Life. ’Tis in this respect that the strong Desire and Love of Life may also prove an Obstacle to Piety. conditionally for T. must be confess’d. How advan. or at least by the generality of civiliz’d or refin’d Worshipers. a stricter Attention to Self-good. he is no otherwise belov’d than as any other Instrument or Means of Pleasure by any vitious Creature. Now the more there is of this violent Affection towards private Good. And if that which he calls Resignation de- Resignation. .          Sect. than in any other Bar- gain of Interest: The meaning of his Resignation being only this. or any good and deserving Object. the less will he be able to have true Resignation. G for his own sake. by the Increase of the selfish Passion. and private Interest. to Virtue. Security. he discovers no more Worth or Virtue here. Its Effects This. ’tis certain. That if it be true Piety. [] eternal living in a State of highest Pleasure and Enjoyment. and Support tageous. in the way we have been mentioning. ‘‘That he resigns his present Life and Pleasures. too. particular. that Belief of the Principle of Fear of future Punishment. For the stronger this Affection is in any-one. which he himself confesses to be beyond an Equivalent. in many Circumstances. on the other side.’’ A But notwithstanding the Injury which the Principle of Virtue may possibly suffer. that notwithstanding there may . how mercenary or servile soever it may be accounted. the over-sollicitous regard to private Good [] expected from him. to love in Religion. pends only on the expectation of infinite Retribution or Reward. such as G is universally acknowledg’d. or Submission to the Rule and False Order of  D. the less room is there for the other sort towards Goodness it-self. must of necessity prove a diminution of PieAty. It has been already consider’d. as well as to Virtue and publick Love. it must insensibly diminish the Affections towards publick Good. a great Advantage. worthy of Love and Admiration for its own sake. is yet. or the Interest of Society. For whilst God is belov’d only as the Cause of private Good.

for instance. ’tis apparent how much a good Temper in time must suffer. and debauch’d even to an Esteem. and deliberate Preference of a vitious one. Crosses or Adversity. or Effemi- nacy. which needs only his Attention. A Person. Now if his own Thoughts. if by ill Fortune he meets with many Trials of this kind. a real Sect. the Mind it- self is bent against the honest Course. this good Af- fection may frequently be controul’d and overcome. that such a Belief must prove a seasonable RemedyA against Vice. no less than their consequent Actions. deliver’d from this Restraint of V and H. But if Religion interposing. as unfits him to bear Poverty. or any other counterworking Passion. For a Belief of this kind must be suppos’d to tend con- siderably towards the calming of the Mind. it must certainly give a Sourness and Distaste to his Temper. and that if he were future Life. he might be much happier’’: ’tis very obvious that his Esteem of these good . and be in a particular manner advantageous [] to Virtue. to engage him wholly in its Party and Interest. . and disposing or fitting the Person to a better Recollection of himself. present it often to his Mind. And as this Belief of a future Reward and Punishment is capable Saving. and make him exceed- ingly averse to that which he may falsly presume the occasionA of [] such Calamity or Ill. and cause them earnestly to be op- pos’d. but withal. ‘‘That Belief of his H is the occasion of this Calamity. of supporting those who thro’ ill Practice are like to apostatize from Virtue. yet by the violence Supporting. and to a stricter Ob- servance of that good and virtuous Principle. creates a Belief that the ill Passions of this kind. who has much of Goodness and natural Rectitude in his Temper.                        be implanted in the Heart a real Sense of Right and Wrong. Where there- fore there is nothing in the Mind capable to render such ill Passions the Objects of its Aversion. good Affection towards the Species or Society. are the Objects of a Deity’s Ani- madversion. so when by ill Opinion and wrong Thought. ’tis certain. so much Softness. or the corrupt Insinuations of other Men. the Belief of the kind mention’d may prove on this occasion the only Relief and Safety. of Rage. Lust. and a Character by degrees change for the worse.

And thus Temperance. and forcing them to act usefully to Society. we see that a virtuous Ad- Punishments. . such a People are at last totally op- [] press’d. For thus a People rais’d from Barbarity or despotick Rule. Benignity. when the Reward or Punishment is not so much as thought of. ministration. the contrary Species rejected. and the contrary PasAsion depress’d. and lead Men into that path which afterwards they cannot easily quit. civiliz’d by Laws. may come at last to be valu’d for their own Sakes. as the Temper grows uneasy. (as. Qualitys must in proportion diminish every day. such as to compensate that Loss of private Good which he regrets’’. Rewards and Thus in a civil S or P. if not a present.          Sect. and the good and proper Object be- lov’d and prosecuted. for instance. and belov’d) if there be this Consideration added. by long and continu’d Arts of a prevailing Tyranny. ‘‘That Honesty carrys with it. is of the highest service. Modesty. In the same manner. Candour. and quarrels with it-self. then may this injury to his good Temper and honest Principle be prevented. they will on this account be the rather animated to exert a stronger Virtue. not only by restraining the Vitious. in opposition to such Violence and Corruption. and an equal and just Distribution of Rewards and In the State. there is rather an Aversion to what is good and virtuous. if they chance to fall suddenly under any Misgovernment of unjust and arbitrary Power. and his Love or Affection towards Honesty and Virtue remain as it was before. And even where. the scatter’d Seeds of VirtueA will for a long time remain . and made virtuous by the long Course of a lawful and just Admin- istration. at least a future Advantage. ‘‘That Lenity is. where Lenity and Forgiveness are despis’d. and Revenge highly thought of. however despis’d at first. create a fair reception for it. Improving. that very Af- fection of Lenity and Mildness may come to be industriously nour- [] ish’d. made the cause of a greater Self- good and Enjoyment than what is found in Revenge’’. by its Rewards. But if he opposes to this Thought the Consideration. so as to remove all Prejudices against it. but by making Virtue to be apparently the Interest of every-one. and other good Affections. where instead of Regard or Love. Punishments.

we must observe in this Case. Otherwise it cou’d be of little effect. and by this help instructs them in a Vir- tue. . as from a natural Esteem of Virtue. and unworthy of any Honour or Commendation. even to a second Generation. that it is Example which chiefly influences Mankind. Publick. and the Severity of their Master. whether towards God or Man. are not on this account made good or honest. and forms the Char- acter and Disposition of a People. and Detestation of Villany. For a virtuous Administration is in a manner necessarily accompany’d with Virtue in the Magis- trate. But tho a right Distribution of Justice in a Government be so essential a cause of Virtue. and Violations of Justice and Humanity. And this is what we call a Liberal Education and a Liberal Service: the contrary Service and Obedi- ence. which is awaken’d and ex- cited by these publick Expressions of the Approbation and Hatred of Mankind in each Case. being illiberal. So that as to Punishments and Rewards. and the Shame of it before Mankind. as to private Familys. and with- out thinking of a Penalty or Bribe. Sect. . which afterwards they practice upon other grounds. in the same manner. Yet the same Master of the Family using proper Rewards and gentle Punishments towards his Children. But where it is sincere and well establish’d. And as the Case of Reward and Punishment stands thus in the In the Family. as that ignominious kind of Death which is inflicted for publick Crimes. contribute more to their Misery than all besides. so. teaches them Goodness. restrain’d and made orderly by Punish- ment. For Slaves and mercenary Servants. For in the publick Executions of the greatest Villains. there Virtue and the Laws must necessarily be respected and belov’d. ere the utmost Force of mis.                        alive. we see generally that the Infamy and Odiousness of their Crime. which raises so much Horror either [] in the Sufferers or Spectators. or DeathA it-self. apply’d Rewards and Punishments can bring them to the abject and compliant State of long-accustom’d Slaves. their Efficacy is not so much from the Fear or Expectation which they raise. and that it is not the im- mediate Pain. and of no long dura- tion.

Nor can this Principle be justly call’d selfish: for if the Love of Virtue be not mere Self- Interest. and Fear of Death. and can like or affect such Good for its own sake. or of the very Practice and Exercise of Virtue in another Life. however. may by the Promise or Hope of Life. nor can be- lieve Virtue his real Interest. Yet neither is this very Endeavour to be esteem’d a Virtue: For tho he may intend to be virtuous. that it shou’d be thought to have no quarrel with true Interest. as good and amiable in itself. . or aim’d at it. carrys with him that Security and Assistance to Virtue which is requir’d. and even endeavour to be truly virtuous. the Love and Desire of Life for Virtue’s sake cannot be esteem’d so. that if In Religion.          Sect. then is it no longer any sign or token of real Virtue. are of little Improvement to real Merit or Virtue. be induc’d to practice Virtue. thinks in the main. and not till then. Or tho he has no such Thought. Whoever therefore. if it be thro’ the Love of something else than virtuous Affection.A Security Such are the Advantages or Disadvantages which accrue to Vir- to Virtue. for having only intended. But as soon as he is come to have any Affection towards what is morally good. then is [] he in some degree good and virtuous. by the Hope of Reward be understood the Love and Desire of vir- tuous Enjoyment. But if the Desire of Life be only thro’ the Violence of that natural Aversion to Death. that it is an Evidence of our loving it the more sincerely and for its own sake. thro’ love of the Reward. and Vice Misery. In the Case of Religion. either with respect to his own Nature and Constitution. yet if he . and the Multiplicity of interested Views. by any strong Persuasion or settled Judg- ment. and Virtue not at all. Thus a Person loving Life for Life’s sake. or the Circumstances of human Life. the Expectation or Hope of this kind is so far from [] being derogatory toA Virtue. he is not become so. it must be consider’d. or thro’ the Unwillingness of parting with something else than what is purely of this kind. and Self-enjoyment. by a Love of what he practices. yet there is a necessity for the preservation of Virtue. That Virtue causes Happiness. tue from Reflection upon private Good or Interest. For tho the Habit of Selfishness. or other Evil.

that an Ex- pectation and Dependency. whilst his Belief is steddy. and fear of future Punishment. Other Interests are hardly so much as computed. Or shou’d he still believe little of the immediate Interposition of Provindence in the Affairs of this present Life. that just Esteem of Virtue. if this Foundation come to fail.Where infinite Rewards are thus inforc’d. and freely allow themselves to beA most im. and magnifying the contrary Happiness of a vitious State.’’ From whence it appears. he carrys with him still [] the same Advantage and Security. . so narrowly confin’d within our-selves. all other Affections towards Friends. all natural Bene. I. this will serve to pre- serve in him. And so little thought is there of any immediate Satisfaction arising from such good Offices of Life. For the stress being laid wholly here. and lose much by Dis-use. the other common and natu- ral Motives to Goodness are apt to be neglected. . . than the weak and uncertain Belief of a future Reward and Punishment. and immediately interposing in behalf of the Honest and Virtuous.                        believes any supreme Powers concern’d in the present Affairs of Sect. no-wise wavering or doubtful. that in some re- spects there can be nothing more *fatal to Virtue. as being worldly. ‘‘That except only for the sake of future Reward. which might otherwise considerably diminish. and of little mo- ment. yet if he believes a God dispensing Rewards and Pun- ishments to Vice and VirtueA in a future. On this account. in respect of the Interest of our Soul. [] moral and profligate. to declare. p. that it is customary with many devout People zealously to decry all temporal Advantages of Goodness. or Man- kind. Mankind. and the Imagi- nation strongly turn’d towards them. there * VOL. Imprudent Zeal. Relations. fits of Virtue. whilst the Mind is thus transported in the pursuit of a high Advantage and Self-Interest. For it must be observ’d. are often slightly regarded. &c. against the Impious and Unjust. they wou’d divest themselves of all Goodness at once. so miraculous and great as this. and Caution. must naturally take off from other inferior Dependencys and Encour- agements. however.

without conceiving high thoughts of the Sat- isfaction resulting from the generous Admiration and Love of it: And nothing beside the Experience of such a Love is likely to make this Satisfaction credited. is no further Prop or Security to Mens Morals. and to be only a vast and infinite Deformity? Nothing indeed can be more melancholy. or raise any Passion besides that of Contempt. nothing which can satisfy in Contemplation. in the case of ill Judgment on the Happiness of Virtue. Now as to Atheism: tho it be plainly deficient and without remedy. to have any great opinion of the Happiness of Virtue. Atheism. and Proportion. and where there is nothing good or lovely which presents it-self. or Dislike. nor any Example. But this is certain. However. that it can be no great strengthning to the moral Affection. who thinks the Universe it-self a Pattern of Disorder? How unapt to reverence or respect any particular subor- dinate Beauty of a Part. to suppose there is neither Good- ness nor Beauty in the W it-self. ’Tis in a manner impossible. of necessity the Cause of any such ill Judgment. must arise from the power- [] ful feeling of this geAnerous moral Affection. to love or admire any thing as orderly in the Universe.          Sect. no great support to the pure Love of Goodness and Virtue. Such an . the Advantages of Virtue may possibly be seen and own’d. than the Thought of living in a distracted Universe. it must be con- fess’d. and the knowledg of its Power and Strength. . indeed. and to the suppressing the very Habit and familiar Custom of admiring natural Beautys. and a high Opinion of it establish’d in the Mind. or Prece- dent of good Affection in any superior Being. Hatred. Harmony. For without an absolute Assent to any Hypothesis of Theism. And thus Virtue is supplanted and betray’d. when even  W it-self is thought to want Perfection. Such a Belief must tend rather to the weaning the Affections from any thing amiable or self-worthy. The chief Ground and Support therefore of this Opinion of Happiness in Virtue. that the natural Tendency of Atheism is very different. For how little dispos’d must a Person be. or whatever in the Order of things is according to just Design. yet it is not. from whence many Ills may be sus- pected.

                      

Opinion as this may by degrees imA bitter the Temper, and not only Sect. .
make the Love of Virtue to be less felt, but help to impair and ruin []
the very Principle of Virtue, viz. natural and kind Affection.
Upon the whole; whoever has a firm Belief of a G, whom he Theism.
does not merely call good, but of whom in reality he believes noth-
ing beside real Good, nothing beside what is truly sutable to the
exactest Character of Benignity and Goodness; such a Person be-
lieving Rewards or Retributions in another Life, must believe them
annex’d to real Goodness and Merit, real Villany and Baseness, and
not to any accidental Qualitys or Circumstances; in which respect
they cannot properly be styl’d Rewards or Punishments, but capri-
cious Distributions of Happiness or Unhappiness to Creatures. These
are the only Terms, on which the Belief of a World to come can
happily influence the Believer. And on these Terms, and by virtue
of this Belief, Man perhaps may retain his Virtue and Integrity,
even under the hardest Thoughts of human Nature; when either
by any ill Circumstance or untoward Doctrine, he is brought to
that unfortunate Opinion of Virtue’s being naturally an Enemy to
Happiness in Life.
This, however, is an Opinion which cannot be suppos’d consis-
tent with soundA Theism. For whatever be decided as to a future []
Life, or the Rewards and Punishments of hereafter; he who, as a
sound Theist, believes a reigning Mind, sovereign in Nature, and
ruling all things with the highest perfection of Goodness, as well
as of Wisdom and Power, must necessarily believe Virtue to be
naturally good and advantageous. For what cou’d more strongly
imply an unjust Ordinance, a Blot and Imperfection in the gen-
eral Constitution of Things, than to suppose Virtue the natural
Ill, and Vice the natural Good of any Creature?
And now last of all, there remains for us to consider a yet fur- Atheism
and
ther Advantage to Virtue, in the Theistical Belief above the Atheis- Theism.
tical. The Proposition may at first sight appear over-refin’d, and of
a sort which is esteem’d too nicely philosophical. But after what
has been already examin’d, the Subject perhaps may be more easily
explain’d.

        

Sect. . There is no Creature, according to what has been already prov’d,
Effects who must not of necessity be ill in some degree, by having any
of each.
Affection or Aversion in a stronger degree than is sutable to his
own private Good, or that of the System to which he is join’d.
[] For in either Case the Affection is ill and vitious. Now if a raAtio-
nal Creature has that Degree of Aversion which is requisite to arm
him against any particular Misfortune, and alarm him against the
Approach of any Calamity; this is regular and well. But if after
the Misfortune is happen’d, his Aversion continues still, and his
Passion rather grows upon him; whilst he rages at the Accident,
and exclaims against his private Fortune or Lot; this will be ac-
knowledg’d both vitious in present, and for the future; as it affects
the Temper, and disturbs that easy Course of the Affections on
which Virtue and Goodness so much depend. On the other side,
the patient enduring of the Calamity, and the bearing up of the
Mind under it, must be acknowledg’d immediately virtuous, and
Of Atheism. preservative of Virtue. Now, according to the Hypothesis of those
who exclude a general Mind, it must be confess’d, there can noth-
ing happen in the Course of things to deserve either our Admira-
tion, and Love, or our Anger, and Abhorrence. However, as there
can be no Satisfaction at the best in thinking upon what Atoms and
Chance produce; so upon disasterous Occasions, and under the
Circumstances of a calamitous and hard Fortune, ’tis scarce pos-
sible to prevent a natural kind of Abhorrence and Spleen, which
will be entertain’d and kept alive by the Imagination of so perverse
[] an Order of Things.A But in another Hypothesis (that of perfect
Of Theism. Theism) it is understood, ‘‘That whatever the Order of the World pro-
duces, is in the main both just and good.’’ Therefore in the Course
of Things in this World, whatever Hardship of Events may seem
to force from any rational Creature a hard Censure of his private
Condition or Lot; he may by Reflection nevertheless, come to have
Patience, and to acquiesce in it. Nor is this all. He may go further
still in this Reconciliation; and from the same Principle may make
the Lot it-self an Object of his good Affection; whilst he strives to
maintain this generous Fealty, and stands so well-dispos’d towards
the Laws and Government of his higher Country.

                      

Such an Affection must needs create the highest Constancy in Sect. .
any State of Sufferance, and make us in the best manner support
whatever Hardships are to be endur’d for Virtue’s sake. And as this
Affection must of necessity cause a greater Acquiescence and Com-
placency with respect to ill Accidents, ill Men, and Injurys; so of
course it cannot fail of producing still a greater Equality, Gentle-
ness, and Benignity in the Temper. Consequently the Affection
must be a truly good one, and a Creature the more truly good and
virtuous, by possessing it. ForA whatsoever is the occasion or means []
of more affectionately uniting a rational Creature to his P in
Society, and causes him to prosecute the publick Good, or Inter-
est of his Species, with more Zeal and Affection than ordinary; is
undoubtedly the Cause of more than ordinary Virtue in such a
Person.
This too is certain; That the Admiration and Love of Order, Contem-
plation.
Harmony and Proportion, in whatever kind, is naturally improv-
ing to the Temper, advantageous to social Affection, and highly
assistant to Virtue; which is it-self no other than the Love of Order
and Beauty in Society. In the meanest Subjects of the World, the
Appearance of Order gains upon the Mind, and draws the Affec-
tion towards it. But if the Order of the World it-self appears just and
beautiful; the Admiration and Esteem of Order must run higher,
and the elegant Passion or Love of Beauty, which is so advanta-
geous to Virtue, must be the more improv’d by its Exercise in so
ample and magnificent a Subject. For ’tis impossible that such a Religious
Divine Order shou’d be contemplated without *Extasy and Rap- Affection.

ture; since in the common Subjects of Science, and the liberal Arts,
whatever is according to justA Harmony and Proportion, is so trans- []
porting to those who have any Knowledg or Practice in the kind.
Now if the Subject and Ground of this divine Passion be not
really just or adequate, (the Hypothesis of Theism being suppos’d
false) the Passion still in it-self is so far natural and good, as it
proves an Advantage to Virtue and Goodness; according to what
has been above demonstrated. But if, on the other side, the Sub-

* Infra, pag. , , &c. And VOL. III. p. , &c.

        

Sect. . ject of this Passion be really adequate and just, (the Hypothesis of
Theism being real, and not imaginary) then is the Passion also just,
and becomes absolutely due and requisite in every rational Crea-
ture.

Conclusion. HENCE we may determine justly the Relation which V
has to P; the first being not compleat but in the latter: Since
where the latter is wanting, there can neither be the same Benig-
nity, Firmness, or Constancy; the same good Composure of the
Affections, or Uniformity of Mind.
And thus the Perfection and Height of V must be owing
[] to the Belief of a G.A

Sect. .

ook 
 
 
E have consider’d what V is, and to whom the Char-
W acter belongs. It remains to inquire, What Obligation there
is to V; or what Reason to embrace it.
Obligation to
VIRTUE.

We have found, that to deserve the name of good or virtuous, a
Creature must have all his Inclinations and Affections, his Disposi-
tions of Mind and Temper, sutable, and agreeing with the Good of
his Kind, or of that System in which he is included, and of which he
constitutes a P. To stand thus well affected, and to have one’s
Affections right and intire, not only in respect of one’s self, but of
Society and the Publick: This is Rectitude, Integrity, or V.
And to be wanting in any of these, or to have theirA Contrarys, is []
Depravity, Corruption, and V.
It has been already shewn, that in the Passions and Affections Difficulty
stated.
of particular Creatures, there is a constant relation to the Inter-
est of a Species, or common Nature. This has been demonstrated in
the case of natural Affection, parental Kindness, Zeal for Posterity,
Concern for the Propagation and Nurture of the Young, Love of
Fellowship and Company, Compassion, mutual Succour, and the
rest of this kind. Nor will any-one deny that this Affection of a
Creature towards the Good of the Species or common Nature, is
as proper and natural to him, as it is to any Organ, Part or Mem-
ber of an Animal-Body, or mere Vegetable, to work in its known
Course, and regular way of Growth. ’Tis not more natural for the
Stomach to digest, the Lungs to breathe, the Glands to separate
Juices, or other Intrails to perform their several Offices; however
they may by particular Impediments be sometimes disorder’d, or
obstructed in their Operations.



Thus Kindness of every sort. and sup- ports its Kind? Opposition It may therefore be imagin’d. . that. * VOL. Indulgence. ’tis presently in- fer’d. must be a hindrance to the Attainment of private Good thro’ the Affections of another. and. that the pursuing the common Interest or pub- lick Good thro’ the Affections of one kind. all natural Affection shou’d be industri- ously suppress’d. [] it will appear that in following the first of these Affections. How else shou’d the Species be preserv’d? Or what wou’d signify that implanted natural Affection. or System of the Kind. that there is a plain and from Self-interest. ‘‘That ’tis the Creature’s Interest to be without any publick Affection whatsoever. . by this means. . . Compassion. . shou’d of right be from Self-interest. that which is of a social kind in us. are naturally the Ill of the private State. . the Creature must on many Occasions contradict and go against the latter. there might be nothing remaining in us. by which a Creature thro’ so many Difficultys and Hazards preserves its Offspring. does by its nature take place of the self-interesting Passions. So thatA according to a known * way of reasoning on Self- Opposition interest. For it being taken for granted. Gratitude. abolish’d. absolute Opposition between these two Habits or Affections.’’ This we know for certain. That all social Love. Tenderness. or Self-system.          Sect. . &c. Friendship. draws us out of our-selves. perhaps. of whatever sort. It may be presum’d. A Species. be resisted and overcome. and in short. . and makes us disregardful of our own Convenience and [] Safety. There being allow’d therefore in a Creature such Affections as Union with these towards the common Nature. nothing which might stand in opposition to a steddy and deliberate Pursuit of the most narrowly confin’d Self-interest. or whatever else is of this generous kind. together a Kind or with those other which regard the private Nature. and it being certainly the Nature of those publick Affections to lead often to the greatest Hardships and Hazards of every kind. and Weakness of Nature. which was contrary to a direct Self-end. that Hazards and Hardships. p. I. as mere Folly.

or Virtue. ness and Benignity. must accord- ingly be the Advantage. and in an unnatural Growth or Habit as to its W. feels slender Joy in Life. by making moral Rectitude appear the Ill. ‘‘That what Men represent as an ill Order and Constitution in the Universe. either tolerably happy in himself. and Depravity the Good or Advantage of a Creature. of necessity. the Part or Member cou’d be suppos’d in a good and prosperous State as to it-self. who when they consider a Creature void of natural Affection. Dissolute or immoral but that. it must be taken Sect. when under a contrary Disposition. to be morose. That to be well affected towards the Publick Interest and one’s own. after the Loss of social Enjoyment. State. so as to make appear. is in Nature just the contrary. We know that to suchA a Creature as [] this. at the same time. is not only consistent.                        According to this extraordinary Hypothesis. and be . and wholly destitute of a commu- nicative or social Principle. the Interest of Particulars directly opposite to that of the Publick in general. a Mind or Temper thus destitute of Mild. we shall endeavour Recon- ciliation. the Interest of the private Nature is directly opposite to that of the common one.A [] Now that this is in reality quite otherwise. . unlike to what we ob- serve elsewhere in Nature. and Vice the Injury and Disadvantage of every Creature.’’   T HERE are few perhaps. As if in any vegetable or animal Body.’’—A strange Constitution! in which it must be confess’d there is much Disorder and Untowardness. that such a Creature as this. and finds little Satisfaction in the mere sensual Pleasures which remain with him. for granted. Contra- dictory Notions. ’tis not only incident. must turn to that which is contrary. but inseparable: and that moral Rectitude. with re- spect to his Fellow-Creatures or Kind. or as he stands abroad. rancorous and malignant. and whatever can be call’d Humanity or Good-nature. ’Tis generally thought. will suppose him. to demonstrate. ‘‘That in the System of a Kind or Species.

tho ’tis allow’d that Tem- per may often change.Where there is this absolute Degeneracy. This. no less real and exact. even in the most seeming fair and secure State of Fortune. is what. Inward The Parts and Proportions of the Mind. as to the compleat immoral State. . For tho the greatest Misery and Ill is generally own’d to be from Disposition. in less degrees. Men readily remark. The misfortune is. their mutual Relation Proportion. The Calamity. Equity. As if to be absolutely immoral andA inhuman. rais’d from a constant ill Humour. Sourness. Nor is any-one asham’d of the deepest Ignorance in such a Subject. The Consciousness of such a Nature. and Dependency. wrought by Passions of a different kind. ’tis apparent that few of us endeavour to become Anato- mists of this sort. may easily be understood by any-one who thinks it worth his while to study this inward Anatomy. we think. but that to lose the use only of one Limb. there are few who do not see and acknowledg the Misery which is consequent. is just as reasonable as to own. and to all Beings which approach it. In part. In whole. or to be impair’d in some one single Organ or Member. of their own ac- cord. in a little de- gree. ’Tis certain that the Order or Symmetry of this inward Part is. in it-self. Such a Heart as this must be a continual Seat of perverse Inclinations and bitter Aversions. and raise in it a continual Disturbance. Trust. and Temper. must overcloud the Mind with dark Suspicion and Jealousy. and that it actually varys on many occasions. Seldom is the Case misconstru’d. shou’d be no misery nor harm at all! Which to allow. or Friendship. so obnoxious to Mankind. when at worst. that ’tis the greatest Ill of a Body to be in the utmost manner distorted and maim’d. . alarm it with Fears and Horror. this total Apostacy from all Candour. were indeed the greatest misfortune and misery. than that of the Body. the Connexion and Frame of those Passions which constitute the Soul or Temper.          Sect. and in the highest degree of outward Prosperity. and Disquiet. but that to be so. is no Inconvenience or Ill worthy the least notice. nor consider how it stands. However. Sociableness. we look not on this Depravity. does not of necessity hold proportion with the Injustice or Iniq- [] uity.

Nor can we conceive how a par- ticular Action shou’d have such a sudden Influence on the whole Mind. Sect.                        much to our disadvantage. or a farther advancing of that Execution already begun. if we saw it impossible to remove hence any one good Affections. that dissolute State. The Solutio Continui. or Passions. which at its height is confess’d to be so miserable: ’twou’d then undoubtedly be own’d. Now if the Fabrick of the Mind or Temper appear’d such to us Fabrick or System of the as it really is. . and from Temper merely. or relaxing any proper and natural Habit. is never apply’d in this case. in this respect. commit any Wickedness unfamiliar to him before. or good Inclination. and that our Notions. ‘‘Such a Person has done ill in- deed: But what is he the worse for it?’’ Yet speaking of any Nature thorowly savage. or introduce any ill or disorderly one. immoral. are not a little confus’d. by Surgeons of an- other sort. a Man may be compleately miserable. or acted in prejudice of his Integrity. wou’d of necessity act with greater Cruelty towards him- . Surgeons talk of. We never trouble our-selves to consider thorowly by what means or methods our inward Constitution comes atA any [] time to be impair’d or injur’d. of straining any Af- fection. or unjust Action cou’d be com- mitted without either a new inroad and breach on the Temper and Passions. yet how this Matter is brought about. in some degree. The Notion of a Whole and Parts is not apprehended in this Science. with- out drawing on. which bodily Continuity. that since no ill. curst. without the least prejudice to himself. as to make the Person an immediate Sufferer. we inquire not. engage in any Vice or Villany. Good-nature. indulging any wrong Passion. we say truly. or orderly Affection. We suppose rather that a Man may violate his Faith. let his outward Circumstances be ever so fortunate. or any Misery naturally following from the ill Action. and contradictory.’’ These different Judgments sufficiently demonstrate that we are not accustom’d to think with much coheArency on these [] moral Subjects. whoever did ill. and inveterate. ‘‘That thro’ certain Humours. or Worth. ‘‘Such a one is a plague and torment to himself ’’: And we allow. We know not what the effect is. ’Tis thus we hear it often said.

. Affections. which acts. where a Creature strikes either himself or others. either by their Force or Number. good or ill. but contrary-wise: and which may therefore be justly styl’d unnatural Affections. than he who scrupled not to swallow what was poisonous. ’tis a simple Mechanism. O the Self-affections. So that according as these Affections stand. The two former may be vitious or virtuous. Spring of Whatsoever therefore is done or acted by any Animal as such. Love. are wholly viti- ous. natural Limbs or Body. . Animal. self. according to their degree. are either. T natural Affections. and led to Action. as of Fear. otherwise than thro’ Affections or Passions. And as it is impossible that a weaker Affection shou’d over- come a stronger. and not the Animal. ’tis evident. a Creature must be virtuous or vitious.A   SYSTEM explain’d. an En- gine. which lead to the Good of T P- [] . is done only thro’ some Affection or Passion. O such as are neither of these. that no Animal can be said prop- erly to act. . Actions. The latter sort of these Affections. The Affections or Passions which must influence and govern the three kinds. or Piece of Clock-work.A . I T has been shewn before. such as are proper to an Animal. so it is impossible but that where the Affections or Passions are strongest in the main. or Hatred moving him. For in convulsive Fits. or who with his own hands shou’d voluntarily mangle or wound his [] outward Form or Constitution. which lead only to the Good of T P. and form in general the most considerable Party. nor tending either to any Good of  P or P. .          Sect. thither the Animal must incline: And according to this Balance he must be govern’d.

it must be injurious to the rest. is so transporting. culty. we must call to mind what has been already explain’d. so private Affection may. publick Affection. . consider’d as a Passion. and in an unnatural degree’’: As when Pity is so overcoming as to destroy its own End. and equally natural and useful as to their End. not of the selfish but nobler kind. For a Creature possess’d with such an immoderate Degree of Passion. it may be said that R indeed is then too strongA in us. if by the height of devout Extasy and Contemplation we are rather disabled in this respect. in this Case. For as the End of Religion is to render us more perfect. as to render the devout Person more remiss in secular Affairs. which is [] only an Extreme of some natural and kind Affection. to speak of natural Affections as Sect. or of Self-affections as too weak. in particular Cases. since even R it-self. may be too high. ‘‘That natural Affection may. may in some Characters be strain’d beyond its natu- ral Proportion. and accomplish’d in all moral Dutys and Performances. be .                        It may seem strange. and other Parts or Dutys neglected. and be said also to be in too high a degree. or as when Love to the Offspring proves such a Fondness as destroys the Parent. And notwithstand- ing it may seem harshA to call that unnatural and vitious. and render’d more unapt to the real Dutys and Offices of civil Life. must of ne- cessity allow too much to that one. that where-ever any single good Affection of this sort is over-great. and the Faith orthodox? ’Tis only the Excess of Zeal. Now as in particular Cases. on the other hand. For [] how. and prevent the Succour and Relief requir’d. and less concern’d for the inferior and temporal Interests of Mankind. on the one hand. But to clear this Diffi. perhaps. and detract in some measure from their Force and natural Operation. can we call this S. This may well be allow’d true in all other respects. and too little to others of the same Character. too strong. Degrees of Affection. be excessive. yet ’tis most certain. whilst only one Duty or natural Part is earnestly follow’d. And this must necessarily be the occasion of Partiality and Injus- tice. which. which shou’d accompany it. and consequently the Offspring it-self. possibly. and perhaps take place and be prefer’d. whilst the Object of the Devotion is acknowledg’d just.

this must certainly be esteem’d vitious. It may be objected here. or virtuous. or defend himself. which if it wanted. we see proper Affections. however we might intend the Preservation of our Eye. must be a Vice and Imperfection. can be preserv’d without them.          Sect. merely for possessing these Affections. and for their own Benefit and Preservation. ’Tis certain. And thus the Affections towards private Good become neces- sary and essential to Goodness. or Good of the System. as is useful to preserve. that her provisionary Care and Con- cern for the whole Animal. fails not to shut together. sutable to their Interest and Security. when his Affection towards others is so warm and zealous. so that even without our Consciousness. is in reality wanting in some degree to Goodness and natural Rectitude. Now to the several Parts she has given. as to carry him even beyond his Part. To be wanting therefore in those principal Af- fections. in its natural State. it follows that a Creature really want- ing in them. of its own accord. we shou’d not in effect be able to preserve it. and may thus be esteem’d vitious and defective. or if he want such a degree of Passion in any kind. too weak. She her-self discovers this in her known Method and stated Rule of Operation. yet since it is impossible that the publick Good. . ’Tis thus we say of a Creature. For if a Creature be self-neglectful. in regard of the Design and End of Nature. (the Soul or Temper) as it is in any of those inferior and subordi- nate parts. For tho no Creature can be call’d good. in a kind way of Reproof. by any Observation or Forecast of our own. or when he really [] acts beyond it. that the having the natural Affections . they act in their own De- fense. but thro’ an over-cool one of another. which respect the Good of the whole Constitution. and insensible of Danger. or thro’ want of some Self-passion to restrain him within due Bounds. by aA peculiar Caution and Timidity. to want the self-preserving Affections which are proper to them. not thro’ too warm a PassionA of that sort. must at least be equal to her Concern for a single Part or Member. as great surely in the principal part. un- [] knowingly to us. sustain. that he is too good. Thus an Eye.

For. they must of course be the occasion of Inequality in the Conduct. For being in unequal proportion to the others. .                        too strong. by as exceed- ing a degree of natural Affection. . one who is to a fault regardless of his Life. if we may be assur’d that the strength of it will not be the occasion of any disturA bance within. a Creature excessively timorous may. (where the Self-affections are over-much so) or the Sect. or zealous Friendship. be call’d excessive. leading to any right end. be what the Constitution of the Creature cannot bear. then may those strong Passions. cannot be condemn’d as vitious. . . nor of any disproportion between it. ’tis necessary they shou’d have an extraordinary * Infra. on the other hand. thus. &c. nor can possibly be wrought up to the same proportion. be only so much the more serviceable and effectual. or Species. and incline the Party to a wrong moral Practice. . having the Self-affections defective or weak. or complain of any as too weak. and causing an ill Balance in the Affection at large. To this it is answer’d. whilst others are not. may with the smallest degree of natural Affection do all which can be expected from the highest Pitch of social Love. And thus. As for the Creatures who have no manner of Power or Means given them by Nature for their defense against Violence. . III. But to shew more particularly what is meant by the OEconomy OEconomy of the Passions. [] self and other Affections. nor any-thing by which they can make themselves formidable to such as injure or offend them. p. perform whatever the perfectest Courage is able to inspire. . from Instances in the Species or *Kinds below us. tho of the better kind. so that only some Passions are rais’d to this height. That whenever we arraign any Passion as too strong. &c. of the Passions. p. we must speak with re- spect to a certain Constitution or OEconomy of a particular Crea- ture. . But if to have all the Pas- sions in equal proportion with it. (where the natural Af- fections are also weak) may prove upon occasion the only Cause of a Creature’s acting honestly and in moral proportion. For if a Passion. for being strong. then consequently the Passion. And VOL. however strong.

toA desert their Offspring.          Sect. may be according to the OEconomy of a particular Creature. by Nature. On the other hand. such as might cause ’em to make resistance. or whatever other invading Beast of Prey. And of all other Creatures. when by Experience ’tis found that the Creature. and shews himself conscious of his Make. but live in Pairs only. by keeping the Senses on the watch. ’tis no way unnatural or vitious in [] them. For in this [] their SafetyA lies. and therefore viti- ous. apart from Company. . and at the hazard of their Lives. even among the former inoffensive kind. and Growths. when the whole Herd flies. in some degree. when the Enemy approaches. and are by Nature arm’d offensively. a Courage proportionable to their Make and Strength. But for Creatures who are able to make Resistance. we see. revenge an Injury on any-one living. and to this the Passion of Fear is serviceable. Even in one and the same Species. are differ- ent from the wilder. Ages. and suffers not his Kind to be injur’d with Impunity. this is by Nature differently order’d. to resist Violence. tho unable to repel the Injury. who live in Herds. such as Bees or Wasps. the Bull alone makes head against the Lion. and by throwing away . Man is in this Sense the most formidable: since if he thinks it just and exemplary. Even the Female of this kind is arm’d. or any other inoffensive and mere defenceless Creature. Yet is there found. or in his Country’s Cause. oppose any Enemy or In- vader of their Species. but little or no Animosity. so as not to fly a common Danger. degree of Fear. and holding the Spirits in readi- ness to give the start. or Doe. with respect to different Sexes. he may possibly in his own. The tamer Creatures of the grazing kind. For by this known Passion in the Creature. who herd not. or incline ’em to delay their Flight. At a time of danger. and an habitual strong Passion of Fear. Courage may be contrary to his OEconomy. ’tis natural to ’em to be rouz’d with Fury. the Species it-self is secur’d. and fly for Safety. both with respect to himself. as is natural and sutable to their rapacious Life. And thus Timorousness. and to the rest of his Species. As for a Hind. yet voluntarily ex- poses his Life for the Punishment of the Invader. be they of the poorest Insect- kind.

the Affections or Passions in an Animal-Constitution. who are of a cooler Blood. the various Mixtures and Allays [] by which Men become so different from one another. and in the just performance of their Part: whilst others. The same degree of Strength which winds up one. such as Tenderness. need not the same Allay or Counterpart. from using it to the utmost Extent. if while some of the Strings are duly strain’d. tho in ever so just proportion one to another. Tone. It might be agreeable. and its Effect lost. Sociable- ness. Balance. and urging their Inferiors to Extremity. Thus Men who have the liveliest Sense. in order to preserve a right B within. The several Species of Creatures are like different sorts of Instruments: And even in the same Species of Creatures (as in the same sort of Instrument) one is not intirely like the other. others are not wound up to their due proportion. may in another burst both the Strings and Instrument it-self. are strain’d beAyond a certain de. then is the Instrument still in disorder. Master of another’s. Constancy and Regularity in all their Passions and Affections. In the other Species of Creatures around us. . [] gree. one wou’d think. ’tis more than the Instrument will bear: The Lute or Lyre is abus’d. the greatest Corruptions and Degeneracys are discoverable in this Race. Upon the whole: It may be said properly to be the same with Measure. Compassion. no failure in the care of the . so Best or worst in Man. there is found generally an exact Proportionableness. nor will the same Strings fit each. If these. Examples of this nature have often serv’d to restrain those in Power. to inquire thus into the different TuningsA of the Passions. For as the TEMPER. highest Improvements of Temper are made in human kind. and are the easiest affected with Pain or Pleasure. On the other hand. Love.                        his own Life (if he be resolute to that degree) is almost certain Sect. however strongly guarded. and its Part ill perform’d. and to maintain them in their Duty. as with the Cords or Strings of a Musical Instrument. nor are made by Nature to feel those tender and indearing Affections in so exquisite a degree. or lower Key. and fits the several Strings to a just Harmony and Concert. have need of the strongest Influence or Force of other Affections.

or Excess. or of the Society. or in too low a degree. State of the BUT having shewn what is meant by a Passion’s being in too high.          Sect. is yet. who live the farthest out of Society. by means of Religion it-self. and which alone deserves to be consider’d as such: that is to say. in any kind. under the severest Penaltys: Antipa- [] thys instill’d. is often render’d the more barbarous and inhuman. and as a Man. we shall then have prov’d. . ‘‘O the private and Self-affections too strong. maintain. to which they are united. we see. The smaller Creatures. no Intemperance.’’ . nor in any degree tending to the Support either of the publick or private System. a Vice and Imperfection: we come now to the plainer and more essential part of V. it is impossible any Creature can be such [] as we call  or . no Pros- titution of themselves. but con- trariwise. Argument. which move them to operate towards their Publick Good. and the Direction of Laws. Even those Creatures of Prey. and that. and. such a Conduct towards one another. or any Self-affection too low.‘‘To have any natural Affection too high. No wonder if in such Societys ’tis so hard to find a Man who lives . ‘‘W either the publick Affections are weak or deficient. ‘‘That it is his Interest to be wholly G and V’’: Since in a wholesom and sound .’’ Otherwise than thus. Offspring. as is exactly sutable to the Good of their own Species. Marks are set on Men: Distinctions form’d: Opinions decreed. ‘‘O that such Affections arise as are neither of these.’’ tho it be often approv’d as Virtue. So that if once weA prove that it is really not the Creature’s Interest to be thus vitiously affected. strictly speaking. So that ’tis hard to find in any Region a human Society which has human Laws. notwithstanding the Assistance of Religion. who live as it were in Citys (as Bees and Ants) continue the same Train and Harmony of Life: Nor are they ever false to those Affections. is often found to live in less conformity with Nature. . and Aversions rais’d in Men aAgainst the generality of their own Species.’’ . Whilst Man.

’’ III. or of the Mind. K. good and virtuous. ‘‘T    T N A (such as are founded in Love. therefore. in his Action and Behaviour. . most People. or G A-  strong and powerful towards the Good of the Publick. Species)      M  P  S- : And T      M  I. I. A. such as we have describ’d. or Publick. first. or beyond their degree of Subordinacy to the kindly and natural.’’ II.’’ A []     O begin therefore with this Proof. will be. sibly be other than sound. ‘‘T to have  N.’’ And. ‘‘That to want them. Our Business. and in a Sympathy with the Kind or FIRST Proof. ‘‘T to have  P or S- too strong. he cannot pos. Good-will. which we call Pleasures or Pleasures of the BODY Satisfactions.’’ We may inquire. They and MIND. . from whence Happiness is generally computed.                        State of his Affections. ‘‘That to have  U A (viz. such as are neither founded on the Interest of the Kind. from the natural Affections. Com- placency. is also miserable. is allow’d by The latter preferable. is to have the chief Means and Power of Self-enjoyment. nor of the private Person. are (according to the common distinction) Satisfactions and Plea- sures either of the Body. is certain Misery and Ill. what those are. That the latter of these Satisfactions are the greatest. or Creature himself ) is to be miserable in the highest degree. Sect. to prove. and may be prov’d by this: That whenever the Mind.

Barbarians. Energy of NOW. Affections themselves in their immediate Operation: Or they wholly in a manner proceed from them. whence. to [] those of theA Body. or thro’ some cherish’d Notion or Principle of Honour or Gallantry. and are no other than their Effects. it follows. to explain. for the sake of a particular Gang or Society. being the only means which can procure him a constant Series or Succession of the mental Enjoyments. has receiv’d the strongest Impression of this sort. Thus we see Indians.          Sect. or Pleasures of the Body. at such time it sets itself above all bodily Pain as well as Pleasure. or Pleasures of the Mind. on the other hand. and subject to give Distaste. any thing inwardly vexatious or distemper’d. the pleasure of Sense is at an end. it follows. tions are in themselves the highest Pleasures and Enjoyments’’: There . and can be no-way diverted from its purpose by Flattery or Terror of any kind. ‘‘That whatever can create in any in- telligent Being a constant flowing Series or Train of mental Enjoy- ments. The Pleasures of the Mind being allow’d. having conceiv’d a highA Opinion of the Worth of any Action or [] Behaviour. .Whereas. in the first place. Malefactors. than instantly his Enjoy- ment ceases. and defy Torments and Death. Inference. and being then actually in the very moment of such a pleasing Indulgence. Revenge. or Gratitude. ‘‘How much the natural Affec- natural Affections. that the natural Affections duly establish’d in a rational Creature. and even the most execrable Villains. no sooner has he conceiv’d any internal Ail or Disorder. embrace any manner of Hardship.’’ Mental Now the mental Enjoyments are either actually the very natural Enjoyments. than that which can create to him a like constant Course or Train of sensual Enjoyments. If so. and every means of that sort becomes ineffectual. therefore. is more considerable to his Hap- piness. they are the only means which can procure him a certain and solid Happi- ness. and is rejected as uneasy. and is wrought up to the highest pitch or degree of Passion towards the Subject. superior. surrounded with every thing which can allure or charm the Sense. a Person being plac’d in all the happy Circumstances of out- ward Enjoyment. yet no sooner is there any thing amiss within.

Kind. For where it is not in its natural degree. Generosity. He who has [] ever so little Knowledg of human Nature. will ever give the preference to the former. all these are sufficient Proofs in our behalf. [] on the contrary. the reference of almost all our Pleasures to mutual Converse. who has ever known the Condition of the Mind under a lively Affection of Love. and the dependence they have on Society either present or imagin’d. merely of Sense. tho really present. For neither is his Taste. are expressive of a more intense. or Sense the duller. And if it prevails but for once. The less there is of this good Affec- tion in any untoward Creature. on the account of his Temperance. from the actual Prevalence and Ascendency of this sort of Affec- tion over all besides. or had never been. as in the very worst of Creatures it some- times will. Gratitude. can be a Match for it. between a common Company and that of Friends. . is found to be of insufficient force. Hunger. to which he is so mere a Stranger by his Nature. is sensible what plea- sure the Mind perceives when it is touch’d in this generous way. the greater the wonder is.                        shou’d methinks be little need of proving this to any-one of human Sect. clear. How much the social Pleasures are superior to any other. Bounty. than those which attend the Satisfaction of Thirst. Whoever is Judg of both the Pleasures. But to be able to judg of both. ’tis necessary to have a Sense of each. That in many Natures the good Affection. and undisturb’d Pleasure. and knows itsA utmost Force. and a moderate Use of Appetite. Suc- cour. No Joy. The difference we find between Solitude and Company. that it shou’d at any time prevail. but. and other ardent Appe- tites. But more particularly still may this Superiority be known.Where-ever it presents it-self with any advan- tage. in any single Instance. Nor is it any Objection here. the Marks and Signs which attend this sort of Joy. or whatever else is of a soAcial or friendly sort. But the immoral and profligate Man can by no means be allow’d a good Judg of social Pleasure. the more intense and clear. The very outward Features. The honest Man indeed can judg of sensual Pleasure. it silences and appeases every other Motion of Pleasure. Pity. ’tis the same indeed as if it were not. it . may be known by visible Tokens and Effects.

that Harmony. . may be interpreted a Self-passion. . * ‘‘A natural Joy in the Contemplation of those Num- bers. to [] render it susceptible of thisA Passion alone. has come to know barely the Principles of Mathematicks. For having no Object within the compass of the private System. the Charm is found to operate so strongly on the Temper. and Concord. which supports the universal Nature. the Passion ought in reality to be rank’d with natural Affection. or Love. Thus the C of kind Affection is superior to all other Plea- sure: since it has the power of drawing from every other Appetite or Inclination. . but has found. and a thousand other Instances.’’ But this speculative Pleasure. tho merely of speculative Truths. nor has for its Object any Self-good or Advantage of the private System. and Symmetry. Order. which remains as the Master-Pleasure and Conqueror of the rest. There is no-one who. The Admiration. it must either be esteem’d superflu- ous and unnatural. p. what it truly is. And thus in the Case of Love to the Offspring. in the Things without. Proportion. And tho the re- flected Joy or Pleasure. it wou’d prevail in all. he receives a Plea- sure and Delight superior to that of Sense. Joy.When we have thorowly search’d into the nature of this contemplative Delight. in the midst of other Temptations. and foreign to our-selves. and is essential in the Constitution and Form of every particular Species. III. as.          Sect. that if the Affection were thorowly experienc’d or known. turns wholly upon what is exterior. shews evidently. or interested Re- gard: yet the original Satisfaction can be no other than what results from the Love of Truth. or Order of Beings. we shall find it of a kind which relates not in the least to any private Interest of the Creature. (as having no tendency towards the Advantage [] or Good of Aany thing in Nature) or it must be judg’d to be. which arises from the notice of this Pleasure once perceiv’d. by the least progress in Science or Learn- ing. that in the exercise of his Mind on the Discoverys he there makes. Proportion. however considerable and valu- * VOL. If this be the Case.

the Passions of this kind are skilfully excited in us. and for the sake of the Person belov’d. even thro’ Fears. a goodlier View or Contemplation. the Sense or Feeling of this latter isA in [] reality superior to the former. for Death puts an end to all. Sorrows. Sect. For where is there on Earth a fairer Matter of Specu- lation. We find . tho they may be thought wholly contrary to Pleasure. that in the Passion of Love between the Sexes. the Emotion of the Soul is still agreeable. For thus. Nor yet hereafter. or however superior to any Motion of mere Sense. yield still a Con- tentment and Satisfaction greater than the Pleasures of indulg’d Sense. where. And where a Series or continu’d Succession of the tender and kind Affections can be carry’d on. since often thro’ this Affection. without any expected Compensation. than that of a beauti- ful. there is a mix- ture of the kind and friendly. Her Beauty supports it-self under a Cloud. The very Disturbances which belong to natural Affection. and even Death it-self voluntarily imbrac’d. where. together with the Affection of a vulgar sort. Horrors. withal. and the Exercise of Benignity and Goodness. For where shou’d the Ground of such an Expectation lie? Not here. together with the most delightful Affection of the Soul. in favour of the natural Affections. we prefer the Entertainment to any other of equal duration. there is join’d a pleasing Assent and Appro- bation of the Mind to what is acted in this good Disposition and honest Bent. and becoming Action? Or what is there relating to us. Griefs.We con- tinue pleas’d even with this melancholy Aspect or Sense of Virtue. of which the Consciousness and Memory is more solidly and lastingly entertaining? We may observe. in this World surely. proportion’d. as in a [] Tragedy. must yet be far surpass’d by virtuous Motion. and in the midst of surrounding Calamitys. when by mere IlluAsion. that it is not only when Joy and Sprightliness are mix’d with them that they carry a real Enjoyment above that of the sensual kind. .                        able it may be. the greatest Hardships in the World have been submitted to. in any other: for who has ever thought of providing a Heaven or future Recom- pence for the suffering Virtue of Lovers? We may observe.

and constitutes the chief Enjoy- ment and Happiness of those who are.’’ How considerable a part of Happiness arises from the former of [] these Effects. Ges- tures. or by way of Participation in the Good of others’’: And ‘‘A pleasing Consciousness of the actual Love. will be easily apprehended by one who is notA exceed- ingly ill natur’d. is of the highest Delight. That the E of Love or kind Affection. as their natural Effects’’. that the moving our Passions in this mournful way. to explain. and human Sympathy. in the next place. from the very Countenances. So insinuating are these Pleasures of Sympathy. of which they make not an essen- tial part. ’tis not difficult to perceive how much this avails in mental Pleasure. to be continually drawing some sort of Satisfaction from a Character. in a way of mental Pleasure. from accounts and relations of such Happinesses. It will be consider’d how many the Pleasures are. ‘‘How they proceed from them. of sharing Contentment and Delight with others. of receiving it in Fellowship and Company. As for that other Effect of social Love.’’ Effects of NOW. the engaging them in behalf of Merit and Worth. and the exerting whatever we have of social Affection.          Sect. . that there is hardly such a thing as Satisfaction or Contentment. by our-selves. from the pleas’d and happy States of those around us. than any thing besides can do in a way of Sense and common Appetite. How natural is it for the most selfish among us. and gathering it. ‘‘How much the mental Enjoyments are actually the very natural Af- fections themselves. the Consciousness of merited Kindness or Esteem. and so widely dif- fus’d thro’ our whole Lives. voluptuous. whose Signs of Joy and Contentment we can anyway discern. we may consider first. Voices and Sounds. ‘‘An Enjoyment of Good by Communication: A receiving it. viz. in the narrowest sense. even of Creatures foreign to our Kind. and affords a greater Enjoyment in the way of Thought and Sentiment. merited Esteem or Appro- bation of others. . are. in a manner. And after this manner it appears. natural Affection. as it were by Reflection.

Am- bition. and mixes it-self even with most of our Vices. and whose Joy and Satisfaction he makes his own? What Person in the world is there. with the Thought of Merit of some kind. all we can. or some particular Set. that almost all our Actions have some reference. Partial Affection gree of natural Affection. Even the unchastest Love borrows largely from this Source. and flatter our-selves. Of this. there is scarce a single Article.                        and pleasing our-selves in the Fancy of deserv’d Admiration and Sect. So that were Pleasure to be computed in the same way as other things commonly are. and give us that Enjoy- . or imperfect. Community or Participation in the Plea- sures of others. but whatA derives it-self from social Love. or an imperfect partial Regard of this sort. Vanity. or open Violater of the Laws of Society. who receives not some Impressions from the Flattery or Kindness of such as are familiar with him? ’Tis to this soothing Hope and Expectation of Friendship. with whom we happen to have a more intimate and familiar Commerce. Now such as C are. and Luxury. can supply the place of an intire. and the PersuasionA of our deserving well from some [] few at least. either of his own Kindred. we endeavour still to believe it Truth. What Tyrant is there. so must be the Content and Happiness depending on it. and Belief of meriting well from others) wou’d arise more than nine Tenths of whatever is enjoy’d in Life. and truly moral one. BUT lest any shou’d imagine with themselves that an inferior De. such must be their E. Esteem? For tho it be mere Fancy. or such as he calls Friends. sincere. who has not a Companion. with whom he gladly shares his Good. have a share. And therefore as natural Affection or social Love is perfect. what Robber. lest a small Tincture of social Inclination shou’d be thought sufficient to answer the End of Pleasure in Society. . examin’d. ’Tis this which goes thro’ our whole Lives. in whose Welfare he delights. and depends immediately on [] the natural and kind Affections. and many other Disorders of our Life partake. that out of these two Branches (viz. it might properly be said. And thus in the main Sum of Happiness.

I A (from whence Integrity has its name) as it is answerable to it-self. in a manner. and [] lessens the Enjoyment. Nor can the Persons on whom this capricious Affection has chanc’d to fall. As it has no Foundation or Establishment in Reason. every Reflection of the Mind necessarily makes to its disadvantage. ment of Participation and Community which is so essential to our Happiness. which has no rule or order. of all other Affections. Aversion and Inclina- tion. there can be no more account given of it. can be conscious of no Merit or Worth on the ac- count of it. The Person. on the other hand. must of necessity create continual Disturbance and Disgust. give an allay to what is immediately enjoy’d in the way of Friend- ship and Society. reflection on each friendly Affection in particular. in the way of Community or Participation above-mention’d. casts a good Affection. Whatever Affection we have towards any thing besides our- selves. and subject to alteration. and in the end extinguish. without Rea- son. and durable. Whereas. therefore. That P A. the very Inclination towards Friendship and human Commerce. And in the next place. And as in the case of Partiality. solid. if it be not of the natural sort towards the System. or Kind. be in any manner secure of its Continuance or Force. or social Love in part.          Sect. so it must be easily removable. or humoursom Pas- sion which may arise. who is conscious of this Affection. which depends solely on Capriciousness and Humour. as  A is fitted only to . and undergoes the frequent Successions of alternate Hatred and Love. . [] and apply’d only to some one Part of SoAciety. the Conscious- Partial ness of just Behaviour towards Mankind in general. proportionable. and destruc- tive of the Enjoyments of Society: If it be really of the natural sort. capricious. than of the most odd. it must be. we may consider first. or vitious Friendship. but not to the Species or Society it-self. is in it-self an Inconsistency. so it is irrefragable. and raises the Enjoyment of Friendship still the higher. without regard to a compleat Society or Whole. and ratio- nal. the most dissociable. and implies an absolute Contradic- tion. or of a Species.A so in the case of Integrity. Now the Variableness of such sort of Passion.

which are gather’d from a Self-flattery. ’Twill be hard for them. we may add. from all intelligent Creatures. What Trust can there be to a mere casual Inclination or capricious Liking? Who can depend on such a Friendship as is founded on no moral Rule. with justice. or whose reciprocal Love or Esteem they can sincerely prize and enjoy. It gains Applause and Love from the best. whilst the Affection is so precarious and uncertain. is to live according to Nature. Nor can those Pleasures be sound or lasting. Consciousness of the actual or merited Esteem of others. And to have this  A or IA of [] Mind. accountable to it-self. shou’d place their Affection on such Subjects as they can long esteem or love. in proportion to its final Object. and pleas- ing. Participation with others. equal. . is full and noble. and the Whole? It may be consider’d. as a thing impossible. according to the Sense of Theism above-noted. And if there be in Nature any such Original. that it carrys with it a Consciousness of merited Love and Approbation from all Society. from the very worst of Men. It appears there- fore how much the Men of narrow or partial Affection must be Losers in this sense. surely. Mean while intire Affection has all the opposite advantages. but fantastically assign’d to some single Person. must in it-self be mean. constant. to find any. and in all disinter- ested cases. From whence shou’d this Esteem arise? The Merit. ever satisfactory. who are incapable of any sound Esteem or Love. as has been shewn. viz. that the Satisfaction which attends intire Affection. It is Intire Affection. and of necessity fall short in this second prin- cipal part of mental Enjoyment. For this.                        a short and slender Enjoyment of those Pleasures of Sympathy or Sect. and from whatever is original to all other Intelligence. We may say of it. withal. that they who esteem or love by any other Rule than that of Virtue. so neither is it able to derive any consider- able Enjoyment from that other principal Branch of human Hap- piness. and false Persuasion of the Esteem and Love of others. is the result of Virtue. which contains all Perfection. in the number of A their so belov’d [] Friends. or small Part of Mankind. and the Dictates and Rules of . in whom they can heartily rejoice. exclusive of Society.

And when a Life is guided by Fancy only. the interrupted Course of the Humours. and Entertainment with others. Piety. is natu- ral and kind Affection. or in Mirth. and such  T. and hinder its prevailing on the Temper. Uneasinesses.          Sect. supreme Wisdom. Bitterness. Let any-one. which are not of familiar use. where there is nothing to oppose its progress. which fit and qualify for the Enjoyment of the Plea- sures mention’d. and in Terms and Phrases. and sets about this reforming Work . there is sufficient ground of Contra- riety and Disturbance. where Incli- [] nation and Desire are always satisfy’d. Justice. in the healthiest People. . Reason well compos’d. As to what relates to T. Now the only sound Opposite to I H. There is no State of outward Prosperity. For we may observe. quiet. This is Morality. and such as can freely bear its own Inspection and Review. And this. to check the licentious Course of the indulg’d Affections. some Accidents or other from without. and the accidental Disorders common to every Constitution. in time. we know. free of Harshness. upon reflection. it may be consider’d thus. and Defects of Disposition in the soundest Body. resolves at any time to suppress this Disturbance already risen in the Temper. easy within it-self. BUT lest this Argument shou’d appear perhaps too scholastically stated. and natural Reli- gion. must grow into a Habit. and in A Mind or Temper. or something from within. must of necessity be owing to the natural and good Affections. and he will find. TEMPER. we may try whether possibly we can set it yet in a plainer light.A There are almost hourly some Impediments or Crosses to the Ap- petite. to breed Uneasiness and Dis- taste. That they are wholly founded in An easy Mind and Temper. or Spirits. Now such  M. Fancy and Humour pleas’d. Jollity. on many occasions. or Distaste. or flowing Fortune. are suffi- cient. Contemplation. The very ordinary Lassitudes. then. Study. and Converse with himself. consider well those Pleasures which he re- ceives either in private Retirement. They are not always to be satisfy’d by mere Indulgence. that when the Mind.

. we answer. . to allay and convert that contrary Motion of Impatience and Dis- content. or Free-thought. the Heart. If the Countenance be compos’d.A [] If it be said perhaps. and give it such * VOL. but will not be subdu’d. If. For if it be of the pleasant and chearful sort. Sect. Courage. will not be chang’d. than by introducing into the affectionate Part some gentle Feeling of the social and friendly kind. . and the readier to discover it-self in Harshness. That ’tis according as the Kind may happily prove. a different Carriage be at any time effected. p. Generosity. So that in such a Breast as this. or thro’ any Necessity or Fear incumbent. Religious Affection or Devotion is a sufficient and proper Remedy. Complacency. and the Consider- ation merely of what is by Authority and under Penaltys enjoin’d. by Compulsion. will not by any means serve to calm us on this occasion. it can no otherwise accom. yet in a Course of out- ward Prosperity. that in the case before us. and Aus- terity. If it be objected. the Practice at the bottom will be still the same. and the Remedy will. III. ’tis of the very kind of natural Affection it-self: if it be of the *dismal or fearful sort. I. perhaps. plish the Undertaking. that tho in melancholy Circumstances ill Humour may prevail. and consequently few and slender Enjoyments of a mental kind. . there can nothing probably occur which shou’d thus sour the Temper. the worse our Temper will be. p. on the other hand. be undoubtedly found worse than the Disease. Fellowship. or inA the least debilitated [] against the next occasion. The ill Passion may for the time be with-held from break- ing into Action. –. and in the height of Fortune. whatever Devotion there may be. there will be nothing gain’d by this Application. however. or Love. if it brings along with it any Affection opposite to Manhood. The severest Reflections on our Duty. The more dismal our Thoughts are on such a Subject. . some en- livening Motion of Kindness. . in the issue.                        with heartiness. or good Temper remaining. ’tis likely there will in time be little of an easy Spirit. or differ- ent Maxims own’d. &c. and in good earnest. And VOL.

tion. a false Regard to others. Offence.          Sect. after a certain manner. Nor are the greatest Favourites of Fortune exempted from this Talk of Self-inspection. Or shou’d he be of himself unapt. by making the View agreeable. and furnishes us sufficiently with Acts of Reflection on [] our own Character and Conduct. to pre- serve the Temper from running into Savageness and Inhumanity. or Will. And this. Even Flattery itself. be forc’d to receive Reflections back into his Mind of what passes in it-self. or Behaviour amidst his Fellow-Creatures. and in Society. And if Provocations are easiest rais’d. that the most humour’d and indulg’d State is apt to receive the most disturbance from every Disappointment or smallest Ail. the more he has his Eye inwardly fix’d upon himself. as well as in the Affections. A upon what account this Happiness may be thought owing to natural Affec- Reflection. MIND. by his Nature. forc’d to . . there is still the greater need of a Supply from social Affection. And when a true Regard to our-selves cannot oblige us to this Inspection. and is.A In whatever manner we consider of this. renders us more attentive this way. of whatsoever relates to his Character. that every reasoning or reflecting Creature is. The vainer any Person is. must in the very use of this his reasoning Faculty. Conduct. employ’d in this home-Survey. in short. we shall find still. and the Passions of Anger. and a Fondness for Reputation raises a watchful Jealousy. in this way of Criticism. disrelish as is suggested. are found the highest in the most indulg’d State of Will and Humour. and Enmity. after this manner. which relates to [] a M or Reason well compos’d and easy within it-self. there are others ready to remind him. NOW as to the other part of our Consideration. and insnares us in the Habit. and refresh his Mem- ory. It will be acknowledg’d that a Creature. we may consider. such as Man. We have all of us Remembrancers enow to help us in this Work. we may possibly resolve our-selves. may sufficiently verify and demonstrate. the Case of Tyrants. and most unlimited Potentates. who from several degrees of Reflection has risen to that Capacity which we call Rea- son and Understanding.

Now as nothing can be more grievous than this is. with respect purely to the Divine Presence. Nor does the Fear of Hell. there Conscience must have effect. And thus religious Conscience supposes moral or natural Con- science. imply Conscience. which to a rational Creature must be Conscience. of it-self. and to have Rep. which he knows to be naturally odious and ill-deserving: Or. unless where there is an Apprehension of what is wrong. of any foolish Action or Be- haviour. . and the natural Veneration due to such a suppos’d Being. it has its force however from the appre- hended moral Deformity and Odiousness of any Act. so nothing can be more delightful to one who has preserv’d it with sincerity. or devilish Nature.                        endure the Review of his own Mind. does not. . resentations of himself. Now to fearA G any otherwise [] than as in consequence of some justly blameable and imputable Act. even tho it be not expresly threaten’d. and Actions. For in such a Presence. And tho the former be understood to carry with it the Fear of divine Punishment. and revolving in his Mind. which he knows to be prejudicial to his own Interest or Happiness. odious. constantly passing before him. and ill-deserving. is to fear a devilish Nature. For to have Awe and Ter- ror of the Deity. Sect. No one is esteem’d the more conscientious for the fear of evil Spirits. morally deform’d. the Shame of Vil- lany or Vice must have its force. ‘‘To have the Reflection in his Mind of any unjust Action or Behaviour. not a divine one. Conju- rations. Moral Conscience. to one who has thrown off natural Affection. viz. and Punishment of necessity be ap- prehended. horridly offensive and grievous.’’ The former of these is alone properly call’d C. imply Conscience. And where this is the Case. independently on that farther Apprehension of the magisterial Capacity of such a Being. and his Dispensation of particular Rewards or Punishments in a future State. capricious. or a thousand Terrors of the D. and his inward Affairs. There are  Things. or religious Sense. whether in a moral. obvious to him. Enchantments. or whatever may proceed from any unjust.

        

Sect. . It has been already said, that no Creature can maliciously and
intentionally do ill, without being sensible, at the same time, that
he deserves ill. And in this respect, every sensible Creature may be
[] said to haveA Conscience. For with all Mankind, and all intelligent
Creatures, this must ever hold, ‘‘That what they know they de-
serve from every-one, that they necessarily must fear and expect
from all.’’ And thus Suspicions and ill Apprehensions must arise,
with Terror both of Men and of the D. But besides this, there
must in every rational Creature, be yet farther Conscience; viz. from
Sense of Deformity in what is thus ill-deserving and unnatural: and
from a consequent Shame or Regret of incurring what is odious, and
moves Aversion.
There scarcely is, or can be any Creature, whom Consciousness
of Villany, as such merely, does not at all offend; nor any thing op-
probrious or heinously imputable, move, or affect. If there be such
a one; ’tis evident he must be absolutely indifferent towards moral
Good or Ill. If this indeed be his Case; ’twill be allow’d he can be
no-way capable of natural Affection: If not of that, then neither of
any social Pleasure, or mental Enjoyment, as shewn above; but on
the contrary, he must be subject to all manner of horrid, unnatural,
and ill Affection. So that to want C, or natural Sense
of the Odiousness of Crime and Injustice, is to be most of all miser-
able in Life: but where Conscience, or Sense of this sort, remains;
[] there, consequently, whatever is committedAagainst it, must of ne-
cessity, by means of Reflection, as we have shewn, be continually
shameful, grievous and offensive.
A Man who in a Passion happens to kill his Companion, re-
lents immediately on the sight of what he has done. His Revenge
is chang’d into Pity, and his Hatred turn’d against himself. And
this merely by the Power of the Object. On this account he suffers
Agonys; the Subject of this continually occurs to him; and of this
he has a constant ill Remembrance and displeasing Consciousness.
If on the other side, we suppose him not to relent or suffer any real
Concern or Shame; then, either he has no Sense of the Deformity
of the Crime and Injustice, no natural Affection, and consequently

                      

no Happiness or Peace within: or if he has any Sense of moral Sect. .
Worth or Goodness, it must be of a perplex’d, and contradictory
kind. He must pursue an inconsistent Notion, idolize some false False
Conscience.
Species of Virtue; and affect as noble, gallant, or worthy, that which
is irrational and absurd. And how tormenting this must be to him,
is easy to conceive. For never can such a Phantom as this be reduc’d
to any certain Form. Never can this P of Honour be held
steddy, to one Shape. The Pursuit of it can only be vexatious and
distracting. There is nothing beside real Virtue, as has been shewn,A []
which can possibly hold any proportion to Esteem, Approbation,
or good Conscience. And he who, being led by false Religion or
prevailing Custom, has learnt to esteem or admire any thing as
Virtue which is not really such; must either thro’ the Inconsistency
of such an Esteem, and the perpetual Immoralitys occasion’d by
it, come at last to lose all Conscience, and so be miserable in the
worst way: or, if he retains any Conscience at all, it must be of a
kind never satisfactory, or able to bestow Content. For ’tis impos-
sible that a cruel Enthusiast, or Bigot, a Persecutor, a Murderer, a
Bravo, a Pirate, or any Villain of less degree, who is false to the
Society of Mankind in general, and contradicts natural Affection;
shou’d have any fix’d Principle at all, any real Standard or Mea-
sure by which he can regulate his Esteem, or any solid Reason by
which to form his Approbation of any one moral Act. And thus
the more he sets up Honour, or advances Zeal; the worse he ren-
ders his Nature, and the more detestable his Character. The more
he engages in the Love or Admiration of any Action or Practice,
as great and glorious, which is in it-self morally ill and vitious;
the more Contradiction and Self-disapprobation he must incur.
For there being nothing more certain than this, ‘‘That no natu-
ral Affection can be contradicted, nor any unnatural one advanc’d,A []
without a prejudice in some degree to all natural Affection in gen-
eral’’: it must follow, ‘‘That inward Deformity growing greater, by
the Incouragement of unnatural Affection; there must be so much
the more Subject for dissatisfactory Reflection, the more any false
Principle of Honour, any false Religion, or Superstition prevails.’’

        

Sect. . So that whatever Notions of this kind are cherish’d; or whatever
Character affected, which is contrary to moral Equity, and leads
to Inhumanity, thro’ a false Conscience, or wrong Sense of Honour,
Causes serves only to bring a Man the more under the lash of real and just
Reproach
from true.
Conscience, Shame, and Self-reproach. Nor can any one, who, by
any pretended Authority, commits one single Immorality, be able
to satisfy himself with any Reason, why he shou’d not at another
time be carry’d further, into all manner of Villany; such perhaps as
he even abhors to think of. And this is a Reproach which a Mind
must of necessity make to it-self upon the least Violation of natu-
ral Conscience; in doing what is morally deform’d, and ill-deserving;
tho warranted by any Example or Precedent amongst Men, or by
[] any suppos’d Injunction or Command of higher Powers.A
Conscience, Now as for that other part of Conscience, viz. the remembrance
from
Interest.
of what was at any time unreasonably and foolishly done, in preju-
dice of one’s real Interest or Happiness: This dissatisfactory Reflection
must follow still and have effect, wheresoever there is a Sense of
moral Deformity, contracted by Crime, and Injustice. For even
where there is no Sense of moral Deformity, as such merely; there
must be still a Sense of the ill Merit of it with respect to God
and Man. Or tho there were a possibility of excluding for ever all
Thoughts or Suspicions of any superior Powers, yet considering
that this Insensibility towards moral Good or Ill implies a total
Defect in natural Affection, and that this Defect can by no Dis-
simulation be conceal’d; ’tis evident that a Man of this unhappy
Character must suffer a very sensible Loss in the Friendship, Trust,
and Confidence of other Men; and consequently must suffer in his
Interest and outward Happiness. Nor can the Sense of this Disad-
vantage fail to occur to him; when he sees, with Regret, and Envy,
the better and more grateful Terms of Friendship, and Esteem, on
which better People live with the rest of Mankind. Even therefore
where natural Affection is wanting; ’tis certain still, that by Im-
[] morality, necessarily hapApening thro’ want of such Affection, there
must be disturbance from Conscience of this sort, viz. from Sense

                      

of what is committed imprudently, and contrary to real Interest and Sect. .
Advantage.
From all this we may easily conclude, how much our Happiness Conclusion
drawn
depends on natural and good Affection. For if the chief Happiness from the
be from the M P; and the chief mental Pleasures MENTAL
PLEA-
are such as we have describ’d, and are founded in natural Affec- SURES.
tion; it follows, ‘‘That to have the natural Affections, is to have the
chief Means and Power of Self-enjoyment, the highest Possession and
Happiness of Life.’’

NOW as to the Pleasures of  B, and the Satisfactions be- Pleasures of
longing to mere S; ’tis evident, they cannot possibly have their the SENSE,
Dependent
Effect, or afford any valuable Enjoyment, otherwise than by the also on
natural
means of social and natural Affection. Affection.
To live well, has no other meaning with some People, than to
eat and drink well. And methinks ’tis an unwary Concession we Vulgar
Epicurism.
make in favour of these pretended good Livers, when we join with
’em, in honouring their way of Life with the Title of living fast. As
if they liv’d the fastestA who took the greatest pains to enjoy least of []
Life: For if our Account of Happiness be right; the greatest Enjoy-
ments in Life are such as these Men pass over in their haste, and Pleasures of
the Sense,
have scarce ever allow’d themselves the liberty of tasting.
But as considerable a Part of Voluptuousness as is founded in
the Palat; and as notable as the Science is, which depends on it;
one may justly presume that the Ostentation of Elegance, and a Imagination,
Fancy.
certain Emulation and Study how to excel in this sumptuous Art
of Living, goes very far in the raising such a high Idea of it, as is
observ’d among the Men of Pleasure. For were the Circumstances
of a Table and Company, Equipages, Services, and the rest of the
Management withdrawn; there wou’d be hardly left any Pleasure
worth acceptance, even in the Opinion of the most debauch’d
themselves.
The very Notion of a Debauch (which is a Sally into whatever A Debauch.
can be imagin’d of Pleasure and Voluptuousness) carrys with it a

        

Sect. . plain reference to Society, or Fellowship. It may be call’d a Sur-
Pleasures of feit, or Excess of Eating and Drinking, but hardly a Debauch of that
the Sense.
kind, when the Excess is committed separately, out of all Society,
or Fellowship. And one who abuses him-self in this way, is often
[] call’d a Sot, butA never a Debauchee. The Courtizans, and even the
Women. commonest of Women, who live by Prostitution, know very well
how necessary it is, that every-one whom they entertain with their
Beauty, shou’d believe there are Satisfactions reciprocal; and that
Pleasures are no less given than receiv’d. And were this Imagination
to be wholly taken away, there wou’d be hardly any of the grosser
sort of Mankind, who wou’d not perceive their remaining Pleasure
to be of slender Estimation.
Who is there can well or long enjoy any thing, when alone, and
abstracted perfectly, even in his very Mind and Thought, from
every thing belonging to Society? Who wou’d not, on such Terms
as these, be presently cloy’d by any sensual Indulgence? Who wou’d
not soon grow uneasy with his Pleasure, however exquisite, till he
had found means to impart it, and make it truly pleasant to him,
by communicating, and sharing it at least with some one single
Person? Let Men imagine what they please; let ’em suppose them-
selves ever so selfish; or desire ever so much to follow the Dictates
of that narrow Principle, by which they wou’d bring Nature under
restraint: Nature will break out; and in Agonys, Disquiets, and a
[] distemper’d State, demonstrate evidentlyA the ill Consequence of
such Violence, the Absurdity of such a Device, and the Punish-
ment which belongs to such a monstrous and horrid Endeavour.
Pleasures of Thus, therefore, not only the Pleasures of the Mind, but even
the Sense,
those of the Body, depend on natural Affection: insomuch that
where this is wanting, they not only lose their Force, but are in
a manner converted into Uneasiness and Disgust. The Sensations
Convertible which shou’d naturally afford Contentment and Delight, produce
into Disgust;
rather Discontent and Sourness, and breed a Wearisomness and
Restlessness in the Disposition. This we may perceive by the per-
Variable: petual Inconstancy, and Love of Change, so remarkable in those
who have nothing communicative or friendly in their Pleasures.

which otherwise wou’d in- stantly be chang’d. They best enjoy it. . and bring it. and in affinity with kind or natural Affection. &c. † Supra. p. . and create the highest Impatience and Ill-humour. . into the Scale. where it depends not on something friendly or social. . of it-self. once for all. p. preys upon her-self. and Feverishness of Desire. thing more constant and determining. There is no-one of ever so little Understanding in what belongs to a human Constitution. of its Deficiency. unimploy’d abroad. &c. and Employment. . per- petual Disgust. And that Love which has no other Foundation. Balance of the tion. &c. turn against it-self. attend those who pas- sioAnately study Pleasure. so order’d in Nature. Insup- portable. ’Tis the same in Love. And Infra. And by this they will come to know how absolute an Incapacity there is in any thing sensual to please. who knows not that without Action. and what the Consequence may be. Sect. to prove what kind of *B it helps to make within. A certain Tenderness and Gener. And VOL. (at least not after the manner of Mankind) ’tis Kinds. Satiety. its Nourishment turns to Disease. . and * Supra. wanting its proper and naturalA Exercise. seems indeed to have some.                        Good Fellowship. Affections. the Spirits. is soon turn’d into Aversion. . Motion. Instance in the animal son and Reflection. we may take a general View of it. The Company supports the Humour. and other Creatures. and is oppress’d. In †Brutes. or give con- tentment. who study to regulate [] their Passions. . . is bur. . . III. in its abus’d Sense. as it were. which have not the Use of Rea. that by their daily Search after Food. Its Thoughts and Passions being unnaturally with-held from their due Objects. the Soul or Mind. something conjoin’d. p. the sensible and living Part. BUT ERE we conclude this Article of social or natural Affec. the Body languishes. or fix it. and Nature. The perfectest Beauty cannot. [] den’d and diseas’d. In the same manner. p. or light Weight. but relies on this exterior kind. retain. osity of Affection supports the Passion. help to consume the Parts within.

and grow more concern’d for their Offspring. It happens with Mankind. if instead of an Application to any sort of Work. and their ways of Life. against such as are foreign and hostile. and the Orderliness of his Kind or Species. such as has . When he comes.          Sect. and make the most of every Ad- vantage given by Nature for the Support and Maintenance of their particular Species. per’d State: but being turn’d to shift abroad. and which their Constitution requires. They learn to unite in stricter Fellowship. They provide against the Seasons. And thus as they grow busy and imploy’d. with their Idleness and Ease. Their Petulancy and Vice forsakes them. and Propagation. it may be observ’d. If any one of these Crea- tures be taken out of his natural laborious State. they grow regular and good. that as his Circumstances grow thus luxuriant. by the Pains and Labour of Inferiors. according to that degree of Agitation to which they are fitted. and plac’d amidst such a Plenty as can profusely administer to all his Appetites and Wants. that whilst some are by necessity con- [] fin’d to Labour. whilst they continue in this pam- Kinds. Now. almost their whole time is of the Affections. at any time. to have the Accommodations of Life at a cheaper and easier rate than was at first intended him by Nature. . They lose even the common Instinct and ordinary Ingenuity of their Animal Kind. This needs not to be demonstrated by particular Instances. will easily understand this Difference of Orderli- ness between the wild and the tame of the same Species. [] he is made to pay dear for ’em in another way. and they fail not to find full Imployment for their Pas- sion. there be not something of fit and proper Imploy- ment rais’d in the room of what is wanting in common Labour and Toil. by losing his natuAral good Disposition. or has been an Observer of the several Breeds of Creatures. nor can they ever regain it. Balance or the Affairs of their Species or Kind. Whoever has the least knowledg of natural History. and deviate from their original Nature. Mankind. their Application either towards the Business of their Livelihood.A others are provided with abundance of all things. taken up. his Temper and Passions have the same growth. they resume the natu- ral Affection and Sagacity of their Species. if among the superior and easy sort. The latter acquire new Habits.

such as have been long the Seat of Empire. And thus in the room of orderly and natural Affection. as in the Limbs and Organs which she forms. Arts. and Inactivity. and no Exercise so essential as that of social or natural Affection: it follows. that where this is remov’d or weaken’d. or the like) there be a thorow Balance of the Neglect of all Duty or Imployment. Let Indolence. and in one way or other procure their Liberty. ’Tis otherwise with those who are taken up in honest and due Imployment. a settled Idleness. that nothing is so essential to it as Exercise. be study’d as an Art. the Inhabitants of smaller Towns. Affections. Now if what we have advanc’d concerning an inward Constitu- tion be real and just. where they are cut off from such as is natural and good. or cultivated with the utmost Care. Sect. if it be true that Nature works by a just Order and Regulation as well in the Passions and Affections. and the in- dustrious sort of common People. We see the enormous Growth of Luxury in capital Citys. OEconomy. They will be sure to create to themselves un- usual and unnatural Exercise. and break out in the strangest Irregularitys imaginable. This we may observe in the hardy remote Provincials. so fundamental a Part as that of natural Affection shou’d . where numbers of Men are maintain’d in lazy Opulence.A which are known in Courts and [] Palaces. the Passions thus restrain’d will force their Prison. .We see what Improvements are made in Vice of every kind. (as Letters. this of necessity must occasion a most relax’d and dissolute State: It must produce a total Disorder of the Passions. Supineness. Hus. publick Affairs. and find full Employment. and in the rich Foundations of easy and pamper’d Priests. Sciences. the in- ward Part must necessarily suffer and be impair’d. One must have a very imperfect Idea of the Order of Nature in the Formation and Structure of Animals. if it appears withal. and wanton Plenty. OEconomy. that she has so constituted this inward Part. and all inward Order and OEconomy destroy’d.                        a good and honest End in Society. Indifference. where ’tis rare to meet with any Instances of those Irregularitys. bandry. and have been well inur’d to it from their Youth. new and unnatural must be rais’d. to imagine thatA so great a [] Principle. or Insensibility.

when the Mind. where those belonging to one Species are [] intermix’d with those beAlonging to another. by comparing the more perfect Monsters. . dwelling too long upon one Subject. So that where Habits or Affections are dislodg’d. is able to bring irrecoverable Ruin and Misery. possibly be lost or impair’d. (whether prosperous or calamitous) sinks under the weight of it. Whoever is the least vers’d in this moral kind of Architecture. which is proper to him as a M. so are the Springs and Causes in each System. or chang’d. to lose that Sense. of all other Crea- tures. and Genius? How unfortu- nate must it be for a Creature. He will find this experienc’d in the ordinary Case of Phrenzy. when they lose their proper Instincts. that in every different Creature. of the Affections. by having suffer’d Violence within. As the Operations and Effects are different. We know how it is with Monsters. whose dependence on Society is greater than any others. and sutable to his Character. who are mishapen or distorted in an inward Part. of a due Balance. Set. or different Sexes. that the barely extending of a single Passion a little too far. and proves what the necessity is. and pervert those Functions or Capacitys bestow’d by Nature. forsake their Kind. and distinct Sex. or Suit of Passions. and the whole so nicely built. with the imperfect Natures. in their earliest Form. or the continuance of it too long. proportionable to the different Order of Life. and in- most Matrix. and Feeling. and Distraction. How wretched must it be. such as are imperfect from their Birth. the different Functions and Capacitys assign’d to each. misplac’d. neglect their Offspring. The inside Work is fitted to the outward Action and Performance. therefore. without any inward Ruin or Subver- Balance sion of the Temper and Frame of Mind. The ordinary Animals appear unnatural and monstrous.          Sect. Fabrick. and Com- . such as are com- pounded of different Kinds. there is a different and distinct Order. to lose that natural Affection by which he is prompted to the Good and Interest of his Species. He will find. and Counterpoise in the Affections. All this we may observe easily. Nor are they less Monsters. for M. there must of necessity be Confusion and Disturbance within. will find the inward Fabrick so adjusted.

the Heart is open’d. finds in his Temper the ill Effects of this Restraint. there are others subtituted in their room. affords a heal- ing and enlivening Joy. breeds Discontent. generous. when suppress’d. and those who seem by their Condition to be above ordinary human Commerce. however. and can become Favourites in form. which can hardly by any struggle or inward violence be with-held. He. be open. are sufficient. even in Princes. But to compensate this. For who- ever is unsociable. the . every ManA such a degree of social Affection as inclines him to seek [] the Familiarity and Friendship of his Fellows. The wiser and better sort. as unfit [] for their Intimacy. it’s true. that Sect. and gives reins to a Desire. to serve the purpose of an imaginary Friend- ship. or secret Trust. or if it be. is plainly the least able to bear Solitude. Balance of the Nor is any thing more apparent. confiding. and are perhaps the most vile and contemptible of Men. Dejection. and with full scope: as we may see particularly. of all other Creatures. and who affect a sort of distant Strangeness from the rest of Man- kind. nor the Passion for Favourites prevails. who is with-held by force or accident. on the other side. and Melancholy in the Mind. and the Secrets of the Breast unfolded to a Bosom-Friend. But their Carriage is not the same towards all Men. is sure to cre- ate a Sadness. bountiful. who. Monarchs. For These we see them often in con- cern and pain: in These they easily confide: to These they can with pleasure communicate their Power and Greatness.                        munity? Such indeed is Man’s natural Share of this Affection. The Inclination. than that there is naturally in Affections. often standing a quite contrary way. or Commerce with the World. as rejoicing in the Action it-self: having no Intention or Aim beyond it. and on the contrary. when acting at its liberty. This we see yet more remarkably instanc’d in Persons of the most elevated Stations. He. ’Tis here that he lets loose a Passion. areA often held at a distance. These are the Subjects of Humanity in the Great. and voluntarily shuns Society. free. and their Interest. when after a time of Solitude and long Absence. the Mind disburden’d. in respect of Policy. . must of necessity be morose and ill-natur’d. tho they have the least Merit. But where neither the Love of Mankind.

and the Means of Generation.—Indolence. THUS it may appear. Nor needs there any particular Proof from History.      M  P  S-: So. and how essen- tial to that regular Motion and Course of our Affections. Cruelty. That as. That    Proof.—Revengefulness. and implanted in our Natures. how interwoven with our other Passions. nor a hindrance to Virtue: but being in an extreme degree. or Desire of those Conveniences. or present Time. they become Cow- ardice.—Vanity and Ambi- . if they are moderate. I N order to this.          Sect.—Emulation. Self-passions. on one side. are neither injurious to social Life.—Re- sentment of Injury. enumerate those Home-affections which relate to the private Interest or separate OEconomy of the Creature: such as Love of Life. Now these Affections. and within cer- tain bounds. T      A.  I.   . according to Method. how it is inwardly join’d to us. [] by which we are well provided for. from the S-    . with all the Bitterness. long to that solitary and gloomy State of un-communicative and un-friendly Greatness. And thus we have demonstrated. which be- of the Affections. how much  A is pre- [] domiAnant. we must.   M. to second this Remark. and Mistrust. tyrannical Temper fails not to shew it-self in its proper colours. or Appetite towards Nourishment. on the other side. and Balance to the life.  C  .—Interest.A and maintain’d. on which our Happiness and Self-enjoyment so immediately depend.—Pleasure.   SECOND WE are now to prove.—Avarice.— These are the Affections which relate to the private System. or Love of Ease and Rest. or Love of Praise and Honour. and constitute whatever we call Interestedness or Self-love.—Luxury. .

to human Society. yet if by some fortunate accident. it is embrac’d as highly welcome. to preserve Life. vate Person. become theA greatest Enemy to [] himself. and allow’d to over-balance it. more common than to see Life over-valu’d. and purchas’d at such a Cost as it can never justly be thought worth: it follows evidently. that the Passion it-self (viz. by being only prolong’d to the Infirmitys of old Age. and over-balancing in the Temper of any Creature. yet wou’d it be against his Interest still to have this Passion in a high degree. withal. or more universally agreed than this.’’ To inforce the continuance of it in Creatures reduc’d to such Ex- tremity. make him. therefore.                        tion.A [] There is nothing more certain. may frequently prove a Misfortune and Misery. But it will be found perhaps. as such. How they are ill also with respect to the pri. by all Courses and Means whatsoever.  D  L  L wou’d have the best Pretence. IF THERE were any of these Self-passions.—Sloth. . and Abhorrence or Dread of Death) if beyond a certain degree. since there is nothing. And tho Religion forbids that anyone shou’d be his own Reliever. and necessitate him to act as such. must lead him directly against his own Interest. Since Life. are own’d vitious and ill. or at any rate. is esteem’d the greatest Cruelty. the Love of Life. which for the Good Love of Life. ‘‘That Life may sometimes be even a Misfortune and Misery. as we severally examine them. And on this account the nearest Friends and Relations often re- joice at the Release of one intirely belov’d. and endeavour the utmost Prolongment of his own un-eligible State.—and. and are to his own disadvantage as well as that of the Publick. with respect Sect. is the occasion of more Disorder and Misery. Self-passions. and since it naturally becomes so. by having much allow’d to it. For it wou’d by this . Death offers of it-self. that there is no Passion which. and Happiness of the Creature might be oppos’d to Natural Affec- tion. in any Circumstances. upon occasion. even tho he himself may have been so weak as earnestly to decline Death. we may consider. But tho it were allow’d the Interest and Good of a Creature.

occasion’d by such a passionate Concern for living. but even runs us to the brink of Ruin. and not only deprives us of our de- fensive Facultys. when he is strongly press’d by such a Passion. means prove ineffectual. into still greater Crookednesses and Perplexity. if inwardly and closely view’d. and no-way conducing to its End. and forc’d by degrees from our natural Conduct. and Good of Life. the Meannesses. and is pass’d with little Freedom or Satisfaction. wou’d be found to be thorowly miserable. and makes us meet that Evil which of it-self wou’d never have invaded us. Every Object suggests Thought enough to em- ploy it. even in his own Preservation and Defense. instead of saving from it? ’Tis impossible for any-one to act sensibly.          Sect. For how can this be otherwise. surely. If it in the least prevails. in this case. HappA iness. On all extraordinary Emergences. if it be Misery to feel Cowardice. that this sort of Fear oppresses and distracts. it gives no quarter. . so much as at the safest stillest hour of Re- treat and Quiet. when we consider how by means of it we are driven to Actions we can never view without Dislike. so disingenuous as not to allow. For ’tis not only when Dangers happen. But when we add to this. Vari- Self-passions. One may safely aver. and [] be haunted by those Specters and Horrors. that by reason of this Passion alone. becomes a sorry Purchase. than that at all times an excessive Fear betrays to danger. But were the Consequences of this Passion less injurious than we have represented. whilst Cowardice robs us of the means of Safety. and with Presence of Mind. it must be allow’d still that in it-self it can be no other than miserable. is for Life’s sake abandon’d and renounc’d? . so as to corrupt and poison all Enjoyment. and base Condescen- sions. ous Instances need not be given. even the chief Relish. and Hazards are incurr’d. there is no-one.A which are proper to the Character of one who has a thorow Dread of Death. For what is there better known. whilst every thing [] which is generous and worthy. tho attended with all other Circumstances which in appearance render it happy. and enters at all times into the pleasantest parts of Life. ’tis Courage and Resolution saves. that Life. It operates when it is least observ’d by others. and Content. many a Life.

is deter’d from the [] Execution. As to this Affection therefore. or with impunity. But in ordinary Characters there must necessarily be some Mixture of the real Passions themselves. and enabling us to repel Injury.’’ THERE is another Passion very different from that of Fear. ’Tis true. degree. yet it is plainly of the sort of those which tend to the Advantage and Interest of the Self-system. But there is hardly need we shou’d explain how mischievous and self-destructive A is. rouzes a Creature in opposition. . which however. and knows by the very Signs which accompany this rising Motion. ex- cept thro’ the height of Provocation. assists him in returning like Hostility and Harm on the Invader. or beyond a moderate Love of Life. As that is serviceable. And a Man of Temper may resist or punish without Anger. and being urg’d to the greatest extremity. the Animal him- self. And thus A in a manner becomes necessary. and Resentment. is against the Interest of a Creature. it will not pass easily. that if the Injury be carry’d further. too intense. ‘‘That to have this Affection of Sect. finds a degree of Strength and Boldness unexperienc’d till then. D and L  L. notwithstanding its immediate Aim be indeed the Ill or Punish- ment of another. if it be what we . and conduc- ing to our Safety. ’Tis this Passion withal. and which had never risen. which in a certain degree is equally preservative to us. and is withal in other respects contributing to the Good and Interest of the Species. a Creature grows still more terrible. after Violence and Hos- tility executed. so is this. such Efforts towards Action amount not to what is justly styl’d Passion or Commotion. ’Tis by this Passion that one CreatureA offering Violence to another. and resist Violence when offer’d. For thus. and. and a just Regulation of the Affections in a wise and virtuous Man. that ac- cording to strict Virtue. as Rage and Despair increase.                        And thus it seems evident. in the main. are able to allay and temper one another. whilst he observes how the Attempt affects his Fellow. in fortifying us against it. which. A Man of Courage may be cautious without real Fear. in prompting us to shun Danger. and contrary to his Happiness and Good.

this other Success may be far more justly term’d so. our private Condition. For whoever has experienc’d racking Pains. but being once mov’d. These are of the moral sort of Subjects. Frowardness. commonly understand by that word: if it be such a Passion as is Resentment. or agreeable. R. as our preceding Anguish and incumbent Pain was of long duration. in the Ill of another. or Cir- cumstances of Life. No wonder indeed that so muchA is done in mere Revenge. no better than the Rack it- self. the Passion arises not so suddenly. The dor- mant Fury. in respect of our Minds. rests not till she attains her End. and reposes. join’d commonly with Reli- . or on slight Causes. by the accomplish- ment of the Desire. this latter surely can be no pleasing one: Nor can it be possibly esteem’d other than sound and thorow Wretchedness. and an eager vindi- [] cative Pursuit. when the Relief and Satisfaction found in that Indulgence is no other than the assuaging of the most torturous Pain. and under the Weight of a deep Resentment. a grating and disgustful Feeling. In other Characters. being rais’d once.          Sect. in truth. and an envenom’d malignant Disposition. that attain’d. Certainly if among Lovers. and the alleviating the most weighty and pressing Sensation of Misery. ’Tis not very necessary to mention the ill effects of this Passion. From hence are those untoward Delights of Perverseness. or Bodys. [] and in the Language of A Gallantry. The Pain of this sort being for a-while remov’d or alleviated. For this is only a perpetual assuaging of A perpetually renew’d. making our succeeding Relief and Ease so much the more enjoy’d. However soft or flattering the former Pain may be esteem’d. and wrought up to her highest pitch. the Success of ardent Love is call’d the assuaging of a Pain. is easy. acting at its liberty. and violent in the Instant of Provocation. . rash. or such as imprints it-self deeply. is not so easily quieted. without the least mixture of any thing soft. can tell in what manner a sudden Cessation or Respite is us’d to affect him. and. and an overflowing of soft and pleasing Sensation. gentle. Yet is this. and causes a settled Revenge. By these Particulars we may grow too tedious. leaves indeed behind it the perception of a delicious Ease. and bitter sense.

to be very unhappy’’: And. Luxury. and what the World calls P: Were PLEASURE. in a plain way. been said. This is often perceiv’d by the Luxurious them-selves. are infinitely beyond those Indulgences of the most refin’d and elegant Luxury. in publick. as on a Journy. or for a while. who by Excess have gain’d a constant Nauseating and Distaste. they have . as is that of Thirst arising from a Fever. And if the natural Disposition and Aptness from within be not concurring. or con- tracted by habitual Debauch. may be enough perhaps to make this evident. and with such inforc’d repetition Sect. What has Resentment. ’twill be in vain that these Subjects are thus multiply’d from abroad. and were it true. . that those Enjoyments of the Sense lay in certain out- ward things. or a day of Sport. is.                        gion. [] withal. it true (as has been prov’d the contrary) that the most consider- able Enjoyments were thoseA merely of the Sense. to which Happiness and Plea- sure were thus infallibly annex’d. Now the Satisfactions of the natural Appetite. capable of yielding always a due and certain Por- tion of Pleasure. But the Appetite of this kind is false and unnatural. that when by any new Turn of Life they came to fall into a more natural Course. and us’d never to wait. in reality. But however fashionably we may apply the Notion of good Living. that they have nevertheless as constant a Craving or Eagerness of Stomach. from which Misery is inseparable. wou’d be to procure largely of these Subjects. It may be observ’d in those. according to their degree and quality. and treated so rhetorically. and acquir’d with ever so great facility. that the certain way to obtain Happiness. but to prevent Appetite. recommended by due Abstinence and Exercise.’’ NOW AS to Luxury. it wou’d then follow. ’twill hardly be found that our inward Facultys are able to keep pace with these outward Supplies of a luxuriant Fortune. It has been experienc’d in PeopleA bred [] after the sumptuous way. came accidentally to experience the Sweet of a plain Diet. ‘‘That the Habit it-self is a Disease of the worst sort. ‘‘That to be subject to such a Passion as we have been mentioning. as to be apt to raise the Satiety of Mankind.

how fatal to the Body. as it increases our Wants. The Palls or Nauseatings which continu- [] ally intervene. however plentiful or easy they may be. the very State it-self is in reality a Sickness and Infirmity. are then surelyA apparent. so it must subject us to a greater Dependence on others. we do . and an Impossibility of Restraint. by Diseases of many kinds. ‘‘That in this licentious Course we enjoy L best. and inciting Sense. they are enjoy’d with less Satis- faction. can less easily content us. every day. that by urging Nature. when thro’ an Impotence of this sort.          Sect. and under- valu’d the Pleasures receiv’d from all the Delicacys of Luxury. The Consequences as to Interest are plain enough. forcing the Appetite. with freedom own’d. they have upon a following Change of Life regretted their Loss. that having once thorowly experienc’d this plainer and more natural Diet. and healthful Exercise. that it was then they receiv’d the highest Sat- PLEASURE. And tho thro’ Vice or ill Habit the same Subjects of Appetite may.’’ As to the Consequences of such an Indulgence. . or are likely to make the most of it. Such a State of impotent and unrestrain’d Desire. the Keenness of the natural Sensations is lost. this needs not any explanation. The Injurys we do our-selves. are of the worst and most hateAful kind of Sensation. Ways and Means must be invented to procure what may administer to such an imperious Luxury. a Corruption of Pleasure. ’Tis plain. Hardly is there any thing tasted which is wholly free from this ill relish of a surfeited Sense and ruin’d Appetite. the Pleasure of Indulgence is really less. as forces us to sacrifice Honour to Fortune. isfaction and Delight which a Table cou’d possibly afford. So far is it from being true. by Sottishness and Stupidity. Tho the Impatience of abstaining be greater. and to the Mind. and destructive of every natural and agreeable Sensa- tion. Our private Circumstances. Luxury. So that instead of a constant and flowing Delight afforded in such a State of Life. On the other side. by Ex- [] cess and Unforbearance. and runs us out into all irregularity and extravagance of Conduct. in comparison with those remember’d Satisfactions of a preceding State. it has been as often remark’d in Persons ac- custom’d to an active Life. be sought with greater Ardour.

it will hardly be thought that there is no certain Limit or just Bound- ary of this other Appetite of the A kind. are contrary to real Interest. this has more added to it. yet it will hardly be reputed such among the more refin’d sort. and Debauch. and highest Good. far from disliking the Sensation. even of those who make Pleasure their chief Study. and is join’d with a Pleasure of Sense. ’tis easy to conclude. a certain . Riot. Amours. and to the true Enjoyment of Life. There are other sorts of ardent Sensations accidentally experienc’d. Having already said so much concerning natural and unnatu- ral Appetite. which we find pleasant and acceptable whilst they are held within a certain de- gree. tho it retains still the same Features of Delight and Pleasure. is what we may consider. that to all other Pleasures there is a Measure of Appetite belonging. and which in strictness can scarce be call’d a Self-passion. since the sole End of it is the Advantage and Promotion of the Species. . said. grow oppressive and intolerable.A there needs less to be said on this occasion. Such Concern and Care has Nature shewn for the Support and Main- tenance of the several Species. there are some who. Now whether it be the Interest or Good of the Animal to feel this Indigence beyond a natural and ordinary degree. even in his very Capacity of enjoying Pleasure. And from less than what has been PLEASURE. which cannot possibly be exceeded without prejudice to the Creature. find it highly acceptable and delightful. as they increase. that by a certain Indigence and kind of Necessity of their Natures. tioning. But these are Sect. But whereas all other social Affections are join’d only with a mental Pleasure. they are made to regard the Propa- gation of their Kind. and founded in mere Kindness and Love.’’ THERE is another Luxury superior to the kind we have been men. Matters obvious of themselves. grows an excessive Pain. but which. Laughter provok’d by Titillation. If it be [] allow’d. And tho in the case of that particular kind of Itch which belongs to a Distem- per nam’d from that effect. Now if there be in every Sensation of mere Pleasure. ‘‘That Luxury.                        what we our-selves declare to be destructive to us.

inur’d to honest Industry and Sobriety. wou’d be to little purpose to mention. without regard to Consequences.          Sect. On the contrary. are all of them Effects sufficiently apparent. the Effemi- nacy. Nor are they on this account less able to afford him the Pleasure or Enjoyment of each kind. it is the least manageable by Favour or Concession. if there be indeed a necessity of [] stopping somewhere. Society. the nearer to mere Rage and Fury. tho less notic’d. . and that of a vitious Course which belong’d to one who was relax’d and dissolute. he is found to have his Appetites and Inclina- tions of this sort at command. there is no need to mention any thing. So that were both these Sensations to be experimentally compar’d. and Self-command. beyond which there is no Measure or Rule of things? Now Nature may be known from what we see of the natural State of Creatures. Of all other. they must afford him proportionate Satisfaction. healthy. Supineness. and determiningA on some Boundary for the Passion. . Pitch or Degree of Ardour. thro’ such a relaxation and enervating of the Mind. the Disorder and Looseness of a thousand Passions. The Hinder- ance of all Improvement. that of a virtuous Course which belong’d to one who liv’d a natu- ral and regular Life. or how regulate our-selves but with regard to Nature. Where happily any-one is bred to a natural Life. when reflected on. The Injury it does the Mind. comes PLEASURE. and of Man himself.A As to the Consequences of this Vice. is yet greater. there is no question but Judg- ment wou’d be given in favour of the former. and un-accustom’d to any thing immoder- ate or intemperate. which by being further advanc’d. the wretched Waste of Time. in respect of Interest. with respect to the Health and Vigour of the Body. and what the Advantages are of a contrary Sobriety. and un-injur’d by Ex- cess and Abuse. and only with respect to the very Pleasure of Sense [] it-self. as they are more sound. and the World. when unpreju- dic’d by vitious Education. Sloth. ’Tis well known there can be no Slavery greater than what is consequent to the Dominion and Rule of such a Passion. where can we fix our Standard. What the Disadvantages are of this Intemperance.

and the Practice as well as the Consequences of it so pleas- ing and happy. there is nothing in this Case which is not compatible with Virtue. and how much his Occasions and Wants might be contracted and reduc’d. to mention any thing of the Miserys attending those covetous and eager Desires after things which have no Bounds or Rule. and lies heavier on himself than he can ever do on Mankind.’’ NOW AS to that Passion which is esteem’d peculiarly interesting. if a just FrugalityA were study’d. if it occasions no pas- sionate Pursuit. and in a reasonable degree. as being out of Nature. be explain’d. there is little need. . Such a one is in reality a Self-oppressor. when we are beyond this Boundary? How shall we fix or ascertain a thing wholly unnatu- ral and unreasonable? Or what Method. is not greater than that which it creates to the Person himself.                        and assumes the most from Privilege and Indulgence. on the other side. us in the Modesty and Ingenuity of our Natures. surely. INTEREST. what Regulation shall we . and what we call a Settlement or Fortune in the World: If the Regard towards this kind be moderate.What it costs Sect. which this Affection excites. But if it grows at length into a real Passion. and Honesty of our Characters. The publick as well as private Sys- tem is advanc’d by the Industry. nor raises any ardent Desire or Appetite. the Injury and Mischief it does the Publick. as having for its Aim the Possession of Wealth. Who knows not how small a Por- tion of worldly Matters is sufficient for a Man’s single Use and Convenience. and in the Faith PLEASURE. needs not. is as easily apprehended by any- one who will reflect. which in its Extravagance and ExcessA more necessarily [] occasions Disorder and Unhappiness. For where shall we once stop. [] perance and a natural Life came once to be pursu’d with half that Application. ‘‘That there is no Passion. How far a  or  T is miserable. as has been before express’d. beyond which there can be no Limits to Desire. which is bestow’d on Sumptuous- ness and Luxury? Now if Temperance be in reality so advanta- geous. and Tem. Industry and Art. and even sutable and beneficial to Society. And it will from hence appear.

but a kind of Insatiableness be- longing to this Condition.’’ Emulation. except in consequence of natural and just Appetite. And hence it may be concluded. such as is of easy Self- command. and become impetuous. as to the Ills of that other aspir- ing Temper. and the Temper accordingly suspicious. which exceeds an honest Emulation. For ’tis impossible there shou’d be any real Enjoyment. jealous. the Desire is still forward. Nor do we readily call that an Enjoyment of Wealth or of Honour. Expence to Expence. Happiness. in whatever State or Degree of Fortune they are plac’d. Such is that Passion which breaks into an enormous P and A. But against this Vice of C. or the Exorbitancy of Fancy. and able to sute it-self with any reasonable Circumstances whatever. abroad. after this. Now if we consider once the Ease. captious. NOR IS there less said. grow proportionably strong and violent. and Security which attend a modest Disposition and quiet Mind. on the first view. Nor will it be found necessary. Admiration. that as the Desires of this kind are rais’d. and passes the Bounds even of Vanity and Conceit. and Applause. or vulgar Astonishment.          Sect. Glory. to call to mind the Ex- cellence and Good of Moderation. has. and . and conceited fond Imaginations of per- sonal Advantage. or the Mischief and Self-injury of immoderate Desires. so the Aversions and Fears of the contrary part. there being no thorow or real Satisfaction. and in our common way of speaking. [] Fame. fitted to every Station in Society. ‘‘A covetous. present us with the most agreeable and winning Character. Precedencys. subject to Apprehensions from all Events.A This too is obvious. Honours. and uncapable of bearing the least Repulse or ordinary Disappointment. in reality. ’twill. in adding Interest. and a miserable Temper. one and the same Signification. . set to mere Imagination. [] when thro’A Covetousness or Ambition. or Love of Praise. and out of our command. there is enough said continually in the World. ‘‘That all Rest and Security as to what is future. and can never rest satisfy’d with its Gains. in such things as Titles. or Possession to Possession? Hence that known Restlessness of covetous and eager Minds.

may be judg’d by the difference we find between those Constitutions which are accustom’d. in comparison with that Habit of Body we see consequent to an indulg’d State of Indolence and Rest. and represents as insuperable theA Difficultys of a painful and laborious Course [] towards Wealth and Honours. must be a Disease in the Mind equal to that of a Lethargy in the Body. . Appetites towards Glory and outward Appearance thus transporting and beyond command. be as natural and useful to us as the Inclination we have towards Sleep. where it spreads a worse Conta- gion. For however the Body may for a-while hold out. which by soothing the Mind.                        all Peace. by the aspiring Passions of this emulous kind. The languishing Disease corrupts all the Enjoyments of a vigorous and healthy Sense. and a Love of moderate Recess and Rest from Action. Not that it really excludes either the Passion of Covetousness or Ambi- tion. and converts the unnatural RestA into an unhappy sort of Activity. . in which the Distemper is seated.’’ THERE is a certain Temper plac’d often in opposition to those Indolence. How necessary Action and Exercise are to the Body. Contentedness and Ease as to what is present. and Spleen: of which there has been enough said above. and a contracted Aversion to Action and Imployment. yet an excessive Love of Rest. Now tho an Inclination to Ease. and those which are wholly strangers to it. ’Tis this Passion. can escape without an immediate Affliction and Disorder. ’tis impos- sible that the Mind. where we consider’d the want of a due Balance in the Affections. eager and aspiring Aims of which we have been speaking. and by the different Health and Complexion which Labour and due Exercise create. ill [] Humour. renders high Attempts impracticable. and carrys its Infection into the Mind. but because it hinders their Effects. and softning it into an  L of R and I. and by having the Emulation. Nor is the lazy Habit ruinous to the Body only. The Habit begets a Tediousness and Anxiety. which influences the whole Temper. is forfeited Sect. and keeps them from breaking into open Action.

’Tis certain.          Sect. ‘‘That to have this over-biassing Inclination towards Rest. or Mind. and find work for themselves in a de- structive way. It ap- pears there can be nothing so miserable in it-self. he yet of any other Per- son most needs the help of it. the Spirits which want their due Imployment. this slothful. all this is obvious. And thus ’tis evident. can often. how wretched that State is. or so wretched in its Consequence. when at any time he is call’d to Action. the Thoughts and Affections being obstructed in their due Course. that as in the Body. as to be thus impotent in Temper. wanting to himself. that of a profligate and abject Character. in which by this Habit a Man is plac’d. or effeminate Temper. sequence is of their rising beyond a moderate degree. become contrary to our real Interest. averse to Labour and Imployment. like prepar’d Fuel. more incapable of real Modera- tion. They betray us into most Misfortunes. . and foment a rancorous Eagerness and tormenting Irritation. The Temper from hence be- comes more impotent in Passion. unexercis’d. and which lan- guishes for want of proper Action and Employment. when no Labour or natural Exer- Indolence. and attendent Plague. cise is us’d. turn against the Constitution. whilst being [] unfit for all Offices and Dutys of ASociety.A . and into the greatest of Unhappinesses. and by means of it. thus master’d by Passion. we see. is to have an unavoidable Mischief.’’ Self-passions THUS have we consider’d the Self-passions. and give rise to that sordid Disposition of which we have already spoken. so in a Soul. towards all the Circumstances and Affairs of Life. readily takes fire by the least Spark. and what the Con- in general. as self-interesting as they are. how subjected he must be to all Inconveniences. As to Interest. These Af- fections. As they grow imperious and high. raise Disquiet. they are the occasion that a Creature in proportion becomes mean and low. and. and depriv’d of their natural Energy. as being least able to assist or sup- port himself. brought under the most servile [] Subjection to the World. and depriv’d of the Assistance of others. how far it is here concern’d. They are original to that which we call Selfishness. soft.

against what we fondly conceive to be our private Good and Interest. THIRD Proof. Blood. all Trust and Confidence in a manner lost. which. are those which lead neither to a publick nor a private Good. we call the  A. and are neither of any advantage to the Species in general. as has been shewn. in the last place. and Envys multiply’d. the worse Opinion we shall have of those uniting Passions. This has been the reigning Passion of many Tyrants. with a peculiar Joy and Pleasure. which natu. Now if these  P. that as this Selfishness increases in us. A separate End and Interest must be every day more strongly form’d in us. . Of this kind is that  and  D Inhumanity. in opposition to the social and natural. ‘‘That they must be the certain means of losing us the chief Enjoy- ment of Life. These. Self-passions in general. Jealousys. and the most wretched State of Life’’: as remains for us to explain. the Ease and Freedom of our Minds must be forfeited. which bind us in strict Alliance and Amity with others.A and raising in us those horrid and unnatural Passions. are withal the certain means of losing us our natu- ral Affections. and in viewing Distress. besides what other Ill they are the occasion of. and feignedness of Carriage. And thus the Candour and Ingenuity of our Natures. in beholding Torments. which makes    M. so Sect. rally accompanys it. Massacre and Destruction. and barbarous Na- . and Suspicions.                        ’Tis evident withal. or the Creature in particular. [] and that Savageness of Temper. then (by what has been prov’d before) ’tis evident. generous Views and Motives laid aside: And the more we are thus sensibly disjoin’d every day from Society and our Fellows.   T HE Passions therefore. Upon these Terms we must of course endeavour to silence and suppress our natural and good Affections: since they are such as wou’d carry us to the good of Society. we are to ex- amine. must a certain Subtlety. from the unnatural Affections. Calamity.

and Pleasure in what is destructive. off that Courteousness of Behaviour. and where there is no Subject of Anger or Jeal- ousy. as it is horrid and miserable. to feed. There is another Affection nearly related to this.          Sect. There is also among these. tions. it admits not of I. which is a gay and frolicksome Delight in what is injurious to others. as has been explain’d. on Death. known or unknown. M. is of the same kind of Passion. which retains in us a just Rev- erence of Mankind. is usually encourag’d in Children: so that ’tis indeed no wonder if the Effects of it are very unfortunately felt in the World. But of this Passion there is not any foundation in Nature. Natives or Foreigners. . Fear. in some degree. Petulancy. a sort of  M. when in a Nursery. or savage Pleasure. a Passion which. or I-W. and be entertain’d with dying Agonys. Revenge. instead of being restrain’d. and prevents the Growth of Harshness and Brutality. this also is of that kind of Passion. but is wholly and absolutely unnatural. This Passion enters not where Civility or affable Man- ners have the least place. Envy. a sort of H  M  . when it is such as arises from the Prosperity or Hap- piness of another Creature no ways interfering with ours. amongst Friends. To see the Sufferance of an Enemy with cruel Delight. to such Tempers as have thrown Inhumanity. Malignity. Kindred or no Kin- dred. and in the Publick it-self.A that in the midst of many other Corruptions. and belongs. may proceed from the height of Anger. of our own or of another Species. and other extended Self-passions: But to delight in the Torture and Pain of other Creatures indifferently. as it were. nor any thing to provoke or cause such a Desire of doing ill to another. Such is the Nature of what we call good [] Breeding. which was us’d to delight in Disorder and Ravage. for any-one to give a reason why that Temper. perhaps. Moroseness. shou’d not [] afterwards find delight in other Disturbances. E too. this has nothing in it accountable in the way of Self-interest or private Good above-mention’d. For ’twill be hard. M. and be the occasionA of equal Mischief in Familys. such as is grounded on no Self-consideration.

and Barbarity. This is the immediate Opposite to that noble Affection. but are so exorbitant and out of measure. A. The Distemper of this kind is sometimes found to be in a manAner National. . unnatural and monstrous. nothing free. on the Subject of the more natural Passions. and may be justly esteem’d. nothing prosperous in * VOL. and ill Breeding. [] and a plain Characteristick of unciviliz’d Manners. a Passion which has been known perfectly reigning in Sect. Such as these are the only Affections or Passions we can strictly call unnatural. and of no tendency so much as to any separate or private Good. such as unnatural Lusts. or who by force of ill Nature. some Men. that they are generally call’d. was term’d *Hospitality. The very Aspect of Man- kind is a disturbance to ’em. Among these may be reckon’d such an  P or Tyranny. Inhospitality. and civil Manners. p. III. . with other Perversions of the amorous Desire within our own. we need add nothing here. . and they are sure always to hate at first sight. . Unnatural Lusts. Barbarity. all Superstition. viz. There might be other Passions nam’d. but peculiar to the more savage Nations. to need any proof of their being miserable. such an A and T. and has had a peculiar Name given to it. those which are rais’d from S. and so utterly contrary and ab- horrent to all social and natural Affection. We may add likewise to the number of the unnatural Passions. in antient Language.                        S. have contracted such a Reverse of Affability. that to see or meet a Stranger is offensive. soA beyond the common [] Bent of any ordinary Self-passion. Others indeed there are which have this tendency. extensive Love of Mankind. of this belongs to those who have long indulg’d themselves in a ha- bitual Moroseness. in foreign Kinds or Species. ill. But as to these Depravitys of Appetite. in the Notes. A large share MISAN- THROPY. (as before-mention’d) and from the Customs of barbarous Countrys: All which are too horrid and odious in themselves. after what has been already said. which. as wou’d will- ingly leave nothing eminent. and Relief of Strangers.

but are deriv’d from the De- fect. and are deriv’d from Malice. Unnatural IT MAY be objected here. as to appear of their own accord. yet still it is a Pleasure and Satisfaction which is found in Pride. is original Misery and Torment. in themselves. that any-one can feel a barbarous or malicious Joy. otherwise than in consequence of mere Anguish and Torment. ’tis apparent they borrow something of the mere unnatu- ral Passions. or Corruption of the Affections in general. and lays hold of the least Subject. Envy. . Vices. therefore. as explain’d above. producing no other Pleasure or Sat- isfaction. For as the cruellest bodily Pains do by . Unsoundness. or Tyranny. Now if it be possible in Nature. depending on no pre- ceding Pain or Uneasiness. to have social or natural Affection. Malice. and arise in [] a manner from Inclination and Choice. or Cruelty exerted. To love. it only the more implies the Misery of that State which produces it. is to feel immediate Satisfaction and genuine Content. and to be kind. Animosity. T and I are in strictness mere negative Ingratitude. occasion to exert it-self. How strong soever this Pleasure. and Inveteracy. then may we perhaps allow this kind of Satisfac- tion to be call’d Pleasure or Delight. ’Tis in it-self original Joy. so as often to make the weight of its Malevolence fall even upon such as are mere Objects of Pity and Compassion. are. as it were. But the Case is evidently con- trary. Complacency and Good-will. no real Passions. having neither Aversion or Inclination belonging to them. than as the unnatural Desire is for the instant satisfy’d [] by someAthing which appeases it. nor ever satisfy’d without the greatest Crueltys: such an I and R-  as seeks. may appear. and that however barba- rous a Pleasure it be.          Sect. Revenge. carry still a sort of Pleasure with them. Hatred and Bitterness. when they are so forAward and active. Treachery. unnatural as they Pleasure in general. But when these Vices become remarkable in a Character. that these Passions. without any pressing occasion. On the other side. and producing nothing beside Satisfac- tion merely. and. the World: such an A as wou’d sacrifice every thing to it-self: such a R as is never to be extinguish’d.

produce (as has been shewn) the high. upon what Terms a Person who has in this manner lost all which we call Nature. on the contrary. they fully know and will confess the ill Moments which are pass’d. to those who know little of the truer kind. of the Ill- will and Hatred of every human Soul? What ground must this afford for Horror and Despair? What foundation of Fear. which. at ill hours. against the multi- ply’d Objects of Offence? Nor can it be wonder’d at. if to PersonsA [] thus agitated and oppress’d. so the fiercest and most raging Torments of the Mind. there- fore. can be suppos’d to stand. have at Unnatural State. some time or other been sufficiently acquainted with those Dis- turbances. and of the mutual Disposition of others towards himself. in respect of the Society of Man- kind. how he feels himself in it. who is not conscious of the merited Affection or Love. for the greatest part of it. but. this is easily conceiv’d. From these slender Experiences of Harshness and Ill-humour. with those who hardly know any better hours in Life. by an Indulgence of their Passion in Mischief and Revenge. and the Agonys of a working Antipathy. which- . and who. even small occasions are apt to raise. when the Temper is ever so little gall’d or fretted. the Stings of Affront. . has nothing soft or pleasing from the side of Friendship. what Sense he has of his own Dis- position towards others. a close and settled Malignity. est bodily Pleasure. and con- tinual Apprehension from Mankind. afford the greatest of mental Enjoyments. and the common Circumstances of Life. and best of Tempers. to allay or divert it? Wherever such a Creature turns himself. The Men of gentlest Dispositions. it seems a high Delight to appease and allay for the while those furious and rough Motions.                        intervals of Assuagement. are agitated by a thorow active Spleen. do. which being once mov’d. in respect of Interest. Sect. What Injoyment or Rest is there for one. and from superior Powers? How thorow and deep must be that Melancholy. Now as to the Consequences of this unnatural State. by certain Moments of Relief. How must it fare. and Rancour? How lively must be the Sense of every thwarting and controuling Accident? How great must be the Shocks of Disappointment.

this Irrec- oncilableness and Opposition to the Order and Government of the Universe? HENCE it appears. ever way he casts his Eye.A  T HUS have we endeavour’d to prove what was propos’d in the beginning. T    . every thing around must appear ghastly [] and horrid. that if each of these are pernicious and destruc- tive to the Creature.A every thing hostile. . That the greatest of Miserys accompanys that State which is consequent to the Loss of natural Affection. O. and. .        D. what must it be to feel this inward Banishment. by such as are plainly unnatural: It must follow.   [] A. B the Deficiency or Weakness of natural Affections. . and nothing extant beside what is savage and deform’d.    -   . at last. . who is thus divided from every thing. be so heavy to endure. and That    . . bent against a pri- vate and single Being. And since in the common and known Sense of Vice and Illness. . this real Estrangement from human Commerce. Now if Banishment from one’s Country. and at defiance and war with the rest of Nature. by the Violence of the selfish. even when in the midst of Society? What must it be to live in this Disagreement with every thing. no-one can be vitious or ill. O. more or less. and in the horridest of Solitudes. and to be after this manner in a Desart. where all is laid waste. except either. And since every vitious Action must in proportion. insomuch that his compleatest State of Misery is made from hence. Removal to a foreign Place. or any thing which looks like Solitude or Desertion. as it were.          Sect. ’Tis thus. that  M becomes a Wilderness. every thing fair and goodly remov’d.

We have cast up all those Particulars. In this Dream of Life. It has been shewn. are of themselves a Tor- . of the united Structure and Fabrick of the Mind.                        help towards this Mischief. our Bal- ance and OEconomy hold good. from whence (as by way of Addi- tion and Subtraction) the main Sum or general Account of Happi- ness. and on which its Happiness or Misery so immediately depend. how these exterior Objects stand. or Mathematicks. the Subject treated may be said to have an Evidence as great as that which is found in Numbers. They are certain.     -  . the impairing of any one Part must instantly tend to the disorder and ruin of other Parts. and of the Whole it-self. [] cording to Nature. it must follow. Nor is there less Evidence in what has been said. the Happiness and Good of V has been prov’d from the contrary Effect of other Affections. [] sual. For ill Dreams will be equally disturbing. or Soul. and of those Passions which con- stitute the Temper. Conclusion. whether they are Realitys. therefore. That in this Consti- tution. will be easily and happily pass’d. if Life be nothing else. For let us carry Scepticism ever so far. That  Sect. and our Obligation to V is in every respect the same. On the other side. our Demonstrations have the same force. . and Self-ill. whether we wake or dream. Our Passions and Affections are known to us. let us doubt. and even of the sen. Nor is it of any concern to our Argument. if we can. we cannot doubt of what passes within our-selves. nor supported by any thing social or affectionate. accompany’d with good Affection. and the OEconomy of the Species or Kind. of every thing about us. the least degree of Certainty wanting in what has been said concerning the Prefer- ableness of the mental Pleasures to theA sensual. thro’ the necessary Connexion and Balance of the Affections: That those very Passions thro’ which Men are vitious.A such as are ac. And a good Dream. Upon the whole: There is not. and under a temperate and right use. And if there be no Article exceptionable in this Scheme of Moral Arithmetick. on which they are employ’d. to those which are no ways restrain’d. is either augmented or diminish’d. whatever the Ob- jects may be. I presume. or mere Illusions.

‘‘That on the other side. and go to ruin. thus. and Correspondence amongst Men. great and worthy. is found equally a Happiness and Good to each Creature in particular. thus beneficial to all Society. maintains Union. and most amiable. and ceases to promote his own Happiness and Welfare. as [] well as private Familys. and is that by which alone Man can be happy. however. ment and Disease. he is actually so far wanting to him- self. ‘‘That to yield or consent to any thing ill or immoral. which of all Excellencys and Beautys is the chief. and miserable. is a Breach of Interest. must be of ill Consciousness. and to that Whole of which he is himself a Part. ’twill appear. . must impair and corrupt social Enjoyment. and that whatsoever is done which is knowingly Conclusion. V is the Good. conspicuous. on this account. and if the State which [] is consequentA to this Defection from Nature. be of all other the most horrid.A and for want of which. and to Mankind in general. He is. So that V. Friendship. and the Consciousness of meriting any such. than as he continues good to Society. ill. and is  and  in Nature. and destroy both the Capacity of kind Affection. oppressive. directly his own Enemy: Nor can he any other- wise be good or useful to himself.          Sect. which upholds Communitys. and V the Ill of every-one.A . or receive Satisfaction from the mutual Kindness or imagin’d Love of others: on which. has made it to be according to the private Interest and Good of every-one. flourish and are happy. [] And. that by which Countrys. the greatest of all our Pleasures are founded. that which is the Prop and Ornament of human Af- fairs. and without which he must be miserable. and leads to the greatest Ills’’: and. or an Establishment of right Affection and Integrity. is an Advancement of Interest. as the Act is ill. Every thing which is an Improvement of Virtue. every-thing comely. and leads to the greatest and most solid Happiness and Enjoyment. must perish. and in proportion. to work towards the general Good. which if a Creature ceases to promote. that single Quality.’’ Thus the Wisdom of what rules. So that neither can we participate thus in Joy or Happiness with others. If this be the Case of moral Delinquency.

BEING A R E C I TA L of certain Conversations on Natural and Moral Subjects.         V I Z. A Philosophical Rhapsody.IX. *Inter Silvas Academi quaerere Verum. T H E MO R A L I S T S. Publish’d in the Year M. Ep. .DCC.* Horat. . o seek the truth amidst the groves of Academe. . Lib.

.

shou’d be so thorowly conversant in the learned one. c. cou’d imagine that a Genius fitted for the greatest Affairs. shou’d have so violent a Turn towards Philoso- phyA and the Schools? Who is there cou’d possibly believe that one [] of your Rank and Credit in the fashionable World. and deeply interested in the Affairs of a People so disagreeable to the Generality of Man- kind and Humour of the Age? I Believe truly. if he had never chanc’d to hear your Character. You are the only well-bred Man who wou’d have taken the Fancy to talk Philosophy in such a Circle of good Com-  .T H E M O R A L I S T S. P. and form’d amidst Courts and Camps.   P to P W HAT Mortal.

All who were enamour’d any-way. No matter what the Object was.A methought. to remain. And now nothing less will satisfy you than to have our Philosophical Adventures recorded. and scarce minding what they said on any other Subject. All must be laid before you. I told you. or that some of those tender Charms had an extravagant Effect. a more indifferent Lover. so opposite to the reigning Genius of Gallantry and Pleasure. which sent you to Philosophy for Relief. were in the same Condition. I maintain’d. in the Park. for a fine romantick Passion of one of those Gentlemen whom they call’d Virtuoso’s. How you cou’d reconcile the Objects there. whom Danger rather animates than discourages. their profound Thoughtfulness. For you. to admire Beauty and Wisdom a little more moder- ately. ’tis SOPHY. You might perceive it. and a Fancy as strong as ever towards all the pretty Entertainments and Diversions of the [] World. and summ’d in one compleat Account. to quit so many Charms for it. were things one wou’d not willingly part with. indeed.— Sad Indications! But all this Warning serv’d not to deter you. as I truly was. their Admiration. ’Twas better. thinking it a milder Fate. certain we approve of no such Freedom in P. it seems. Nor do . to be. However. to ingage so cautiously as to be sure of coming off with a whole Heart. Philosophy. I cou’d only con- clude. P. For these. as a Monument of that unseasonable Conversation. are one of the Adventurous. Musick. for my own part. their talking still of one thing. to such Subjects as these.    Sect. when we were in your Coach together. affairs with those of Pleasure and Entertainment. was unaccountable. The Name I took to belong in common to your Lover and Phi- losopher. ’Twas better. I MUST own. whether Poetry. by their Looks. pany as we had round us yesterday. I told you. and mix the Discourses of State- PHILO. ’tis become fashionable in our Nation to [] talk PoliticksA in every Company. their waking ever and anon as out of a Dream. or the Fair. In either Case I pity’d you. that either you had an extravagant Passion for Philosophy. .

to her. There are formal Set-places. thus to bemoan Philosophy. or join’d to any City or Community. ’tis nec- essary to study M in particular. The appropriating this Concern to mere Scholasticks. Empiricks. So much have we Moderns degraded her. longing toA her. be brought upon the publick Stage. and have set her servilely to such Works as those in the Mines. and by night. and come now and then to her Re- cesses. P. as he is in himself. as he stands ingag’d to this or that Society. as of old. She is no longer active in the World. Morals. If some few maintain their Acquaintance. has brought their Fashion and Air into the very Subject.     we look upon Politicks to be of her Province. with any advantage. to trace his Pedegree a step higher. we reckon. and pedantick Sophists are her chief Pupils. if Morals be allow’d be. must pass.’’ But as low as P is reduc’d. Politicks must undeniably be hers. So far is she from producing Statesmen. For to under. and know the Creature. there is enough said and . it seems. as he is inter- ested in the State. It may be properly alledg’d perhaps. and the Elixir. that hardly any Man of Note in the publick cares to own the least Obligation to her. by Birth or Naturalization: Yet to consider him as a Citi- zen or Commoner of the World. have done it in such a manner as to put the better Sort out of countenance with the Undertaking. ’tis as the Disciple of Quality came to his Lord and Master. nor can hardly. . or in the least related Sect. where. before we consider him in Company. [] stand the Manners and Constitutions of Men in common. Nothing is more familiar than to reason concerning Man in his confeder- ate State and national Relation. You must allow me. The School-syllogism. that the People to whom it has principally belong’d to handle these Subjects. are the choicest of her Products. for some intricate or over-refin’d Speculation. since you have forc’d me to ingage with her at a time when her Credit runs so low. and stripp’d her of her chief Rights. ‘‘secretly. as a Reason for this gen- eral Shyness in moral Inquirys. We have immur’d her (poor Lady!) in Colleges and Cells. and view his End and Constitution in Nature it-self.

  

Sect. . taught on the Head of these graver Subjects. We can give no quar-
ter to any thing like it in good Company. The least mention of such
[] matters gives us a disgust,A and puts us out of humour. If Learning
Language. comes a-cross us, we count it Pedantry; if Morality, ’tis Preaching.
One must own this, however, as a real Disadvantage of our
modern Conversations; that by such a scrupulous Nicety they lose
those masculine Helps of Learning and sound Reason. Even the
Fair Sex, in whose favour we pretend to make this Condescen-
sion, may with reason despise us for it, and laugh at us for aiming
at their peculiar Softness. ’Tis no Compliment to them, to affect
their Manners, and be effeminate. Our Sense, Language, and Style,
as well as our Voice, and Person, shou’d have something of that
Male-Feature, and natural Roughness, by which our Sex is distin-
guish’d. And whatever Politeness we may pretend to, ’tis more a
Disfigurement than any real Refinement of Discourse, to render
it thus delicate.
Style. No Work of Wit can be esteem’d perfect without that Strength
and Boldness of Hand, which gives it Body and Proportions. A
good Piece, the Painters say, must have good Muscling as well as
Colouring and Drapery. And surely no Writing or Discourse of
any great moment, can seem other than enervated, when neither
strong Reason, nor Antiquity, nor the Records of Things, nor the
[] natural HistoAry of Man, nor any-thing which can be call’d Knowl-
edg, dares accompany it; except perhaps in some ridiculous Habit,
which may give it an Air of Play and Dalliance.

THIS brings to my mind a Reason I have often sought for; why
we Moderns, who abound so much in Treatises and Essays, are so
DIA- sparing in the way of * D; which heretofore was found
LOGUE.
the politest and best way of managing even the graver Subjects. The
truth is; ’twou’d be an abominable Falshood, and belying of the
Age, to put so much good Sense together in any one Conversation,
as might make it hold out steddily, and with plain coherence, for
an hour’s time, till any one Subject had been rationally examin’d.

* VOL. I. pag. , , , , , &c. VOL. III. pag. , &c.

   

To lay Colours, to draw, or describe, against the Appearance of Sect. .
Nature and Truth, is a Liberty neither permitted the Painter nor
the Poet. Much less can the Philosopher have such a Privilege; espe-
cially in his own Case. If he represents his Philosophy as making
any figure in Conversation; if he triumphs in the Debate, and gives
his own Wisdom the advanAtage over that of the World; he may be []
liable to sound Raillery, and possibly be made a Fable of.
’Tis said of the Lion, that being in civil Conference with the A Fable.
Man, he wisely refus’d to yield the Superiority of Strength to
him; when instead of Fact, the Man produc’d only certain Figures
and Representations of human Victorys over the Lionkind. These
Master-pieces of Art the Beast discover’d to be wholly of human
Forgery: and from these he had good right to appeal. Indeed had
he ever in his life been witness to any such Combats as the Man
represented to him in the way of Art; possibly the Example might
have mov’d him. But old Statues of a H, a T, or
other Beast-subduers, cou’d have little power over him, whilst he
neither saw nor felt any such living Antagonist capable to dispute
the Field with him.
We need not wonder, therefore, that the sort of moral Painting,
by way of Dialogue, is so much out of fashion; and that we see no
more of these philosophical Portraitures now-a-days. For where are
the Originals? Or what tho you, P, or I, by chance, have
lighted on such a one; and pleas’d our-selves with the Life? Can
you imagine it shou’d make a good Picture? A []

YOU know too, that in this Academick Philosophy I am to present Academists.
you with, there is a certain way of Questioning and Doubting,
which no-way sutes the Genius of our Age. Men love to take party
instantly. They can’t bear being kept in suspence. The Examination
torments ’em. They want to be rid of it, upon the easiest terms. ’Tis
as if Men fansy’d themselves drowning, whenever they dare trust
to the Current of Reason. They seem hurrying away, they know
not whither; and are ready to catch at the first Twig. There they
chuse afterwards to hang, tho ever so insecurely, rather than trust
their Strength to bear ’em above Water. He who has got hold of an

  

Sect. . Hypothesis, how slight soever, is satisfy’d. He can presently answer
every Objection, and, with a few Terms of Art, give an account of
every thing without trouble.
Alchymists. ’Tis no wonder if in this Age the Philosophy of the Alchymists
prevails so much: since it promises such Wonders, and requires
more the Labour of Hands than Brains.We have a strange Fancy to
be Creators, a violent Desire at least to know the Knack or Secret
by which Nature does all. The rest of our Philosophers only aim
[] at that in Speculation, which our Alchymists aspireA to in Practice.
For with some of these it has been actually under deliberation how
to make Man, by other Mediums than Nature has hitherto pro-
vided. Every Sect has a Recipe. When you know it, you are Master
of Nature: you solve all her *Phaenomena: you see all her Designs,
and can account for all her Operations. If need were, you might,
perchance too, be of her Laboratory, and work for her. At least one
wou’d imagine the Partizans of each modern Sect had this Conceit.
They are all A’s in their way, and can make a World
upon easier terms than he offer’d to move one.
Dogmatists. In short; there are good Reasons for our being thus superficial,
and consequently thus dogmatical in Philosophy. We are too lazy
and effeminate, and withal a little too cowardly, to dare doubt. The
decisive way best becomes our Manners. It sutes as well with our
Vices as with our Superstition. Which-ever we are fond of, is se-
cur’d by it. If in favour of Religion we have espous’d an Hypothe-
sis, on which our Faith, we think, depends; we are superstitiously
careful not to be loosen’d in it. If, by means of our ill Morals, we
[] are broken with Religion; ’tis the same Case still: We are as muchA
afraid of Doubting. We must be sure to say, ‘‘It cannot be’’; and
‘‘ ’tis Demonstrable: For otherwise Who knows? And not to know, is
to yield!’’—
Thus we will needs know every thing, and be at the pains of
examining nothing. Of all Philosophy, therefore, how absolutely
the most disagreeable must that appear, which goes upon no estab-

* See VOL. III. p. .

   

lish’d Hypothesis, nor presents us with any flattering Scheme, talks Sect. .
only of Probabilitys, Suspence of Judgment, Inquiry, Search, and
Caution not to be impos’d on, or deceiv’d? This is that Academick
Discipline in which formerly *the Youth were train’d: when not Antients.
only Horsemanship and Military Arts had their publick Places of
Exercise; but Philosophy too had its Wrestlers in repute. Reason
and Wit had their Academy, and underwent this Trial; not in a
formal way, apart from the World; but openly, among the better
sort, and as an Exercise of the genteeler kind. This the greatest
Men were not asham’d to practise, in the Intervals of publick Af-
fairs, in the highest Stations and Employments, and at the latest
hour of their Lives. Hence that way of D, and Patience
of Debate and Reasoning, of which we have scarce a Resemblance
left in any of our Conversations, at this season of the World.A []

CONSIDER then, P, what our Picture is like to prove:
and how it will appear; especially in the Light you have unluckily
chosen to set it. For who wou’d thus have confronted Philosophy
with the Gaiety, Wit, and Humour of the Age?—If this, however,
can be for your Credit, I am content. The Project is your own.
’Tis you who have match’d Philosophy thus unequally. Therefore
leaving you to answer for the Success, I begin this inauspicious
Work, which my ill Stars and you have assign’d me; and in which
I hardly dare ask Succour of the Muses, as poetical as I am oblig’d
to shew my-self in this Enterprize.

 
‘‘
O WRETCHED State of Mankind!—Hapless Nature, thus
to have err’d in thy chief Workmanship!—Whence sprang
this fatal Weakness? What Chance or Destiny shall we accuse? Or
shall we mind the Poets, when they sing thy Tragedy (P-

* VOL. I. pag. , &c. and Notes.

  

Sect. . !) who with thy stoln celestial Fire, mix’d with vile Clay,
didst mock Heaven’s Countenance, and in abusive Likeness of the
[] ImmortalsA mad’st the compound M; that wretched Mortal, ill
to himself, and Cause of Ill to all.’’—
What say you, P, to this Rant, now upon second
thoughts? Or have you forgot ’twas just in such a romantick Strain
that you broke out against human Kind, upon a Day when every
thing look’d pleasing, and the Kind it-self (I thought) never ap-
pear’d fairer, or made a better shew?
But ’twas not the whole Creation you thus quarrel’d with: Nor
were you so out of conceit with all Beauty. The Verdure of the
Field, the distant Prospects, the gilded Horizon, and purple Sky,
form’d by a setting Sun, had Charms in abundance, and were able
to make impression on you. Here, P, you allow’d me to
admire as much as I pleas’d; when, at the same instant, you wou’d
not bear my talking to you of those nearer Beautys of our own
Kind, which I thought more natural for Men at our Age to ad-
mire. Your Severity however cou’d not silence me upon this Sub-
ject. I continu’d to plead the Cause of the Fair, and advance their
Charms above all those other Beautys of Nature. And when you
took advantage from this Opposition, to shew how little there was
[] of Nature, and how muchA of Art in what I admir’d, I made the best
Apology I cou’d; and fighting for Beauty, kept the Field as long as
there was one Fair-one present.
Gallantry. Considering how your Genius stood inclin’d to Poetry, I won-
der’d most to find you on a sudden grown so out of conceit with
our modern Poets, and Galante Writers; whom I quoted to you,
as better Authoritys than any Antient in behalf of the Fair Sex,
and their Prerogative. But this you treated slightly. You acknowl-
edg’d it to be true indeed, what had been observ’d by some late
Wits, ‘‘That G was of a modern Growth.’’ And well it
might be so, you thought, without dishonour to the Antients; who
understood Truth and Nature too well, to admit so ridiculous an
Invention.
’Twas in vain, therefore, that I held up this Shield in my defense.

and that Beauty was too communicative and divine a Thing. The Beau-monde. in this romantick way. as it was profane. In short. to deify the Sex. monstrous. as of a better Taste than that which reigns at present in its stead. You damn’d even our Favourite Novels. thisA whole Order and Scheme of Wit you [] condemn’d absolutely. and were won by dint of Launce and manly Prowess. What such a flattering way of Address to all theA Sex in common cou’d mean. ’twas as impertinent and sensless. Partys to Feats of Arms. MEAN while our Company began to leave us. when in behalf of the Fair I pleaded Sect. and confin’d to One at once. writ most of ’em by the Fair Sex themselves. on such a foundation as this. You attack’d the very Fortress of Gallantry. with all those nice Sentiments and Cere- monials belonging to it. to their advantage. and G. as false. and make each Fair-one ap- prehend that the Publick had a right to her. But in a Country where no She-Saints were worship’d by any Authority from Religion. unless it were [] to render ’em wholly common indeed. raise ’em to a Capacity above what Nature had allow’d. you knew not. to pay ’em Homage and Adoration. a thing which in it-self you prefer’d. enter’d into all the Points of War and Combat. you said. and in a manner. ’twas not altogether absurd. whom you had been thus severely censuring.     I did my Cause no service. you thought. when the Fair were made Wit- nesses. ’twas wonderful. all the fine things which are usually said. . to be made a Property. quite out of the way of Nature. make ’em the Standard of Wit and Manners. and bring Mankind under their Laws. For at a time when this Mystery of Gallantry carry’d along with it the Notion of doughty Knighthood. Indeed as for the Moral Part. and sprung from the mere Dregs of Chiv- alry or Knight-Errantry. and treat ’em with a Respect. drew off apace: for . to ob- serve the Licentiousness which this foppish courtly Humour had establish’d in the World. those dear sweet natural Pieces. which in the natural way of Love they themselves were the aptest to com- plain of. ridi- cul’d the Point of Honour.

your own Kind.’’ (said you in a high strain.—But O what Treacherys! what Dis- orders! And how corrupt is all!—Did you not observe e’en now. Compassion. who wou’d allow nothing to those fair earthly Luminarys in the Circles which just now we mov’d in. were in reality the only proper Company for a Man in your Humour. that I shou’d hold their Interest light. if That be none? O P! Believe me when I say I feel it one. Here. For now you began to talk with much Satisfaction of natural Things. . and of all Orders of Beautys. I told you. that being M. for the Solitude they intro- duc’d. I wou’d have got you to reason more calmly with me upon that other Part of the Creation.    Sect. I shou’d throw off Love. O P. P. began now to look out with Ravishment on this other. I took notice that the approaching Objects of the Night were the more agreeable to you. as wou’d make one believe you a compleat T. I shou’d have yet so little of Humanity. if that to Mankind be not obliging? Can there be yet a Bond in Nature. and that the Moon and Planets which began now to ap- pear. and conscious of my Nature. when you had pretty well spent the first Fire of your Imagination. and their attendent Satellites. andA wear a human Heart. and tri- [] umph in the new philosophical Scene of Worlds unA known. Think not that I wou’d willingly break my Chain: Nor count me [] so degenerate or unnatural. as not to feel the Affections of a Man? Or feeling what is natural towards my Kind. it grew late. or Man-hater. and not befriend Mankind. and with a moving air of Passion) ‘‘Can you believe me of that Char- acter? Or can you think it of me in earnest. Misanthropy. and be in- differently affected with what affects or seriously concerns them? Am I so ill a Lover of my Country? Or is it that you find me indeed so ill a Friend? For what are all Relations else? What are the Ties of private Friendship. you discover’d so much Aversion. as whilst I hold this Form. . you. Kindness. who seem’d to overlook the Pride of that Theater. Never did I hear a finer Description than you made of the Order of the heavenly Luminarys. ‘‘Can you then. M only excepted. the Circles of the Planets. and fully prove its Power within me. And you. to which.

he has the power of seeing ’em in this new As- pect. a Sacri- fice to their Ambition. which I cou’d hardly hope you wou’d have pardon’d. I look’d on you as deeply in the Spleen: But now I concluded you in love.—What Charms there are in publick Com- panys! What Harmony in Courts and Courtly Places! How pleas’d is every Face! How courteous and humane the general Carriage and Behaviour!—What Creature capable of Reflection. and saw no more. good fortune however to make some change in your Humour. who not an hour ago in publick appear’d such Friends. by what fatal Necessity. wou’d not believe our Earth a very Heaven? What Foreigner (the Inhabitant. and those Disorders he lamented!’’ AFTER I had begg’d pardon for my rude Mirth. with the Ruin of the State it-self. if he thus saw us Mankind. how Sect. follow only Love. ‘‘has mov’d P thus. or what Permission it came upon the . I discover’d the Lightness of my Temper. I only imagin’d a more particular Cause had provok’d you.—Here he may behold those great Men of the Ministry. Yet (P) who wou’d think it?’’— At these words. Allow him leisure. Hence the sad World! Here was that Corruption. and laugh’d aloud. had I not freely told you the true reason. what Chance. [] who knowing not Ambition. peaceful all appear’d. when having pass’d over the Ambitious. and survey’d this outward Face of things. Here he may see too those of a softerA kind. we fell naturally into cool Reasoning about the Nature and Cause of ILL in general: ‘‘Thro’ what Contingency.     when all this Space was fill’d with goodly Rows of Company. which had the Cause of Ill. wou’d think of what lay hid beneath the Mask?— But let him stay a-while. . till he has gain’d a nearer View. and following our dissolv’d Assemblys to their par- ticular Recesses. of some near Planet) when he had travel’d hither. ’Twas not for want of being affected with what you spoke. you may remember. and so unhappily en- gag’d as to have reason to complain of Infidelity. ‘‘This. what Will. you were coming full-charg’d against the People of a softer Passion. At first. suppose. now plotting craftily each other’s Ruin.’’ thought I.

and his peculiar State. This however. a pretty Mixture. and to proportion her Defects a little better. shou’d still subsist. with such irregular Work. but that every thing had its share of Inconvenience. I found. * Treatise IV. But you were still upon Extremes. And this insen- sibly led us into a nice Criticism of N. that the Grievance lay not altogether in one part. as look’d ill in the Pattern. ‘‘Why had Mankind originally so much Folly and Perverseness? Why so much Pride. You wanted such an Operator as this for Mankind: And you were tempted to wish the Story cou’d have been confirm’d in modern Divinity. agreeable enough. such Ambition. Nothing wou’d serve to ex- [] cuse the FaultsA or Blemishes of this Part of the Creation. and contrary Colours. that clearing the supreme Powers of any Con- cern or Hand in the ill Workmanship.    Sect. . without a Blemish. . was but a slight Evasion of the reli- gious Poets among the Antients. [] which with slight Reasoners is easily got over. I fansy’d. ’Twas only for this turbulent Race of Mortals you offer’d to accuse Nature. or being comeA once. Good and Ill. those alone excepted which arose in human Breasts. And I now found why you had been so transported with the Story of P- .’’ This *Inquiry. in the main. stuck hard. as you plac’d it. ’Twas easy to answer every Ob- jection by a P: as. as in some of those rich Stuffs. with one of your close Judgment and Penetration. without Profaneness. in relation to Mankind. and one with another made. but mighty natural and well in the Piece. Pleasure and Pain. you might have the liberty of inveighing against it. See the Beginning. The very Storms and Tempests had their Beauty in your account. Beauty and Deformity. whom you sharply arraign’d for many Absurditys you thought her guilty of. even tho all besides were fair. I thought. World. ’Twas the same. where the Flowers and Ground were oddly put together. M- . I told you. seem’d to me every- where interwoven. Fain wou’d I have persuaded you to think with more Equality of N. My Notion was.

’tis not to be imagin’d how service- able a Tale is. The Heathen Story of P was. and put the evil [] Cause farther off. I told you. . with his unlucky Hand.—Excellent Account. they think. a plastick Nature. and see what wou’d come of this notable Experiment. continu’d I. or an evil Dae- . and what wou’d be the Event of his Tam- pering. We ought not to laugh so readily at the Indian Philosophers. A single PA [] was enough to take the Weight from J. and Curses. They fairly made J a Stander-by. ’Tis here only that our Indian Philoso- phers are to blame. they told ’em a Tale. The plastick Artist. how the dangerous Man- moulder wou’d proceed. whose Back. who to satisfy their People how this huge Frame of the World is supported. to satisfy the Heathen Vulgar! But how. None besides a few Philosophers wou’d be such Busy-bodys. or ask a second Question. entail’d Sect. think you. it seems. If the People ask’d a Question. They shou’d be contented with the Elephant. tell ’em ’tis by an Elephant. If they cou’d. Destiny. He resolv’d. they were answerable for the Consequences. if they cou’d gain a singleA Remove. And whether P were a Name for Chance. if they cou’d not. solv’d all. they were no longer Gods. much the same with this Indian one: only the Heathen Mythologists were so wise as not to go beyond the first Remove. or they cou’d not. being thus limited and controul’d. But they have a Tortoise in reverse. ‘‘ ’Twas His Con- trivance (they said) and He was to answer for it. to amuse others besides mere Children. to be Neuter. wou’d a Philosopher digest this? ‘‘For the Gods’’ (he wou’d say presently) ‘‘either cou’d have hinder’d P’s Creation. they thought. on him and his Posterity?’’—P was the Cause.— And the Elephant how?—A shreud Question! but which by no means shou’d be answer’d. and how much easier the Generality of Men are paid in this Paper-coin. than in Sterling Reason.     and strange Appetites? Why so many Plagues. and sent ’em away satisfy’d. and go no further. So the Tortoise must bear the new Load: And thus the matter stands worse than before.’’ They reckon’d it a fair Game. is broad enough. And in reality. as to look beyond.

I said. and made full amends. [] tho they knewA what wou’d be the Event. there was undoubtedly some G arising. For ’twas impossible. ’twas still the same Breach of O. mon. which shou’d persuade one that those dismal Parts you set to view were only the necessary Shades of a fine Piece. who perform’d such Wonders of many kinds. to be reckon’d among the Beautys of the [] CreaAtion: Or whether possibly you might look upon that Maxim as very fit for Heaven. But shou’d we . But you stood to Foresight. or what Excellence or Beauty cou’d redound from those tragical Pictures you your-self had drawn so well after the Life. For here I took up your own part against you. which I was sure you did not approve at all in Mankind. you own’d was neither wise nor just. whatever might become of Mankind.’’ THIS was a Confession I wonder’d indeed how I came to draw from you: And soon afterwards I found you somewhat uneasy under it.’’ This. So that even from this Misery and I of Man. made me think of the manner of our modern P- ’. They cou’d create Diseases. when they undertook their Work: and you deny’d that it wou’d have been better for them to have omitted it. You allow’d the Consequences to have been understood by the creating Powers.    Sect. Whether it must not be a very strong philosophical Faith. . I put it upon you to tell. here on our earthly Stages. that Heaven shou’d have acted otherwise than for the best. ‘‘To do I that G might follow. something which over-balanc’d all. ‘‘ ’Twas better still that the Project shou’d be executed. whatever was design’d by it. in order to heal. where possibly cou’d be the Advantage or Good arising hence. or how hard soever such a Creation was like to fall on the gen- erality of this miserable Race. and to restore. and setting all those Villanys and Corruptions of human Kind in the same light you had done just before. and make Mischief. the Mountebanks.’’ That such a hazardous Affair as this of Creation shou’d have been undertaken by those who had not perfect Foresight as well as Command. you thought.

The other kind. there was Truth enough in your Charge. never seem’d as if I was convinc’d myself. and even when I convinc’d others. you own’d. such Empiricks of the Gods. And here not only Religion was objected to me.     assign such a Practice as this to Heaven? Shou’d we dare to make Sect. . and such a Patient of poor Nature? ‘‘Was this a reason for Nature’s Sickliness? Or how else came she (poor Innocent!) to fall sick. and were never angry or dis- turb’d. call’dA  T: A Point. whatever way it went. when you saw I adher’d to nothing: but was now as ready to declaim against the Fair. I own’d to you. possible to be imagin’d. was further from Profaneness and erroneous Doctrine . ’Twas no credit to the Gods to leave her destitute. dis- pleas’d you. [] but I was reproach’d too on the account of that Gallantry which I had some time before defended. roving Exercise of the Mind. never were. and hard to ascertain. This. I saw. Both were join’d together in the Charge you made against me. she had still continu’d so. and hold precisely to what Men. agreeablest. was my constant way in all Debates: I was as well pleas’d with the Reason on one side. or created sound at first. to SA. as those call’d S. was painful and laborious. you said. I had by this time plainly discover’d my Inclination Scepticism. at a venture. ‘‘To keep always in the Limits of one Path. the Death of S. in all appearance. P. and of all Philosophers those who reason’d most at their ease. my way hurt no body. from the fatal Sisters. but laugh’d still. [] very unfix’d. and make them Sufferers for their own Work. I thought. or with a Flaw which wou’d cost dear the mending. and defend the Moral of Lovers.’’ Besides. For above all things I lov’d Ease. I look’d upon this kind of Philosophy as the prettiest. But this Discourse. as on the other: I never troubled my- self about the Success of the Argument. and the frequent Crosses Heaven met with. or run astray? Had she been originally healthy. and for Matters of Religion. I was always the first to comply on any occasion. as I had been be- fore to plead their Cause. to drive always at a Point.’’— I was going to bring H to witness for the many Troubles of J.

and that by this loose way of talking. ’Tis of mere Phi- [] losophy I speak: And my Fancy is only to try what I canA muster up thence. such as spar’d nothing. and dare oppose to the sacred Mysterys of Religion. Your Project. But what if I shou’d endeavour to compensate my Sceptical Misbehaviour. to make head against the chief Arguments of Atheism. you who are Rationalists. than any-one.    Sect. . I cou’d never have the Sufficiency to shock my spiri- tual and learned Superiors. in return. but sub- mit to them. for our parts. but overthrew all Principles. I had given you occasion to suspect me of the worst sort of Scepticism. I see. Moral and Divine. good P: you are offended. which I had learnt in some fashionable Conversations of the World. In short. and. and believe all. continu’d I. Forgive me. or the holy Mysterys of the Christian Faith. and reestablish what I have offer’d to loosen in the System of Theism. pray consider. bids fair to reconcile me to your Charac- . Deism.A HERE I ended. in Arguments? ’’ I durst not ask what your Question drove at. We. and shou’d profane the Subject. That whereas Others pretend to see with their own Eyes. I made no more distinction between Sincerity and Insincerity in Actions. ‘‘Whether with that fine S of mine. and not without cause. or insisted much upon what the dogmatical Men call Demonstra- tion. and walk by Reason in every thing. by using a known Sceptick Privilege. you only ask’d me coldly. than I did between Truth and Falshood. as they are appointed us by our just Superiors. said I. I was the furthest from leaning to my own Understanding: nor was I one who exalted Reason above Faith. And to shew you. I am unworthy of such a Task. Right and Wrong. I was afraid I saw it too plainly. pre- tend not to see with any other than those of our spiritual Guides. and asserting strenuously the Cause I have hitherto oppos’d? Do not imagine that I dare aspire so high as to defend reveal’d Reli- gion. said you. whilst you believe little or nothing: We [] for our parts know nothing. what is properest and best for them in Religion. Neither do we presume to judg those Guides our-selves. how impossible it is for the Men of our sort ever to err from the Catholick and Establish’d Faith. pretend to know all things.

for those who naturally incline to the Disbelief of Revelation. till by necessity I was drawn into the following Vein of Philosophical Enthusiasm. But I * ‘‘To Polytheism (Daemonism) or Atheism:’’ as above. continu’d you. I am resolv’d to force ’em from you. on philosophical Grounds. may have driven me perhaps into a con- trary Extreme. For as averse as I am to the Sect. And the solemn Majesty of such a Night as this. . Our Company have long since quitted the Field. at such an unseasonable time. or Atheism. as you have done hitherto? ‘‘Whatever your Thoughts are. you continu’d to urge me. which depended not on the Belief of a single supreme Being. or whether you de- sign only to divert your-self with the Subject. you intend to advance any thing in favour of that [] Opinion which is fundamental to all Religion. the Root of all is T. Or as if the firm and rational Belief of such a Being. P. and set in opposition to Chris- tianity. ‘‘As if our Religion was a kind of Magick. said I (taking a grave Air) that it is pos- sible for me to be serious. or most serious Discourse. Your Over-seriousness a-while since.   Y OU shall find then. whether in good Earnest. and thorow SinceriAty. when taken in a sense exclu- sive of Revelation. was an improper Qualification for believing any thing further. . P. or Name of D. Cause of Theism. for good and all. pag. or who thro’ Vanity affect a Freedom of this kind!— But let me hear. and that to be a settled Christian. which I was beginning to mistrust. The gaudy Scene is over with the Day. Nor have I patience to hear the Name of D (the highest of all Names) decry’d. it is necessary to be first of all a good T. by opposition to your melancholy Humour.’’ Excellent Presumption.’’ Thus. . You can no longer plead the Unsutable- ness of the Time or Place to such grave Subjects. I consider still that. may justly sute with the profoundest Meditation. For Theism can only be oppos’d to *Poly- theism. in strictness.     ter. and that ’tis probable I am growing so.

Constitutions. and not- [] withstanding the humorous Turn you were pleas’d to give it. and embrace rather the Mind. Virtue. or the well-drawn Proportions of a human Body. ‘‘L. it frames it-self a nobler Object. and those Orders on which this fair Correspondence and goodly Interest is establish’d. ‘‘Still ardent in this Pursuit (such is its Love of Order and Perfec- tion) it rests not here. and the Perfection of human Nature. and renders chiefly amiable. It seeks how to combine more Beautys. doubtless.    Sect. Philosophy. the flourishing State of human Affairs. nor satisfies it-self with the Beauty of a Part. Morals. I am persuaded it has a different Foundation from any of those fantasti- LOVE.’’ continu’d I. True to . these are its delightful Prospects. . you view the Life it-self. Dutys. seeks the Good of All. in all the mysterious Charms of the particular Forms. I began to raise my Voice. civil and reli- gious Rites. ReA lations. cal Causes I then assign’d to it. ‘‘well-knowing and experienc’d in all the Degrees and Beauty. which adds the Lustre. is at the bottom. Universe. and imitate the solemn way you had been teaching me. Not captivated by the Lineaments of a fair Face. Laws. but extending further its communicative Bounty.’’— Here. Orders of Beauty. Friendships. the Sci- ences and Arts. It dwells with Pleasure amidst that Reason. ‘‘Nor is the Enjoyment of such a single Beauty sufficient to sat- isfy such an aspiring Soul. but a nobler Love than such as common Beautys inspire. Men. and Commonweal establish’d. Society. you generously seek that which is highest in the kind. and this the Charm of Beauty which at- tracts it. to form a beautiful Society. whatever civilizes or polishes rude Mankind. and Mind more comprehensive. in my turn. and affects the Interest and Prosperity of the Whole. ‘‘Knowing as you are. ‘‘Nor satisfy’d even with publick Good in one Community of Virtue. you rise to what is more general. have now a better Idea of that MelancA holy you discover’d. and considers by what Harmony of particular Minds the general Harmony is compos’d. It [] views Communitys. and by what Coalition of these. and with a larger Heart. and with enlarg’d Affec- tion seeks the Good of Mankind.

and hoping still to find a just and wise Administration. helpless (as she is thought) and work- ing thus absurdly. Natures subordinate. what is cited in the Notes from the antient Author on the World. . as in her goodliest Works. the Beauty of Things. from this Order of inferior and superior Things. since without such a supreme Intelligence and GOD. that we admire the * World’s Beauty. ‘‘This. if no univer- sal Mind presided. Melancholy. p. a Resignation is requir’d. ‘‘Thus in the several Orders of terrestrial Forms. when they see various Interests mix’d and interfering. . a Sacrifice and mutual yielding of Natures one to another. wishing the best. and D made void. but from the Heart of Man more fertile. founded thus on Contrarietys: whilst from such various and disagreeing Principles. She. the higher to the lower. to shew why Nature errs. the Government of the World ar- raign’d. a universal Concord is establish’d. ’Tis on the contrary. and in their different Operations submitted. ’tis here the generous Mind labours to discover that healing Cause by which the Interest of the Whole is securely establish’d. I assert her even then as wise and provident. the distracted Universe must be condemn’d to suffer infinite Calamitys. P. it meets with darkning Clouds which intercept its Sight. ‘‘Much is alledg’d in answer. is the Labour of your Soul: and This its Ill natural and moral. * See VOL. For ’tis not then that Men complain of the World’s Order. when unsuccessfully pursuing the supreme Beauty. not those from Lybian Desarts. or abhor the Face of things. and with their horrid Aspect cast an unseemly Re- flection upon N. .     its native World and higher Country.A [] ‘‘And since all Hope of this were vain and idle. ’tis here it seeks Order and Sect. . of different kinds. is contemn’d. and when she seems most ignorant orA perverse in [] her Productions. and the universal Order happily sustain’d. Monsters arise. III. oppos’d one to another. But I deny she errs. and how she came thus impotent and erring from an unerring Hand. Perfection. providential Care.

the impending Meteors. or some interior Wound from hostile Matter. The numerous Insects are reduc’d by the superior Kinds of Birds and Beasts: and these again are check’d by Man. if the interior Form. and resigns his Form a Sacri- [] fice in common to the rest of Things. nor can submit to any thing below. the animal Kinds are [] oft afflicted. and wholeA Species perhaps involv’d at once in com- mon Ruin: But much less let us account it strange. if either by outward Shock. or Floods. and seminal Parts are injur’d and obstructed in their accurate Labours. who in his turn submits to other Natures. nether or upper Fires. which hold the lasting Orbs in their just Poize and Movement. not faintly. howe’er protected. when the Sun’s fainting Light gave way to these bright Constellations.A And if in Natures so little exalted or pre-eminent above each other. enrich the Earth. The Vegetables by their Death sustain the Animals: and Animal Bodys dissolv’d. the Soul and Temper. the inward Vapours. must of it-self so soon dissolve. and left you this wide System to contemplate. ‘‘Let us not therefore wonder. if by Earthquakes. whose brittle Frame. when the Disease invades the Seats of Generation. par- ticular Animals are deform’d even in their first Conception. ‘‘Nor need we wonder. Storms. must operate in a natural Course: and other Constitutions must submit to the good Habit and Constitution of the all-sustaining Globe. and raise again the vegetable World. and by another Nature’s justly conquering Force. and sympathizes often with . ’Tis then alone that monstrous Shapes are seen: Nature still working as before. the Sacrifice of Inter- ests can appear so just. The ambient Air. but o’erpower’d by a superior Rival. ‘‘Here are those Laws which ought not.    Sect. pesti- lential Blasts. which even now transported you. or with feeble Endeav- ours. The central Powers. must not be controul’d to save a fleeting Form. and not perversly or erroneously. how much more reasonably may all in- ferior Natures be subjected to the superior Nature of the World! That World. and rescue from the Precipice a puny Animal. . partakes of this occasional Deformity. P. or whatever else is nutrimental or preservative of this Earth.

. asking what had befall’n me. Whatever they were. ‘‘Afraid!’’ said you. P. agreeable E!’’ Were he my Friend. Truly. and dependent on such pervertible Organs? ‘‘Here then is that Solution you require: and hence those seem. O. I had not so lost ’em neither. I have a strong suspicion that you in- . ’twas by what I thought worse. Nor shou’d I. said I. said you. you suppos’d. Who is there can wonder either at the Sicknesses Sect. you saw. You wou’d have thought indeed that I had been cur’d of my Scepticism and Levity. have some Foundation in me. ere you broke out in admi- ration. and all inA common to that best and [] highest Nature. ‘‘For whose sake. were I [] not afraid. since I cou’d express them with such seeming Affection as I had done. so as never to have rally’d more.’’ I SCARCE had ended these Words. ’Tis Good which is predominant. ‘‘For tho I was like to be perfectly cur’d of my Scepticism. Nor is there ought in this beside what is natural and good. that I shou’d have suted you to a Miracle.     its close Partner. P! that it had been my fortune to have met you the other day. I told you. good P. of Sense. or the Depravity of Minds inclos’d in such frail Bodys. Good. I intreat you? For mine or your own?’’ ‘‘For both. I shou’d hardly treat him in so free a manner. at that wild rate. to revive ’em on occasion.’’ reply’d I. ing Blemishes cast upon Nature. I cou’d wish I had met you rather at that time. perhaps. that of a sudden I had thus chang’d my Character. much less on these which are so serious. said you. on any Subject. whose Conversation had in one day or two made such an Impression on me. just at my Return out of the Country from a Friend. and enter’d into Thoughts.A as not easily. or that those good and serious Impressions of your Friend had without interruption lasted with you till this moment. You never knew a more Enthusiast. which is incorruptible and immortal. downright Enthusiasm. and every corruptible and mortal Nature by its Mortality and Corrup- tion yields only to some better. which must cer- tainly. judg that to be Enthusiasm which you so freely term so.

and harmonious. I unravel’d all his Systems. and their own Wit. than after the fierce un- sociable way of modern Zealots. open. he had nothing of that savage Air of the vulgar enthusiastick Kind. those starch’d gruff Gentlemen. yet Liberty. I told you. For this was singular in him. I found. said I. was finer than all: And I who never car’d to ingage in other Loves of the least continuance. and the Passion it created very noble. at your own hazard. and make me the Author of. Sceptick-like. I thought. by adoring what they neither allow to be inspected by others. that you wou’d hardly suffer me to come to a conclusion. But here I’ll an- swer for it. soft. All was serene. to give you satisfaction. who guard Religion as Bullys do a Mistress. as to make him appear the perfectest E in the World. The manner of it was more after the pleasing Transports of those antient Poets you are often charm’d with. and bore with me when I treated all his Thoughts as visionary. he had nothing of the Bigot. Again and again I bid you beware: ‘‘You knew not the danger of this philosophical Passion. And if any-one might be said to have a natural Mistress. in our Country-ARetirement. my Friend certainly might. ’Twas Nature he was in love with: ’Twas Nature he sung. without recit- ing the main of what pass’d in those two days between my Friend [] and me. was every-where the same. . He heard every thing with Mildness and Delight. But L. and genuine.’’ . All was fair. Ill-humour only excepted. [] nor care themselves to examine in a fairA light. of this which had such a power with my poor Friend. was the more afraid. I was far enough engag’d already: and you were pushing me further.’’ Here was that Character and Description which so highly pleas’d you. ‘‘That tho he had all of the Enthusiast. jure him. and give us the while a very indifferent Opinion of their Lady’s Merit. nor consider’d what you might possibly draw upon your-self.    Sect. there was nothing of Disguise or Paint. whose Heart was thus ingag’d. and when. I must confess. I found. ’Twas impossible. Nor can I be satisfy’d till I hear further of that serious Conversation for which you tax him as Enthusiastick. And tho the Object here was very fine. as Nature herself.

which had hitherto supported me. For ’twas no longer the agreeable Part of a Companion which I had now to bear. BY this time. than proceed any further this night. which. as H teaches. by way of Introduction to my Story. as- sisted me. gave me a clear and perfect Idea of what I desir’d so earnestly to bring back to my Memory. without intermission. as I have accordingly done. confin’d to my Closet. and upon harder terms than ever. I found my-self transported to a distant Country. was at an end. to turn Writer. But here. I might well have thought it hard. P. Your Conversation. propitious Heaven. for your sake. to find my-self under positive Engagements of proceeding in the same philosophi- cal way. being got late to Town. I engag’d. when I awak’d the next Morning. and thus we bad Good-night. and reduc’d to the hard Circumstances of an Author. you see. you set me down at my own Lodging. For if Dreams were. I was now alone. I might conclude I had a favourable one. of the true sort. in some manner. which pre- . and Historian. . But rather Sect. and draw up the Memoirs of those two philosophical Days. sentA from the [] Throne of J.     All I cou’d say made not the least impression on you. oblig’d to meditate by my-self. towards the Morning-light. as I recollected my- self. in the most difficult Subject.A []   P to P A FTER such a Day as Yesterday. methought. beginning with what had pass’d this last Day between our- selves. some hours after the latest of our Company.

’’ On this he shew’d me his Poet. For justly might I hope for such Assistance in behalf of T. After we had embrac’d. Words. and Manner of my Friend. I thought.A TO RETURN therefore to that original rural Scene. to read. and equally good Poets. who can hardly be thought so very [] like. and he came with friendly haste to meet me. as that R Sage by his AE. or retiring from the World. and was. of the Person. The moment he saw me. and that Heroick G. It was a Mountain not far from the Sea. . no less [] belov’d by them. after his usual way. ‘‘if it were of a secret kind. and invited. did you not expect some more mysterious Book than this?’’ I own’d I did. But so powerful was the Impression of my Dream. and ask’d. where.    Sect. and at its foot a River and well-inhabited Plain: beyond which the Sea appearing. No sooner had I consider’d the Place. .’’ Retirement. as I had been inform’d at his House. sented a pompous rural Scene. to read V or H. than I discern’d it to be the very same where I had talk’d with T the second Day I was with him in the Country. which I took to be of so contemplative a kind. ‘‘Now tell me truly. to which I cou’d not be admitted. said he. the Companion and Guide of my first Thoughts in these profounder Subjects: I found him the first Morning with his belov’d Mantuan M. ‘‘P. thoA they were Friends. I discover’d my Curiosity to know what he was reading. its Brow adorn’d with antient Wood. ‘‘I never thought there was any need of growing contemplative. ‘‘that without being contemplative. and calling T! I awak’d. to try my Historical M. You have nam’d two. one can truly relish these diviner Poets?’’ ‘‘Indeed.’’ said he.’’ said he. he was gone out. roving in the Fields. I look’d about to see if I cou’d find my Friend. that I cou’d now fansy myself philosophically inspir’d. his Book vanish’d. ‘‘And do you think.’’ said I. considering his Character. and looking pleasantly. clos’d the Prospect. Yet joining ’em. who so lov’d the Muses. and so perfect the Idea rais’d in me. on this occasion.

since every Enjoyment wears out so soon. Happiness is a thing out of the way. out of the Road and beaten Track of Life. whether Sect. they both join’d heartily. and so on. who by their good-will wou’d never be parted for a moment? Or wou’d they be discreet Friends. and growing painful.     as you are pleas’d to do. But I will venture to say more in favour of Retirement: ‘‘That not only the best Authors. I rejoice to find you in the pursuit Happiness. Say. there shou’d be no such thing as Happiness or Good in Life. but the best Company. there is hope still. and that again by some other.’’ Society it-self cannot be rightly enjoy’d without some Abstinence and separate Thought. is diverted by some other thing. with- out the help of some Intervals of Retirement. they were willing to sacrifice the highest Advantages. without stepping now and then aside. and tiresom. because in all you can think . to love Retirement: when for the sake of such a Life and Habit as you call contemplative. Good. dull. All grows insipid. which forces weaAry’d Mankind to seek relief from every poor Di. however you may wander. Pleasures. tho you doubt whether there be that Thing. as that in which they writ themselves. said I. I am sure. which wants it more than any thing besides. of Happiness and Good. think you. [] version? By your Rule. if Solitude serves as a Remedy or Diversion to any thing in the World. reply’d he. T. I am sure. there is nothing which may not serve as Diversion to Solitude. whether you your-self have not often found it so? Do you think those Lovers understand the Interests of their Loves. that tedious Circle of Noise and Show. who wou’d chuse to live together on such Terms? What Relish then must the World have (that common World of mix’d and undistinguish’d Company) without a little Solitude. in your opinion there be any Disposition so fitted for reading ’em. ’tis sufficient. P. I wou’d willingly learn from you. But see how you have unawares engag’d your- self! For if you have destroy’d all Good. . and only to be found in wandring. Nay. In this. require this seasoning. O P. and Favour of a Court. yet if you reason. And thus there can be no Good which is regular or constant.

other Thoughts. I FIND then. and the short-liv’d G expires. . TheA Things which give it. which was not of as changeable a Nature. For that which Chance may often spare. pag. ’tis trifling to say. and subject to the same common Fate of Satiety and Disgust. ‘‘We chuse what we think eligible’’: and. and alone sufficient to destroy Enjoyment. pag. there is nothing will constantly hold so. ‘‘We are pleas’d with what delights or pleases us. whatever it be. new En- gagements. and chuse as we shou’d do?’’ For as highly pleas’d as Children are with Baubles. depends no less on Humour than on For- tune. All are positive in this. the least of these are fatal.’’ For this has as little meaning as to say. are never at a stay: and the Good it-self. (and very justly in my Opinion) ‘‘That Nothing can be good but what is constant. ‘‘Pleasure is our Good. then you have set it as a Maxim. But when Will and Pleasure are [] synonymous. of. where no-one else will so much as hesitate. Time will not. or imagine ’em Possessors of any extraordinary Good. we * VOL. VOL. . I. You can afford to scepticize. Change of Temper.’’ If they wou’d inform us ‘‘Which. . . ‘‘or What sort.    Sect. Age. Tho the Object be the same. III. For almost every-one philosophizes dogmatically on this Head. reply’d he. a different Passion. the Relish changes. I shou’d then perhaps be better satisfy’d. when everyA thing which *pleases us is call’d P- . that all I know of worldly Satisfaction is incon- [] stant.’’ said I. said I. and we never chuse or prefer but as we please.’’ and ascertain once the very Species and distinct Kind. or Conversation. and equally eligible at all times. Yet are their Senses. that the current Notion of Good is not sufficient to satisfy you. But I shou’d wonder much if you cou’d tell me any thing in Life. a new Turn of Life.’’ I own. ‘‘That our real Good is P.’’ The Question is. such as must constantly remain the same. ‘‘Whether we are rightly pleas’d. or with whatever affects their tender Senses. we cannot in our hearts sincerely admire their Enjoyment. Pleasure.

said I. with this Motto over him. was natural to the Animal. said he. There was no Ab-A [] surdity in the Case. shou’d they be ever so lastingly enjoy’d. have many of ’em the ad- vantage of us. as keen and susceptible of Pleasure as our own. (continuing the same Zeal which T had stirr’d in me. The Food. I shou’d never afford ’em the name of Happiness or Good. For is there that sordid Creature on earth. ‘‘That Tastes are differ- ent.’’ And I remember some such Motto as this plac’d once on a Devise. against those Dogma- tizers on Pleasure). and in the highest credit with their Enjoyers. merely for the Pleasure found in allaying the Ardor of an irritating Sensation. I know. ’Tis said. And as for some low and sordid Pleasures of human Kind. however vile. which was found sutable to the Notion. . A Fly was represented feeding on a certain Lump. the most rancorous distemper’d Creature do as much? Is not Malice and Cruelty of the highest relish with some Natures? Is not a hog- gish Life the height of some Mens Wishes? You wou’d not ask me surely to enumerate the several Species of Sensations. who in respect of the Liveliness and Delicacy of Sensation. Reflection is of force as to mere Animals. as the last Desert. and solac’d in his Pleasure. or a Tyrant in the exercise of his Cruelty. and satisfy’d with what he enjoys? A [] Most certainly I shou’d appeal. which Men of certain Tastes have adopted. and to make way for fresh Re- pletion. and must not be disputed. For with some Men even Diseases have been thought valuable and worth the cherishing. proverbially. who does not prize his own Enjoyment? Does not the frowardest. who by study’d Provocatives raise unnatural Thirst and Appetite. prepare Emeticks. The same Sect. to forbid my Appeal. I shou’d hardly be brought to think the better of his Enjoyment: Nor . the sooner to renew the Feast.     know. Wou’d you then appeal. And to these absurd Epicures those other are near a-kin. But shou’d you shew me a brutish or a barba- rous Man thus taken up. shou’d you shew me a Sot in his solitary Debauch. from the immediate Feeling and Experience of one who is pleas’d. and own’d for their chief Pleasure and Delight.

By this Zeal. reply’d he. I. reply’d T. and must therefore wait till you can better inform me. with a base ab- ject Soul. But what real G is. if we can. is otherwise thought of in another. must be con- sider’d. can I possibly suppose that a mere sordid Wretch. otherwise than by judging first of the Situation of his own Mind. and How to place our-selves in that unbiass’d State.    Sect. and yet very contemptible. said I. and the best Fortune in the World. which you have shewn in the refuting a wrong Hypothesis. there are hardly anywhere at this day a sort of People more peremptory. we must define G. mean. was ever capable of any real Enjoyment. [] or who deliberate less on theA choice of Good. They who pretend * VOL. this Character. which may be very great. pag. I am still to seek. and not by Pleasure it-self. For if I mistake not. . and go in search of what the meanest of Mankind think they already know so certainly: ’tis from a nobler turn of thought than what you have observ’d in any of the mod- ern Scepticks you have convers’d with. ‘‘How to gain that Point of Sight. Nor can any-one truly judg the Value of any immediate Sensation. . one wou’d imagine you had in reality some Notion of a right. and began to think that there might pos- sibly be such a thing at last as Good. in which we are fittest to pronounce. For that which we esteem a Happiness in one Situation of Mind.A another valuable. That there is something nearer to Good. This I only know. then every kind of Sensuality must be precious and desir- able. If some only. sorry.’’ O P.’’ If all. or only Some. what it is which distinguishes between one Pleasure and [] another: and makes one indifferent. and worthy. if it be possible you shou’d have the Fortitude to with-hold your *Assent in this Affair. what kind. And by this Stamp. if there be any such. if this be unfeignedly your Senti- ment. to own. Which Situation therefore is the justest. then we are to seek. and more like it than another. . ‘‘That either All Pleasure is Good. whence probably we may best discern. I am free. and discover.

admit that for Pleasure. and of which he is most profoundly ignorant. they freely own. . any fore- most Opinion or Conceit of G. is far wiser. none of these are said ‘‘To follow Pleasure. I. they are not all of ’em. pag. and assenting to the first Dictate or Report of any prepossessing *Fancy. so insensible as not to perceive something of their own Blindness and Absurdity. The Mathematician who labours at his Problem. I think one may say with assurance. The Satisfactions which are purely mental. is so little taken for such. they suppose they employ this Liberty to per- fection. by following the first Motion of their Will. but knows his Ignorance. [] or Passion will not hereafter lead ’em to a quite different Choice in P. Having gain’d. They deal not fairly with us. and de- * VOL. and in his greatest Concern thinks certainly he knows that which he has least study’d.’’—Comfortable Reflection! To bring the Satisfactions of the Mind. . they know not whether they shall be of a-piece with themAselves. the Artist who endures voluntarily the greatest Hardships and Fatigues. indeed. their own Passions. For often when they seri- ously reflect on their past Pursuits and Engagements. Humour. the book- ish Man who toils. or whether their Fancy. ‘‘That the greatest of Fools is he who imposes on himself. continu’d he. . a Liberty from some seeming Con- straints of Religion. ‘‘That for what remains of Life. are the readiest to take the Sect. and a plain receding from the com- mon Notion of the Word. who in their philosophical Hour. and in the common Practice of Life.’’ He who is ignorant. is only a Collusion. which at an ordinary time. and to a Disapprobation of all they ever enjoy’d be- fore. And to do justice to these fashionable Men of Wit. So that their Privilege is only that of being perpetually amus’d. and the Enjoyments of Reason and Judgment under the Denomination of P. &c.     to such a Scrutiny of other Evidences. Evidence of the greatest Deceivers in the World.’’ Nor will the Men of Pleasure by any means admit ’em to be of their number. as they think. and their Liberty that of being impos’d on in their most important Choice.

‘‘Whether P be really Good’’. and deprives it of the Satisfaction it takes in its natural Exercise and Employment. which in effect is rather opposite to this Enjoyment? ’Tis certain that in re- [] spect of the Mind and its Enjoyments. then Reason and Virtue are call’d in to her Aid. the Specter vanishes: Pleasure returns again to her former Shape: She may e’en be Pleasure still. and made principal parts of her Constitution. there is no harm on either side. and the Objection once solv’d. must in all likelihood be too refin’d for the Apprehensions of our modern Epicures.— By the way. can have but a slen- der Fancy for the mere spiritual and intellectual sort. They who are full of the Idea of such a sensible solid Good. When Pleasure is call’d in ques- tion. who are so taken up with Pleasure of a more substantial kind. pend only on the Motion of a Thought. As sincere as I am in ques- tioning. and have as little concern with dry sober Reason. I am not such a Sceptick as to doubt ‘‘Whether P be really Ill. that when the Men of this sort have recommended the Enjoyments of the Mind under the title of Pleasure. If neither does this. A complicated Form appears. But ’tis this [] latter they set up andA magnify upon occasion. can be no other than I.A the Eagerness and Irritation Pleasure of mere Pleasure. But when the Attack is over. interrupting him. and included in it whatever is men- tally good or excellent. when they have thus dignify’d the Word. and according to common Understanding. But . reply’d he. how is it possible to admit withal that kind of Sensation. she really has. to save the Igno- miny which may redound to ’em from the former. they can afterwards suffer it contentedly to slide down again into its own genuine and vulgar Sense. the latter may take its chance: Its Use is presently at an end. and beautiful in human Life.    Sect. . For ’tis observable. said I.’’ Whatever is grievous. If either throws the Mind off its biass. and attack’d. as in the nature of the thing. honest. of Pain. For if this rational sort of Enjoyment be admitted into the Notion of Good. is as disturbing as the Importunity and Vexation and Pain. whence they rais’d it only to serve a turn. This done. and comprehends straight all which is generous. the Mind in this case must be Sufferer as well by one as by the other.

And if Pain be I.     that what is grievous to one.’’—And thus for any thing of Good which can be expected in Life. without waiting for her Call. and shows That there is nothing you can assign which can really stand as G. But why such Dispatch. and some Pains to others are Pleasures’’: All this. and a kind of natural Succession. and return her Present on her hands. and What not. nothing is. surely. makes still for my Opinion. we may e’en ‘‘Beg pardon of Nature. since Gainers by it we can never be: Losers we may sufficiently. and on many occasions confound one with the other. by mere Cessation. runs into Pain. and (as a wise Man said once) ‘‘join’d the Extremity of one so nicely to the other. is pertinent. Sect. creates again the highest Pleasure. is not so much as troublesom to an. Nay. as it were blended ’em together.’’ Now to be assur’d that we can never be concern’d in . Soldiers. according to your Account. we very well know: since Men vary in their Appre- hension of these Sensations. my good P! is a plain Transgression of your sceptical Bounds. is Pleasure to another.’’ A For what shou’d hinder us? or What are we [] the better for living? The Query. if the Case be doubtful? This. that what is Pain to one. ‘‘That which is now Pleasure. and so alternately. and are like to be. Accordingly. if Pleasure and Pain be thus convertible and mix’d. when carry’d far. that it absolutely runs into it. So that we may fairly doubt. by being strain’d a little too far. but none at all on the better. to come to this Determination. Has not even Nature her-self. said he. and others of the hardy Kinds be witness. other. and Pain. shou’d be just and proper: ‘‘ ’Tis good not to be born. ‘‘What possibly may be hereafter. every hour of our Lives. said I. We must be sufficiently dogmatical. in some respects. not G. if. if I mistake not. concerning Death as Life. . For if Pleasure be Good. if some Pleasures to some are Pains. (as I must necessarily take for granted) we have a shreud Chance on the ill side indeed. and is undistinguishable?’’ A [] IN FINE then. ‘‘Whether L it-self be not mere Misery’’. what our English Poetess says of Good. ’Tis a deciding as well Futurity. let Sportsmen.

before he attempts to alter it. we know not. my Instructor. without variaAtion or diminution. or Where. from one day to another. sagacious T! and inform me. yet this is what can seldom happen. of bettering his Condition. and in some Subjects. however. nor can tell how Chance or Providence.    Sect. we live by Succession. And if Providence be in the case. nor are conscious. to perpetuity. ’Tis in vain we flat- ter our-selves with the assurance of our Interest’s ending with a certain Shape or Form. even this Point remains undetermin’d between Good. that for the time no bodily Sufferance or Pain can alter it. . we have still more reason to consider how we undertake to be our own Disposers. said I. for any reason we can show to the contrary. and is unlikely to last long: since without . any more than how we have since held on. Where be- Futurity. P. we know not. and in what this S of ours consists. perchance. All is Revolution in us. or in What else we may have to do. What interested us at first in it. he must be sure. and give a better reason for our having never been concern’d in ought before our Birth. which can afford [] Contentment and Satisfaction always alike. and only perish and are renew’d.’’ Be you therefore. than merely. in time to come. But as yet.’’ For tho on some Occasions. the Mind may possibly be so bent. or System of Matter. we must understand perfectly what it is which concerns or engages us in any thing present. ‘‘What that G is. may dispose of us. And thus we may happen to be again and again. ‘‘Be- cause we remember not.We are no more the self-same Mat- ter. and continue still concern’d in such an Assemblage of fleeting Particles. It must needs become a S above all Men to hesitate in matters of Exchange. and the Passion so wrought up. hereafter. We must truly know Self. any thing hereafter. we know as little.What Succession [] there may be hereaA fter. We must deter- mine against Pre-existence. of which we have now no Mem- ory or Consciousness remaining. our-selves.’’ For in many things we have been concern’d to purpose. us: ‘‘Whether in this present Life there be not such a thing as real G. And tho he acknowledges no present Good or Enjoyment in Life. since even now. sides.

Or wou’d you look for any thing beyond? Perhaps not. have so good a Taste of Pleasure. P. if this G of yours be not thorowly chime- rical. go beyond this. yet I am content to shew you something of it. and cou’d be made one such intire Act? Here surely wou’d be that fix’d and constant G you sought. after so long Experience? Believe me. For tho I pretend not to tell you at once the Nature of this which I call G. But I can never. orA Bounty practis’d but with increasing [] Joy. publick. as that towards Man- kind? Do you think the Love of Friends in general. in your-self. HEAR then! said T. and the Temper weary’d with Repetition finds no more Enjoyment. the Mind relaxes with its Bent. Never was Love. if all Life were in reality but one con- tinu’d Friendship. and private. For tho a Poet may possibly work up such a single Action. if possible. this generous Pleasure. you are a Friend. but hate yourA Country. you did not feel it less than at this present. but it came readier to do the same again. or Gratitude. surely. and of one’s Country. my Friend! if ever you were weary of doing good to those you lov’d? Say when you ever found it unpleasing to serve a Friend? Or whether when you first prov’d Friendship. said he. but runs to something new. work. [] . I can conceive but very faintly how this high Strain of Friendship can be so manag’d as to fill a Life. to seek for a Chimera. Friendship Answer me. is there any thing you admire. Can any Friendship. P. to be nothing? or that particular Friendship can well sub- sist without such an enlarg’d Affection. this Pleasure is more debauching than any other. so fair as Friendship? or any thing so charming as a generous Action? What wou’d it be therefore. and Sense of Obligation to Society? Say. which made the Practiser still more in love with the fair Act. Tell me.     any Pain or Inconvenience. you who are such a Judg of Beauty. Nor can I imagine where the Object lies of such a sublime heroick Passion. so as to hold a Play out. be so heroick. which you will acknowl- edg to be naturally more fix’d and constant. . said I. Never did any Soul do good. the Passion in a little time does its own Sect. than any thing you have hitherto thought on. with more Enjoyment.

’’ O P. and have so indifferent an Opinion of the Publick. and even heroick. But he who justly proves himself a Friend. ‘‘Do you. He has deserv’d a Friend. as you assert it: But for my part. and refuse to be call’d the Friend. due to Mankind.’’ ‘‘Or does it make the Exercise of Grati- tude less pleasing?’’ ‘‘I think rather the contrary. then. a good Father. by bearing his Failings as a Friend.’’ said I. but false to that of Society. and is Man’s Friend. Say. I might rejoice still in that sure way of shewing my Gratitude to my Benefactor. ‘‘this last is rightest. because of its Misfor- tunes. or Relation.’’ ‘‘And as to Bounty: Tell me. the Friend of Mankind. is what I think will not be disputed by one who claims the Name of Friend. tho not in strictness. be- cause a Child. said I. or according to your high moral Sense. See if this Sentiment be consistent with that Humanity . and seem’d to scorn the Publick. A single Friendship may acquit him. Hardly indeed cou’d I allow the Name of Man to one who never cou’d call or be call’d Friend. Gratitude. or Brother? Or does Nature. when you objected against the Love of Mankind because of human Frailty. take Bounty and Gratitude to be among the Acts of Friendship and Good-nature?’’ ‘‘Undoubtedly: for they are the chief.’’ ‘‘Suppose then. nor is he wanting to Society.    Sect. and so to every Relation in human Life?’’ ‘‘I think. and Humanity better teach us. Reason. I see so very little Worth in Mankind. that I can propose little Satisfaction to my-self in loving either. because a Father. For to say truth. as to this sort of Friendship. Child. is it to those only who are deserving that we shou’d do good? Is it only to a good Neighbour. For when depriv’d of other means of making a Return. does this exclude the Gratitude of the former?’’ ‘‘Not in the least. and to a Child. that the oblig’d Person discovers in [] theA Obliger several Failings. Bounty. . reply’d he. I beseech you. since you renounce the M? That there is something. is M enough. Can you believe your-self? Or will you lay the Name aside. you are true to the Interest of a Companion. consider then what it was you said. to do good still to a Father. it may by wiser Heads be esteem’d perhaps more than ordinarily manly.

your K. and that Society to which we are so deepAly in. who were come to dine with us. require less Kindness from you. if not to Mankind. which knows the thorow Force of it. chief Subject? To what shou’d we be true or grateful in the World. that I fear’d I shou’d never make a good Friend or Lover after his way. merely. ‘‘can you never love except in this manner? when yet I know that you admir’d and lov’d a Friend long ere you knew his Person. to help. I cou’d love the Individual. I cou’d compass it. seek Objects of Compassion. if not here? Where can we ever exert Friendship. but this complex universal sort was beyond my reach.     which elsewhere you own and practise. assist. to give notice of some Company. and friendly manner? And can your Country. I [] told T. and distributing it rightly. or what is more. in the most hos- pitable. or in the case of Strangers here at home. and waited our comingA in. As for a plain natural Love of one single Person in either Sex. I thought. For where can Generosity Sect. Good-nature. I cou’d love nothing of which I had not some sensible material Image. Mystical Love. ‘‘How!’’ reply’d T. rejoice to shew Civility. or deserve less to be consider’d. but not the Species. than even one of these Chance-Creatures?— O P! how little do you know the Extent and Power of Good- nature. Courteousness. exist. going along. or in a grateful Mind can ever lessen the Satisfaction of making a grateful kind return? Can you then out of Good-breeding Good- breeding. In short. just. relieve all who require it. frames in it-self an equal. well enough. if not in this Love of Mankind. and be pleas’d with every Occurrence where you have power to do some service even to People unknown? Can you delight in such Adven- tures abroad in foreign Countrys. terious. and to what an heroick pitch a Soul may rise. a Servant came to us in the Field. So we walk’d home-wards. and from a Temper natural to you. and universal Friendship! JUST as he had ended these Words. This was too mys. Obligingness. when it engag’d you in that long Correspondence which . kind. [] debted? What are the Faults or Blemishes which can excuse such an Omission. Or was P’s Character of no force. too metaphysical an Object for me. .

there. by favour of the Silvan Nymphs: and invoking first the Genius of the Place. were it possible for me to stamp upon my Mind such a Figure as you speak of. said he. methinks. I will answer for it. and most deserving of L. ’Tis enough. and perceive how I must prepare for it: For in the same manner as when I first began to love P. . I shou’d make but an ill Lover. And now. when the eastern Sun (as Poets describe) with his first Beams adorns the Front of yonder Hill. I have known you in love with. ready-drawn. as to make things reciprocal between us. Indeed. and leave you that .    Sect. as may represent this odd Being you wou’d have me love. if you are content to wander with me in the Woods you see. preceded your late personal Acquaintance?’’ ‘‘The Fact. that all those forbidding Features and Deformitys.’’ said I. some Pieces of Antiquity.’’ Methinks.—To-morrow. tho of the perfectest Beauty in the World. in my Mind. you might have the same Indulgence for N or M. of necessity. whom. you allow’d ’em to be no disagreeable Object. and capable of a Return. ‘‘I must. that viewing once a Country. Beauty. and had always such a certain Image of him. This if you can come once to contemplate. I accept the Terms: And if you [] promise to love. I understand your Mystery. whether it stood for Mankind Nature. we will pursue those Loves of ours. or Specter. many ways. will vanish in an instant. it might probably have its effect. whether of Nature or Mankind. said T. that it cou’d be ‘‘sensible of my Love. I was forc’d to form a kind of material Object. we’ll try to obtain at Genius of least some faint and distant View of the sovereign G and first the World. For I remember. so I must endeavour to order it in the Case before us: if pos- [] sibly by your help I can raise anyA such Image. particularly under the Representation of a beautiful Youth Genius of call’d the G of the People. and I might become perhaps a Lover after your way: But more especially. if you cou’d so order it. not- withstanding their Blemishes. as for the People of old R. reply’d I. and which will not fail of a Return.’’ For without this. where the People were thus represented. own to you. I will endeavour to shew you thatA B which I count the perfectest. or Nature. whenever I thought of him. and bring me to fansy of this G.

and out of the way. How comes it then. said I. . and said. But Curiosity had seiz’d you.’’ requires no more than Virtue. and change this Conversation for some other more sutable to our Friends and Table.     Lover I cou’d wish. and which. till I. ’twas necessary to be first a Friend to Mankind. and really counted my-self a good Friend during my whole Life. as were unworthy of you. methought.’’ But how to qualify my-self for such a Friendship. and for a good while we discours’d of News and indifferent things. that even these good Terms themselves Motives. what a Foundation is laid for the En- Y thusiasms I told you of. as it had done me before. I perceiv’d. tho I once thought I had known Friend- ship. P. That Friendship. We had only a Friend or two at dinner with us. to be good and virtuous. because so very odd. we shou’d have concluded in your behalf. gladly laid hold of something dropt by chance concerning Friendship. in saying so. that there were such Terms to be comply’d with. was.—But now. . I long’dA for [] nothing so much as the next day. no little difficulty. or perhaps of a Court it-self. I must own. you have given us a very indifferent Character of your-self. Indeed. If you had spoken thus of the Friendship of any great Man at Court. and the appointed Morning-walk in the Woods. ‘‘How hard it was for you to succeed. for my own part. yet I was now persuaded to believe my-self no better than a Learner: since T had almost convinc’d me. enough!—Let us to our Company. or make Interest with such as govern’d there’’. said T. Terms which for one’s own sake one wou’d naturally covet. For after this first Conversation. ButA ‘‘To deserve well of the Publick. Sect. truly. who had my head still running upon those other Subjects. and had complain’d.   OU see here. in my Opinion (I told you too) were the more dangerous.’’ and [] ‘‘To be justly styl’d the Friend of Mankind. ‘‘That to be a Friend to any one in particular.

had more resemblance (I thought) of E’s. who take up with it any otherwise than as Children do with Physick. is thought but an ill Bargain: and I know few. which. if I may so express it. ‘‘the Enjoyments of Reason or Sense. that you think your-self by this means precluded the fine Tables and costly Eating of our mod- ern Epicures. For I wish’d [] never to eatA otherwise than I now did. than those which now-a-days preposterously pass’d under his name. and . (answer’d T) Temperance. among other things. and hardly ever taken. that it needs be taken upon Terms? If the immedi- ate Practice of Temperance be thus harmless. and no more? This. by it-self. by the way. are its Consequences injurious? Does it take from the Vigour of the Mind. where the Rod and Sweetmeat are the potent Motives. the highest Pleasures in the World were owing to Temperance. But where.    Sect. or Mankind? Is a Gentleman in this sense to be pity’d. consume the Body. They are Children indeed. I protested. and others. reply’d T. even E himself. even of the Religious and Devout. as he stands towards his Friends. so different from his modern Disciples. and render both the one and the other less apt to their proper Exercises. was injuriously suppos’d of me. and that perhaps you fear the being reduc’d to eat always as ill as now. One whom all Men will naturally [] shun. if he cou’d boldly say. made that favourable Report of Temper- ance. and a CorrupterA of Society and Good Man- ners?’’—Shall we consider our Gentleman in a publick Trust. are so ill accepted. he cou’d vie even with the Gods for Happiness’’. I beseech you. as an ill Friend. ex- cept on further Terms? For V. and moderate Use. who need any Force or Persuasion to do what conduces to their Health and Good. For if his Opinion might be taken. If then the merest Studier of Pleasure. and shou’d be treated so. at his Table. are those forbidding Circumstances which shou’d make Virtue go down so hardly? Is it not. how shall we say of this part of Virtue. upon a plain Dish or two. ‘‘That with such Fare as a mean Garden afforded. . ‘‘As One bur- densom to himself. or the Em- ployments and Offices of civil Life?’’ Or is it that a Man’s Circum- stances are the worse for it.

there will be little Virtue or WorthA ascrib’d to [] this patient sober Character. Sect. as a tem- perate Man. wou’d prove the most ravenous. Youth. ‘‘To have a Companion. He wou’d prove as good an Executor. who. at last. renounce their Enjoyment. may have so refin’d their Minds and Tempers. So that our Dinner by this time being ended. as good a Guardian. in any shift or ne- cessity. or Siege. that. and with no regard to circular Healths or Pledges: A Manner which the sociable Men . made it the more pleasant. Every-one drank only as he fansy’d. and eager to provide in the first place for himself. notwithstanding their accustom’d Indulgence. or Which Army for their Country?’’—What think you of our Gentleman. Faith.’’ THE Seriousness with which T spoke this. in a Campain. according to Custom. and Fortune may be as well committed to the Care of this latter Gentleman. or whether he may be more rely’d on. I found still we were in no likelihood of proceeding to a Debauch. and the Wine. if his Appetites are high. and exquisite Refiners on this sort of Pleasure.— And thus. be an ill Choice? Wou’d it indeed be more eligible and delightful. for a Fellow-traveller? Wou’d he. Perhaps the amor- ous Galants. ‘‘The dull temperate Man is no fitter to be trusted than the elegant luxurious one.     see whether he is like to succeed best with this restraining Quality. The Family which en- trusted him wou’d be secure. if we had occasion for such a one’s Service? ‘‘Which Officer wou’d make the best for the Soldiers. and his Relish strong towards that which we call Pleasure? Shall we consider him as a Soldier. and thought more incor- rupt. . and his own exquisite Sensations?’’—I know not what to say where Beauty is concern’d. wou’d happen from the honest Man of Pleasure. and no Dishonour. and set our other Company upon saying a great many good things on the same Subject. in no Order or Proportion. as good a Trustee. rather than violate Honour. or Justice. and advise with our-selves how we might be best defended. in commendation of a tem- perate Life. they can. plac’d before us. in any likelihood. Innocence. Which Soldier for the Officers. upon occasion. as he wou’d a Friend.

when by the wholesom Laws of this LIBERTY. I am far from thinking T so disagree- able a Character. Is not this the Sum of all? the finishing Stroke and very Accomplishment of Virtue? In this Temper of Mind. Legislatress it has obtain’d its Liberty! You. but satisfy’d with what you have liv’d. than the mere Advantage of being sav’d from Intemperance. methinks. and see whether the more shining Virtues will not follow. For if you can be temperate withal towards L. said he (carrying on his Humour) that one might draw the Picture of this moral Dame to as much advantage as that . As for this part of Virtue. generous. unless you will declare your-self a Coward. or Revenues.A which does not naturally flow from such a modest T? Let us once gain this simple plain-look’d Virtue. no Grace or Beauty in that original native Liberty. and independent? A sort of Prop- erty. which sets us free from so many in-born Tyrannys. can you imagine Moral. as a [] heinous Irregularity. and are more than half-seas over. How! said T. . See what that Country of the Mind will produce.    Sect. P. is as material to us to the full.A I own. are you thus far advanc’d? And can you carry this Temperance so far as to Estates and Honours. or conclude it a happiness to be born one. who are Civil. and think it not so great a business. said I. You have pass’d the Channel. can rise a thankful Guest from a full liberal Entertainment. you may be said to have fairly embark’d your-self in this Cause. and Corruption of Good Fellowship. and can represent it to your-self with a thousand several Graces and Advantages. which. by opposing it to Avarice and Ambition?—Nay. or great. I shou’d think. There remains no fur- ther Scruple in the case of Virtue. whether it be of fewer or more Years. as that which secures us our Lands. and from the desire of things unnecessary. of another Scheme of Morals wou’d have censur’d no doubt. what is there can hinder us from forming for our-selves as heroick a Char- [] acter as we please? What is there either good. and makes us our own. such an Admirer of Civil Liberty. then truly. gives us the Privilege of our- selves. I think there is no need of taking it on any other Terms to recommend it.

degraded. serving as her Attendents. old Reverend C. and Strength of Mind. and on her Head a Turret-like Attire: the Image of defensive Power. and lawless Rule of Lust and Passion.’’ BY THIS Picture T.’’—But what a Triumph wou’d her Sister’s be! What Monsters of savage Passions wou’d there appear subdu’d! ‘‘There fierce Ambition. ‘‘V her-self a Captive in her turn. and Plenty. Uproar. Justice. her Guards the Laws. wou’d properly appear drawn by rein’d Lions. VIRTUE. Lust. whom you admire. said I. who from this rough Draught of his fell to de- signing upon the same Subject.’’— I offer’d to go on further. being so violently de- . as Captives. Honour. surrounding her. like Children. with that Prince of Terrors. where we shall see this Triumph in reverse. I will bring you an authentick Picture of another kind. the finest in the world: But after all. were at the Chariot- wheels. when you have made Virtue as glorious and triumphant as you please. A-Dress. had given Entertainment to the Company. with all the Fiends which rage in human Breasts. patient of the Bit. as describ’d to us ‘‘in her Sect. Misrule. And when Fortune her-self. with the Cornucopia.’’—The rest of the PieceA is easy to imagine: ‘‘Her Triumph [] over Tyranny. like Bucklers. and own her Birth from humble Temperance. the Queen of Flat- terys. and in her Train the Arts and Sciences. Death. and by a proud Conqueror triumph’d over. after the antient manner. like some new-born Goddess. wou’d grace her Mother’s Chariot.     of her political Sister. till A [] P and C. Riches. and all the Antients were exhausted. Traffick. spoil’d of all her Honours. . playing. and defac’d. that nursing Mother of the Virtues. how natural wou’d it be to see Fortitude. are. the Descriptions you have been making. but cou’d not. with a free manly Air becoming her. who like the Parent of the Gods. with their written Tables. no doubt. so as to retain hardly one single Feature of real Beauty. wou’d be securely chain’d. I found. Gentlemen. Mag- nanimity. and all that generous Band attend as the Companions of our inmate Lady L! She.

fetching a deep Sigh. be made a Vic- tim. as only an Atheist cou’d have the impudence to make. conceiv’d some hopes of me. said. as my worthy Friends have done.    Sect. which do her perhaps more injury. affirm to you. At last. with any shew of Reason. cry’d by my two Fellow-guests. from the imprudent Man- agement of those who defend the best!—I dare not. You cou’d conceive no tolerable ground for such a Spectacle. notwithstanding he observ’d my Free- dom of Thought. how well you are Master of that Cause you have taken on you to defend! How well you know the way to gain advantage to the worst of Causes. ‘‘That he had hitherto. as . turning himself to his Guests) must have ap- pear’d strange to you. for my own share. expect- ing to hear what he wou’d say. Virtue is often treated so. said he. spurious Philosophy. in an angry Tone. or some false Image of Truth or Nature. or Pleasure. who protested they wou’d never be brought to own so detestable a Picture: And one of ’em (a formal sort of Gentleman. O P. tho he saw I minded not my Antagonists. to hear asserted with such as- surance as has been done by P. and picture her thus disgracefully. as either Vice it-self. and in exposing. indeed.’’ T the while sat silent. somewhat advanc’d in Years) looking earnestly upon me. no doubt. and without any treacherous de- sign.’’—No—There are other over-officious and less sus- pected Hands.A beside a Libertine in Principle wou’d approve of such a Picture of Virtue. tho with a better colour. to mind. (continu’d he. That Virtue shou’d. ‘‘That ’tis the Atheist alone can lay this load on Virtue. Little were you aware that the cruel Enemy Religion oppos’d to Virtue shou’d be R itself! But you will call and Virtue.Wit. but kept my Eye fix’d steddily on himself. In this revers’d Triumph you [] expected perhaps to see some foreign ConAqueror exalted. he thought. . that even innocently. and heard me quoted for such a passionate Lover of Liberty: But he was sorry to find that my Principle of Liberty extended in fine to a Liberty from all Principles’’ (so he express’d [] himself ) ‘‘And none. by those who wou’d magnify to the utmost the Corruption of Man’s Heart.

you will acknowledg. to discover once the true Foundation. but because he must? Or who wou’d value Virtue. Some of ’em hold zealously for Virtue. For ’tis notorious that the chief Opposers of Atheism write upon contrary Principles to one another. and rightly assert the joint-Cause of Virtue and Religion. a Creature of Will only. This is a Subject which possibly may need a better clear- ing. wou’d scarce deny her: and I must still be of opinion. and some another. ’tis such as her greatest Enemy. I had my Wish.A [] Perhaps so. but for hereafter?’’ Truly. with P- ’s leave. if this be the Triumph of Religion. Misery. which [] * VOL. or Rival to R!—* ‘‘Morality must not be nam’d. how many sacred Orators turn all their edge this way. ists. Atheism. I believe. gion. Reason is an Enemy. Yet that there are many such Zealots in the World. that it is no great sign of Tenderness for Religion. Some take one Hypothesis. said the old Gentleman. the Atheist. the Falshood of human Virtue. III.     they pretend. I shou’d be glad Naturalists. Nature has no pretence. pag. Who wou’d not be vitious. For by degrees I engag’d T toA discover himself fully upon these Subjects. you hear. one may say. so as in a manner to con- fute themselves. Nominal. T. . and are Realists in the Point. Folly. had he his Choice? Who wou’d forbear. Others. Sect.—But let us hear him out. and strike at moral Virtue as a kind of Step-dame. said I. ’Tis the same in natural Philosophy: Real. MORAL- ISTS. . and Virtue. HERE. are only nominal Moral. P. to Zeal be so zealous in honouring her at the cost of Virtue. How many religious Authors. has allow’d. if perhaps he will be so free as to discover to us what he thinks of the generality of our religious Writers. think to extol Reli. And that there is a certain Harmony between this Zeal and what you call Atheism. interrupting him. or a mere Name of Fashion. by making Virtue nothing in it-self. and distinguish those who effectually refute their other Antagonists as well as the Atheists. and their Method of encountring their common Enemy. . Common Justice.

  T ’ be undoubtedly. But since ’tis not impossible to write ill even in the best of Causes. I have the benefit of such Managers as shou’d never give their Ad- versarys any handle of advantage against it. for the approach of which. and expect to be approv’d still for their Zeal.— Perhaps then. So that had this been at a Uni- versity. I cou’d wish that in the Cause of R we had reason to boast as much. If his Specu- lations prov’d of a rational kind. They con- quer for themselves. Atheist. I so impatiently long’d. equal hazard with any other. T might very well have pass’d for some grave Divinity-Professor. there wou’d be an end . are apt generally to use soA much the less caution. wou’d help me to comprehend ’em. Here then began his Criticism of Authors. however the Cause it-self may have suffer’d in their hands. serv’d as a Prelude to those we were to ingage in. (interrupting him) it may be true enough. if only pleasing Fancys.    Sect. or Teacher of Ethicks. which grew by de- grees into a continu’d Discourse. the next Morning. Their Adversary is well secur’d and silenc’d to their hand. or as a profess’d Antagonist. what was said once by a Person who seem’d zealous for Religion. whilst no direct Attack robs them of their imaginary Victory. and can often reach the Cause without offence to its Maintainers. to please my-self the better with ’em. reading an Afternoon Lecture to his Pupils. since they who write in defense of [] it. . a happy Cause which cou’d Divinity. I am in- clin’d to think this great one of Religion may have run at least an Divines. where he cannot appear openly. this wou’d help me however. as they are more exempt from the fear of Censure or Criticism in their own Person. said I. They may safely provoke him to a Field. who drew the Warrant for their Execution. I knew. ‘‘That none writ well against the Atheists beside the Clerk. reply’d he. His Weapons are private.’’ If this were the true Writing. this previous Discourse. said he.

seems rational and just: But I’m afraid that most of the devout People will be found ready to abandon the patient. more discreet and sober part of Unbelievers. tho not the other. wou’d meet with fewer Admirers. who being obnoxious to them. is therefore punishable. and sets up an Opinion against the Interest of Mankind. . He who denies. I apprehend you. so there are two ways of writing against them. ’tis a mere Sound which troubles us. will be hard to say. and had power toA exercise an Inquisition within the [] inmost Bosoms and secret Thoughts of Men. who come not under the dispatching Pen of the Magistrate. can be affected only by the more deliberate and gentle one of Philosophy. Reason has nothing to do. said I. And therefore if Athe- ists are to be reason’d with. You wou’d set aside mere Menaces. Sect. as well as over Actions and Behaviour. sary. has little in common with that of Philosophy. but by Reason. for the more concise Method. Force in the mean while must be laid aside: For there is no Enforcement of Reason. And by your account. at all. For where Force is neces. like otherA Men. [] This I own. but not so well jointly. Now he who doubts. ’Tis easily seen that one of these Persons may bear a due respect to the Magistrate and Laws. they are to be reason’d with. the former is punishable by Man. since there’s no other way in nature to convince ’em. But on the other hand. yet your other way of Reason without Force. and Being of Society. I am apt to think. by being made to describe two Characters so very different as His who absolutely denies. taking it for granted. The Word or Name of Atheist may possibly occasion some disturbance. unless the Magistrate had dominion over Minds. But perhaps. said I. And tho Force without Rea- son may be thought somewhat hard. Nothing can be more unbecoming the magisterial . and separate the Phi- losopher’s Work from the Magistrate’s. Now the Language of the Magistrate. if Reason be needful. may possibly lament his own Unhappiness. and His who only doubts.     of all Dispute or Reasoning in the Case. and wish to be convinc’d. which may be fitly us’d apart. is daringly presumptu- ous. that the Magistrate. I must confess. But how Punishment. as there are two sorts of People who are call’d Atheists. reply’d T.

perhaps. in the Cause before us. that tho the whole World were no less satisfy’d with his Capacity and Learn- ing. ‘‘If any one besides the Magistrate can be said to write well. you may remember how a cer-A tain Fair I (as you call’d it) was receiv’d. by entering the Lists in defense of a Friend unjustly censur’d for this philosophical Liberty. You know the common Fate of Jealousy of those who dare to appear fair Authors. it prov’d so. learned Man’s Case.’’ Forgive me. I am sorry. Authority than a philosophical Style: and nothing can be more unphilosophical than a magisterial one. for having only stated their Reasons. yet was he acus’d of giving the upper hand to the Atheists. that this had really been my Aim: And that for this reason alone I made my-self the . And therefore. And [] among other Writings of this kind. T. and were the Guardians of the publick Worship. were Sharers in these free Debates. And for a Proof. But now indeed you have found a way which may. and those of their Adversarys. . or prejudicial to the Vulgar: since we find it to have been a Practice both in Writing and Converse among the great Men of a virtuous and religious People. force me to discourse at large with you on this head.’’ reply’d he. ‘‘For what can be more equitable?’’ ‘‘Noth- [] ing. ’tis H (ac- cording to your account) who writes as becomes Philosophy. with Freedom of Debate. than with his Sincerity in the Cause of Deity. such as are now present. I confess’d to T and the Company. A Mixture of these must needs spoil both.’’ ‘‘Allow it. and Fairness towards his Adversary. that still this reaches not the Case before us. who wrote the Intellectual System of the Uni- verse? I confess it was pleasant enough to consider. and what offence was taken at it. we have many Instances in Antiquity to produce. and that even those Magistrates who officiated at the Altars. ButA will the World be of the same Opinion? And may this Method of writing be justly practis’d in it?’’ ‘‘Undoubtedly it may. fairly together. said T. The Freedom taken in this philosophical way was never esteem’d injurious to Religion. said I. Philosophy. We are to consider Christian Times. if I presume to say. What was that pious and Authors.    Sect.

as in his Opinion . We all answer’d for our-selves. is thought to be rather increasing. ’tis thought. or in refuting such particular Doctrines as are esteem’d Innovations in the Christian Church. orA whether some other may not be prefer’d. and he began thus. on the other side. ‘‘Whether in our Age and Country the same Remedys may serve. with no less than Profane- ness. in an Affair of such a compass. So that it may well deserve some Consideration. There are not. for reasoning so unconcernedly and patiently. which have hitherto been try’d. and scarce becoming them. many Persons in the World who are loose in the very Grounds and Principles of all Religion: And to such as these we find. ‘‘Whom I here actually charg’d.’’ This might be enough to put an Author upon thinking of such a way of reasoning with these deluded Persons.’’ And I. as I did Sect. and a future State. either in support- ing the Truth of the Christian Faith in general. indeed. upon the Subject of a Deity. all those other moderate calm Writers. it Authors. am rather for this patient way of Reasoning.     Accuser of this Author. however small. . whose Number. and whom we find by Experience to be with the greatest difficulty reclaim’d. reply’d T. to argue sedately with such as are almost universally treated with Detestation and Horror. They may think it a mean La- bour. as being sutable [] to Times of less Strictness in Matters of Religion.A [] OF THE many Writers ingag’d in the Defense of Religion. and this too among the People of no despicable Rank. and Places less subject to Authority. and will endeavour to clear my Friend of this Imputation. so we cannot surely avoid having a real Concern for those whom we apprehend to be under the worst of Errors. without the least shew of Zeal or Passion. there are not many Writers who purposely apply themselves. if you can have patience enough to hear me out. But as we are requir’d by our Religion to have Charity for all Men. seems to me that the greatest part are imploy’d. Neither ought they perhaps in prudence to be treated with so little regard.

   Sect. on Principles. and becoming their Character. even on the Subject of a Deity. might be more effectual for their Benefit. they wou’d be far from finding that Im- partiality and Indifference which is requisite: if instead of a Readi- ness to comply with whatever Consequences such an Examination [] as this. and willing to examine every thing with the greatest Unconcern and Indifference. by remov- ing those greatest. by keeping the fairest Measures he possibly can with the Men of this sort. which arise from the Vices and Passions of Men. nor cou’d rightly be believ’d. He offers to conclude nothing positive himself. ‘‘That what was never question’d. ’Tis upon this account he endeavours chiefly to establish Virtue mental Principles. Nor was it so absurd to imagine that a quite different Method might be attempted.’’ Funda. ’tis to be fear’d. in the first place. For to such Persons as these. was never rightly examin’d. in different Circumstances. . ’twill always appear. been examin’d with perfect Indifference. offer’d as an Essay or Inquiry only. as he appear’d un-prepossess’d. the Author shou’d shew a previous Inclination to the Consequences only on one side. if not only Obstacles to it. to reconcile these Persons to the Principles of Virtue. and theA Course of Reasoning brought forth. Our Author. and arguing with a perfect Indifference. a Way might be laid open to Religion. and an Abhorrence of any Conclusion on the other. at some time or other. by which he is able to argue with thoseA who are not [] as yet induc’d to own a G. endeavours to shew Civility and Favour. was never prov’d: and That whatever Subject had not. than the repeated Ex- clamations and Invectives with which most of the Arguments us’d against them are commonly accompany’d. or Future State. That by this means. ‘‘How. allow- ing ’em all he is able. on the contrary. whose Character exceeds not that of a Layman. may perhaps have found it necessary. but leaves it to others to draw Conclusions from his Prin- ciples: having this one chief Aim and Intention. Others therefore. If he cannot do thus . by which a Writer might offer Reason to these Men with so much more Favour and Advantage.’’ And in a Treatise of this kind. to shew all man- ner of Detestation both of the Persons and Principles of these Men.

not even on the Supreme Will it-self.’’ All Affectation. and plain dealing: For this every one who philoso- phizes may easily understand. I dare say. what you lately call’d a Realist. is govern’d by it. P. Nominal. and cannot with. and in some measure independent on Religion. in re- spect of V. I must own. out Affectation defend the Principles of Religion’’:A But this I will [] venture to assert. . and setting ’em apart out of the Universe and Nature of Things. he endeavours to shew. in a manner.’’ And notwithstanding he has thus made V his chief Subject. and ever uniform with it. and O by a Deity. only a Name of V make no more of D. and in the nature of Things: not arbitrary or factitious. . you will be so ingenuous. and challenge those who assume a Name to which their Philosophy can never in the least intitle ’em. which can no-way govern it: but being necessarily good. but chiefly in Philosophy. when we wou’d prove M by Favour. This is ingenuous.When  S questions. nor endure any unfound or inconsistent Hypothe- sis. ‘‘That it is really something in it-self.—This our Friend seeks to redress. Real. Sect. prove as very a Realist in D. when as yet its Merit and Excellence is unknown? We begin surely at the wrong end. Commend me to honest E. I think unpardonable. he reckons he does nothing. must of necessity. who raises his D aloft in the imaginary Spaces. by the same Scheme of Reasoning. For being. ness be intelligible to those who know not what Goodness it-self is? Or how can Virtue be understood to deserve Reward. or Will. who can give no quarter to ill Reasoning. or dependent on Custom.     much. ‘‘That those who make Theists. as to reject our modern D. I wou’d not willingly advance it as a Rule. ‘‘That whoever sincerely defends V. P. Fancy. (if I may so speak) not consti- tuted from without. And you. yet I fansy he may possibly appear at last as high a Divine as he is a Moralist. and is a Realist in M. makes nothing of ’em beyond a Word. ‘‘Whether a real Theology can be rais’d out of Philosophy alone. seem inclin’d to favour. For how can Supreme Good. The same Ingenuity belongs to those Philosophers whom you.

For Revelation it-self. you will learn best from the Con- sequences of his Hypothesis. that Notion of Divine L.    Sect. to lay such a Foundation as is insufficient to bear the Structure. Now whether our Friend be unfeignedly and sincerely of this latter sort of real Theologists. Nothing can be more unbecoming than to talk magisterially and in venerable Terms of ‘‘A supreme N. whether there be any thing in Divinity which you think has more the Air of Enthusiasm than Divine Love. is founded on the Acknowledgment of a divine Existence: And ’tis the Province of Philosophy alone to prove what Revelation only supposes. when all the while a Providence is never meant. nor any thing like Order or the Government of a Mind admitted. such as separates from every thing worldly. as must set us in Action. . nor admits of any other Thought of . in other Cases. and unmix’d. for those who wou’d be Builders. be fair War: But in philo- sophical Disputes. pure. will easily conceive. without the help of Revelation’’. which has no other Object than merely the Ex- cellency of that Being it-self. or meanly-interested? A L which is simple. and undertake this proving part. as with the Generality of the World must pass at least for high Religion. Supplanting and Undermining may. whether instead of ending in mere Speculation. All the Dutys [] of R evidently follow hence. the Notion is not dry.A and no exception remains against any of those great Maxims which Revelation has establish’d. and real Divinity acknowledg’d. and barren. He can impose on no-one who reasons deeply: since whoever does so. that at this rate Theology must have no Foun- dation at all. when you see such a Structure rais’d. but such Con- sequences are necessarily drawn from it. sensual. it leads to Practice: And you will then surely be satisfy’d. For I appeal to you. as a most unfair way. I look on it. You will observe. For when these are understood. and  D’’. for no less than E. and with some. ’tis not allowable to work under-ground. or as in Sieges by the Sap. he does no more than pay a hand- [] som ComApliment to Authority and the receiv’d Religion. we know. and find Employment for our strongest Affections. in all likelihood. therefore. P. an infinite Being.

than in its single Fruition. That tho the disinter- ested Love of G were the most excellent Principle. as in a man- ner to have given up Devotion. he wou’d in the first place. then. in what they call their Rational Reli- gion. upon the Principles of these RELIGION. to guard Religion from the Imputation of Mercenari. On the other hand. . as formerly among the Mysticks of the antient Mysticks. Here. if it be shewn that he has espous’d this Notion. illiberal. to reduce it to such a Philosophy as will allow no room to that other Principle of Love. that by the indiscreet Zeal of some devout well-meaning People it had been stretch’d too far. therefore. For tho it be natural enough (he wou’d tell you) for a mere political Writer to ground his great Argument for Religion on the necessity of such a Belief as that of a future Reward and Punishment. Church. For as. and in the Christian Religion more especially. yet. whom these of latter days have follow’d.A [] According. and in reality had left so little of Zeal.     Happiness. and as profess’d Enemys to what they call Enthusiasm. on the other hand. Affection. yet he knew very well. For how shall one deny. that there were those who in opposition to this devout mys- tick way. as to make them much suspected of their Sincerity in any. we have two sorts of People (according to my Friend’s account) who in these opposite Extremes expose Religion to the Insults of its Adversarys. will take it as a substantial proof of my Friend’s being far enough from Irreligion. from Arguments familiar even to those who oppose Religion. so. and thinks of making out this high Point of Divinity. had so far exploded every thing of this ecstatick kind. Now I dare presume you Sect. ’twill be found difficult to defend the Notion of that high-rais’d Love. to his Hypothesis. and a slavish Spirit. cooler Men. perhaps even to Extravagance and Enthusiasm. declare to you. or Warmth.A for so much as [] aiming at what is call’d Disinterestedness. if you will take his Opinion. ’twill be found as hard a Task. ness. or teaching the Love of God or Virtue for G or V’s sake. espous’d with so much warmth by those devout Mysticks. but treats all of that kind as Enthusiasm. that to serve God . ’tis a very ill Token of Sincerity in Reli- gion. on one hand. by way of prevention. liberal.

‘‘That altho this Service of Fear be allow’d ever so low or base: yet R still being a Discipline. and Progress of the Soul towards Perfection. shou’d be our Motive: But that where thro’ the Corruption of our Nature. yet at least in this imperfect one? And is it not to be shewn. ‘‘Godliness. On this Foundation our Friend presumes it easy to defend R. from such a Concession as this? Or what Detraction is it from the Be- lief of an After-Reward or Punishment. and even that de- voutest Part. we are led from this servile State. of more sublime Instruction. which is esteem’d so great a Paradox of Faith. so as to endeavour ‘‘That the Excellence of the Object. and on no account be undervalu’d or neglected. if not in the better way. is that. . in it-self? ’’ And where is the Injury to Religion. ‘‘which pro- ceeds from an Esteem or Love of the Person serv’d. For if Object there be in Nature such a Service as that of Affection and Love. of Love. is not equal to that which is voluntary and with In- [] clination. the Motive of Reward and Punishment Rewards and is primary and of the highest moment with us. or for Interest merely. brought in aid.’’ say they. a Sense of Duty or Gratitude. there needs no more. as good and amiable. ‘‘is great Gain: [] norA is G devoutly serv’d for nought. or to any other Superior. whether there . how can R be any longer subject to the Imputation of Mercenariness? But thus we know Religion is often charg’d.    Sect. till being capable Punish- ments. and a Love of the dutiful and grateful Part. by Compulsion. there remains then only to consider of the Object.’’—Is this therefore a Re- proach? Is it confess’d there may be a better Service. the former of these Motives Supplemental is found insufficient to excite to Virtue. to own ‘‘That the Service caus’d by it. that Obedi- ence to the Rule of Right shou’d some way or other be paid. to the generous Service of Affection and Love? ’’ To this it is that in our Friend’s Opinion we ought all of us to aspire. a more generous Love?—Enough. not the Reward or Punishment.’’ Now this being once establish’d. but is rather disingeAnuous and of the slavish kind?’’ Is it not still for the Good of Mankind and of the World. there the latter shou’d be Motives. is servile and mercenary? Is it not evident. that the only true and liberal Service paid either to that supreme Being.

and Vice in a great measure its own Punishment. and easily resolve [] our-selves why Things were not compleated in this State. They are at a loss for Providence. And this Object. must of necessity be the most amiable. and of high- est Satisfaction and Enjoyment. perhaps. and due Order in this World. and all set right again on the supposal of a future State. the World alone (if I may say so) by its wise and perfect Order must evince. cellence in Things. and the blackest Representation of Society and Human Nature. For if there be divine Ex. the Objection which arises hence [] against a D may be easily remov’d. they will be inclin’d to judg the Cause. who is secure of Hereafter. ’Tis true: tho the Appearances hold ever so strongly against Virtue.     be really that supreme-One we suppose. and seek to find it in the World. they will presume to think unfavourably of all above. they may soon. For if Virtue be to it-self no small Reward. and by the Fate of Virtue to determine of a Providence. ORDER. the most ingaging. by solving the best he can those untoward Phaenomena and ill Signs. is sufficient to clear every dark Cloud of Providence. if there be in Nature a supreme Mind or D. be Previous Proof. But the case is otherwise as to the People we are here to encounter. we have a solid ground to go upon. From so uncomely a Face of things below. but their . Justice. of all others.A We apprehend a larger Scheme. Now that there is such a principal Object as this in the World. is what our Author so earnestly maintains. And that it really does so. For he needs not be over-and-above sollicitous as to the Fate of V in this World. But being once convinc’d of Order and a Providence as to things present. ’Twill be difficult for ’em to read Providence in such Characters. This Order. The plain Foundations of a distributive A Providence. if indeed perfect. This to a Christian. satisfy’d even of a future State. . we have then an Object consummate. and comprehensive of all which is good or excellent. excludes all real I. may lead us to conceive a fur. ther Building. convinc’d of so great a Point. By the Effects they see. The Aggravation of the appearing Disorders in worldly Affairs. will hardly help ’em to this View. taken from the Course of Providence in the seemingly unequal Lot of Virtue in this World. or one already Future State. Sect. and in faAvour of Vice.

Accomplishment reserv’d rather to some further Period. she is not however abandon’d or left miserable. and from abroad? But as many as are the Difficultys which Virtue has to encounter in this World. represents a very Chaos. Men to the Thoughts of a better World. and secure that first step to it. except from Hardship? What Virtue without a Con- flict. where had been the Trial. For a disorder’d State. . may be said in behalf of a future State. her Force is yet superior.    Sect. She has enough to raise her above Pity. Vice uncontroul’d. how probable must [] it appear. had Goodness never met with Opposition. to those who question Revelation. Magnanimity? Whence have these their being? What Merit. Expos’d as she is here. tho not above our Wishes: and as happy as we see her here. we have room for further Hopes in her behalf. than to magnify Disorder.We must contend for Order. Her present Portion is sufficient to shew Providence already ingag’d on her side. and reduces us to the belov’d Atoms. so far as to render it an unhappy Choice with respect to this World? They err widely. where Virtue is concern’d. in our Friend’s opinion. or whence their Names? Where had been Temperance or Self-denial? Where Patience. A Providence must be prov’d lation. Victory. Chance. by making ’em think so . Meekness. For had the good and virtuous of Mankind been wholly prosperous in this Life. and Confusion of the Atheists. and exaggerate (as some zealous People do) the Misfortunes of Virtue. nor Merit ever lain under a Cloud. that this proviAdential Care is extended yet further to a succeeding Life. in which all present Care of Things is given up. and in this part chiefly. All must not be refer’d to a Hereafter. the Recapitu. What therefore can be worse done in the Cause of a Deity. from what we see of Order in things present. and perfected hereafter? This is what. and Virtue neglected. And since there is such Provision for her here. or Crown of Virtue? Where had the Virtues had their Theater. such Hap- piness and such Advantages even in this Life. who propose to turn Future State. Belief of a Deity and Providence. ’Tis this must render Revelation probable. and the Encounter of such Enemys as arise both within.

. will make ’em the less believe a Deity. that among the Antients the great Motive which in. R in Conclusion. that it is truly our Author’s Design. was ever the less inclin’d to the Belief of a future Favourers of the Opinion. Heroes. and makes its Cause triumphant. State. [] by having the most elevated Opinion of Virtue. a looser Faith. are the readiest to embrace that Opinion which renders it so illustrious. On the contrary. and draw hence an Acknowledgment of that Wisdom. clin’d so many of the wisest to the Belief of this Doctrine unreveal’d to ’em. Goodness. that of Love. Nor can it be thought sincerelyA that any Man. .’’ Upon the whole then. as might form in ’em a Notion of Order in Things. then. to lead ’em into such an Apprehension of the Constitution of Mankind and of human Affairs. Deliverers. but not the more a future State. than the Love of Friendship. and its greatest Principle. in applying him-self with so much Fairness to the Men of looser Principles. general. for defend- ing a Principle on which the very Notion of G and Goodness deApends? For this he says only. Nor is there at this day any thing capable of making this Belief more engaging among the Good and Virtuous Friendship. that as they who are Favourers of Vice are always the least willing to hear of a future Existence. rejected and expos’d. and by making Re- wards and Punishments the principal Motives to Duty. whose Virtues they were desirous shou’d live and be immortaliz’d. it will ever be found. For to declaim in this manner against Virtue to those of Sect. which creates in ’em a Desire not to be wholly separated by Death. but that they may enjoy the same bless’d Society hereafter. and the Cause of a Deity is betray’d. the Founders and Preservers of Societys. for exalting Virtue merely. and this is the Sum of all: ‘‘That [] by building a future State on the Ruins of Virtue. be deem’d an Enemy to a future State? How can our Friend be judg’d false to Religion. How is it possible. so they who are in love with Virtue.     ill of this. the Chris- tian Religion in particular is overthrown. we may justly as well as charitably con- clude. Antients. that an Author shou’d. the Legislators. Thus it was. was purely the Love of Virtue in the Persons of those great Men. Patri- ots. and of the Hap- piness it creates.

[] which ends commonly in Censure and Dislike. not out of any fancy for the Musick. often persecute a reputed Singer. THUS. I hope. they might be prepar’d for that divine Love which our Reli- gion wou’d teach ’em. at large. and intreating him. That . and be forc’d to make some new Model of a Sermon upon his Sys- tem of Divinity.    Sect. And I assur’d our Companions. . to let us hear him.A However it might be. and our Strangers gone. and his Friend. again and again. I can never think of satisfying you in any ordinary way of Conversation. But these being over. I might be ingag’d deeply in spiritual Affairs. and Beauty. and form themselves to its sacred Character. (all except the old Gentleman. that being thus far become Prose- lytes. and. said he. in his theological way. continu’d he. but to satisfy a malicious sort of Curiosity. we shou’d easily get the better.   J UST as he had made an end of speaking came in some Visi- tants. which is supreme. which may have shewn him to you perhaps a good Moralist. we told him we were resolv’d to per- sist. I will comply on this Condition. by laying claim to his Ser- mon. who had din’d with us) we began a-new with T. I have made my Friend’s Apology. [] no Enemy to Religion. that if they wou’d second me heartily in the manner I intended to press him. However. In revenge then. Shou’d I offer to go further. you will acquit me for what I have already perform’d. said he. who took us up the remaining part of the Afternoon in other Discourses. when once they shou’d embrace its Precepts. I am in hopes. This he complain’d was persecuting him: As you have seen Com- pany.A But if you find still that the Divine has not appear’d so much in his Character as I promis’d. now that in good earnest Matters are come well nigh to Preaching.

’’ I consented to all the Terms. from whence the laborious Hinds were now retiring. And it being my fortune (as having acquir’d a little Insight into the nature of Simples) to say something they mightily approv’d upon this Subject. He wou’d have been apt enough of his own ac- cord to interrupt your Discourse by his perpetual Cavils. Our Friends began to admire some of the Plants. ‘‘O my in- genious Friend!’’ said he. How is it possible that with such Insight. Truly. with such Dis- courses. and of the Order and FrameA of N? [] Who better than your-self can shew the Structure of each Plant .     since I am to sustain the part of the Divine and Preacher. and ‘‘That there be no answering to whatever is argu’d or advanc’d. since I was sure of being so thorowly convinc’d by him. and accurate Judgment in the Particulars of natural Beings and Operations. I doubt not. and the Nature of the Soil. ‘‘whose Reason. ACCORDINGLY we took our Evening-Walk in the Fields. than a Chamber. T immediately turning about to me. that. it shall Sect. the Part you have propos’d for him is so natural and sutable. if he wou’d vouchsafe to undertake me. be at P’s cost. and told T I wou’d stand his MarkA willingly: And besides. said the old Gentleman. and stand for the Person preach’d to. and discours’d a-while of Hus- bandry. and the free Air suting better. Therefore since we have now had Entertainment enough by way of Dialogue. I shou’d count it no Unhappiness. that you had spar’d your-self the trouble of putting him thus in mind of his proper Character. I desire the Law of S may be strictly observ’d. the Evening being fine. I cou’d wish rather. if I really were that Infidel he was [] to suppose me. as he thought. which grew here to great perfection. he will be able to act it without the least Pain. . you shou’d no better judg of the Structure of Things in general. who shall bear the Part of the Infidel. in other respects. We fell naturally into the Praises of a Country Life. T then propos’d we shou’d walk out. must be allow’d so clear and happy.

and and Parts. WHOLE the Whole it-self shou’d have neither Union nor Coherence. are Master of a nobler Mind. perplex’d with froward Thought. tell the Uses. that ’tis no more than natural for them to find fault. and other innumerable Parts of the Creation. than the Idea or Sense of Proportion. declare the Office of every Part and Organ. and conspiring fitly within themselves. that where there are Parts so variously united. ’Twas not its Intention to leave us without some Pattern of Imperfection. and understand so little the Anatomy of the World and Nature. Order and Proportion.A not to allow all? Can you induce yourself ever to believe or think. my Friend. Ends. and be esteem’d like what- soever can be thought of. rude. . and so irregularly form’d within themselves. and Animal-Body. which N her-self wants! That Beings which arise from Nature shou’d be so perfect. the Universal-one shou’d want Perfection. and Organi. [] and that which is ungovern’d and accidental! between the reAgular . where inferior and private Natures are often found so perfect. and imperfect? ‘‘Strange! That there shou’d be in Nature the Idea of an Order and Perfection. and those powerful Arts founded on their Management and Use. Can you [] answer it to your-self.What a dif- ference there is between Harmony and Discord! Cadency and Con- vulsion! What a difference between compos’d and orderly Motion. and imagine a thousand Inconsistences and Defects in this wider Constitution. most monstrous. therefore. as to discover Imperfection in her Constitution. and without defect. as not to discern the same Relation of Parts. Hence all the Force of Numbers. You are conscious of better Order within. to render every private-one infallible. allowing thus much. ’Twas not. and can see Workmanship and Exactness in your-self. the same Consistency and Uniformity in the Universe! ‘‘Some Men perhaps there are of so confus’d a Thought. we may presume. But you. shou’d you prove so ill a Naturalist in this W. or more closely interwoven with our Souls. and Advantages to which they serve? How zation. such as we per- ceive in Minds. the absolute Aim or Interest of the Universal Nature. like these.    Sect. and be wise enough to correct that Wisdom by which they were made! ‘‘Nothing surely is more strongly imprinted on our Minds.

] Lucan. [Our fellowship is most like to the stones of an arch. The arch would fall if it were not held up by the stones blocking each other.] Cicero de Oratore. or even of vision. are Parts constituent of one W. . with all its exterior and interior Ornaments. but are. & Virtus? Superos quid quaerimus ultra? Jupiter est quodcunque vides. with all its Branches. or are. aut quo caetera si careant. [Indeed. Epist. quod aut avulsum à caeteris per seipsum constare. Book IV. intire Systems. hoc ipso sustinetur. Chap. whatever the Perfec. & una vi. tion may be of any particular Systems. Estne Dei Sedes. atque una consensione naturae constricta esse dixerunt. That whatever Things have Order. an Edifice. For there is no kind of thing which can stand alone if torn from the rest. unum est: membra sumus corporis magni. those old authors seem to me to have had greater power of imagination. if withdrawn from the rest. . and a Mist or Cloud driven by the Wind! ‘‘Now as this Difference is immediately perceiv’d by a plain in- ternal Sensation. Union. atque aeternitatem conservare possint. [What house is there for the god save earth and sea and air and sky and virtue? Why do we look for the gods outside ourselves? All that you see. lib. or Form within themselves. the same have Unity of Design. or any excellent Piece of Musick. multo plus etiam vidisse videntur. L of human Understanding. System. yet if they are not united all in general. and concur in one. nisi invicem obsta- rent. .] Seneca. than is given to the penetration of our minds. an Animal. What else is even a Tune or Symphony. quocunque moveris. we are the limbs of one great body. lib. Et Coelum. . of which God and man form parts. vim suam. II. [All that you see. nisi Terra. . inA respect of one [] * Vid. would suffer them to keep their functions and duration. Nullum est enim genus rerum. than a certain System of proportion’d Sounds? ‘‘Now in this which we call the U. when they declared that everything above and below us is one and bound together by one force and one harmony of Nature. quàm quantum nostrorum ingeniorum acies intueri potest: qui omnia haec. is one. or whatever single Parts may have Proportion. Ac mihi quidem Veteres illi majus quiddam animo complexi. is Jupiter. quae supra & subter. §. and a Heap of Sand or Sect. quo divina atque humana conclusa sunt. Omne hoc quod vides. Unity. all that you feel. in themselves. & Pontus. Stones! between an organiz’d Body. in *O System. so there is withal in Reason this account of it. Such is a Tree. .     and uniform Pile of some noble Architect. with all its Members. & AEther. unum esse.] Ibidem. Societas nostra Lapidum fornicationi simillima est: quae casura. or which.

with the Tree. and Water. as Appendices. but all apparently united. Fins for the Water. and by other correspondent inward Parts of a more curious Frame and Texture. . can be allow’d in the same manner compleat. so much are the very Leaves. and uniform D. Union. or Clouds. insisted on: That neither Man. of the Sun to this inhabited Earth. then there being no Coherence in the Whole. or breaking Waves. and consequently no Project or Design. Feet for the Earth. and Fruits of these Trees fitted to the various Animals: These again to one another. as the driven Sands. this to the World (our Earth. as to all without. we must of necessity view All in One. according to one simple. till he had well survey’d this Universal Scheme. and to which they are. as much as the strong and upright Trunk of the Oak or Elm is fitted to the twining Branches of the Vine or Ivy. but must be consider’d as having a further relation abroad Animal. Thus too in the System of the bigger World. by such numerous and power- . Air. believe a Union thus evidently demonstrable. as to all within. But if none of these Parts are independent. and to the Universe. As much as the fertile Mould is fitted to the Tree. and to the Elements where they live. and of the Earth and other Planets to the Sun! the Order.) and this again to the [] bigger World. ‘‘Here then is our main Subject. there can be infer’d no Order. as either by Wings for the Air. that by this Survey you will be oblig’d System. tho ever so compleat a System of Parts. then is the W a System compleat. Animal-System. So even this System of his Kind to the System. See there the mutual Dependency of Things! the Relation of one to another. For as the Branch is united the World. Thus in contemplating all on Earth.A System of ‘‘All things in this World are united. capable of convincing any fair and just Contemplator of the Works of Nature. [] to be establish’d onA abundant Proof. another. which feed it. in a manner fitted and join’d. my ingenious Friend. For scarce wou’d any-one. to the System of his Kind. so is the Tree as immediately with the Earth. the Seeds.    Sect. no Proportion. and coherent Scheme of Things. consistent. and Coherence of the Whole! And Universal know. as holding to one common Stock. nor any other Animal. to own the U S.

Flower. and Example. and Sails above. if on this account necessary. it can know no perfect or true Relation of any Thing. minutest Ranks and Orders of Beings to the remotest Spheres. whilst it was yet a Calm. in this mighty UNION. imagine only some Person intirely a Stranger to Navigation. nor vers’d in natural His- tory.A wou’d he pronounce the Masts and Cord. sees that the many Parts have a relation to the Whole. the End and Use of Things does not every-where appear.A for thus [] much even a slight View affords: But he who like you. and has been let into a Knowledge of the animal and vegetable Worlds. the Uses of the Rooms below. a Mind which sees not infinitely. and for this reason condemn the Frame. and the several Uses to which they serve. ‘‘Now. the Lodgments. from the Sect. remote from all Land-prospect. and ignorant of the Nature of the Sea or Waters. or Solution. since ’tis no more indeed than what must happen of necessity: Nor cou’d supreme Wisdom have otherwise order’d it. . can see nothing fully: And since each Particular has re- lation to all in general. there is no wonder. Masts. For in an Infinity of Things thus relative. where he who is no Anatomist. [] age to be useless and cumbersom. he alone can readily declare the just Relation of all these Parts to one another. and despise the Architect? O my Friend! let us not thus . and Con- veniences of Men and Stores? But being ignorant of the Intent or Design of all above. Plant. how great his Astonishment wou’d be. he view’d the ponderous Machine firm and motionless in the midst of the smooth Ocean.     ful Instances of mutual Correspondency and Relation. consider how much we ought not only to be satisfy’d with this our View of Things. How easily wou’d he see the Whole one regular Structure. anchoring at Sea. but even to admire its Clearness. ‘‘But if you wou’d willingly enter further into this Thought. ‘‘The same may be consider’d in any dissected Animal. together with its Cordage. is curious in the Works of Nature. all things depending on one another. my Friend. when finding himself on board some Vessel. and consider’d its Foundations beneath. in a World not perfectly and fully known. if there be such Relations of Appearance of I Parts one to another as are not easily discover’d.

All perishes on this account. and meanest Station of the Vessel. and suppose that each of these compleat and perfect Systems were fram’d. its Seat. and hearing there a perfect Symphony of Musick. . enrich’d with Sciences and Learning. like yours. and conspiring Order. Human except with relation to Man only. and of which it is impossible we shou’d know the Ends and Uses. and in what a Universe. and Universal own’d the Universal System. when instead of seeing to the highest Pendants. that being in some Desart far from Men. but consider where we are. demonstrates Order and Perfection. All is delightful. so as to afford the noblest Subjects of Contemplation to Minds. seem unequal. and immoveable. deny the Handy-Work. For can it be suppos’d of any-one in the World. ‘‘Now having recogniz’d this uniform consistent Fabrick. Universal M. is here o’erthrown. and his Circumstances. we must of consequence acknowledg a Mind. we see only some lower Deck. rejoicing. ‘‘What is it then shou’d so disturb our Views of Nature. or rolling of the Sands? Disturbance. as to whence. Here the Calamity and Ill arises. because he saw no Hand. either by the accidental blowing of the Winds. elsewhere so firm. confin’d even to the Hold. and lost by this one View. Think of the many Parts of the vast Machine. which other- wise wou’d be so apparent? All we can see either of the Heavens or Earth. which no ingenious Man can be tempted to dis- own. amiable. no secret Spring of Thought. intire. betray our Ignorance. and are in this dark Case of Flesh. ‘‘But how is it you complain of the unequal State of Man. destroy that Unity of Design and Order of a Mind. and [] of the fewA Advantages allow’d him above the Beasts? What can .    Sect. and hence the Ruin of this goodly Frame. or seeing an exact Pile of regular Architecture aris- ing gradually from the Earth in all its Orders and Proportions. all things to our-selves: submitting the Interest of the Whole to the Good and Interest of so small a Part. no active Mind? A Wou’d he. and the whole Order of the Universe. except thro’ the Imagination of Disorder in the Universe. which Affairs. and thus united in just Symmetry. in which we refer Selfishness. in which we have so little Insight. he shou’d be persuaded that at the bottom there was no Design accom- [] panying this.

and worthy In. have you consider’d of the Fabrick of the Mind. ’tis well for us. both of Art and Nature. By Virtue he deserves. or Power of Vice? Or in what manner either of these may work to our Happiness or Undoing?’’ ‘‘Here therefore is that I we shou’d first make. or so much as of preserving his Share. or to advance his Por- tion of Happiness in this kind? Who thinks of improving. stitution of the Soul. the Con. the Connexion and Frame of all its Passions. it. as you suppose. and what becomes of Improve- ment. vided for. . But who is there can afford to make it as he ought? If happily we are born of a good Nature. so as to say.When. to which so few conform? Man may be virtuous. But if even Virtue it-self be unpro. if this. Virtue and Vice.A and how it either improves or suffers. after this manner. undoubtedly too apparent in the moral World. and where we know an honest Nature is so easily corrupted? All other things relating to us are preserv’d with Care. Sect. and Affections. But who is there endeavours to give these to himself. ‘‘Have you then. pears so little above ’em. and how circumstantiated. in a World where it must of ne- cessity run so great a hazard. and how far. Effect. what its Force is. to know accordingly the Order and Symmetry of the Part. if a liberal Education has form’d in us a generous Temper and Disposition. and so indeed we esteem it. and supreme Wisdom lost: Imperfection and Ir- regularity being. consider’d Their Power. Temper. with assurance. is happy. and have some Art or OEconomy belonging to ’em. and Vice more prosperous be the better Choice. when corrupted and abus’d? Till this (my Friend!) be well ex- amin’d and understood. except in Wisdom and Virtue. ere you pronounc’d this Sentence. how shall we judg either of the Force of Virtue. then is all Order in reality inverted. clinations. or whose Merit ap. His Merit is Reward. A Mind. [] when naturally preserv’d in its found State. so little differing from ’em.     a Creature claim. be in the Nature of Things. in what particulars. and by being so. of the State of Virtue and Vice with respect to this Life merely. . well-regulated Appetites. and in Virtue only can meet his Happiness deserv’d. the one or the other is Good or Ill? You who are skill’d in other Fabricks and Compositions.

but that from whence the Plain looks beautiful. the Deity. as from a Source Eternal and Incorruptible. . as well as elsewhere in Nature. . whilst it governs all the rest. ‘‘But lest I shou’d appear at last too like an Enthusiast. and out of the way. Original of all which is Good or Amiable. the Supreme and Sovereign B. all flow from hence. the Sea’s. is alone committed toA Chance: And Temper is the only thing ungovern’d. I did not. to inquire what is according to N. Few are acquainted with this Province. of Trade. Policy. as this Inquiry wou’d make us. Fashion. this which is nearest related to us. they are fair. and the Order of the Moral World wou’d equal that of the Natural. As Beings partake of this. but what Appetites are good and sutable to us. and on which our Happiness [] depends. and flourishing. perish’d.’’ WHEN T had thus spoken. I was going to add something in the same way: but he presently stop’d me. is surely beauteous.    Sect. and conclude this Philosophical Sermon. For Divinity it-self. whom you are us’d to esteem. according to my Character. of Power. and happy: As they are lost to this. he shou’d be scandaliz’d. or knowing in these Affairs. in the [] words of one of those anAtient Philologists. he was formally compli- mented by our Two Companions. ‘‘Thus we inquire concerning what is good and sutable to our Appetites. the Heaven’s. is no part of our Examination. or thought of holding these Scales even. while few have Balance. hence. But were we more so. and Heavenly Constellations. By this the Beauty of V wou’d appear. The River’s Beauty. Appetites. and of all Beautys the brightest. We inquire what is according to Inter- est. and Virtue. tho not a beauteous Body. we shou’d then see Beauty and Decorum here. by saying. but it seems wholly strange. Vogue. heard of the Balance of their Passions. The Balance of E. they are deform’d. but that from whence the Beauty of Bodys is deriv’d: Not a beauteous Plain. says he. I chuse to express my Sense. if instead of commending him. chuse rather to criticize some part or other of his long Discourse. as has been shewn. is strictly sought after. and lost.

or how to suggest a Possibility of annihilating it. . in the first place. but what is instant. he will be at a loss how to assign a Beginning to Matter. wonder that. I suppose. a first Being. that at some time or other Matter must have been created. to say asA well of the immaterial kind.’’ The poor Dregs of sorry Matter can no more be made out of the simple pure Substance of immaterial Thought. ‘‘For if D be now really extant. I expected to have heard from you. I readily grant it: but on the condition. of it-self. vary’d and modify’d to Eternity. you will never be able to produce or force the contrary Substance out of it. and consider’d apart as different kinds. ‘‘That [] do with it as you please. of a first [] Cause. you make use only of one single-one to build on. But it will be turn’d on them by an examin- ing Academist: and when the two Substances are fairly set asunder. instead of the many Arguments commonly brought for proof of a Deity. torture it ever so much. never occasion or give rise to any thing like Sense or Knowledg. that whilst the World endures. as long as they please. as you have stated the Ques- tion. than the high Spirits of Thought or Reason can be extracted from the gross Substance of heavy Matter. sublime it. this. As for what is said. ’tis not about what was first. an E. The spiri- tual Men may. represent to us. or rack it. reply’d I. that this great Maxim of Nothing being ever made from Nothing. and a Beginning of Motion: How clear the Idea was of an immaterial Substance: And how plainly it appear’d. join’d and disjoin’d. But as to all Matter and Thought. purify it. of ‘‘A material unthinking Substance being never able to have produc’d an immaterial think- ing one’’. ‘‘That Matter consider’d in a thousand different Shapes. and as good Argument. afford one single Thought. in custoAmary form. may hold as well on my side as my Adversary’s: And then.’’ Their Argument will hold good against a D. But for your part. modify it a thousand ways. if by any .     If it must be so then. you are silent. exalt it. continu’d I. with thinking. can never. or any of the elder or latter Atomists. as they say. So let the Dogmatists make of this Argument what they can. or foremost. give me leave to Sect. and now in being. in the most eloquent manner. ’twill be as strong Sense.

amidst the infinite Hurry and Shock of Beings. as you suppose: this mighty All is Atheistical a mere Point still. said I. is orderly and united. and re-Aunite us to primitive Discord and Confusion. ‘‘of which perhaps there are. good Token it appears that there is at this present a universal Mind. shall by a furious Inroad recover his lost Right. . ‘‘can a narrow Mind see All Things?’’—And yet if. and one day. what is there which may not happen?) But for the rest of Matter.    Sect. Old Father C (as the Poets call him) in these wild Spaces. beyond bare [] Probability? So far are you from demonAstrating any thing. [] conquer his Rebel-State. He presses hard upon our Frontier. ‘‘That the Case it-self is incapable of Demonstration. It sees not All. (as you tac- itly allow) you seem rather to have demonstrated. by acci- dent. as to Names. there wou’d indeed be no dispute left. ‘‘ ’Tis Hypothesis. which lies within our view or knowledg. it’s true. It had as good see Nothing. as this of ours is regular and proportion’d. in reality. indeed. might have been struck out. ‘‘How. I look upon your Theology to be hardly so fair or open as that of our Divines in general. In length of time. a very Nothing compar’d to what remains. Your UNION is your main Support. this single odd World.’’ say you. Yet how is it you prove this? What Demonstration have you given? What have you so much as offer’d at. you might have given me more Scope: But you have retrench’d your- self in narrower Bounds.’’ This. only a separate By-World. So that to tell you truth. T! (concluding my Discourse) is all I dare offer in opposition to your Philosophy. but allow a greater Latitude in Things. Hardly indeed can they bear a home-Charge.’’ we’ll say. belike.’’ For. and wou’d prove that things actually are in such a state and condition. . Millions besides. I imagin’d. (as among infinite Chances. as horrid and deform’d. The demonstrable part is still as far behind. ’twill easily be yielded there ever was one. in the wide Waste. and up- holds his Realms of Darkness. that if this uniting Scheme be the chief Argument for Deity. and cast into some Form. ’tis of a different hue. For grant that this All. reigns absolute. They are strict. which if they really were.’’—This is your Argu- ment.—You go (if I may say so) upon Fact.

Deity. which may easily perhaps be won. cloth’d and arm’d by . Joys. that in NATURE in Man. but live in careless Ease. they give always Sect. they may be look’d upon only as distant Lines. In Infancy more help. who is found more subject to Diseases. and taken upon you to de- fend her Honour so highly. For my own Argu- ments. Recreations. reply’d T: but be free to cen- sure Nature. You have unnecessarily brought Nature into the Controversy. . How comes it. Let not this trouble you. and we as freely censure. this noblest of Creatures. want no help from Art. and cheaply purchase both their Food and Maintenance. She may freely err. that I know not whether it may be safe for me to question her. if they can be suppos’d to make any part of this Defense. and freed from the cumber- som Baggage of a necessitous humanA Life. They are fortify’d. but without any danger to the Body of the Place.     a downright questioning of Deity: But in return. whilst in mere Brutes. and more natural Sa- gacity. If I defend it ill. discharg’d of Labour. and proof against all the In- jurys of Seasons and Weather. she acts with so much Strength. ’Tis only my Hy- pothesis can suffer. and exerts such hardy Vigour? Why is she spent so soon in feeble Man. and allow her to be challeng’d for her NATURE. no doubt. NOTWITHSTANDING. they think is not accountable for her: Only she for her-self. then. I intreat you. of whose Edge you seem so little apprehensive. But you are straiter. or Outworks. with Senses quicker. I leave them to dispute this Ground with you. and can well employ those metaphysical Weapons. arraign’d. she shou’d ap- pear so very weak and impotent. except M only. I chuse to spare her in all other Subjects. irrational Species. Failings. and the In Brutes. [] ful. and more precise in this point. said I. they pursue their Interests. that you are willing I shou’d attack N in Form. whatever may be the Consequence. with stronger Arguments for a Deity. fair play against N. my Friends need not be scan-A [] daliz’d. and worthiest her Care. whenever they think fit. and of fewer years than many of the wild Creatures? They range secure. vigorous in Age.

This wou’d be to rate him high indeed! As if he were. for his part. So has Nature order’d for the rest of Creatures. whether the whole Structure be not made subservient to this purpose. Nature her-self. Few of these are at all fitted to him: and none perfectly. neither. and reign in All? ’’ Not so. Observe in one of those wing’d Creatures.    Sect. but Man for N. to be all Wing: its chief Bulk being com- [] pos’d of A two exorbitant Muscles. why slower-footed than the Beasts? Ask. said T. Within Earth he suffocates. who provides them both a Couch and Mansion. by his good leave. then must Man. since by Art he can even exceed the Advantages Nature has given to other Crea- tures: But for the Air. L of All: which is more than I cou’d [] willingly allow. In Fire he consumes. methinks it had been wonderfully obliging in Nature to have allow’d him Wings. . sacrific’d to this single Operation. he falls headlong. by Nature. you might as well stand for All. For if we allow once a Subordination in his Case. In Water he soon sinks. And what wou’d he have gain’d by it. my concern truly is not very great in his behalf. Volatiles. and not the Elements to him. why Man is naked.A ’Tis enough. now you are in the way. Robustness. that he might take possession of each Element. reply’d he. and complain ‘‘That Nature Man.— As for what Dominion he may naturally have in other Elements. that this is yielded. which exhaust the Strength of . submit to the Elements of N.’’ Ask not merely. Fins for the Water. reply’d T? For consider what an Alteration of Form must have ensu’d. Such is their Hardi- ness. The Anatomy of the Creature shews it. in a manner. why unhoof ’d. shou’d be any thing less than a Consummation in Man. and instead of laying claim to some few Advantages of other Creatures. Vigour. for Wings were not assign’d him. of all Advantages and Privileges which Nature can afford. Why not the same for Man?— And do you stop thus short. said I. ‘‘Why he has not Wings also for the Air. If he be left in Air. and so on. in your Expos- tulation? Methinks ’twere as easy to proceed. if Nature her-self be not for M. said I. and all other Advantages Anatomy.

. must be contented. the Philosophers and Virtuoso’s especially. of one kind agree ill in their OEconomy with the Parts of the other. Hunters. The Parts. were the flying Engines to be affix’d. of so different an Order. and make some essential Alteration in the Frame? Consider therefore how it is we censure Nature in these and such-like Cases. such as Wrestlers. as in a manner to starve their Companions. Dancers. But to make this even on both sides. tures of the same Frame and Order. with a moderate Share of bodily Advan- tages. Fencers. If then. how must it stand between Man and a quite different Creature? If the B be so nice. ’Tis thus the aerial Racers are able to perform so rapid and strong a Motion. Tennis-players. from all the rest?— I understand you. and draw the chief Nourishment to it-self. where it abounds. our Riders. Racers. and the Case. For not to mention a vulgar sort. ‘‘was I not made by Nature strong as a Horse? Why not hardy and robust as this Brute- . for the sake of what they call Parts and Capacity in another Parts. it seems. the Case stands thus between Man and Man. beyond comparison with any other kind. must not the other Members suffer. ‘‘Why. will stand the same [] with the M’s of the Age. T (interrupting him): The Brain certainly is a great Starver. said I.     all the other. Balance. not like to prove a Starveling? Or wou’d you have it be maintain’d at the same high rate. sense. what shall we say of our fine-bred Gentlemen.’’ says one. and far exceeding their little share of Strength elsewhere: these Parts of theirs being made in such superior proportion. and the multiply’d Parts starve one another? What think you of the Brain in this Partition? Is it The Brain. I find. said he. that the least thing breaks it. even in Crea. Vaulters. and such like? ’Tis the Body surely is the Starver here: and if the Brain were such a ter- rible Devourer in the other way. of what fatal effect must it be to change the Order it-self. let usA turn the Tables. and the think- ing People of the World. And in Man’s Architec- ture. I suppose. of the Frame. the Body and bodily Parts seem to have their Reprisals in this Rank of Men. and engross (if I may say so) the whole OEconomy Sect. the Men of bodily Prowess and Dex- terity.

said I. me- thinks. is the admirable Distribution of N- . by furnishing us with such slight Stuff. . her adapting and adjusting not only the Stuff or Matter to the Shape and Form. in the midst of a philo- sophical Debate. But ’tis no more than sutable to your Character. it were better. As if it were her very Design. and leave the Brute his own. ‘‘Why was I not made in good earnest a very B?’’ For that wou’d be more sutable.’’ I see.    Sect. And were I not afraid of speaking with an Air of Compliment. who forfeit their Right to the philosophick Char- acter. shou’d naturally aspire to manly Qual- itys. and in such a tender Frame. Your Wit allows you to divert your-self with whatever ocAcurs in the Debate: And you can pleasantly improve even what your Antagonist brings as a Support to his own Hypothesis. Agility. as is indeed wonderfully com- modious to support that Man-Excellence of Thought and Reason. continu’d he. I see. Creature? or nimble and active as that other?’’—And yet when un- common Strength. I am apt indeed. in opposition to a kind of Bigot-Scepticks. said T. and ask. to think that the Excellence of M lies somewhat different from that of a Brute: and that such amongst us as are more truly Men. I shou’d tell you perhaps what I thought of the becoming manner of your S. and more modest in him.— Distribution. has done well to mortify us in this particular. ‘‘To hinder us from aspiring ridiculously to what was misbecoming our Character. see what befals! So that for a Person thus in [] love with an Athletick MA  Constitution. and are so intent in upholding their own side of the Argu- ment. to change the Expostulation. But Nature. you are not one of those timorous Argu- ers.—But to our Argument. who tremble at every Objection rais’d against their Opinion or Belief. Such then. that they are unable to make the least Concession on the [] other. and even the Shape it-self and Form to . and retain hardly so much as that of the Gentleman or Good Companion. and Feats of Body are subjoin’d. This indeed is a fairer sort of Practice than what is common now-a-days. but wretchedly scanty and ineffectual for other Purposes. even in our own Species.

. is a Man. have a clear Pros- pect or Pre-sensation of their StateA which is to follow. Element or Region. but with exact OEconomy retrenching the superfluous.’’ say you. Archi- tecture. for his Animals. then. with perfect Frugality and just Reserve: profuse to none. and when unexperienc’d. and adding Force to what is principal in every thing. in what manner. True. newly pregnant. said he. But * Beasts. &c. said I. and at what time. Place. the Materials. p. fitted for so small a District of Nature? Will he not rather think highly of that N. How many things do they pre-ponderate? How many at once compre- hend? The Seasons of the Year. and all besides: ‘‘All manag’d for the best. which Man has not. know what [] to provide. but bountiful to all: never employing in one thing more than enough. Place. they have indeed Perceptions. the Country. &c. ‘‘in Human Kind?’’ Nay. Climate. and before they have bore Young. . . Appetites. can he expect from a few Ounces of Blood in such a narrow Vessel.’’ AndA is not T and [] R principal in Man? Wou’d he have no Reserve for these? no saving for this part of his Engine? Or wou’d he have the same Stuff Principal Part. (if I may use the Expression) which Man. as well as to the Mat- ter. And ‘‘Why not this. if he knows and uses it!) by which he has so much a better Use of Organs than any other Creature? by which he holds his Reason. and not a Beast? Reason. with this happy Reserve. † Infra. . Sensations. and . Action. and an Ounce be equivalent to a Pound?—It cannot be. What wonders. in short. mutually to each other. III. And VOL. . or Matter. part. but also the Affections.     the Circumstance. have Instincts. the whole OEconomy of their Nursery: and all this as perfectly at first. and †Pre-sensations. Sect. . which has thus manag’d his Portion for him. p. the Diet and Treatment of their Offspring. rather on Human Kind. and how. . Sensations. * Supra. p. As- pect. . has not in any proportionable degree. as at any time of their Life afterwards. Situation. the Basis of their Building. the same Instruments or Organs serve alike for different purposes. (happy indeed for him. to best advantage. Instinct. Form. Their Females.

   Sect. vigorous. infirm. and deny the Ends and Author of their Creation? A WHILST T argu’d thus concerning N. and seek their Good: A human Infant is of all the most helpless. weak. And wherefore shou’d it not have been thus order’d? Where is the loss in such a Species? Or what is Man the worse for this [] Defect. For he wou’d . as he thought. and force him to own that he is purposely. as is the occasion of so much Good? What better than a Want so abundantly made up. amidst such large SupAplies? Does not this Defect engage Society. or their Kind? Wou’d not their full and self- sufficient State more strongly have determin’d them to throw off [] Nature. made rational and sociable. known to shun Danger. the old Gentleman. express’d great Satisfaction in hearing me. and my Opinions expos’d. my Adversary. are instantly help- ful to them-selves. refuted. their Country. Love of a common City. him the more strongly to Society. and founded in these very Wants? What can be happier than such a Deficiency. and can no otherwise increase or subsist. or Country. with the other Dutys and social Parts of Life. and answer’d by so many Enjoy- ments? Now if there are still to be found among Mankind such as even in the midst of these Wants seem not asham’d to affect a Right of Independency. and not by accident. and natural Affection to Parents. had Nature other- wise supply’d these Wants? What Duty or Obligation had been ever thought of? What Respect or Reverence of Parents. continu’d he. than in that social Intercourse and Community which is his natural State? Is not both conju- gal Affection. Community. sensible. and deny them-selves to be by Nature sociable. the contrary. deduc’d from hence. where wou’d their Shame have been. . in another kind? Have they not Reason and Dis- course? Does not this instruct them? What need then of the other? Where wou’d be the prudent Management at this rate? Where the Reserve? ’’ The Young of most other Kinds. Magis- trates. Duty to Magis- trates. I ask ‘‘Why this? Where was the Occasion or Use? Where the Necessity? Why this Sagacity for Men? Have they not what is better.

’’ ‘‘If Man thereforeA cou’d endure to live without [] Society.’’ His Nature then. not from any necessity in respect of outward Things. perhaps. Nor cou’d we properly call that a State. but rather from some particular Circum- stances. started as Objections in the Discourse. which I had only Sect.     needs believe these to be strongly my Opinions. But having recover’d himself. since having no natural Affection. was not so very good. might not.’’ ‘‘I do so. ‘‘That M in- deed. or friendly Inclination belonging to him. they pass’d from the State of Nature into that new one which is founded upon Compact. . He endeavour’d to re- inforce the Argument by many Particulars from the common Top- icks of the School-men and Civilians. . against his will: And this. . I. and his own ma- lignant Temper and Principles. ’tis not likely that upon occasion they wou’d spare one * VOL. and if it be true that he actually liv’d so. they cou’d live out of Society. &c.’’ ‘‘And was that former State a tolerable one?’’ ‘‘Had it been absolutely intolerable. ‘‘That it was better for me to declare my Sentiments openly. said I. he was forc’d into a social State. And indeed ’twas no wonder if Creatures who were naturally thus unsociable. for he was sure I had strongly imbib’d that Principle. with so little Affection for one another’s Company. it seems. have been mov’d to associate. how can it be said. he said in answer. ‘‘you your-self allow. (for you have allow’d him a tolerable Subsistence) but in probability from such Inconveniences as arose chiefly from himself. when in the State of Nature. that *the State of Nature was State of Nature. or publick Rule. shou’d be as natu- rally mischievous and troublesom. which cou’d not stand or endure for the least time. He added withal.’’ ‘‘Was it then a State of Fellowship. p.’’ ‘‘That it was no State of Government. a State of War. That he is by Nature sociable?’’ The old Gentleman seem’d a little disturb’d at my Question. If according to their Nature.’’ reply’d I. from his own natural Inclination. there had never been any such. or Society?’’ ‘‘No: For when Men enter’d first into Society.

Just such a State. And thus. For sooner may you divest the Creature of any .’’ He was going to answer me with some sharpness. and became in truth a Human Crea- ture. I shou’d fansy to call this a State. Such a Condi- [] tion cannot indeed so properly be call’d a State. what Artifice P made use of. If they were so sullen as not to meet for Love.’’ can never without Ab- surdity be allow’d. said T- . not in its natural State. (addressing still more particularly to the old Gentleman) the Case must necessarily stand. You see. when T interposing. and still restless. which some imagine.    Sect. But let us question him now in his turn. the Essay or first Effort of Nature. said he to the old Gentleman. he might be allow’d to try if he cou’d end it. when he engag’d you to allow. . by setting the Question in a fairer Light. or sufficient for the Support of human Race. said the old Gentleman. even on the supposal ‘‘That there was ever such a Condition or State of Men. ere yet he enter’d into Society. if it ever were in Nature. That as he had occasion’d this Dispute. and in the moment of the Birth. and con- sequently without any Language or Form of Art. therefore. For what if Aspeak- ing of an Infant just coming into the World. and that of Society were perfectly distinct. wou’d it be proper? Hardly so.’’ But ‘‘That it was their natural State. was that which we suppose of M. and see whether he can demonstrate to us. that the State of Nature. unacquainted.’’ What is it then. ’tis [] more than probableA they wou’d fight for Interest. another’s Persons. cou’d never have been of the least continuance. ’Twas the rough Draught of Man. a Kind as yet unform’d. or any-way toler- able. when as yet they were unassociated. as by his Looks appear’d. And thus from your own Reasoning it appears. said T. I confess. but which. to live thus separately. which we call the State of Nature? Not that imperfect rude Condition of Mankind. ‘‘That there can be naturally any Human State which is not social. till it attain’d its natural Perfection. a Species in the Birth. desir’d. ‘‘That the State of Nature must in all likelihood have been little different from a State of W. but under Violence.

For tho his out- ward Shape were human. than that towards Society and his Like. Sect. ‘‘Here sprang an Ear: there peep’d an Eye. continu’d he: Let us examine this pretended State of Nature. than this imaginary Creature is a Man. Allowing you. the Members were then fully display’d. the Power of divesting him at plea- sure. at last. If from Eternity. Let us suppose him at first with little more of Life than is discover’d in that Plant which they call the Sensitive. Perhaps a Tail too came in company. it seems. If not from Eternity. To explain this a little further. in a good posture. and (to a wonder!) just as they should be. For what Superfluitys Nature may have been charg’d with at first. and separate Subsistence. is difficult to determine. and the false Birth by some odd Accident or Device was wrought into Form. separate him from all his Kind. and call him still a Man? Yet better might you do this indeed. in time. . the Man. tho without Wings. and Organs must be wholly different. there cou’d be no primitive or original State. They dropt off. to fit him for such a recluse OEconomy. (and consequently he was at the very first as he is now) or by degrees. he arose either all at once. his Passions. His whole inward Make must be revers’d. thro’ several Stages and Con- ditions. allowing you to reduce even wholeA Parts and Members of his [] present Frame. other than we see at present before our eyes. let us suppose he sprang. or not. and has continu’d for so many Generations. ness.     other Feeling or Affection. So might you call the human Egg. from a big-belly’d Oak: and then belike he might resemble more a Man-drake than a M. wou’d you transform him thus. no State of Nature. declare him still a M. Appetites. as the old Poets feign’d. and inclosing him like some solitary Insect in a Shell. and happily have left things. than you cou’d strip him of his natural Affections.’’ This surely is the lowest View of the original Affairs of human .’’ A [] For instance. The Bug which breeds the Butterfly is more properly a Fly. how and on what Foundation it must stand. however. But when the Mother-Oak had been some time deliver’d. ‘‘For either Man must have been from Eternity. to that in which he is at length settled. and the Organs of Sense began to unfold themselves. or Embrio.

Kind. and on their Hypothesis consider. their Constitution be as ours. gave Man his being. it can be only that in which Nature was perfect. rais’d a Creature. ‘‘Where was it that this State of Nature cou’d begin?’’ The Crea- ture must have endur’d many Changes: and each Change. So that either there must be reckon’d a hundred different States of Nature. . Here where She rested. than they can possibly preserve them- selves without it. another Temper. and her Growth compleat. For if  P. and arriv’d where for many Generations it has been at a stay. So howA any thing can be call’d natural in the Case. if they have other Excrescences of Body. and Affections. and attain’d her End. and their bodily Frame as weak as ours. or if one. Nature has then had no Intention at all.    Sect. without Fellowship or Community? Shew it us in fact any-A where. or no-where. if they have Memory. one more than another. amongst any of our own Kind. or according to Nature. other natural inseparable Habits or Affections. if their Skin and Pores are otherwise form’d or harden’d. For as for Creatures which may much resemble us in outward Form. think you. one as another. I know not. their natural Parts or inward Facultys as strong. and as a certain sort of Philosophers wou’d needs have it. If. on the other hand. if they differ yet in the least part of their Constitution. if their Inwards are of a different Texture.’’ In this long Procession (for I allow it any length whatever) I ask. . But admitting his Rise to be. and not C. and a Use of Organs as ours: ’tis evident they can no more by their good- will abstain from Society. which springing at first from rude Seeds of Matter. was as natural. no Meaning or Design in this whole [] Matter.Which State we may best call Nature’s own. Cou’d she then rest. and Senses. Let us go on however. whilst he was thus growing up. thro’ many Changes and Chances. as we have describ’d. they are not truly of our Kind. ‘‘She has by Accident. proceeded till it became what now it is. how any State can be call’d a State of Nature. here must be her State. our Argument for his social Nature must surely be the stronger. such as it [] now is. in that desolate State before Society? Cou’d she maintain and propagate the Species.

. said he. I think ’tis even Charity to speak as ill of * Pag. And ‘‘That out of Society and Community he never did. and remain still wholly wild. (addressing still to the two Companions) I will venture to add a word in behalf of P: That since the Learned have such a fancy for this Notion. was not this still a Society for mutual Defense and common Interest? In short. shou’d He break off from this Society. .     And here (my Friends!) we ought to remember what we dis. as natural to him surely as to the Beaver. which to every Beast of Prey is known proper.’’ Yet ’tis impossible for him to subsist like any of thoseA grazing Kinds. How many Conveniences of other kinds does he stand in need of? What Union and strict Society is requir’d between the Sexes. Building. or to the Ant. And can we allow this social Part to Man. be deny’d to M. by which he is more fitted to be a Prey himself. surely. if once begun? For that it began thus. a better Couch and Covering than the bare Earth or open Sky. nor ever can subsist. cours’d a-while since. it follows. and natural. . concerning the * Weakness of human Bodys. and go no further? Is it possible he shou’d pair. if Generation be natural. therefore.’’ To conclude. ‘‘That Society must be also natural to him’’. and the Creature being of that Form and ConstituAtion he [] now is. and was advanc’d by P himself. is plain. as early as Generation. and live in Love and Fellowship with his Partner and Offspring. to preserve and nurse their growing Offspring? This kind of Society will not. Sect. than live by Prey on others. in respect of all other Creatures. Things standing as they do with Man. and love to talk of this imaginary State of Nature. if natural Affection and the Care and Nur- ture of the Offspring be natural. Must not this have grown soon into a Tribe? and this Tribe into a Nation? Or tho it remain’d a Tribe only. and other OEconomy. and grew into a Houshold and OEconomy. his feeble and defenseless Make. and without those Arts of Stor- ing. ‘‘His long and help- less Infancy. or Bee? Where. and speechless. He [] must have better Provision and choicer Food than the raw Herb- age. and the necessitous State of Man.

‘‘That there are different Species or Characters of Men. But this will be as little to the purpose as to tell us.—But such [] is ManAkind! And even here H N shews it-self. and the plain Course of Things. I. who considering it abstractedly and apart from Government or Society. for instance. such * VOL. Let it. let it e’en be as uncomfortable and as fright- ful as ’tis possible. Rapine. Fact. and this Union is continu’d still between ’em. when we have even done our best to make tolerable sense of it.    Sect. In this I agree heartily with those Transformers of Human Nature. or assemble on the discovery of a good Carcase. the better Country-men we shall prove. if it has any meaning at all. and value more the Laws and Constitution under which we live. The greater Dread we have of Anarchy.’’ And thus the Sentence comes to nothing. Let it be a State of W. but That one half at least are naturally innocent and mild. represent it under monstrous Visages of Dragons. must be. Since ’tis unsocial. whether to hunt. Leviathans. and I know not what devouring Creatures. as a Wolf is to a tamer Creature’’: as. [] They wou’d have done well however. and tempt Men to turn Hermites. at least. be look’d on as many degrees worse than the worst Government in being. ‘‘That he is to Man a Wolf. ’tis impossible to assent to this ill-natur’d Proposition. That all have not this * wolfish Nature. .’’ appears somewhat absurd. and run in Herds to the assistance of their distress’d Fellows. to have express’dA themselves more properly in their great Maxim. is to render it inviting. and . ‘‘That Man is naturally to Man. pag. . Even the swinish Kinds want not common Affection. to bring Company. and by which we are protected from the outrageous Violences of such an unnatural State. The Sexes strictly join in the Care and Nurture of the Young. or invade their Prey. to a Sheep. For without belying Nature. They houl to one another. when one considers that Wolves are to Wolves very kind and loving Creatures. For to say in disparagement of Man. The meaning there- fore of this famous Sentence. and contradicting what is evident from natural History. To speak well of it. and Injustice. . it as we possibly can.

not perfect. . and easy. One wou’d have thought that in a kind of Rivalship between P and N. Spirits and Apparitions. out of Sort and Order. and Night advancing. and as little able to enjoy any Happiness out of it. Prodigys. Nothing was so charming with them. and nothing came amiss which was cross to Nature. and pro- nounc’d with Assurance. as that which was disagreeing and odd: nothing so soothing. whatever was ra- tional. they are yet strangely addicted to the way of Satir. For to do our Friends Justice. therefore. as a malicious Censure craftily worded. bore no relish. and in no Pro- portion or Harmony with the rest of Things. as in the common Conversations of the World.     as it is. I must own I thought their Intention to be . and Convulsions. tho without any Justness of Thought. There was much said. is apt to pass with Mankind for shreud W. is readily receiv’d for true P. so a virulent Maxim in bold Expressions. and mov’d by proper and just Principles. as that which mov’d Horror. Sect. And in the same manner. Monstrous Births. [] were the most ravishing with our Friends: who endeavour’d to ex- ceed one another in this admirable way. At Supper. and with great Learning. such as you will excuse me (good P!) if I pass over with more haste. Elementary Wars. and perform’d to a miracle in raising one another’s Amazement. and afterwards for the rest of that Night. who turn’d it upon a new sort of Philosophy. or absolutely successful. tho rightly tending. Inchantments. T said little. in Philosophy. The Discourse was now manag’d chiefly by the two Companions. that her Deformitys might recommend and set off the Beautys of the former. on the Nature of Miracles. ’Tis here. we return’d home from our Walk. were our chief Entertainment. the latter Lady was made to appear as homely as possible.   I N these Discourses the Evening ended. plain. In short. As fond as Men are of Company. the most astonishingA Accounts Prodigys. of which.

. . and with an assuming Air of Truth. You may imagine. who have so great a regard to every Fancy of their [] own. Scepticism. ButA I who cou’d never pay any such deference to my sleeping Fancys. . III. . the solemn Woods and Groves. that they can believe their very Dreams. . . One must certainly. And I was readier to fansy Truth in those poetical Fictions which T made use of. not half so prevalent as this Passion for Novelty and Surprize. However. and deny things which are known by the Report of the most considerable part of Mankind. ’tis because I have less Sufficiency than others. I know. is far from being my case. . P. cou’d not well forsake me here: Nor cou’d it fail to give disturbance to our Companions. or superstitious. .    Sect. I am so charitable still. as to think * VOL. You have never yet heard me deny any thing. If I suspend my Judgment. as the Mountains. But this was not a Face of Religion I was like to be enamour’d with. after the usual way. to hold out against the common Opinion of the World. And . and that the Love of Truth is. the Plains. than in any of his Friends ghastly Storys. am apt sometimes to question even my waking Thoughts. ‘‘Whether these are not Dreams too’’. The Monuments and Church- yards were not such powerful Scenes with me. that my *Scepticism. sincerely religious. And . You will own. This. He bore with me a-while. than of A the other. join’d with a Desire of making Impression. . &c. in a lofty Tone of Authority. ’tis no small plea- sure with Mankind to make their Dreams pass for Realitys. said I. till having lost all patience. who had clash’d with me some time before. of whose Inhabitants I [] chose much rather to hear. &c. especially to the grave Gentleman. so pompously set off. It was not from hence I fear’d being made enthusiastick. be Master of no small share of Assurance. with which you so often reproach me. I found it wou’d rather be after T’s manner. since Men have a Faculty of dreaming sometimes with their Eyes open. and examine. If ever I became so. tho I have question’d many. and being admir’d. in earnest. pag. There are People. . said he. .

said I. upon the whole. And so very natu- ral do I take this to be. not- withstanding some pious Frauds made use of between whiles. How wonderful a thing is the Love of wondering. we seek something new to wonder at. that in all Religions. as they can act their Part more natu- rally. to find you of such an incredulous Temper. and are so much the more successful. when we consider. and to the life. or longer retain. ’Tis just. to all who . at this rate may be allow’d sincere. in behalf of a Belief thought good and wholesom. been happy in a certain Faculty of imposing first upon themselves. that Mens Dreams shou’d sometimes have the good fortune of passing with ’em for Truth. except the true. said I. [] We come into the World wondering at every thing. andAthe Vice of Old Age to abound in strange Storys of Times past. reply’d he. by which they have a kind of Salvo for their Consciences. for losing that Pleasure which I see others enjoy. Whether this be true or no. than the Love of hearing and relating things strange and incredible? Wonder- ment. that which was never so much as dreamt of. or what do they earlier learn. Nor is it to be esteem’d a Riddle. or related as Truth. have Imposture. World: and that they who have most impos’d on Mankind. perhaps he may. Our last Scene is to tell Wonders of our own. and when our Wonder about common things is over. that in some Cases. So that the greatest Impostor in the World. Let this be as it will. and of raising Wonder! ’Tis the Delight of Children to hear Tales they shiver at. . For the Design and End being the Truth. that you shou’d pity me as a Sufferer. reply’d he. where Imposture and Zeal. For what stronger Pleasure is there with Mankind.A [] As to the main of his Imposture. ’tis not customary to hesitate or be scrupulous about the Choice of Means. Bigotry and Hypocrisy have liv’d together. I look upon the greatest Zeal to be accompany’d with the strongest In- clination to deceive. comes after- wards to be believ’d by one who has often told it. I am sorry. I appeal to the Experience of the last Age: in which ’twill not be difficult to find very remarkable Examples.     there is more of innocent Delusion than voluntary Imposture in the Sect. in one and the same Character.

and enjoin’d never to believe even the greatest Miracles which may be wrought. in which my Will is free: but with what justice can I be challeng’d for my Belief. No matter. by having better Parts. . will believe ’em. reply’d I. and promise never to believe amiss. For if we cannot command our own Belief. said I. Taking it for granted then. yet I see not. by paying the deference Credulity. ’tis just for Men to suffer for their Unhappiness. if I have a right Faith in those of former Times. reply’d he. whilst a much worse Man. and their deluding Miracles. But is this a Promise which can well be made? If not. of which we have such Warning given us? How are we safe from Heresy and false Religion? Credulity being that which delivers us up to all Impos- [] tures of this sort. how are we secure against those false Prophets. and whichA actually at this day hold the Pagan and . ’Tis here I am so much warn’d against Credu- lity. and say. and not their Fault? I am apt to think. due to sacred Writ. how incredulous I am of modern Miracles. unless you wou’d punish Weakness. and the best-meaning Person in the world may err on either side. may judg far better of the Evidence of things: how can you punish him who errs. And amidst all this. that I can safely engage to keep still in the same Faith. can be said to be Sufferers for their Weak- ness. but that even this way still we are as liable to suffer by our Weakness. if with this moderate F of yours. that very few of those who are pun- ish’d for their Incredulity. if in this I am not at my liberty? If Credulity and Incredulity are Defects only in the Judgment. ’Tis well. as in the contrary Case by an over-refin’d Wit. in opposition to what has been already taught me.    Sect. And this Injunction I am so well fitted to comply with. said he. how am I accountable for it? I may be justlyA pun- ish’d for Actions. and that my Belief indeed does not absolutely depend [] upon my self. you can believe any Miracles whatever. that Simplicity and Weak- ness is more the Character of the Credulous than of the Unbelieving. but moderately tainted. ’tis well if T comes off.

and he needs it not. main- tain’d. but can never do us good. For if the Miracle be on the side of his Faith. and is thus Miracle-proof. Either there.     Mahometan World in Error and blind Superstition.’’ He was resolv’d. is that common one. that the best Maxim to go by. so the safest Station in Christianity is his. Sect. his Companion. the Belief of new may often do us harm. so as to need no other to confirm us. ‘‘That Miracles are ceas’d ’’: And I am ready to defend this Opinion of mine to be the most probable in it-self. For the elderly Gentleman. if against his Faith.’’ The younger Gentleman. who with your Credulity may be impos’d upon by such as are far short of Angels. as well as most sutable to Christianity. we know. At least I am more sure of continuing so than you. the surest way never to believe amiss. For being satisfy’d of the Truth of our Religion by past Miracles. I take my-self to be still the better and more Orthodox Christian. Therefore as the truest Mark of a believing Christian is to seek after no Sign or Miracle to come. He told us . against the National Church: This of the two being the greatest Danger. I am persuaded therefore. why shou’d we not promise never to believe amiss? Now in respect of Miracles to come. wou’d be of great advantage to the Atheists. or believe it any other than Imposture. question’d. fore there is no Punishment due to wrong Belief. THIS Question. . both to Religion and the State. who can be mov’d by noth- ing of this kind. ’tis odds you may come in time to believe MiAracles in any of the different Sects. is never to believe at all. happen’d to divide our two Companions. ‘‘Whether the allowing ’em might not be of as great advantage to the Enthusiasts and Sectarys. upon further Debate. So that with all that Incredulity for which you reproach me so severely. for the future to be as cautious in examining these modern Miracles. he will never regard it in the least. there- fore. let it be as great as possible. [] who. all pretend to them. ’tis superfluous. my Antagonist. or if we can. tho coming from an Angel. ‘‘That the giving up of Miracles for the time present. because we can- not believe as we will our-selves. For having this preparatory Disposition. as he had before been eager in seeking ’em. he thought.

and clearer [] Scripture. and harder Understanding. when stubbornly they ask’d for Signs and Wonders. and withal soA well attested. Miracles. to assign the exact time when Miracles probably might first have ceas’d. and on how many Partys he had been engag’d. and Layers-out for hellish Storys and diabolical Transactions. carrying its own Force. true Fanaticism errant. But C. I shou’d be tempted to fansy it was when Sacred Writ took place. as he had been formerly accustom’d. present. for their hard Heart. And were I. they had their plainer Oracles. The Attestation of Men dead and gone. And now at last he begun to see the Ridicule of laying such a stress on these Matters: As if a Providence depended on them. with a sort of People who were always on the hot Scent of some new Prodigy or Appa- [] rition. there are never wanting a Number sufficient in the World to warrant a Divine Exis- tence.A was Fanaticism. he thought. dangerous one to that Scripture you pretend is of it-self so well attested. . and look back. might have recourse to Miracles: And Providence perhaps had allow’d them their Oracles and Prodigys.    Sect. continu’d he. and was compleated. as to admit of no dispute. of such Intelligences from Hell. as an imperfect kind of Revelation. had a far better and truer Revelation. and Being of a God. when any of these wild Feats were question’d. (reply’d the grave Gentleman) and a very past. tho he cou’d not avoid wondring at it. in ghostly Company of Spirit-hunters. very pleasantly what an Adventurer he had been of that kind. can never surely be of equal force with Miracles present: And of these. He had enough of this visionary Chace. and wou’d ramble no more in blind Corners of the World. This. for their parts. he said. he thought. some upstart Revelation or Prophecy. He was sensible there were many good Christians who made themselves strong Partisans in this Cause. The J too. the World wou’d be . who wanted Scripture. Witch-finders. a more rational Law. and Religion were at stake. There was no need. The H. This is Fancy indeed. to prove the Power of Heaven. now he began to consider. had this allowance. in behalf of Miracles past and at an end. If there were no Miracles now-a-days. I maintain.

This. ‘‘What Trust is there to any thing above. not Human Testimony. whose Characters and Lives might answer for them.’’ For who shall witness for the Miracles them- selves? And whatA tho they are ever so certain? What Security have [] we. (said the younger Gentleman) is another Question. I said.’’ For who shall witness for Men.’’ as the zealous Gentleman had hastily express’d himself.     apt to think there never were any. The present must answer for the Sect. The young Gentleman assented. so as to vindicate it from the Re- proach of having no immediate Miracles to support it. and not of Goodness?’’ And are you so far improv’d then. Credibility of the past. however. if in the Case of Religion they have no Testimony from Heaven in their behalf? What it is may make the Report of Men credible. reply’d the severe Compan- ion. than ‘‘By revealing himself to their . (pointing to me) that you can thus readily discard all Miracles. whom you make to be my Disciple. representing his fair Intention of establishing in the first place a rational and just Foundation for our Faith. Nor cou’d God witness for himself. He wou’d have done this. But for mere Miracles. they cannot be properly said ‘‘To witness either for GOD or Men. And since his Modesty. Nay then (said I. Being any other way to Men. by shewing how good Proof [] we had already for our sacred Oracles. I saw. as useless?— The young Gentleman. as to the Truth of what they reported to us from God. I will endeavour it my-self. This is ‘‘GOD witnessing for himself ’’. or Miracles. who was going on still with his Invec- tive. I see. or below. was somewhat daunted with this rough Usage of his Friend. and I went on. or assert his Divine Testimony. under your new sceptical Master. . interposing) ’tis I who am to answer for this young Gentleman. from the Testimony of the Dead. if he will give me leave. ‘‘Men for GOD. will not allow him to pursue what he has so handsomly begun. if the Signs are only of Power. unAdoubtedly. For this was above the reach either of Men. that they are not acted by D? What Proof that they are not wrought by Magick? In short. was by no means ‘‘Witnessing for GOD. it seems to me.

[] can make him know. Reason. and their Character of Sincerity and Truth establish’d. . ‘‘When by repeated Marks their Benevolence is prov’d. For what tho innumerable Miracles from every part assail’d the Sense. . But this. for the reception of any Message or miraculous Notice from Above. and gave Miracles the trembling Soul no respite? What tho the Sky shou’d suddenly no proof of Divinity. Voices be heard. they may be confided in. Wise. p. to him they speak the Government of one J- O. Just. or Immor- tal. nor any Power besides his R. and not till then. or Unjust. Whether One. Mortal. By G superior P may win Belief. I am resolv’d to take up offensive Arms. and G is the only Pledg of Truth. I aver’d.A BUT now. or more. or Subaltern. p.    Sect. the Infalli- [] bility or CerAtainty of whatever these P asserted. Trust is created. no Power of Miracles. † VOL. appealing to their Judgment. .’’ By G alone. since I have been thus long the Defendent only. its Laws and Government. and cool Deliberation. Revelation. p. the only means which cou’d establish the sound Belief of a D. p. They might silence Men in- deed. And in this Volume. open. as wou’d the true Intention. Their Word cou’d not be taken in their own case. . or Foolish. thus only. they fit him for a †subsequent One. where he knows beforehand all is just and true. to him they reveal and witness a G: and laying in him the Foundation of this first Faith. III. They must allow their Works to be ex- amin’d. and all kinds of Prodigys appear. their Actions criticiz’d: And thus. Whether Superior.’’ To whom therefore the Laws of this Universe and its Government appear just and uniform. or Char- acters read? What wou’d this evince more than ‘‘That there were certain P cou’d do all this?’’ But ‘‘What P. Good. continu’d I. He can then hearken to Historical Revelation: and is then fitted. I. and be Aggressor in * VOL. And VOL. and submitting his Ways to their Censure. or Bad’’: this wou’d still remain a Mystery. but not convince them: since ‘‘P can never serve as Proof for *Goodness. was. .’’ The Contemplation of the Universe. or apprehend. . I.

Atheism from lize every thing. plain. that is to say. you are pretty sure of spoiling it: And as it passes thro’ your hands. and studying how to miracu. whilst you are search- ing Heaven and Earth for Prodigys. as you cou’d wish. finds more of Order. lest they see any thing otherwise than in this perplex’d and amazing View. or sev- eral uncontroul’d and unsubordinate Powers in Nature. Whatever you borrow of his. Yet is this tumul. As if Atheism were the most natural Inference which cou’d be drawn from a regular and orderly State of Things! But after all this mangling and disfigurement of Nature. you bring Confusion on the World. For whilst you are labouring to unhinge Nature. Breach of Laws. and Constancy in Things than he suspected. said I. shew either no Controul. reply’d he. Hither the Eyes of our more inquisitive and ingenuous Youth are turn’d with care. as oft it does. Violences. and searching leisurely into Nature’s Ways. are fit only to betray your own Cause. I’ll venture it. with your newly-espous’d System. and simple. if it hap- pens. that the amaz’d Disciple coming to himself. Perpetual Strifes. which taught him to seek for D in Confusion. he is of course driven into Atheism: And this merely by the Impressions he receiv’d from that preposterous System.     my turn. and to discover P in an irregular disjointed World. Varia- tion and Unsteddiness of Order. regular. and these the Features by which they represent Divinity. [] tuous System of the Universe asserted with the highest Zeal by some who wou’d maintain a D. or the Magick andA Daemons of the P. . Convulsions. you break Superstition. Uniformity. have brought all things to be as uniform. Ground from his Hypothesis. This is that Face of Things. and destroy that admirable Simplicity of Order. reply’d my Antagonist. provided T be not angry with me for borrowing Sect. its Uniformity. in some exquisite System . whilst I maintain that most of those Max- ims you build upon. from whence the O infinite and perfect Principle is known. We have before our eyes either the Chaos and Atoms of the A. And when you. I suppose you will send your Disciple to seek for D in Mechanism. you had best beware lest you seem rather to reflect on Him than Me.

Compare our own Ma- chines with this great-O. in the other. which shou’d convince us? What Signs shou’d this dumb Machine give of its being thus gov- ern’d? The present. we are made Atheists: By Irregularity and Dis- cord. It cannot possibly give stronger Signs of Life and steddy Thought.Whether by their Order. we want. we are convinc’d of D! ‘‘The World is mere Accident. if to the Machine you allow a Mind. reply’d I. inconstant. I was not a little rejoic’d to hear that our Companions were to go away early the next Morning. of Whimsy and Conceit: In one there appears Judgment. till late at night. Prodigys. in the other. nor win our Admiration. Matter for Surprize and Horror! By Harmony. The one is regular. all calm and friendly. Truth. if it runs mad!’’ THUS I took upon me the part of a sound T.Will. said he. or so consummate an Intelligence. are sufficient. in the other. and stated Laws. of self-govern’d Matter. . However. For in this case ’tis not a Self-govern’d.A For what else is it you Naturalists make of [] the World. Order and Concord. variable. and Revolutions just and proportion- able.    Sect. and leave T to me alone. and Madness. Error. in the other. The zealous Gentleman took high Offence: And we continu’d debating warmly. than a mere Machine? Nothing else. they betoken either so perfect a Life. But T was Moderator: And we retir’d at last to our Repose. Folly. but a God-govern’d Machine. We must have Riddles. the other are irregular. per- manent. the latter of these Signs. Knowledg. Man- agement and Motions. which thinks and acts. steddy. but an Effect of Wisdom. it seems. We sicken and grow weary with the orderly and regular Course of Things. In one there are the Marks of Wisdom and Determination. reply’d I.—But to be convinc’d there is something above. Cer- tainty. and see. if it proceeds in Course. Fancy only: In one. . work not upon us. And what are the Tokens. and shew that his Principles favour’d Atheism. whilst I en- deavour’d to refute my Antagonist. Periods. as supposing there can be [] noA Thought or Intelligence beside what is like our own. Caprice: In one.

as to be thought fitter for the dull Luxury of a soft Bed and Ease. I call’d to know the matter. take it you must. to turn the edge of your Curiosity in this kind. but wou’d re- turn. than for Business. you can with patience hear of Another yet to come. and at the foot of it. ‘‘You have forgot then. . He had no other way therefore of making me amends. they thought. to whom I complain’d of his Unkind- ness. as he saw I was resolv’d to be in his Hours and Exercises of this sort. Can it be imagin’d. that after the Recital of Two such Days already past. What your Longing may prove. I presently got up. whate’er it cost.A []   P to P I T was yet deep Night. when I wak’d with the noise of People up in the House. You have had enough. I soon got thither. overtook T. after which he went out to take his Morning-Walk. and was told that T had a little before parted with his Friends. This was Disturbance sufficient. ‘‘the Assignation you had yesterday with the Silvan N at this Place and Hour?’’ . and that no-body in the mean time shou’d disturb my Rest. as to deserve that he shou’dA treat me like a Woman: Nor [] had I shown such an Aversion to his Manners or Conversation. and finding it light enough to see the Hill. more Philosophical than either?— But you have made me promise. one wou’d think. or Study with an early Friend. Recreation. I so much long’d. as follows. pretty soon: For so he had left word. than by allowing me henceforward to be a Party with him in his serious Thoughts.A I may have rea. as I imagin’d.     For now (P!) that Morning was approaching. when I heard it. which was at a little distance from the House. and now. For I was not certainly. for which Sect. I told him.’’ said T. [] son to fear. so effeminate and weak a Friend.

you wou’d otherwise bestow your time than in an Adventure of Philosophy. I was afraid you had a mind to escape me.’’ said I: ‘‘For. and sing ‘‘The Rise of Things from Atoms. had it ever been. He makes M originally to have [] govern’d Body. But now that I am again in possession of you. ‘‘for the Nymphs you mention. Harmony. .’’ said I. that if you had such fair Company as you speak of.’’ I dare trust your Gallantry. in the manner your [] belov’d Poet makes the Nymph AEA join with his two Youths. reply’d T.’’ said T. I am come punctually to the Place appointed. by acting it to the life? But even this Song was too harmonious for the Night’s Debauch. But. and for ever. in forcing the God S to sing to ’em. and Concord. He then presents us with a different Principle of Things. and the Origin of Union. Well has our Poet made it of the Morning. when the God was fresh: For hardly shou’d we be brought ever to believe that such harmonious Numbers cou’d arise from a mere Chaos of the Mind. and blind Chance?’’ The Song indeed was fitted to the God. not B Mind: For thisA had been a C ever- lasting. Unites and mingles with the mighty Mass: Hence Men and Beasts. For what cou’d better sute his jolly Character. ‘‘there’s hope you may in time become a Lover with me: for you already begin to shew Jealousy. from the sole Powers of C. I want no Nymph to make me happy here. as you see. But I never expected you shou’d have come hither without me. How little did I think these N cou’d raise that Pas- sion in you?’’ ‘‘Truly. My Jealousy and Love regard You only. gives Thought the upper hand. the Birth of Order from Confusion.’’ ‘‘Nay then.— . ‘‘No. and must have kept all things in a Chaos-State to this day.—But do you expect I shou’d imitate the Poet’s God you mention’d. The active M. truly. I know little of ’em as yet.    Sect. infus’d thro’ all the Space. But we must hear our Poet speaking in the Mouth of some soberer Demi-God or Hero. and in a more proper Order of Precedency. un- less it were perhaps to join Forces against you. which he lov’d often to celebrate. than such a drunken Creation.

he turn’d away his Eyes from me.     Here. teach us some celestial Hymn. I conjure you. and the Sun. and take no more notice of me than if I were absent. Give ’em but Voice and Accents: You may be still as much alone as you are us’d. and make us feel Divinity present in these solemn Places of Retreat. . and already moves in you. stretching out his Hand. may nearer view her Works. and of such infinite Grace. For well I see. receive me in your quiet Sanctuarys. and sovereignly Good! All- loving and All-lovely. and . methinks. Business. musing a-while by himself: and soon afterwards. may here best meditate the Cause of Things. charm the Genius of the Place (more chaste and sober than your S) to inspire us with a truer Song of Nature. that without any such Preparation. and favour my Re- treat and thoughtful Solitude. and shews us the open Scene of Nature in the Plains below. some Divinity has approach’d us. All-divine! Whose Looks are so becoming. who. whilst with its bless’d Tranquillity it affords a happy Leisure and Retreat for Man. said I. We are on the most beautiful part of the Hill. how gladly I salute ye!—Hail all ye blissful Mansions! Known Seats! Delightful Prospects! Majestick Beautys of this Earth. my Refuge from the toilsome World of Meditation. if we can Sect. JUST as I had said this. as pointing to the Objects round him. who here in peaceful Innocence enjoy a Life un-envy’d. We are come to the sacred Groves of the Hamadryads. and stop not one moment for any Ceremony or Rite. we shall find our sovereign Genius. now ready to rise. he began. P. tho Di- vine. ‘‘Ye Fields and Woods. whose Study brings such Wisdom. Haste then. and all ye Rural Powers and Graces!—Bless’d be ye chaste Abodes of happiest Mortals.—Ye verdant Plains. which formerly were said to render Oracles. Begin: For now I know you are full of those DiAvine Thoughts which meet you ever in this [] Solitude.A [] ‘‘O glorious Nature! supremely Fair. and to search his own and other Natures. draws off the Curtain of Night. and plac’d amidst the various Scenes of Nature. good T. made for Contemplation.

be thou my Assis- tant. To thee this Solitude. finding no Coast nor Limit of this Ocean. Bear with my ventrous and bold Approach. like those TransAports which are permitted to our Poets? or was it downright Raving? . thus sally’d forth into the wide Expanse. whilst thus inspir’d with Harmony of Thought. And since nor vain Curiosity.—Thus having oft essay’d. nor fond Conceit.    Sect. tho unconfin’d by Words. when I return again within my-self. and guide me in this Pursuit.— ‘‘Yet since by Thee (O Sovereign M!) I have been form’d such as I am. and of the Fulness of that Immense-one. impenetrable. whose Contemplation such Delight. and cele- brate the Beautys which resolve in Thee. permit that with due freedom I exert those Facultys with which thou hast adorn’d me. inform me. this Place. nor sound the Abyss of D. and is a nobler Spectacle than all which ever Art presented!—O mighty Nature! Wise Substitute of Providence! impower’d Creatress! Or Thou impowering D. I dare no more behold the amazing Depths. said he. P. Fancy gives o’er its Flight: and weary’d Imagination spends it-self in vain. whose every single Work af- fords an ampler Scene. unsearchable. these Rural Meditations are sacred. inspires me with such Thoughts as these. and in loose Numbers. as out of a Dream. and endeavour to trace thee in thy Works. struck with the Sense of this so narrow Being. whilst I venture thus to tread the Labyrinth of wide Nature. the Source and Principle of all Beauty and Perfection.’’— HERE he stop’d short. nor in the widest Tract thro’ which it soars. and Thee alone adore. ‘‘Thy Being is boundless. How have I appear’d to you in [] my Fit? Seem’d it a sensible kind of Madness. . and starting. since the peculiar Dignity of my Nature is to know and contemplate Thee. nor Love of ought save Thee alone. In thy Immensity all Thought is lost. supreme Cre- ator! Thee I invoke. intelligent and rational. [] one Point yet nearer the Circumference than theA first Center whence it parted. I sing of Nature’s Order in created Beings. Now.

or had any Nature by which they corresponded any more in that near Situation of Parts. nor Sand.’’ said he. or on the Sand by the Sea-shore. I shall lose the Enjoyment of the pleasing Vision. ‘‘Why. so with its own Wood of numerous spreadAing Branches [] (which seem so many different T) ’tis still. as it is by it-self a different thing from all its Fellows of the Wood. I know you look upon the Trees of this vast Wood to be different from one another: And this tall Oak. or by what it differ’d from the waxen Figure.     I only wish. that neither the Wax. it might there- fore possibly be a real Tree of the same Kind or Species. said I. Now shou’d you. in our real . one and the self-same T. . the noblest of the Company. and was coming to know the Hand of your divine Artificer. I wou’d have done with you. and reason no longer. that you had been a little stronger in your Sect. I shou’d tell you. as a mere Caviller. and desir’d I shou’d satisfy you what I thought it was which made this Oneness or Sameness in the Tree or any other Plant. if possible. or from any such Figure accidentally made. nor Cloud thus piec’d together by our Hand or Fancy. But if you stop here. and tem- per’d. than that All hangs together. I suppose. as we saw here. tell me that if a Figure of Wax. to be One Intire Thing? Can one otherwise think of it. For to instance in what we see before us. or any other Matter. were cast in the exact Shape and Colours of this Tree. ‘‘is there any difficulty in fansying the Universe Unity. But if you question’d me fairly. as of a Piece?’’ ‘‘Grant it: And what follows?’’ ‘‘Only this. And already I begin to find a thousand Difficultys in fansying such a Universal Genius as you describe. had any real relation within themselves. and not as a fair Sceptick.’ there shou’d be something be- longing to it which makes it One. to have proceeded as you began. than if scat- ter’d ever so far asunder. either in the Clouds. that if it may indeed be said of the World. ‘That wherever there was such a Sympathizing of Parts. Transport. ‘That it is simply One. by what is visible. to the same kind of Substance. without ever minding me. But this I shou’d affirm. For I was beginning to see Wonders in that Nature you taught me.’’ ‘‘As how?’’ ‘‘No otherwise than as you may observe in every thing.

flourishes. For besides the living Genius of each Place. are You. which. or any part of it? For when that is wholly spent. Now where. I believe. What you Philosophers are. let us examine this thing of Personality between you and me. For that there is a Sympathy of Parts in these Fig- ures of ours. will teach us.    Sect. Self. by your account. the Woods too. supposing it to lie in the Stuff it-self. And yet that our own Marble.A Leaving. selves the best they can. Nourishment. other than in those of Marble form’d by a P or P.’’ At this rate indeed. T. therefore.’ By virtue of this. reply’d T. and is still One and the same. We injure ’em then. we are Our-selves still as much as before. not one Particle in it remains the same. and to the Support. I beseech you. and not one Particle of it left. that few . and consider how you. in twice seven Years. according [] to our present way of speaking. P. Wherever there was such a plain Concurrence in one com- mon End. . Sense. and common to it with others of the same kind. to personate them- Personality. continu’d he. reply’d I. let them look to it themselves. the meanest Anatomist can tell us. or. whom I wou’d willingly persuade you to think belonging to this World. even when by Vegetation and change of Substance. to say ‘‘they belong to these Trees’’. we cou’d not be mistaken in saying there was a pecu- [] liarA Nature belonging to this Form. and not rather ‘‘these Trees to them. are animated. by what I can apprehend. may be hard perhaps to determine: But for the rest of Mankind. said I.’’ But as for their Immortality. and the Springs and Rivulets their Nymphs in store belonging to ’em: And these too. and Propagation of so fair a Form. of which we are compos’d) wears out in seven. our Tree is a real Tree. these Trees. that both theirs and all other Natures must for their Duration depend alone on that Nature on which the World depends: And that every Genius else must be subordinate to that One good G. at the longest. and I’m My-self. of immaterial and immortal Substances. I only know. or Stuff. (whate’er it be. will that same One be found at last. lives. you have found a way to make very adorable Places of these Silvan Habitations. no doubt. I dare affirm. have their Hamadryads.

as much as I love and value him. And for that poor Endeavour of making out this Sameness or Iden- tity of Being. how shall we at . you will allow this You and Me to be each of us simply and individually One. nor one Thought remains the same. unless. and put together in a certain number of such Parts as unite and conspire in these Frames of ours. from some self-same Matter. than the present-one. you fall so in love with the [] Notion of an A. said he: But tho this may happen to a Man. Man be one and the same only for a day or two: A Year makes more Revolutions than can be number’d. there is a strange Simplicity in this Y and M. all your Principles and Opinions. as that Matter it-self is not really capable of such Simplicity. by which they are really One. live. as that You are Y-. at best. or Particle of Matter. ’Tis good fortune if a Sect. be suppos’d of uncom- pounded Matter. act. yet wou’d you be still the self- same P: tho better yet. Matter. themselves. and provident for their own Welfare. one Passion. feeling the Power of the G I preach. You see therefore. yet when he comes to suffer. and have a Nature or Genius peculiar to A Genius. them. And you (P!) who. if you will take my Judgment. quitting your Inclination for SceptA icism. be wrought upon to own the divine Hypothe- sis. and chiefly to one whoseA contrary Vices set him at odds so often with him. if it can present us with so many innumerable Instances of particular Forms. [] self. that in reality they shou’d be still one and the same. continu’d T.     are so long themselves as half seven Years. But whatever. this is by so much the more contemptible. tho you disown Philosophy. and others like Form. better than you can allow the same to any thing of mere Matter. are yet so true a Proselyte to Pyrrhonism. as to find it full as intelligible and certain to you. or be punish’d for those Vices. if I mistake not. pretty difficult to conceive) yet being compounded. True. who share this simple Principle. . he finds himself. when neither one Atom of Body. suppos’d to remain with us when all besides is chang’d. shou’d you at last. and from this new Turn of Thought admit a total Change in Identity. (a Thing. still one and the same. For I dare answer.

’’ Or wou’d you rather be no Substance. against your own Being. you know myA Sceptick Principles: I determine neither way. As for the Notice we take of these invisible Powers in the common way of our Religion. our common Parent. as against that which I am pretending to convince you of. and deny the Great and The Supreme General-O of the World? How can we be so unnatural as to dis- One. as accidental as my Life may be. However it be. And we are dutiful in com- plying with them. or Whether we come to any Determination at all in this point. it stands the same. or as that random Humour is. so real or substantial as M-. you must allow one at least to understand the Controversy. own divine Nature. require no Notice to be taken of ’em. since it concerns not the Affair before us. and refuse to recognize the universal and sovereign G? Sovereigns. and to perform. you may perceive. or which of these two Substances you count your real and proper S. Therefore if there be that Thing you call a Substance. I take for granted I am one. said I. ‘‘What Substance. We may even have reason to presume they shou’d be dis- pleas’d with us for being too officious. reply’d he (good P!) the same Privi- lege of Scepticism in this respect. orA in very dark disguise. ‘‘What Substances Material. reply’d T. in Worship. and following their Example. I know nothing. which governs it. I find no warrant for our being such earnest Rec- ognizers of a controverted Title. but chuse to call your-self a Mode or Accident? Truly. they are of? whether material or immaterial? ’’ May one not. on the other hand. the same time overlook this in the Whole. said I. nor any Homage where they appear not in due Form.    Sect. in endeavouring to discover [] them. after all. May one not inquire. when they pass incognito. when they keep themselves either wholly invisible. But in a philo- sophical way. You . Which way we determine. Our lawful Superiors teach us what we are to own. inquire as well. But for any thing fur- [] ther relating to this Question. . we have our visible Sover- eigns to answer for us. Allow me then. and know the Nature Substance of these Powers describ’d. For be the Difficulty ever so great. Immaterial.

Appearances. I know there is somewhere in the World. And of this Mind ’tis enough to say. however we came by ’em. And who. ’tis hop’d. Dilemma may be of notable force against the manner of such a supreme Being’s Existence. you will bring the same Dilemma home to you. Let P. may satisfy you. by the help of such another. the best it can. But after you have done all. and be at a loss still about Y-. ‘‘That there cannot be any such A Mind. produc’d out of it. correcting. particular One as Your-self. from the same Reasons. I beseech you. not a single Imagination or Reflection. Meta- physicks. for its ownA proper use. Fancys. and your Sect. Men are part therefore of this Body.     may raise what Objections you please on either hand. working. your own Mind. and resum’d again into it. When you have argu’d ever so long upon these Meta. this composite Order of Body and Understanding. by which to dis- cover or be conscious of the manifold Imaginations and Inventions which it sets a-foot. and deals abroad with such an open hand! The . and have philosophically concluded from the Difficultys of each Hypothesis. if he pleases. . The Bodys of Mind of the Whole. physical Points of Mode and Substance. tho the Body. understands and thinks the best he can for his own purpose: He for Himself. and hasA something passive under it. and subject to it: That [] it has not only Body or mere Matter for its Subject. you suppose to be mere Body: A Mass of modify’d Matter. Apprehensions of Men are included in this Body. and inherent in it. contradict me. Each Particular Minds. never dreams of it! The W it-self is never the wiser for all the Wit and Wisdom it breeds! It has no Apprehension at all of what is doing. perhaps. We have our several Understandings and Thoughts. ‘‘That it is something which acts upon a Body. and what proceeds from it: That it super- intends and manages its own Imaginations. and adorning and accomplishing. for the W?—No-one? Nothing at all?—The World. you must con- clude. I for another Self. no Thought kept to it-self. or [] purpose. and modelling these. but in some respect even it-self too.’’ Such a M and governing Part. as it finds good. it seems.’’ But that there is actually such a one as this latter. Sensations. The Imaginations. ‘‘That there cannot be in Nature such a Universal-One as This’’.

’’—No (says one of an antienter Hypothesis) for the World was once without Two sorts.’’ ‘‘Who then understands for her. nothing at all to understand for her. by it-self. independent. and really related. at last.’’ say you. which thinks. has nothing left at last for its own share. have you something to understand and act for you. therefore. what- ever Necessity she may be in? Has the W such ill fortune in the main? Are there so many particular understanding active Prin- ciples every where? And is there Nothing. or is interested or concern’d in her behalf?’’ ‘‘No-one. or help her out (poor Being!) on any occasion. tell me. having unhappily lavish’d all away!—By what Chance I wou’d fain understand. or scatter’d Portion of dissoluble Intelligence. Is not this Nature still a S? Or. any Intelligence or Thought at all. from Eternity. Chaos. to what else.’’ ‘‘Say. as you see it. and which thinks and acts consonantly for the Use and Pur- pose of those Parts. and Nature not so? How subject to a Mind. no Part. acts. abso- lute.’’—Admirable Atheism. . kind. I beseech you. came into play. advise her. For my own share (thank Provi- . indeed. or thought of. than to the Whole of N? Is there then such a uniting Principle in Nature N? If so. and yielding for every-one else. how are you then a Self. till Thought. Let us hear further. How are Y one? By what Token? Or by virtue of What? ‘‘By a Principle which joins certain Parts. goodly Bulk so prolifick. and is no more than barely what you see: ‘‘Matter modify’d. not a Soul: But Every one for himself. What is your whole System a Part of? Or is it. with here and there a Thought. ‘‘Mere Matter. and unrelated to any thing besides? If it be in- [] deed a Part. or understands for All? Nothing which administers or looks after All?’’ Contrary No (says one of a modern Hypothesis) for the W was Belief. and a Play of Atoms. who gave this Understanding. a Lump in motion.’’ Come on then. Conceit!—Believe it who can. and made up a Faith of Harmony which was never design’d. by chance. and N. utes thus?’’ ‘‘N.    Sect. but a Whole. ‘‘And what is Nature? Is it Sense? Is it a Person? Has she Reason or Understanding?’’ ‘‘No. ‘‘How? or by what necessity?—Who gives the Law?—Who orders and distrib- Nature. IA beseech you.

and let me hear a-new that divine Song with which I was lately charm’d. Tho at the rate it often runs. if it co-operates with it to general Good. original to Motion and Order. inform us by what Chance ’twas dealt him. I can scarce help being in some pain on its account. That as there is one general Mass. and begin better than ever to fansy such a Nature as you speak of. . indi- vidual. and strives to will A accord.’’ reply’d he. Sect. But the Order of the U. good T. said I. [] ing to the best of Wills. convinc’d the more still of my own Being. I consider. alike simple.     dence) I have a M in myA possession. Fancys. uncompounded. Faith of drawn out. Let E. if he please. and how Atoms came to be so wise. and Operation. as far as I am able. such as it is. to this Order a M: That to this general M each particular-one must have relation. unless something foreign disturbs or hinders it. which serves. and of this Self of mine. So that it cannot surely but seem natu- ral. [] nations. my Friend. Imagi. (the Great-one of the World)’’ I endeavour to be really one with it. ‘‘That the particular M shou’d seek its Happiness in con- formity with the general-one. I am already got over my Qualm. In fine. Appetites. one Body of the Whole. ‘‘That ’tis a real Self. and conformable to it. and concern’d that all shou’d go happily and well with it. Now. and believing no Genius or Wisdom above his own. either by . ‘‘For know that every par. in tolerable Harmony and Order. Effect. and more like still. and endeavour to resemble it in its highest Simplicity and Excellence. insomuch that I find myself mightily in its Interest. continu’d T (raising his Voice and Action) being thus. (as much as we can understand of Substance) alike active upon Body. of like Energy.’’ THEREFORE. and the rest. my Passions. and copy’d from another principal and original S Theism. to it-self. so to this Body there is an Order. as being of like Substance. I am persuaded still. even by Scepticism it-self. to keep my Body and its Affections. ‘‘Fear not. be once again the Enthusiast. Energy of ticular N certainly and constantly produces what is good Nature. think his the better. is much the better of the two.

   Sect. But now. it does its utmost Distempers. but [] be pleas’dA and rejoice at what happens. and conducing to its own right State. All in general: And what is for the good of all in general. Resignation. and not only so. Distortions.’’ Then you ought to rest satisfy’d. still to redeem it-self. T. nor any thing foreign has already impair’d or wounded it: And even in this case. and let me advise you in my own behalf. do full as much? Shall That alone miscarry or fail? Or is there any thing foreign. reply’d he. and attains its Perfection. other than of this sort? And how ignorant must one be of all natural Causes and Operations. . ‘‘I confess. and not by the Force of some foreign Nature which over-powers it? If therefore every particular Nature be thus constantly and unerr- ingly true to it-self. that since . T. and admire equally whatever comes from one and the same perfect Hand. or force it out of its natural way? If not. knowing whence it comes. I can surmount all. General then all it produces is to its own advantage and good. I find. and viewing things thro’ a kind of Magical Glass. What are all Weaknesses. which shou’d at any time do violence upon it. and strives to throw off the Distemper. or by Violence from with- out. shall not the general- one. Thus Nature in the Patient struggles to the last. into what a Superstition are you like to lead me! I thought it heretofore the Mark of a supersti- tious Mind. Go on. and the seeming Contradictions and Per- versitys of Nature. and to what Perfection it contributes. to think that any of these Disorders happen by a Miscarriage of the particular Nature. I must place all in general to one Account. if nothing from without obstructs it. to search for Providence in the common Accidents of Life. imperfect Births.’’ said I. I am to see the worst of Ills trans- form’d to Good. BLESS me! said I. and ascribe to the Divine Power those common Disasters and Calamitys which Nature has entail’d on Mankind. Sick- nesses.—But no matter.’’ ‘‘ ’Tis so. Thus even in these Plants we see round [] us. over-powering and corrupting it within. The N of the Whole. everyA particular N thrives. is Just and Good. and certain to produce only what is good for it-self. the Good of Good.

And that it lies on you to prove. ‘‘Of a [] Universal UNION. can see nothing fully. ‘‘Did you not then. I consider’d it as unreasonable not to allow the same thro’out! Unreasonable indeed! reply’d he. mutually relative. that things within our Sphere shou’d be consistent. ‘‘For what was infinite. seems so.’’ ‘‘And is not the same Reason good still? viz. and keep their Order. ‘‘agree with me. By Force of Probability. I wou’d have you know. said I. of the ill Appearances are not perfect Phaenomena of Ill. you overcame me. then.’’ Can you then prove them to be any more? For if you cannot. Coherence. And whatever seems vitious or imperfect in the Creation. a Mind which sees not infinitely. I am resolv’d to enter again into cool Reason with you. I scorn to take the advan- tage of a warm Fit. enough to pass for Demonstration. said he.’’ Tell me then.’’ ‘‘It Why universal. till the thing be solv’d. were there no Principle of Union. you do not by delaying give me time to Sect. even on the Concession of a perfect Supreme Mind existent?’’ ‘‘I did so. Your Solutions. it wou’d seem next to impos- sible.’’ ‘‘Are the Appearances. which in it-self is really perfect. and must therefore frequently see that as imperfect.’ ’’ ‘‘The Reason is still good. you prove nothing. For in the infinite Residue. said I. Therefore ere I go yet a step farther. and be beholden to Temper or Imagination for gaining me your Assent. after this Union own’d. how you can refuse to allow the name of Demonstration to the remaining Arguments. puts a stop to further Conclusions. when I aver’d that the AppearancesA must of necessity stand as they are. and ask. whilst they remain Appearances only. cool again.     you have rekindled me. . or Sympathizing of Things?’’ Principle of Order. which establish the Government of a perfect Mind. reply’d he. If you admit for Proof what I advanc’d yesterday uponA that head. wou’d be predominant. and things [] seem altogether as imperfect. ‘That in an infinity of Things. Whence. Being con- vinc’d of a Consent and Correspondence in all we saw of Things.’’ said he. any Objection to our Hypothesis?’’ ‘‘None. you plainly see: .

‘‘That finally there is but O’’.’’ chaeism. it will exclude it. Therefore since notwithstanding the Appear- ances. but from some particular Design. we shall perceive. viz. there must be some natural Reason for their Agreement.’’ ‘‘It may.’’ ‘‘And therefore there may possibly be no real I in things: but all may be perfectly concurrent to one Interest. ’Tis impossible. which you have granted in the W. the Interest of that Universal O.’’ ‘‘I own it. are not necessarily that I they represent to you. Contriv- ance. the same as to bid me be infinite. you say. Yet still this is only Presumption. then. reason thus abstractedly and drily. all must be Confusion. ‘‘Take Demonstration then. and makes the other two to be subordinate.’’ ‘‘Allow it. by this reckoning.    Sect. To bid me prove. For were there in Nature Two or more Prin- ciples.’’ said he. And since one or other of these Opinions must of . The Appearances of I.’’ The Presumption.’’ ‘‘Why. and simple Self- principle. said I. the Nature or Mind of the Whole will put in execution for the Whole’s Good: And if it be possible to exclude I. or Thought: which brings us up again to O Principle. ‘‘if you can endure I shou’d tion.’ For nothing merely passive can [] oppose this universally active Principle. that the only consistent Opin- ion is the last. For nothing beside what is infinite can see infinite Connexions. therefore. and this natural Reason cannot be from Chance. count upon it. If they agree. is. . That there is more than one’’. it. in a manner. ’tis possible that I may actually be excluded. in this case. ’tis another Principle. or not.’’ ‘‘It may be so. If they agree not. ‘That actually it is excluded. since the Appearances do not only agree with the Hypothesis. And thus when we have Conclusion.’’ ‘‘Therefore what they represent may possibly be G. but are a necessary Consequence from it. if it may be so. I must confess. or. till one be predominant. If any thingA active oppose Mani. either they must agree. compar’d each of the Three Opinions. is [] wholly on your side. (be not surpriz’d) ‘It follows that it must be so’.A Demonstra. For whatever is possible in the Whole. ‘‘That there is no design- ing active Principle. on the account of that great Unit.

fram’d for the Good of each particular Being. in your poetick Vein.     necessity be true. and yield their elementary Substance to New-Comers. in their several turns. addressing my-self. as best may sute with the Perfection. demonstrably? if it be Demonstration ‘‘That in Three Opinions. as you wou’d have me. THUS I continue then. the Third must be the Truth. where first it seem’d to inspire you. since you invoke no other P than that single O. You are Conqueror in the [] cool way of Reason. and must be so. [] vives. the Matter whence they were compos’d is not left useless. One of which must necessarily be true. Life. The vital Principle is widely shar’d. For. but not here only. New Forms arise: and when the old dis- solve. and greater numbers still enjoy the Privilege of N. to that Guardian-D and Inspirer. to Life. she im- parts her-self to most. No Time nor Substance is lost or un-improv’d. thou art inmost. and Vigour of the Whole. said T. Munificent and Great. which seems so natural. Two being plainly absurd. Call’d. noAwhere extinct. they view the Light. and address your-self to it as before. said I. . and makes the Subjects of her Bounty in- finite. and infinitely vary’d: dispers’d thro’out. to that Perfection of Being. and may with Honour now grow warm again. I shall now no longer be in danger of imagining either Magick or Superstition in the case. whom we are to imagine present here. M and C (vain Phantoms!) have yielded to that all-prevalent W which youA have establish’d. All lives. From Thee depend their secret Springs of Action. Return therefore. I intreat you. Nought stays her hastning Hand. other than that the last Sect. and by Succession still re. is. .’’ Enough. what can we determine. once more. T. Thou mov’st them with an irresistible unweary’d Force. on our Approaches to these Silvan Scenes. that others too may be Spectators of the goodly Scene. and viewing pass. by sacred and inviolable Laws. ‘‘O mighty Meditation. The temporary Beings quit their borrow’d Forms. My Doubts are vanish’d. G! Sole-animating and inspiring Power! Author and Subject of these Thoughts! Thy Influence is universal: and in all Things.

and yet too mighty for our Grasp. can penetrate or unfold. yet young with fresh Eternity. but wrought with equal Management and Art. and vile Abhorrence. tho as to Art still equal to the greatest. and pregnant with more Wonders than the most dis- cerning Sense. ’tis in vain we follow it into the Bodys it has reach’d. ‘‘In vain we try to fathom the Abyss of S. as is thy Being.A of infinite Minuteness. or even how small its Parts. it [] scapes our Hold. Worlds [] within Worlds. join’d with the greatest Art. Nature’s seeming Waste. ‘‘If knowing only some of the Rules of M. help’d by mechanick Art. we seek to trace it further. yet stir not. an Object unproportion’d to our Capacity. The abject State ap- pears merely as the Way or Passage to some better. of which no Place is empty. . O thou Antient Cause! older than Time. Nor can we judg less favourably of that consummate Art exhibited thro’ all the Works of Nature. discover in these Works a hidden Scene of Wonders. since our weak Eyes. whilst they express an Energy beyond our Comprehension. and with Indifference. or the acutest Reason. ‘‘In vain we labour to understand that Principle of S and . how great the Whole it-self. Wonderful Being. except from others which lose it. remote from the Antipathy of Sense. too small. Even with- out Change of Place it has its Force: And Bodys big with Motion labour to move.    Sect. and can reach nothing beyond the Body it-self. we then perhaps shou’d highest raise our Admiration: convinc’d that even the Way it-self was equal to the End. when shrinking to a narrow point. unless by imparting it to others. ‘‘In vain too we pursue that Phantom T. nor ever lose. or mocks our scanty Thought by swellingA to Eter- nity. ‘‘But ’tis in vain for us to search the bulky Mass of M: seeking to know its Nature. Our tardy Apprehensions fail us. even in Corruption. the Seat of thy extensive Being. (if we may call it so) which Bodys never receive. thro’ which it is diffus’d. no Void which is not full. But cou’d we nearly view it.

‘‘Besides the neighbouring Planets. Thus are we in a manner conscious of that original and eternally existent T. ’Tis here he suffers us to see. not an hour ago. But Thought we own pre-eminent. and con- fess the reallest of Beings. the only Existence of which we are made sure. The System of the bigger World! ’’— HERE I must own. in a manner sutable to our Frailty. And here I wou’d willingly have welcom’d him. . and T maintains its Elder- ship of Being.’’ (continu’d he. since he was now come upon the Bor- ders of our World.Whence we . to find that. and even converse with him. (the great Exemplar of thy Works) comes fromA Thee. vital in all. which seeming in us to depend so much on Motion. diffusive. [] nicated thy-self more immediately to us. And thus the Assurance we have of the Existence of Beings above our Sense. Thou who art Original S. Sect. in this noblest of his Works apparent to us. as is the Distance between them and us. we were likely to get clear of an entangling abstruse Philosophy. All which even Sense suggests may be deceitful. so as in some manner to inhabit within our Souls. I was in hopes T. ‘‘All Nature’s Wonders serve to excite and perfect this Idea of their Author. which yet had hardlyA yielded [] to the Day? How many others are discover’d by the help of Art? Yet how many remain still. and from Matter it-self. yet differs so much from it. whence we derive our own. who hast thus commu. the A-T. All else may be only Dream and Shadow. their Distance from each other is as unmea- surable by Art. R subsists. ’twas no small Comfort to me. had I thought it safe at present to venture the least Interruption.     T. as our Meditation turn’d. than this arise from Thought. in his rap- turous Strain) ‘‘what Multitudes of fix’d S did we see sparkle. and Perfect. How glorious is it to con- template him. beyond the reach of our Discovery! Crouded as they seem. as he proceeded. as not to suffer us to conceive how Thought can more result from this. by being conscious. might stick closer to Nature. in the clear Night. The S it-self remains still. and of T. inspiriting the Whole.

beautiful. exalts our Spirits. who thro’ these immense Spaces has dispos’d such an Infinite of Bodys. and exactest Measure. by whose high Art the rolling Spheres are govern’d. and Representative of the Almighty! Supreme of the corporeal World! Unperishing in Grace. and kept from fatal interfering. how active! How diffusive. and that continual Expence of vital Treasures. and in a glowing Mass confin’d to the Center of this planetary World!—Mighty Being! Brightest Image. and of undecaying Youth! Fair. whom all the Elements and Powers of Nature serve! How hast thou animated these moving Worlds? What Spirit or Soul infus’d? What Biass fix’d? Or how encompass’d them in liquid [] AEther. as to their Center. ‘‘But. driving them as withA the Breath of living Winds. but happily controul’d still by another Impulse. seeking to receive the Blessing of his Light. and un-exhausted Glory.    Sect. gives us new Life. single. or with Attendants. ‘‘Prodigious O! Bright Source of vital Heat. O thou who art the Author and Modifier of these various Motions! O sovereign and sole Mover. notwithstanding those eternally emitted Streams. yet how intense. and how vast a Substance. belonging each (as we may well presume) to Systems as compleat as our own World: Since even the smallest Spark of this bright Galaxy may vie with this our S. and lively Warmth! Towards him they seem to tend with prone descent. and power- ful Chief. and these stupendous Bodys of our World hold their unrelenting Courses! O wise OEconomist. with this our Earth. and hardly mortal Crea- [] ture! By what secret ways dost thou receive the SupAplies which maintain Thee still in such unweary’d Vigour. . go the eternal Rounds. are naturally taught the Immensity of that B. which inlighten and invigo- rate the surrounding Winds?— ‘‘Around him all the P. continually move. and makes us feel D more present. yet how collected thus within it-self. and Spring of Day!—Soft Flame. which shining now full out. and in just Numbers. Thus is our ponderous G directed in its annual . thy active and unweary’d Ministers in this intricate and mighty Work? ‘‘Thus powerfully are the Systems held intire. they keep their heavenly Order.

compar’d with ours of human Form. looking on me as if he expected I shou’d speak. and know. M with double Labour. making them contribute to the Good and Perfection of the U. [] stantly!—But Thou alone composest the Disorders of the corpo- real World. attends the Motion of her Sister-Planet. that you shou’d suf- fer me thus to run on. said I. thy all-good and perfect Work. to let me range thus at pleasure thro’ these aerial Spaces and imaginary Regions. in re- spect of those innumerable Systems of other apparent Suns? Yet how immense a Body it seems. Center of Souls. had I not rely’d on you to govern it a little better.—AO did they tend as unerringly and con. monthly surrounding this our bigger Orb. and pays in common her circular Homage to the Sun. where my capricious Fancy or easy Faith has led me? I wou’d have you to consider better. of a much narrower compass even than other its Fellow-Wanderers of our System. and in due time and manner cause them to find their Rest. my P. a borrow’d Remnant of its variable and oft-converted Surface? tho animated with a sublime Celestial Spirit. compar’d with the capa- cious System of its own Sun? And how narrow. which when he found plainly I wou’d not. this Man-Container. How narrow then must it appear. (rouzing my-self from my musing Posture) . daily revolving on its own Center: whilst the obsequious Sect. with an Air of Wonder) What can this mean. to whom these Spirits of ours by Nature tend.     Course. without the least Interruption? Have you at once given over your scrupulous Philosophy. but continu’d still in a posture of musing Thought: Why P! (said he. and conspiring Beauty of the ever-flourishing Creation. . or as nothing. as earthly Bodys to their proper Center. by which we have Re- lation and Tendency to Thee our Heavenly Sire.A [] I find then. Even so canst thou convert these jarring Motions of in- telligent Beings. and from the restless and fighting Elements raisest that peaceful Concord.’’— HERE again he broke off. ‘‘Yet is this Mansion-G. that I had never trusted my-self with you in this Vein of Enthusiasm.

said he. rifles the Globe. gentle rural Tasks. and making the Woods and Rocks resound the Name of Her whom he ador’d. you expect I shou’d serve you in the same capacity as that Musi- cian. when his impetuous Spirit was transported in too high a Strain. ’twas as agreeable to me to hear him. His Subject too. And with the Advantage of the rural Scene around us. ‘‘You imagine right. work out for themselves the means of heavier Labour. supply’d the room of the best Pastoral Song. His Vein was a plentiful one. I told him. with this our Element of E. and his Enthusiasm in no likeli- hood of failing him. . whom an antient Orator made use of at his Elbow. despis- ing homely Fare. wou’d bear him out. Wherever there is danger. ranges thro’ Seas and Lands. perform’d with such Delight! What Pride or what Ambition bred this Scorn? Hence all those fatal Evils of your Race! Enormous Luxury.’’ said I. when I perceive it. in this kind of Passion.    Sect. still pressing him) Begin a-new. asA to hear one of those amorous Shepherds com- plaining to his Flock. I thought. anxious Cares.’’ ‘‘Be it so. till you have promis’d to pull me by the Sleeve when I grow extravagant. I shou’d grow flat and tiresom: What Lyre or Instrument wou’d you imploy to raise me?’’ The Danger. be it on either hand. and calm’d him again. to strike such moving Notes as rais’d him when he was perceiv’d to sink. For in the manner I was now wrought up. and Sorrow: Not satisfy’d to turn and manure for their Use the wholesom and beneficial Mould . ‘‘you have my Prom- ise. invoke his [] Stars and Elements. his number’d Prose. which yonder we see cultivated with such Care by the early Swains now working in the Plain below.—‘‘Unhappy restless Men. I promise to give you warning. cou’d hardly be suppos’d to lie on this hand.—Begin therefore (continu’d I.’’ reply’d T. and lead me boldly thro’ your Ele- ments. LET us begin then. ‘‘and therefore I am re- solv’d not to go on. and Men ingenious to their Misery.’’ ‘‘But how if instead of rising in my Transports. as well as his Numbers. who first disdain’d these peaceful Labours.

her Vigour is as great. and seeking out imaginary Sect. ‘‘How comfortable is it to those who come out hence alive. ’tis only to digest and exalt the unwholesom Particles. renders ’em again with improvement to the Earth. to breathe a purer A! to see the rejoicing Light of Day! and tread the fertile Ground! How gladly they contemplate the Surface of the Earth. that even the Study of these inglorious Parts of Nature. they search its very Entrails. heated and enliven’d by the Sun. their Habitation. and tem- per’d by the fresh A of fanning Breezes! These exercise the resty Plants. and her Looks as charming. . suffer not prying Mortals to live long in this Search. they dig yet deeper. which by their Simplicity discover no less of the Divine Art. or in rich Dews and fruitful Showers.— But the noisom poisonous Steams which the Earth breathes from these dark Caverns. is able it-self alone to yield large Matter and Employment for the busiest Spirits of Men. ‘‘How beautiful is the W among the inferior Earthly Works! Heavy. but placidly avoiding Force. impregnating the Whole: And both the Sun and A conspiring. as if she newly came out of the forming Hands of her Creator. when compress’d. in gentle Breathings.A [] ‘‘Here. and scour the unactive Globe. we find Minerals of different Natures. So various are the Subjects of our Contemplation. where she conceals her Treasures. moving about the mighty Mass. and transparent: without the springing Vig- our and expansive Force of Air. and bending every way with ready Fluency! Insinuating. and hard to be destroy’d or chang’d by Fire. her Beauty as fresh. The same A. in the nether World. than the most compounded of Nature’s Works. or utmost Art. so animate this Mother-Earth. but not without Activity. it dis- . and commit ’em to the sprightly A.     of this their E. Stubborn and un-yielding. Wealth. AndA when the Sun draws [] hence thick clouded Steams and Vapours. others as durable. Some are found capable of surprizing Changes. that tho ever breeding. which soon imparting its quick and vital Spirit. liquid. who in the Labour of these Experiments can willingly consume their Lives. enters its Pores. led by Curiosity.

and dissolving now those Systems which it-self before had form’d. . where this soft Element is stor’d. it still maintains this happy Peace and Concord. How vastA are the Abysses of the Sea. seem to receive from hence the vast Sup- plies which keep them ever in their splendid State. according to its stated and peculiar Laws. frames. raise it into Clouds! These soon converted into Rain. and nurses all the various Forms. It forms the Minerals. gives Life and Growth to Vegetables. with all those numerous Suns. Benign and gentle amidst all. sparing. procures their Intercourse. and supply a-fresh the Springs and Rivers. is dif- fus’d thro’out the Universe. Even this our Sun. invisible. frees the intangled Bodys. ‘‘But whither shall we trace the Sources of the L? or in what Ocean comprehend the luminous Matter so wide diffus’d thro’ the immense Spaces which it fills? What Seats shall we assign to that fierce Element of F. and sweet Re- freshment of all Animals. But these once broken. and whence the Sun and Winds extracting. produce [] the various Forms which we behold. The invisible etherial Substance. whole happy Strifes soon ending in strict Union. kindles a soft. and summons to the Field the keen terrestrial Par- ticles. animates. as well as imploying for their Use. ’Tis thus’’— HERE T stopt on a sudden. to lay hold on his Sleeve. passes triumphant o’er the yielding Forms. . the Comfort of the neighbouring Plains. those sulphurous and combustible Matters of which they are compos’d. and breaking into visible and fierce Flames. and vital Flame in [] the Breasts of livingA Creatures. convert- ing all into it-self. the glit- tering Host of Heaven. and warms it to its Center. penetrating both liquid and solid Bodys. solves the lumpish Earth.    Sect. too active to be confin’d within the Com- pass of the Sun. and not excluded even the Bowels of the heavy Earth? The Air it-self submits to it. and serves as its inferior Instru- ment. It cherishes the cold dull massy Globe. when (as he imagin’d) I was putting my Hand out. water the thirsty Ground. It runs impetuous thro’ the fatal Breach. the acquitted Being takes its Course unrul’d.

where I cou’d better accompany you. I was afraid it might. and this fair visible World. warm. was not what I fear’d. collected thus within it-self. I find. But for my part. and how theirA noblest [] End was to be here wrapt up. in this hot Element. indeed. where’er you led me. it unfolded [] it-self in the various Map of Nature. and becoming proAductive. nor Species existed any-where out of the Divine Mind. reply’d he. with our G. run to what they tell us of a universal Conflagration. for your high-soaring. But you. P! to find this grown such a Con- cern with you. ’tis well remember’d. said he. and subsisting (as they imagin’d) rather in a more simple and perfect manner. possibly. consum’d and lost. if the Case you meant were that periodical Conflagration talk’d of by some Philosophers.     O P. said I. must yet allow me the same Wings of Fancy. . And here perhaps I might have talk’d yet more mysteriously. But you may rest secure here. you might well expect the Fate of I. had you been one who cou’d think otherwise than in the common way of the soft Flames of Love. in which I knew not how it might go. especially if descending from your lofty Flights. as well I might indeed. and. than when multiply’d in more ways. in the issue. How else shall I fly with you. (interrupting him) who can much better see D unfolded. when no Form. I am glad. I was growing too Sect. You might. But this.’’—But in these high Flights. from Pole to Pole. had master’d not only the Sun himself. I cou’d wish you wou’d go a little further with me in the Map of Nature. have heard Wonders in this kind: ‘‘How all things had their Being hence. said he. but every thing which stood in your way. said I. all then was D: All was that O. perhaps. than in that involv’d and solitary State be- fore Creation. For you were got above Danger. Indeed. with that devouring Element on your side. and from the Frigid to the Torrid Zone? . thro’ different Climates. who wou’d confine me to this heavy Earth. For there the G wou’d of necessity be all in all: And in those Intervals of Creation. you wou’d be content to pitch upon this humble Spot of E. I might possibly have gone near to burn my Wings.

let us try first on [] the darkestA and most imperfect Parts of our Map. O. The Sea. where vast Sea-Monsters pierce thro’ floating Islands. so little favour’d by the Sun. far remov’d from him! How tedious are the Winters there! How deep the Horrors of the Night. and af- [] fords them Means and Time to make provision against theA next Return of Cold. How wide and deep it lies. who of themselves seem great as Islands. Men and their Herds may wait for a Release. It breaks the icy Fetters of the Main. by Art and Prudence. sets longing Men at liberty. and almost fills the lowest Valleys. . and Trees. which elsewhere is scarce confin’d within its Limits. for this purpose I will allow you the P of the Poets. with Arms which can withstand the Chrystal Rock: whilst others. . the Shrubs. hiding the sluggish Rivers. For at length the Sun approaching. are by their Bulk alone arm’d against all but Man. and see how you can endure the Prospect. or that wing’d Griffin which an Italian Poet of the Moderns gave to one of his Heroes: Yet on this Condition. and Author of his own superior Wisdom. and Mansions of distress’d and feeble Men!—See! where they lie confin’d. hardly secure against the raging Cold. SINCE you will have it so. to the Moon. and force him humbly to adore the great Composer of these won- drous Frames. melts the Snow. that you take no such extravagant Flight. ‘‘But leaving these dull Climates. but keep closely to this Orb of Earth. and forc’d by Hunger out of the naked Woods. whose Superiority over Creatures of such stupendous Size and Force. reply’d T. said I. the Dens of Beasts. or the Attacks of the wild Beasts. incumbent o’er the Plains. ‘‘How oblique and faintly looks the Sun on yonder Climates. and how uncomfortable even the Light of Day! The freezing Winds em- ploy their fiercest Breath.—Yet not dis- hearten’d (such is the Force of human Breasts) but thus provided for.    Sect. lies here im- mur’d in Walls of Chrystal. yet are not spent with blowing. as his was. The Snow covers the Hills. the kind compensating Gifts of Heaven. now Masters of the wasted Field. shou’d make him mindful of his Privilege of Reason.

and lasting are the sub- tile Threds spun from their artful Mouths! Who. how patient of Labour and of . and raises gentle Gales. ‘‘And here the varying Scene opens to new Wonders. How tame and tractable. and brought even to fight their Battels. How shining. O’ercome and fainting. with Courage. pierc’d by his scorching Beams. the Men and BeastsA pursue their Labours. gay. Their Bodys melt. How great an Alteration do we find? His purer Light confounds weak-sighted Mortals. [] fresh’d by Dews and Showers.—But let us turn our Eyes towards these smaller. but richer with the fragrant Spices it affords. making Sect. yet still alive. and Plants re. and a Sense superior to the other Beasts! Yet are they tam’d. they undergo such a surprizing Change. favour’d by which. they seek the Shade. We see a Country rich with Gems. and Nature yields her most delicious Fruits. The Air they breathe cannot enough abate the Fire which burns within their panting Breasts. in which recluse and bury’d. He casts a veil of Clouds before ’em.     for those happier Regions. and wait the cool Refreshments of the Night. and more curious Objects. How gravely move the largest of Land-Creatures on the Banks of this fair River! How ponderous are their Arms. rather as Allies and Confederates. strong. Yet oft the bounteous C bestows other Refreshments. perpetual Summer. and vast their Strength. and splendid. can gladly bear the warmest Sun- beams. the numerous and devouring Insects on the Trees in these wide Plains. has taught ’em to compose the beautiful soft Shells. by Mankind. on which he looks more kindly. when not destroy’d by Men. . from the triumphant Palm down to the humble Moss! ‘‘Now may we see that happy Country where precious Gums and Balsams flow from Trees. Scarce can they tread the glowing Ground. and are proud of wearing such inglorious Spoils? How sumptuously apparel’d. are all the vaArious Insects which feed [] on the other Plants of this warm Region! How beautiful the Plants themselves in all their various Growths. than as Slaves. who clothe and adorn them- selves with the Labours and Lives of these weak Creatures. we see. beside the All- wise.

beguiles the Simple-hearted. by the Sun’s genial Heat. with meek and * VOL. [] Parent-like. and of the Divine Bounty. on the adjacent Plains. be- get a monstrous Race. . cruel and de- ceitful: how he with dire Hypocrisy. go led and loaden thro’ these dry and barren Places! Their Shape and Temper show them fram’d by Nature to submit to Man. quit- ting his watry Den. and inspiring Tenderness and kind Compassion. [] and Abhorrence of A each others Temples. and Terror of its Borders! when suddenly displaying his horrid Form. water’d and fed by a friendly generous Stream. satiate here their ardent Thirst. sprung from so small an Egg. ‘‘But see! not far from us. and issue from the River’s fertile Bed. With Horror they relate the Monster’s Nature. kills with pious Fraud.—Sad Emblem of that spiritual Plague. thus supplying them. it bestows so kindly and in due time. out of her many Breasts sends the nutritious DraughtA in various Streams to her rejoicing Offspring!—Innumerable are the dubious Forms and unknown Species which drink the slimy Current: whether they are such as leaving the scorch’d Desarts. III.    Sect. and among different Worshipers bred mutual Hatred. and false Tears. and promiscuously engendring. to dispense more equally the rich and nitrous Manure. or whether. pag. divides it-self into many Branches. which. as it is said. the amphibious Ravager invades the Land. The Natives from afar be- hold with wonder the enormous Bulk. ere it enters the Sea. with hideous rush. The Infection spreads: and Nations now profane one to another. . and in Reli- gion’s Cause forget Humanity: whilst savage Zeal. active on the fermenting Ooze. dire Superstition! Native of this Soil.—Fair Image of that fruitful and exuber- ant Nature. new Forms are generated. &c. who lifting up their lofty Heads. war fiercer. where first * Religion grew un- sociable. and. who with a Flood of Bounty blesses all things.—See there the noted Tyrant of the Flood. . and from the deep emerging. sweeps o’er the trembling Plain. . Thirst. that fertilest of Lands. are those large Creatures. and fitted for his Service: who from hence ought to be more sensible of his Wants.

—See! with what trembling Steps poor Mankind tread the narrow Brink of the deep Precipices! From whence with giddy Horror they look down. to which all things are subservient. Unable to declare the Use or Service of all things in this Universe. and the Decay even of this our Globe. They see. the fleeting Forms of Things. and for Heaven’s sake Sect. become thoughtful. Corruption wholesom.We seem to live alone with Nature. and willingly contemplate the incessant Changes of this Earth’s Surface. as in one instant. All ghastly and hideous as they appear. whilst they hear the hollow Sound of Torrents underneath.— ‘‘Here let us leave these Monsters (glad if we cou’d here confine ’em!) and detesting the dire prolifick Soil. Here thoughtless Men. Beneath the Mountain’s foot. and Poisons (such as these we have seen) prove healing and beneficial. the scaly Serpents. and seem to prop the high Arch of Heaven. Things seemingly deform’d are amiable. the Revolutions of past Ages. the savage Beasts. they want not their peculiar Beautys. with falling Trees which hang with their Roots upwards. mistrusting even the Ground which bears ’em. fly to the vast Desarts of these Parts. how terrible soever. and fit to raise our Thoughts in Admi- ration of that Divine Wisdom. andA in respect of [] which. are beauteous in themselves. we are yet assur’d of the Perfection of all. or how contrary to human Nature. so far superior to our short Views. The Wildness pleases. whoseA Youth and first Formation [] . than in the artificial Labyrinths and feign’d Wildernesses of the Palace. The Objects of the Place. and seem to draw more Ruin after ’em. Disorder becomes regular. and poisonous In- sects. ‘‘But behold! thro’ a vast Tract of Sky before us. and contemplate her with more Delight in these original Wilds. cover’d with Snow above the Clouds.We view her in her inmost Recesses. the mighty A rears his lofty Head. the rocky Country rises into Hills. and see the Ruin of the impending Rock. seiz’d with the Newness of such Ob- jects. a proper Basis of the ponderous Mass above: where huge embody’d Rocks lie pil’d on one another. (horrid Pretence!) makes desolate the Earth. works dreadful Massacre.     pious Semblance. and of the Justice of that OEconomy. .

whose towring Heads seem endless in the Sky. and that whether I wou’d or no. by which. the Firs. Here Space as- tonishes. which before seem’d fix’d. a spacious Border of thick Wood harbours our weary’d Travellers: who now are come among the ever-green and lofty Pines. whilst the apparent Spoil and irreparable Breaches of the wasted Mountain shew them the World it-self only as a noble Ruin. . and favour’d the Religion of the antient World.    Sect. when they see the Day diminish’d by the deep Shapes of the vast Wood. Even we our-selves. to spell out that mysterious Being. and noble Cedars. and make them think of its approaching Period. chuse rather these obscurer Places. who in plain Characters may read D from so many bright Parts of Earth. struck with the hoarse Echoings of every Sound within the spacious Caverns of the Wood. . He look’d more calmly. Silence it-self seems pregnant. and other Tokens. I cou’d easily find we were come to an end of our Descriptions. The faint and gloomy Light looks horrid as the Shade it-self: and the profound Stillness of these Places im- poses Silence upon Men. whilst an unknown Force works on the Mind.’’— HERE he paus’d a-while. the rest of Trees appearing only as Shrubs beside them. and dubious Objects move the wakeful Sense. and began to cast about his Eyes. Mysterious Voices are either heard or fansy’d: and various Forms of Deity seem to present themselves. they consider. which to our weak Eyes appears at best under a Veil of Cloud. T was now resolv’d to take his leave of the Sublime: the Morning being spent. such as of old gave rise to Temples. and appear more manifest in [] these sacred SilvanA Scenes. And here a different Horror seizes our shelter’d Trav- ellers. spreads Darkness and eternal Night below.—But here mid-way the Mountain. which closing thick above. and the Forenoon by this time well advanc’d. with an open Coun- tenance and free Air.

without meeting still that politick Face of Affairs. . be- yond any of those we have pass’d. no Precipices nor Cataracts [] amaze us. Rivers. —I see you’ll finish it for me. and inviting us to talk. because of the little Variety it wou’d afford us. nothing but this very Subject it-self. those foreign Nymphs (if there were any belong- ing to those miraculous Woods) were much too awful Beautys to please me. How sorry am I to lose the noble A! How sorry— Here as I wou’d have proceeded. in our more conversable Woods. Besides that it wou’d be hard to see it in any view. Nothing. I cou’d excuse your making any great Tour there. Here no fierce Heats nor ColdsA annoy us. P! (changing to a familiar M Voice) we had better leave these unsociable Places. If these Countrys had been as bare of those Metals as old S. and find the Echoes rather agreeable. unless perhaps the Gold and Sil- ver.       Sect. and temperate Climates. Mountains. which wou’d too much disturb us in our philosophical Flights. I cannot help being concern’d for your breaking off just when we were got half the World over. Nor need we here be afraid of our own Voices. ETHINKS. we might have heard more perhaps of the P’s and M’s than of allA A and A. Indeed as for E. I cannot imagine why you shou’d neglect such noble Subjects as are there. to ask him his Thought. I saw so significant a Smile on T’s Face. I found our familiar Home-Nymphs a great deal more to my humour. to which I find you such a bitter Enemy.—Go on. But for the Western Tract. whilst we hear the Notes of such a chearful Quire. I confess. We [] might have had Creatures. Woods. whither our Fancy has transported us. Plants. said I. Yet for all this. The Spirit of this sort of Prophecy . frighted you from a Mother-Soil so full of it. said he. said he. out of Curiosity. that it stopt me. and wanted only to take A in our way home. and return to our-selves here again.

the irregular un- wrought Grotto’s. or Sea-shores. and the Arts which copy after her? In short. For is it not the same with P. you know. of L only.A No wonder. I shall no longer resist the Passion growing in me for Things of a natu- Natural ral kind. where neither Art. And VOL. ’Tis true. We always endeavour to recall ’em from these solitary Places. are look’d upon. that often when I have found my Fancy run this way. III. Passion of how comes it. Even the rude Rocks. . if we are at a loss. as a People either plainly out of their wits. And P. First Beauty. For if we may trust to what our Reason- ing has taught us. (T!) I own it. . and broken Falls of Waters. has spoil’d their genuine Order. has seiz’d you. and the G G have at last prevail’d. whatever in Nature is beautiful or charming. the cold indifferent P. not knowing what it was possess’d me. and appear with aA Magnificence beyond the formal Mockery of princely Gardens. So that every real L depending on the Mind. all those who are deep in this romantick way. and seek the Woods. Shadow for the Substance. That. is become a Pursuer of the same mysterious B. reply’d he. .—But tell me. when we pursue the Shadows. Your Genius. when I was pas- [] sionately struck with Objects of this kind. I have check’d my-self. said I. with all the horrid Graces of the Wilderness it-self. .    Sect. And I must own. the this kind. or over-run with Melancholy and * E. nor the Conceit or Caprice of Man Beautys. See also above. excepting a few Philosophers of your sort. will [] be the more engaging. as representing N more. SIASM. reply’d he. is only the faint Shadow of that First Beauty. and all those other Students in N. p. However. the Genius of the Place. said I. the Rivers. p. &c. only People who are enamour’d in this way. I intreat you. are your poor vulgar L? Say not this. towards the end. and being only the Contemplation * See Letter of Enthusiasm. by breaking in upon that primitive State. the mossy Caverns. is not this the real Case of all who are Lovers either of the M or the G? ENTHU.

said I. has less Possession than the poor Shepherd. in conscience. and presume accordingly. I must confess.’’ ‘‘Imagine then. like the Places we have nam’d. which I might call perhaps as properly my own. who from a hanging Rock. ‘‘If you are already. or fly from the enchanting Features of the fairest human Face. to seek how to command it. I shall no more have rea- son to fear those Beautys which strike a sort of Melancholy.     of Beauty. Original. to wed the Gulf. or Point of some high Promontory. and make the Question [] . V-like. stretch’d at his ease. who in his stately Bucentaur floats on the Bosom of his T. to answer for my-self. than of the rational kind. forgets his feeding Flocks. while he admires her Beauty. or be satisfy’d with the absurd Enjoyment which reaches the Sense alone? From this time forward then. reply’d T. than in the Subject lov’d?’’ ‘‘The Matter. and go in Nuptial Ceremony. good P.’’ reply’d he. wou’d be to hire some Bark. if being taken with the Beauty of the Ocean which you see yonder at a distance. . if you explain’d your-self a little better as to this Mistake of mine you seem to fear. or like these solemn Groves. how can the rational Mind rest here.’’ ‘‘Wou’d it be any help to tell you.—But to come nearerA home. ‘‘such a Proficient in this new L. you may then be confident. it shou’d come into your head. The Bridegroom-Doge. ’tis likely. and like some mighty Admiral.’’ Let who will call it theirs. That the Absurdity lay in seeking the Enjoyment elsewhere Enjoyment. except for the sake of the Original.’’ ‘‘I am so. No more shall I avoid the moving Accents of soft Musick. either as it really is in it-self. you will own the Enjoyment of this kind to be very different from that which shou’d naturally follow from the Contemplation of the Ocean’s Beauty. wou’d not the Fancy be a little absurd?’’ ‘‘Absurd enough. However I A shou’d [] not be ill satisfy’d. The next thing I shou’d do. nor aim at other Enjoyment. is still mys- terious. upon this Frenzy. in the Objects which strike the Sense. that you are sure never to admire the Representative-B. ride Master of the Sea. or as it appears imperfectly Sect.

Far be it from us both. in my Opinion.A Can you not then. Let that which sat- isfies be ever so disproportionable an Effect. wou’d be as absurd altogether. wou’d be sordidly luxurious. Suppose (my P!) that. So that you. the further they are from satisfying by mere View. are become the Accuser of N. The Fancy of this kind. as you seem to be. and having obtain’d of Nature some certain Relish by which these Acorns or Berrys of the Wood became as palatable as the Figs or Peaches of the Garden. as this delicious Vale we see beneath us. where this wou’d end. The more they are view’d. as wonderful as they are. as either of the former. reply’d I. you shou’d long for nothing so much as to taste some delicious Fruit of theirs. and was appre- hensive you wou’d force me at last to think of certain powerful F in human Kind. where the Admiration of Beauty is apt to lead to as irregular a Consequence? I fear’d. you shou’d for the Enjoyment of the Prospect.    Sect. we understood by it a far different kind from thatA . with the Beauty of these T. inspire nothing of a studious or contemplative kind. as that other ambitious one. to condemn a Joy which is from Nature. you must allow however that it’s natural. still more familiar. as oft as you revisted these Groves. The covetous Fancy. But when we spoke of the Enjoyment of these Woods [] and Prospects. Wishes. said I. The Proportions of this living Architecture. seek hence the Enjoyment of them. for ought I see. May I bring this yet a little nearer? And will you follow me once more? Suppose that being charm’d. reply’d I. indeed. said he. O P! said he. call to mind some other Forms of a fair kind among us. . T. I must confess. by satiating your-self in these new Delights. or ever so foreign to its Cause. said he. censure it as you please. to your rational and refin’d Contemplation of Beauty. [] and as absurd. viewing such a Tract of Country. on this occasion. and Hopes. which draw after ’em a Set of eager De- sires. under whose shade we rest. by condemning a natural Enjoyment. no way sutable. you shou’d afterwards. require the Property or Possession of the Land.

. had I been able in my poetick Extasys. which were in- deed abus’d. said he. with you. and had Minds. Generous. . shou’d place it rather in those M. who rifling in these places. Yet we too live by tasteful Food. . doubtless. their choicest Food. ’TIS SO. to haveA led [] you into some deep View of Nature. I must comfort myself the best I can. said I. and G. and feel those other Joys of Sense in common with them. Whether I have made good my Promise to you. &c. as I remember. nor con- sequently our Enjoyment. or by any other Efforts. and cheated of their real Good. my P! that we had agreed to place our Good. † Supra. in shewing †the true Good. p. I shou’d have done with good success. we comprehended all which was truly Fair. and Good. when drawn to seek absurdly the Enjoyment of it in the Objects of Sense. I know not. well do I remember now the Terms in which you engag’d me. and may now claim me for a Proselyte. We then had prov’d the Force of Divine B. If there be any seeming Extravagance in the case. . the Sublime of Ora- tors. p. all mere E! Even Learning it-self. and form’d in our-selves an Object capable and worthy of real Enjoyment. We who were rational. or Good. But ’twas not here. T. and consider that all sound Love and Admiration is ‡ E: ‘‘The Transports of Poets. But so. You have indeed made good your part of the Condition. . and not in those Objects they might properly call their own: in which kind. that Morning when you bespoke my Love of this mysterious Beauty. I. So that B. and the Sovereign G. the Rapture of Musicians. . the high Strains of the Virtuosi. p. find here Sect. And thus are we return’d again to the Subject of our Yesterday’s Morning-Conversation. ‡ VOL. the Love of Arts and * Supra. I Beauty perceive are still *one and the same. O T! said I. methought.     of the inferior Creatures.

cultivating this Soil. all those other Subjects of Art or Science. and shall it be exploded here? Are there Senses by which all those other Graces and Perfections are per- ceiv’d? and none by which this higher Perfection and Grace is com- prehended? Is it so preposterous to bring that Enthusiasm hither. Musick. . many things shocking. I have never dreamt of such Master-pieces in N. and at a loss in these Affairs. But Who is there once thinks of Improve. . Skill or Science requir’d? In Painting there are Shades and masterly Strokes. a reasonable Extasy and Transport allow’d to other Subjects. and transfer it from those secondary and scanty Objects. orA Learning necessary to under- Chief stand all Beautys else? And for the Sovereign B. such as Architec- ture. Painting. And I. in Musick the Chromatick kind. Curiositys. What difficulty to be A Judgment. or the Dissonancys you talk of. blind as to this higher Scene. the Spirit of Travellers and Adventurers. And is there nothing which answers to this. all E!’’—’Tis enough: I am content to be this new Enthusiast. who cou’d never relish the Shades. to this original and comprehensive One? Observe how the Case stands in Arts.    Sect. which after- wards are known and acknowledg’d the highest Beautys! For ’tis not instantly we acquire the Sense by which these Beautys are discover- able. ever so apt or forward. War. Science. as we are. Gallantry. Nature may have given of this kind? And is it a wonder we shou’d be dull then. and Time to cultivate a natural Genius. All. how many offensive at first. confounded. the Rustick. Labour and Pains are requir’d. in a way unknown to me before. but find fault with: in Architecture there is the Rustick. in The W? I must confess. I have hitherto been one of those Vulgar. reply’d T. and skilful Mixture of Dissonancys. Heroism. For is thereA a fair and plausible Enthusiasm. these nobler Representations? Which way shou’d we come to understand better? which way be knowing [] in these Beautys? Is Study. which the Vulgar understand not. is there no Science. in any degree knowing! How long ere a true Taste is gain’d! How Taste. am content you shou’d call this Love of ours E: allowing it the Privilege of its Fellow- [] Passions. said I. or of improving any Sense or Faculty which ment.

and whatever has the appearance of Excellence.     ’Twas my way to censure freely on the first view. where broken. See in what Subject resides the chief Excellence: where B reigns: where ’tis intire. a human Body of certain Linea- ments and Proportions. espe- cially in a rude Heap or Mass. you are no such Admirer of Wealth in any kind. I have dwelt. Like the rest of the unthinking World. See therefore where Ful- ness is. and enjoy’d only a kind of slight superfi- cial Beautys. but of what I fansy’d such. sconded and deep: And if so. But in Medals. as to allow much Beauty to it. imperfect. As there is Emptiness or Fulness here. and not in Action. View these terrestrial Beautys. If you wou’d have meA accompany you. and what I rejoic’d in. P. Life. nor ever hesitated about [] their Choice. Coins. and talk in a more familiar way. a Num- ber of Slaves. Such. pray [] lower this Strain a little. Begin then. (smiling) ‘‘Whatever Passion you may have for other Beautys. so will there be in your Enjoyment. ‘‘THUS THEN. such will your Worth be found.’’ Is this the highest of the kind? Is B founded then in Body only. above my reach. and chuse. which honour with your Admiration. now oblig’d to go far in the pursuit of Beauty. and which you wou’d prefer.’’ said he. or stands as in the room of Fair. See that which either really is. a Pile of Stones. or Operation?— Hold! hold! said I. See what the Subjects are. and where Emptiness. as is the Worth of these Companions. Imbost-work. I know. which lies very ab. I never troubled my-self with exAamining what the Subjects were. Love and Esteem. and Good: ‘‘A Mass of Metal. all this while upon the Surface. and aiming only at the Enjoyment of what I lov’d. good P. . and is able to attract. was my Good. a Tract of Land. Beautiful. . said he. perfect. I took for granted that what I liked was beautiful. having never gone in search of Beauty it-self. absolute. But I perceive I am Sect. I never scrupled loving what I fansy’d. For by these again you will be honour’d in your turn. I am well assur’d that my Enjoyments hitherto have been very shallow. Beauty. short. good T! you take this in too high a Key. it seems.

regulates and orders it. All which is void of Mind is horrid: and Matter formless is Deformity it-self. and gladly give the advantage to the humanAForm.’’ ‘‘Right. which have a power of making other Forms themselves: From whence methinks they may be styl’d the forming Forms. the Metals and Stones. So far I can easily concur with [] you.’’ ‘‘But the Art. whene’er it strikes you? What is it but the Design which strikes? What is it you admire but M.’’ ‘‘And the Art is that which beautifies.’’ ‘‘Must not that there- fore. the Fair. said he. Statues.’’ ‘‘Nor govern nor regulate it-self.’’ ‘‘Nor mean nor intend it-self. but in the Art and Design.’’ Does not the beautiful Form confess this. and admire the Kind. you can dis- cover Beauty. Those (according to your Scheme) are the most amiable. ‘‘but not for the Metal’s sake. is the really Beautiful. and well-fabricated Pieces.’’ ‘‘Nor is the Body it-self any Cause either of its coming or staying. but in the Form or forming Power. is all I wou’d have explain’d to you before: ‘‘That the Beautiful.’’ ‘‘True. The Palaces. Of all Forms then.’’ ‘‘None [] at all.’’ ‘‘None.’’ ‘‘No.    Sect. be the Principle of Beauty to it?’’ ‘‘Of necessity.’’ ‘‘And what must that be?’’ ‘‘M. it ceases to be beautiful.’’ ‘‘So that the Beautifying. . And for the other. is beautiful only by the accession of something beautifying: and by the recess or withdrawing of the same. and in the first Order of Beauty.’’ ‘‘No-way.’’ ‘‘The same. not the Beautify’d. the dead Forms of Nature.’’ said I.’’ ‘‘So we see.’’ ‘‘So that there is no Principle of Beauty in Body. I suppose. for what can it be else?’’ Here then.’’ ‘‘Be it. however pre- .’’ ‘‘For Body can no-way be the Cause of Beauty to it-Aself.’’ ‘‘The Art then is the Beauty.’’ ‘‘Nor this neither. of whatever sort.’’ ‘‘Nor yet this.’’ ‘‘In respect of Bodys therefore.’’ ‘‘For that which is beautify’d.’’ ‘‘Certainly.’’ ‘‘It seems so. Equipages and Estates shall never in my account be brought in competition with the original living Forms of Flesh and Blood. above those other Beautys of Man’s Formation. or the Effect of Mind? ’Tis Mind alone which forms. which means and intends for it.’’ ‘‘ ’Tis not then the Metal or Matter which is beau- tiful with you. were never in the Matter. and speak the Beauty of the Design. Beauty comes and goes. the Comely. said I. never in Body it-self.

when they pre- tend to set off human Beauty. the dead Forms. lish’d Three Degrees or Orders of Beauty?’’ ‘‘As how?’’ ‘‘Why first. [] awares discover’d that third Order of Beauty. no Action.     cious and dazling. when first you nam’d these the Form- ing Forms. and are officiously brought in aid of the Fair. and see first whether you have dis- cover’d the whole Force of this second Beauty. said I. the Brazen or the Marble Figures of Men? Or did you think of something nearer Life? I cou’d easily. ‘‘that you have estab. ‘‘Happily thought. . whether by Man. or Nature. abject Things of ’em. the Forms which form. did you think of no other Productions of theirs be- sides the dead Kinds. which have Intelligence. For here is both the Form (the Effect of Mind) and Mind it- self: The first kind low and despicable in respect of this other.’’ said he! ‘‘You have prevented a Censure which I hardly imagin’d you cou’d escape. I am resolv’d to resist their Splendour. like themselves. as you properly have call’d ’em. I beseech you. Orders of Beauty. if inAward Form be wanting. and are form’d. and the Mind be monstrous or [] imperfect. that is. or something Artist-like. ‘‘Do you not see then. For what is a mere Body. if in reality there was a superior Art. I thought was from another Form above them. and make Sect. even in their highest Pride. But this Virtue of theirs. First Order. that these Forms of ours had a Virtue of producing other living Forms. which forms not only Third Order. Second Order. which guided their Hand. from whence the dead Form receives its Lustre and Force of Beauty. the Coins. and cou’d not properly be call’d their Virtue or Art. or Savage? ’’ ‘‘This too I can apprehend. and made Tools of them in this specious Work. How else shou’d you understand the Force of Love. ‘‘but where is the third Order?’’ Have patience. have added. And here youA have un. . or have the Power of Enjoy- ment? Tell me. such as the Palaces. and as the second kind.’’ ‘‘Here therefore is double Beauty. reply’d he.’’ said I.’’ reply’d T. or Intelligence. which bear a Fash- ion. Action.’’ ‘‘Right still. tho a human one.’’ ‘‘Next. and Operation.’’ ‘‘Right. but have no form- ing Power. and ever so exactly fash- ion’d. as in an Idiot.

and is solely in.’’ ‘‘I am barren. as Master-pieces of another Hand. and is consequently the Principle. Source. Musick. ents.’’ reply’d I. Sculpture. Principles.’’ ‘‘True. principally.’’ ‘‘Thus Architecture. is never spent or exhausted. my Friend! haveA prov’d it. ‘‘for this time: you must be plainer yet. but gains Strength and Vigor by [] producing. ‘‘Think. resolves it-self into this last Order. rives it-self from your Parent-M. Sense. or whatever is deriv’d or produc’d from thence. such as we call mere Forms. For we our-selves are notable Architects in Matter.’’ ‘‘How can I help you?’’ reply’d he. ‘‘Certainly. Determinations.’’ said he: ‘‘and setting aside those Productions which just now you ex- cepted against. think What there are which more immediately proceed from us. The fashionable Kinds borrow from us. but even the Forms which form. your Resolutions. the greatest Beautys which Man forms. think again.’’ ‘‘Therefore whatever Beauty appears in our second Order of Forms. by many a Work: .’’ A ‘‘NOW therefore say again. and are nothing without us: [] We have undoubtedly the Honour of being Originals. and from your-self? ’’ ‘‘You Beauty mean my Sentiments. of that which is immediately your own. in helping me to conceive. with your Sentiments.’’ said I. unlike to other Par- Generation. ‘‘Whether are those Fabricks of Architecture.’’ ‘‘It seems so.’’ ‘‘Right. and can shew life- less Bodys brought into Form. (good P!) or de- Offspring. Knowledg and Will. and the rest of that sort. and originally in this last Order of Supreme and Sovereign Beauty. whatever flows from your good Understanding. and all which is of human Inven- tion. whatsoever is handsom and noble in the kind. or are there greater and better?’’ ‘‘None which I know. and Fountain of all Beauty.’’ said I: ‘‘and thus all the Enthusiasms of other kinds resolve themselves into ours. and fashion’d by our own hands: but that which fashions even Minds themselves. Actions. ‘‘Wou’d you have me be conscious for you.’’ reply’d T.’’ said I. So You. whatever is ingender’d in your Heart. all this is eminently.’’ reply’d he: ‘‘and together moral. contains in it-self all the Beautys fashion’d by those Minds.    Sect. which. and may more truly be term’d our Issue. .

whether before. or Nature? If from Nature purely. that I might justly merit his Esteem and Love. which from a natural Genius you have rais’d by due Improvement. . Its Pregnancy is from its Nature. and wish’d (I told him) the Case were really as he imagin’d. as I cannot but admire the pregnant Genius. come when they will. or at What time after. thus impregnated by any other Mind. as well as other Beauty. and Honest. ‘‘tell us that the Eggs. are first form’d in us. as imagining it follow’d rather than preceded the moment of Birth. in his way of Beauty. ‘‘Anatomists. doubtless. and from this time forward I wou’d do all I cou’d to propagate that lovely Race of mental Children. and the Sensations which accompany Life. Hence Sect. that Life. are innate? Innate Ideas. from such a high Enjoyment. must help my labouring Mind. Organs of Sensation. tho you shou’d deny Life it-self to be in- nate. but of no great Importance. of curious Speculation. and be as it were the Midwife to those Con- ceptions. of Fair. those good Parts. with the rest of these Ideas. will prove abortive. ’tis no matter for the Time: nor wou’d I contend with you. or other Principles. said I. But this I am certain of. T. is a mat- ter. are innate. My Study therefore shou’d be to grow beautiful. as we have alreadyA prov’d. or after the Birth. Nor cou’d it ever have been Pregnancy. and . to give me the Midwife’s part only: For the Mind conceiving of it-self. are from mere Nature.’’ I took the Compliment. continu’d I. which are Principles in Body. or Sensations themselves. which else. or at.’’ said he. than that which form’d it at the beginning. and which. And here. You do well. whether the Principles spoken of are from Art. that it is and will be ever beautiful. Do you maintain then. The Question is. that either these. and from a Union with what was Fairest and Best. can only be. and Parent-Beauty. But ’tis you. I fear. happily sprung Source. reply’d he. being form’d already in the Foetus before the Birth. that these mental Children. as you say. the Notions and Principles. Just. But When it is. is Original [] to all mental. so am I satisfy’d of the Offspring.     not suffering that fertile Part to remain idle and unactive. assisted in the Birth.

said I. are form’d by Nature. think you. in these Groves? Or do you think perhaps you shou’d have been unmov’d. by your-self. it. ‘‘wou’d you have known that outward Fair and Beautiful of human Kind.’’ said I.’’ ‘‘I allow your Expression. let us change Instinct. exclusive of Art. till now of late. and School-Divines. ‘‘those admirable Speculations to the Virtuosi. and call Instinct. for I. reply’d I. that which Nature [] teaches. and have found no difference between this Form and any other. . had for the first time appear’d to you. of a higher degree. if I may use a word you conceptions.’’ ‘‘DoA so. or Discipline. Culture. if such an Object (a fair fleshly one) in all its Beauty. any Instinct for the after-Use of them? Or whether must Learning and Experience imprint this Use?’’ ‘‘ ’Tis imprinted. those of Generation. The Impression. if first you had not been instructed? ’’ I have hardly any Right. that methinks. have [] place in human Kind.’’ said he. I have hardly known of any thing like them in Nature. as in other Crea- tures: amongst whom (as you have already taught me) not only the mere engendring of the Young.’’ reply’d he. this morning. .’’ ‘‘Content. but the various and almost infinite Means and Methods of providing for them. Whether is there also from Nature. ‘‘I intreat you: For so far am I from finding in my-self these Pre-conceptions of Fair and Beau- tiful. that the several Organs. with all their Consents. as well in our own Species. if you will. Therefore if you dislike the word Innate. nothing else. the Anatomists. that ’twou’d be absurdity not to think it natural.’’ ‘‘How then. or Pre-sensations. enough in Conscience. .    Sect.’’ said T. in your sense. Pre-conceptions. or In- stinct. are all foreknown. taught me * yesterday.A ‘‘Leaving then. * Pag. is so strong in the Case. we may safely aver.’’ said I. particularly Generation. which demonstrate their anticipating Pre. after what I have own’d just before. ‘‘and will endeavour to show you that the same Pre-conceptions. to plead this last Opinion. For thus much we may indeed discern in the preparatory Labours and Arts of these wild Creatures. Fancys.

the Foul. Nor need we go so high as Sculpture. mere Figure. the Cylinder and Obelisk prefer’d. and the irregular Figures. the unintelligible. no sooner the human Affections andA Passions dis. Omitting therefore the three latter. reply’d I. I told him. . that in re- spect of Bodys. were as he represented it. create this wonderful effect. rejected and despis’d? I am ready. there can lie no Mystery here. a Cube. pendent Charms. said he. against you. to own there is in certain Figures a natu- ral * Beauty. Is there then. As real. No sooner are A view’d. which the Eye finds as soon as the Object is presented to it. How is it possible therefore not to own. be any Disagreement among Men concerning Actions * Pag. or the Despicable. ’Tis enough if we consider the simplest of Figures. the I-know-not-what of Beauty.     Well then. [] Motion or Sound. Colour. and sees the Fair and Shapely. And Figures. . that I may appear to take no advantage Sect. or the Designs of those who from this Study of Beauty have rais’d such delightful Arts. apart from the Deform’d. the Amiable and Admirable. Why is even an In- fant pleas’d with the first View of these Proportions? Why is the Sphere or Globe. as either a round Ball. than straight the Beautiful results. which carrys such a Force of complicated Beautys. Odious. without doubt. Beauty of Body. ‘‘That as these Distinctions have their Foundation in Nature. . Grace and Harmony are known and acknowledg’d. let us view the Charm in what is simplest of all. said he. the Discernment it-self is natural. or Dye. I thought. whatever is commonly said of the unexpressible. which taken all together. the Idea Natural. and am contented to consider separately each of those simple Beautys. and from N alone?’’ If this. the Ear to Sounds. in respect of these. but what plainlyA belongs either to Figure. and necessarily moving. [] cern’d (and they are most of ’em as soon discern’d as felt) than straight an inward E distinguishes. I quit the dazling Form. For you will allow. Architecture. and their de. there cou’d never. a natural Beauty of Figures? and is there Beauty not as natural a one of A? No sooner the Eye opens upon of Soul.

whilst that which interests and engages Men as Good. is thought different from that which they admire and praise as Honest. but confess’d by All. Rule. . . P! ’tis better settled. I want not so much to be convinc’d. said I. what you forc’d me to acknowledg more mation. was fit or decent. But now we found perpetual Variance among Mankind.A ’tis allow’d ‘‘There is a B of each kind. . I REMEMBER. the other denying. But upon fair Conviction. and reinforce the Impression.’’ Confir. . . and bespeak Error and Delusion. is to prevent Reason. ‘‘Not unless you help in it your-self. Nor can it otherwise happen in the Affairs of Life. Interest and Passion breed Dis- turbance. which Worthy. the loveliest Shape. and which Deform’d. good T! that I am become so willing a Disciple. and Measure: But in applying it to Things. ‘‘The one affirming. Ignorance prevails. To help [] one’s-Aself to be convinc’d. that this. cency in Actions. it appears there is Fitness and De- The Fit.    Sect.’’ reply’d T: ‘‘For this is necessary. ’Tis controverted ‘‘Which is the finest Pile. And I hope this last Work may prove your easiest Task.’’ This no-one goes about to teach: nor is it learnt by any. reply’d he. we have already decreed. whose Differences were chiefly founded on this Disagreement in Opinion. since the Fit and Decent is in this Controversy and Decent. as to be confirm’d and strengthen’d. as well as becoming. For neither is there Agree- ment in Judgments about other Beautys. me-thinks. than once before. Disorder arises. And now. which Hand- som. ‘‘That *Beauty and Good are still the same. or that. this is to help Reason * Pag. ever pre-suppos’d: And whilst Men are at odds about the Subjects. to give our heart up to the evident side.—But with us. the Thing it-self is universally agreed. since for our parts. It had been indeed shameful for you to have yielded without making good Resistance. and Behaviour: as which was Base. own’d. or Face’’: But without contro- [] versy.’’ Even by this then. All Standard own the Standard.

Or will he who cries S. said he. we dare not stand to our own judgment. Honour. we examine what is Honourable. nothing in it-self estimable or amiable. is right. to be thought worthy. odious or shame- ful. ‘of a Shameful and a Ridiculous. The Disorder he feels is from . Nor has Opinion any Rule besides mere C.’’ Sect. Vice. Ridiculous!’’ ‘‘By what Right? what Title? For thus. the Decorum and its Contrary.’’ ‘‘What shall we say to such a one? Falshood of this. the Amiable and Un-amiable. something there is Ridiculous: and the Notion. what Shameful: and having at last determin’d. the Case is very dis- tinct from that of mere Grief or Fear. and are asham’d to own there is really a Shameful and an Honourable. . Fashion. of one who ac- knowledges no Shameful? ’’ ‘‘Yet he derides. And thus we may be said honestly to persuade our-selves. O is the Law of Virtue and Vice. wou’d I defend my-self: ‘Am I ridiculous? As how? What is ridiculous? Every-thing? or Nothing?’ ’’ ‘‘Ridiculous indeed!’’ ‘‘But something then. if I were P. [] which varys it. P! (raising his Voice) Be not offended that I say. now that. and Measure.     heartily. except from Cowardice? To be asham’d of what one is sure can never be shameful. and the as- cendent Power of Education. ‘‘Shew me then how I may best persuade my-self. and cries. How then shall we apply the Notion? For this being wrong ap- ply’d. makes it. refuse to acknowledg any in his turn? Does he not blush. For whence can false Shame be. nor seem discountenanc’d on any occasion? If he does.’ ’’ Shame. in things. Virtue. ‘‘Hear me’’ (says one who pretends to value P. Measure Shame. and be valu’d by him) ‘‘There can be no such thing as real Valuableness or Worth. all this is foundedA in Opinion only. How represent to him his Absurdity and Extravagance? Will he desist the sooner? Or shall we ask what Shame. it seems. We seek the Right and Wrong in things. as Custom varys: and makes now this. cannot it-self but be ridiculous. according to the Reign of Fashion. must needs be from the want of Resolution. Have Courage! ’Tis C alone betrays us. Opinion. and un.’’ Have courage. The Graceful or Ungraceful in things. All is O: ’Tis Opinion which makes Beauty.

We may be afraid of appearing impudent. Thus as to P. or expects Gratitude. which even in unjust Men is by this Example shewn to be beyond the Love of L it-self. Pride. if he indulges Revenge. If Deformity. he be Grateful. But we can never really blush for any thing beside what we think truly Shameful. World compel us to it. Worthy and Mean. to defend my-self. I shou’d have Testimony enough to make me say within my-self. or Madman?’’ ‘‘Who is [] so mad?’’ ‘‘ButA for What? For a Chance-hurt? an Accident against Anger. Thus. and that which influenc’d ’em on all occasions. shou’d I be able. continu’d he.’’ Has he edgment of moral Gratitude or Resentment. and what we shou’d still blush for. or Intention?’’ ‘‘Who is so unjust?’’ Therefore there is Acknowledg- ment of Just Just and Unjust. For what else shou’d make the wickedest of Mankind often prefer the Interest of their Revenge to all other Interests. I ask. and even to Life it- self. and may therefore feign a Modesty. and belonging to it a natural Presumption or An- and Unjust. if there be no . I ask ‘‘Why? and on What ac- Anger. ‘‘Let who will be my Adversary in this Opinion. but out of hatred to the imagin’d Wrong.A For the greatest Danger in the world can never breed Shame: nor can the Opinion of all the Shame. a Sense of what is shameful and odious in it-self. not of what is [] hurtful or dangerous in its Consequences. think meanly or indifferently of himself?’’ ‘‘No: but honourably. except only a Sense of Wrong. . I ask ‘‘How? and in what Case? Reveng’d of What? of a Stone.    Sect. Beauty and he acknowledges a Sense of Just and Unjust. an Thought. count?’’ If he be angry. where our own Opinion is not a Party.’’ And how this. natural to all Men. I shall find him some way or other prepossess’d an Acknowl. ‘‘Why proud? Why conceited? and of What? Does any-one who has Pride. and a Desire to prosecute that Wrong at any rate? Not for their own sakes. by Anticipation. were we ever so secure as to our Interest. since they sacrifice their very Being to it. on which the R or A is founded. which cou’d happen to us from the thing we were asham’d of. and out of the reach of all In- convenience. with that of which he wou’d endeavour to dispossess me. Pride or Shame? Whichever way it be. and looking narrowly into Mens Lives. ticipation. and from a certain Love of J.

’’ ‘‘Excellent! But upon reflec- tion. ‘‘I have no difficulty so great. [] proud. P. ere you can so far take part with Beauty.In the same manner. And we know that Men of thorow Pride will be proud even in the meanest Circumstances. an Acknowledg- Pride. what say you. is either no Pride. or how they are mistaken in it: This hin- ders not my being satisfy’d ‘‘That the Thing is. as to make this to be your Good. I am safe: For they conceive an Honourable and Dishonourable. or a just and noble one. I fear I am little beholden to you for your Concession. For then it is. an Honour. That it is of Nature’s Impression. My Inclinations lead me strongly this way: for I am ready enough to yield there is no real Good beside the Enjoyment of Beauty. as they imagine: It is a Worth still. as well as I. No matter where they place it. naturally conceiv’d. . But they descry a Merit in themselves.’’ AND NOW.’’ reply’d T. and wou’d do.     real Honour or Dignity presuppos’d? For Self-valuation supposes Sect. as you see. continu’d he. in any Subject besides.’’ ‘‘And I am as ready.’’ said I. ‘‘to yield There is no real Enjoy- ment of Beauty beside what is Good. then only. Self-worth. What they respect and admire so much in themselves. ‘‘as not to be easily remov’d. Good. No matter whether it be really in them. and in a Person conscious of real Worth. must be proud of something. and may be either a just Worth and Modesty. proud or asham’d. and is universally acknowledg’d. ‘‘When they see in a more eminent degree in others. or unjust Humility. that they are humbled. to this De- fense I have been making for you? ’Tis grounded. But this is cerAtain. and by no Art or Counter-Nature to be eradicated or destroy’d. [] cal Cause. or Merit which they ad- mire. and when there is no visible Subject for them to be proud of. that whoever is Baseness. Self-contempt ment of supposes a Self-meanness or Defectiveness. on the Supposition of A your being deeply ingag’d in this philosophi. Natural Impression.’’—And thus as long as I find Men either angry or revengeful.’’ ‘‘As how?’’ ‘‘Because shou’d I offer to contend for any Enjoyment of . wherever they saw it. But perhaps you have yet many Difficultys to get over. a Foul and Fair. which others cannot: And ’tis this Merit they admire.

as lovely as are these Forms of Nature.’’ A ‘‘True. Instead of being incited by such a historical Account of Meats. or Honey-suckle: ’tis not their B allures the neighbouring Herds. or had sung deliciously. the flowry Thyme. delights the brouzing Fawn. who cou’d relish a Fricassee the better for hear- ing it was compos’d of Birds which wore a beautiful Feather. ere they were serv’d at this elegant voluptuous Table. you will allow that the Materials of the Kitchin. or be capable of Enjoyment.’’— You will not say it. and descended into the Kitchin-Science. then.’’ ‘‘Undoubtedly Mental I shou’d. and spreads the Joy we see amidst the feeding Flocks: ’Tis not the Form . I doubt. the shining Grass. there remains only the M [] which is capable either to apprehend or to enjoy. call such En- joyment of mine absurd. you wou’d. for instance. I intreat you. the more you search’d their Origin. then. Why. the Object of Sense? Say how? Which way? For otherwise the help of Sense is nothing in Body. You wou’d hardly have applauded the preposterous Fancy of some luxurious R of old. to have less Appe- tite. and feeds it afterwards in the Passion we call Love?’’ ‘‘Say in the same manner. . As great as the Pleasure is of good Eating. except M? Or shall we say. to apprehend or enjoy Beauty. as the Gar- [] den furnishes. But tho the Kitchin-Forms be ever so disgraceful. For what is it shou’d enjoy. wild Rose. Nor will you deny Beauty to the wild Field. Where. as you did once before.’’ ‘‘Is B. the Object of the Sense?’’ ‘‘Shew me first. and Sense no help to it. I believe. or in What you fansy it may be so?’’ ‘‘Is it not Beauty which first excites the Sense.’’ said I. to learn the several Forms and Changes they had undergone. Why B may not be Sense. are really fair and A beautiful in their kind. Body enjoys?’’ ‘‘By the help of Sense. not otherwise. and feeds it afterwards in the Passion we call Hunger. the Case: And if Body be of it-self incapable. That it is Beauty first excites the Sense. I perceive.    Sect. or silver’d Moss. The Thought. or to these Flowers which grow around us. you disdain to apply the Notion of Beauty to the good Dishes which create it. on this verdant Couch. you wou’d be apt. Enjoyment. ‘‘but show me. such. And yet. displeases you. perhaps. or Kid. Beauty out of your mental Way.

Are you persuaded of this. good P? or rather than not give Brutes the advantage of Enjoyment. Hunger impels. For as the riot- ous M. and stands only as the accidental Note or Token of what appeases provok’d Sense. you will surely allow. Benignity. how all the social Pleasures. As this is sound. tracts. his M and R. If B therefore. Acts and Employments. be incapable of knowing and en- joying Beauty. and give a Soul the Enjoyment of what is generous and good? This at least. nor of any graceful or agreeable Appearance. and think it worthy to be view’d. fairer are the Acts which join the latter Pair. unjudg’d of. can never enter in competition. and highest Interest: Here his Capacity toward Good and Happi- ness. makes the fair N to be prefer’d. compare with Comparison of Objects. . Gratitude. or contend for Beauty with the virtuous M of Reason’s Culture. happily . and all internal Beauty. captive to Sense. unexamin’d. so are its Subjects. And when each gratifies it- self in the Enjoyment and Possession of its Object. For never can the Form be of real force where it is uncontemplated. is in a nobler way. or his Impotence. his Power of Enjoyment. so neither can the Objects which allure the former. noble.’’ I told him. His Ability or Incompetency. and satisfies the brutish Part. and pass’d in review often by the glad Mind. Society it-self. fair. how Honour.     rejoices. it follows. Sect. That when you place a Joy elsewhere than in the Mind. those which attract and charm the latter. conceive or enjoy Beauty: But all the Beauty and Good he enjoys. but that which is beneath the Form: ’tis Savouriness at. and having S only (the brutish part) for their own share. will you allow them also a Mind and rational Part?— ‘‘Not so. whose Form is otherwise slighted. P. as being Brutes. said he. and by the help of what is noblest. the Enjoyment it-self will be no beautiful Subject. how evidently and Enjoyments. Candour. worthy. [] you will here surely allow Beauty in the Act. and Thirst. is founded in this alone. But when you think how Friendship is enjoy’d. and all which constitutes the Worth and HappiAness of Mankind. better allay’d by the clear Brook than the thick Puddle. ‘‘That neither can M byA [] the same Sense or brutish Part.’’ Here lies his Dignity Reason.

which transported me. and makes our highest Good. and such a skilful Admirer as your-self. And thus. learning ‘‘To know Our- our-selves. who with a slight regard to these Things. nor having any Principle or Existence except in M and R. Peace.    Sect. slightly sur- veying other Objects. nor rang’d in vain thro’ these de- serted Regions. is Void and Darkness to the Mind’s E. or the outward Forms. and have accompany’d you in search of Beauty. O P! may we im- Knowledg of prove and become Artists in the kind. to advance our Worth. . when it in- spects it-self. builds in a different Matter from that of Stone or Marble. He only. I gladly ventur’d further in the Chase. is alone discover’d and acquir’d by this diviner Part. but thrives [] and attains its natural Vigour.A when employ’d in Contemplation of what is like it-self. after a short Pause) thus have I lation. the View of Pageantrys. conscious of the generous Part. and what That is. and of its own Advancement and Growth in Beauty. and the common Forms. presum’d to treat of Beauty before so great a Judg. and passing over Bodys. and having righter Models in his Eye. we may be sure Interest. For whate’er is void of Mind. as it relates to us. in its sincere and natural Enjoyment. and views the Original of Form and Order in that which is intelligent. but he. P. applies himself to culti- vate another Soil. and real Self-Interest. that there is nothing so divine as B: which belonging not to Body.— . (where only a Shadow of Beauty rests) ambitiously presses onward to its Source. And if we have not idly spent our hours. ’Tis thus the improving M. (continu’d he. and Concord. becomes in truth the Architect of his own Life and Fortune. whene’er detain’d on foreign Subjects. Recapitu. Fortune out of these. For taking rise from Nature’s Beauty. by laying within himself the lasting and sure Foundations of Order. which by improving. is the wise and able Man. the only Object worthy of it-self.’’ For neither is this Knowledg acquir’d by Contemplation of Bodys. the Study of Estates and Honours: nor is He to be esteem’d that self-improving Artist. who makes a Ability. This languishes and grows dim. selves. it shou’d appear from our strict Search. THUS.

and weakly yield to that too power- ful Charm.   W E THEN walk’d gently homewards. and follow them: If otherwise. T. my Danger still. can any thing be more odd. Having join’d him once again. Come! Let us away. was very great: and I foresaw that when the Charm of these Places. Whose Judgment or Opinion shall we take. left me at a good distance. I begg’d he wou’d stay a little longer: or if he were resolv’d so soon to leave both the Woods. [] till we retire again to these remote and unfrequented Places. till he heard me calling ear- nestly after him. Tell me. and leave these uncommon SubAjects. that he wou’d let me however part with ’em more gradually. and that Philosophy which he confin’d to ’em. consider how this Matter stands. Why shou’d we not adhere to what we have chosen?— Let us then. or disso- nant from the common Voice of the World. concerning What is Good. and going down the Hill. vantage of Life. One Man. affects the Hero. against my next Return. said he. it being almost Noon. I own’d to him. or any part of Mankind are consonant with themselves. and withstand the general Opinion of Man- kind. and he continu’d his Discourse. and leave the best Impression on me he cou’d. spent. in another View. esteems it the highest Ad. continu’d I. and been in Action in the . and as great a Convert to his Doctrine. Manners of Men. to have seen War. What contrary? If All. how is it possible to hold out against it. I am content to leave Philosophy. The Morning is far Sect. I shou’d be apt to relapse. For as much convinc’d as I was. and his Company was ceas’d. who have so different a Notion of that which we call Good? Say truth now. .     But now ’tis time to think of returning home. than what we have determin’d in this matter? A [] Whom shall we follow then? reply’d he. AT THESE words T mending his pace. and can agree in this. the World.

nor directly any Cause or Means of Good?’’ . another ordinary Good- fellowship. shall I be guided? Riches. another Sports. and to Mutual eat finely. and a Name. ‘‘Since therefore R are not. counts it all Extravagance and Folly.’’ The rest deny. that they are neither good in themselves. One values Wealth. Field. ‘‘How is it then they are to be imploy’d in order to be good?’’ All disagree. after all. One looks upon all Expence to be Madness. Disagree. another Travelling. One games.—What is it then I shou’d be concern’d for?A Whose Censure do I fear? Or by whom. and wou’d take it for a Disgrace to be thought adventurous. ment with one another. another dresses. All tell me different things. why may not I hold it for my Opinion. and the common Wit. and un- imploy’d?’’ One answers. or a Character in the World: and by his [] goodw A ill wou’d always be in a Debauch. of themselves. as a means only to indulge his Palat. and affects Popularity. and the fashionable Learn- And with ing. another is full of Heraldry. another a Court. Another. prizes his own Wit and Prudence. and never live out of the Stews or Taverns.—All these go different ways. and thinks only Wealth it-self to be Good. Architecture. One Person is assidu- Contrary ous and indefatigable in advancing himself to the Character of Pursuits. Another on the contrary thinks this imperti- nent. and studys an Equipage. when only heap’d up. Another loaths this. as he thinks. ‘‘Are R good. where he enjoys. and the sight of foreign Parts. another Poetry. Another laughs at this Humour. good. . Points of Honour. One recommends Gallantry and Intrigue. be- lieves all those they call V to be half-distracted. and in- door Ornaments: Another admires Gardens. and a Blood. One admires Musick and Paintings. a Family. All censure one another. values not Fame. (as most of you declare). and themselves. are despicable in one another’s eyes. and their Passion turns from one thing [] to another. By fits too they are as despi- cable in their own. another Buffoonery. Cabinet-Curiositys. and as often out of conceit with themselves. ‘‘They are. and the Pomp of Buildings. who has no Gusto of either sort. a Man of Business. If I ask. Censure. and the Country. Satir.    Sect. And since there is no Agreement among you which way they become good. as their Humour changes. his highest Good.

who knows the general way of Courts. . your celebrated Beauty. which I LIBERTY. and how * Supra. ‘‘That neither do I know which of these Pleasures. To flatter the Great. P. and good Countenance as possible. they who admire it in one kind. I think of her as highly as possible: and find that without her Help. ‘‘That the necessary Inslavement. and towards a Fortune. Fame and Honour. with as free an Air. will be multiply’d: [] and in this unhappy Dependency. III. . to stoop. and make one more easy and indifferent towards Goods of Fortune.A and Anxiety. to One is eligible and amiable. and consequently miserable. be thought a Good?’’ In the mean time. and be not a little servile. that Life which Life. ’tis necessary to make court. Life. Why may not I say. despises it for another. you are not yet enough acquainted with this odd kind of Reasoning. Why may I not say. to bear Insults. than I believe you can easily imagine. all this must courageously be endur’d. he who desires it for one thing. despises it with others: Why may not I say. . ‘‘That neither do I know how Life it-self can. Consequence of esteeming these things highly. can be call’d Good?’’ If among those who covet L ever so earnestly.’’—But perhaps. ’twill be the hardest thing in the world to enjoy either. to raise one above these seemingly essential Goods. are superior to it in another. . he who seeks it with some Men.     If there be those who wholly despise F. p. is to Another despicable and vile. I can assure you. And if among those Sect. Sollicitude. and fawn. ‘‘That neither do I know how any Fame can be call’d a Good?’’ A [] If of those who covet P. . Pleasure. by one who studys Great- ness of this sort. And VOL. said I. I perceiv’d the goodly Lady. of it-self. or how Pleasure it-self. and carry’d off. had seen but once in the * Picture you drew yesterday of that Moral Dame. Cares. &c. is to be a Slave. was about to appear a- new: and I easily knew again that fair Face of L. More. p. This I know certainly. and abjectly resign one’s Sense and Manhood. who covet it.

the Mind. are founded on the Contempt of those others so uncertain. Country. and fitted to all natural Affection.A to say more yet. Generosity. said he. [] and set theirA Goods one against another: On one side.    Sect. or can we ever be hinder’d in the Enjoyment of ’em. and of its inward Sores. and Jealousys— No truly. a thorow Candor. Is manly Liberty. and Good Nature. Circumstances. our Society. Benignity. continu’d he. or sought. I need not mention the Envyings. Seasons. that we are reconcil’d to the goodly Order of the Universe. (if I may use such philosophical Terms) are not these ever. which must accompany these. with constant Se- curity. and a Consciousness of Worth and Merit with all Mankind. ‘‘That it . the Advantages of each State. by being ardently belov’d. and at all seasons Good? Is it of these one can at any time nauseate and grow weary? Are there any particu- lar Ages. Places. an Exercise of Friendship uninterrupted. the Mistrusts. and Humour: On the other side. Magnanimity. to make ’em agreeable? Are these variable and inconstant? Do these. and Friends: all which is founded in Virtue only? A Mind subordinate to Reason. Age. as I do. . that we harmonize with Nature. (whatever may be its outward Looks) How is it possible but you must find the Happiness of that other contrary State? Can you not call to mind what we resolv’d concerning Nature? Can any thing be more desirable than to follow her? Or is it not by this Free- dom from our Passions and low Interests. to fix unsteddy Fortune. can these be ever taken from us. these which being certain themselves. Equanimity. than in this. a Temper humaniz’d. and depended both on Fortune. not a G? May we not esteem as Happiness. those which Comparison. we found were uncertainly so. that Self-Enjoyment which arises from a Consistency of Life and Manners. neither need you. interrupting me. a Freedom from the Reproach of Shame or Guilt. a Harmony of Affections. and live in Friendship both with G and Man? Goods of Let us compare. Circumstances. Tranquillity. unless by our-selves? How can we better praise the Goodness of Providence. occasion any Dis- [] turbance or Misery? Can these be at any time overvalu’d? Or. of this unhappy State. But find- ing you so sensible.

which we decline at another. I see no reason we have to accuse Provi- dence on any account. ’Tis Conceit which makes it. as it naturally is. as A. in order to ob- tain immortal Memory or Fame. If this were really the Man’s Good. or fansy Good in it. Opinion. But if we are not to follow all Fancy or OpiAnion alike. towards those other movable Goods. or Imagination of Good? If so. while their Fancy is so strong.’’ Opinion All. if we may de- pend on what is said commonly. ‘‘That of Fancys. And in short. as E. ’Twas the Fancy of another Man to conquer the World. which a Man may endure. what we disapprove at another. by which to judg. ’tis because we fansy it.     has plac’d our Happiness and Good in things We can bestow upon Sect. If it be allow’d. But Men. say plainly in What it was so. I fear. In the same manner is he a Fool who flies that earnestly as his I. Wherefore then. some [] are true. ‘‘That is every Man’s G which he fansys. ‘‘All Good is merely as we fansy it. Why do we wonder at him? If the Fancy were wrong. approve at one time. Or tho he may not have conAquer’d the World. and which alone must be his G. as he fansy’d? Either therefore. or why prefer one thing to another?—You will tell me. and yet be easy and contented. and yet may be contented. be alone his G. or what was very like it. then we are to examine every Fancy. then we must follow that at one time. I suppose.—Are we therefore to follow every present Fancy. and there is some Rule or other. and be at perpetual variance with our-selves. ’Twas the Fancy of one Man to set fire to a beautiful Temple. or Why the Subject was not Good to him. do we act at any time? Why chuse. as his Good. and because he fansys it. some false’’. and determine. will hardly be brought to this good Temper. which a Man can be without. . yet he may be [] . said I. and can rest contented. and yet be satisfy’d and contented. for the same Reason. Now a Man may possibly not have burnt a Temple. and is not content without it’’: Or otherwise. said he. All is O and Fancy only. ourselves?’’ If this be so. ‘‘There is That in which the Nature of Man is satisfy’d.’’ If That in which the Nature of Man is satisfy’d. then he is a Fool who follows that with Earnestness.

partly from outward Things.    Sect. or Renown. and that no one who possesses them is ever miserable by his own fault. The Danger is not so great. on the contrary. and still be discontented. . . Riches.’’ And thus. ‘‘To tell you truth. every Correction of our Taste. then * VOL.’’—But this. p. it seems. agree with you. VOL. if his F hinders not. then Either is it from outward Things alone. every Choice and Preference in Life to be reckon’d of this kind? For ‘‘If Happiness be not allow’d to be from Self. reply’d he.’’A But. in effect. Philosophy. and from within.’’ If from outward Things alone. truly. the very Name is a kind of Reproach. in some manner or other. In short. in fact. III. said I. the Study of Happi- ness. you see. ‘‘But be not concern’d. . we shall find. . ‘‘He may possess them all. hardly any- one will pretend to evince: All own the contrary.’’ reply’d T. either skilfully or unskilfully philosophize? Is not every Deliberation concerning our main Interest. not from without. I. what else is it we all do in general. P. And Experience shews us every day. ‘‘That without any one of those which are commonly call’d Goods. &c. than philosophize? If P be. Yet. ‘‘I was considering What wou’d be- come of me. . . after all. ‘‘That Happiness is from within. in what sense. I shou’d. as we take it. or from Self and outward Things together. it follows.’’—But what is this. by your means. and not a jot the happier. which has seiz’d you? You seem of a sudden grown deeply thoughtful.’’ said I. . a Man may be contented’’: As.’’ ‘‘The Change. wou’d be somewhat extraordinary.—Therefore ‘‘If Happiness be partly from Self. must not everyone. ‘‘That all Men are happy in proportion to these. The word I stood formerly as the Opposite to Philosopher: but now-a- days it means nothing more commonly than the P him-self. People are not at all the nearer being P. That for talking or writing [] Philosophy. shew it us. pag. turn Philosopher.’’ ‘‘A good F is the Main. ‘‘That *O is all in all. if. I Opinion All.’’ If so. easy and contented: as he may still without any of those Advantages of Power. &c.

as other things. perhaps.—‘‘What is a M worth? What Allowance may one handsomly make for it? Or What may one well afford it for?’’—If I part with It.’’ If so: and [] that I consider ‘‘How. ‘‘But we had best beware lest. perhaps. I am to consider first. L and H at another. ‘‘To in- quire Where. or abate of It. still. Some- thing there is in what we call W. Let us be assur’d we have a good Bargain. Favour requires Courtship: Interest is made by Sollicitation: Honours are acquir’d with Hazard. to come easy. For ‘‘What Hardship is there? Where is the Harm?’’ ’Tis only to abate of Fame and Fortune. is P. When properly to take place. If this be easy. and in What these are to be prefer’d. some upon my inward Character. generous Thoughts. something in Sincerity. . A good M must be paid for. and well weigh’d.’’ And therefore This. not slightly to be given up. And thus every-thing has its C. Power and Pre- ferments are to be had at one rate. after all. and share somewhat less of Interest. Security.’’ ‘‘Right! For this also is to be consider’d. when to yield’’: What’s this. and a sound H. and a com- manding R. are fair Possessions. Which are the greatest Gains. Learning and Accomplishments by Study and Application. but to philosophize? ‘‘Yet even this. or out of season. ’Tis only to wave the Point of Honour. Nothing is had for noth- ing. and the World. Orderly Affections. PrivacyA must [] be endur’d.’’ Come on then. Pleasures at another. When and on what occasion they are in season. the most profitable Exchanges’’. ‘‘What may be their Equivalent? Whether I shall find my Account in letting these inward Concerns run as . Some value I must needs set upon my Liberty. still.     Each must be consider’d. Rest. They may be thought. you see. Indolence are to be had at other Prices. ’tis not for Nothing. Riches with Pains. and give one an unhappy turn for Busi- ness. and in what respect one may be most a Loser. and which depend on Self alone. is enough to put one out of the ordinary way of thinking. all is well. even Obscurity and Contempt. we pay too dear for It. Some Patience. since every thing in this World goes by Exchange.—Let us account.—Such are the Condi- tions. of an inward kind. and a certain Value set on the ConcernsA Sect. is necessary in the case.

. ‘‘But the Ex- amination. say plainly. a Competency. have you fitly cul- [] tiAvated that R of your’s. and how far outward Things? Give us the Measure and Rule. and set the Bounds. Let me hear positively ‘‘How far I am to go. you must yield to. knowingly or unknowingly. who studys L. be allow’d the best Judg of Living. Everyone does not as much? ‘‘Where. and who accidentally and unknowingly philosophizes? Thus. This is what I wou’d have you weigh and examine. of Policy. bestow’d the necessary Pains on it. who slightly examines it. or his who is unpractis’d? Whose in the way of War. of necessity. rather than by making Interest abroad. or ever so expert? Consider. and those other Degrees commonly talk’d of? Where is my Anger to stop? or how High may I suffer it to rise? How far may I engage in Love? How far give way to Ambition? How far to other Appetites? Or am I to let all loose? Are the Passions to take their swing. Physick?—And in M and L. or Civil Affairs? Whose in Merchandize.’’ Tell me therefore. and how much to the other?’’ How far are the Appetites to be minded. ‘‘is troublesom. in Mathematicks. P (said he. or Whether I shall not be better secur’d against For- Philosophy. I ask still. you say.’’ say you. tune by adjusting Matters at home. ‘‘How much to one. and acquiring first one great Friend. whose Force.    Sect. pray. concluding his Discourse) Thus is . and I had better be without it. and exercis’d it on this Subject? Or is it like to deter- mine full as well when un-exercis’d. perhaps. See Whether this be not to philosophize? and Whether willingly or unwillingly. Law. they please. Whose? May he not. directly or indirectly. and no Application to be given to ’em. as when thorowly exercis’d. is the Difference? Which Manner is the best?’’ Here lies the Question. and endeavours to form it by some Rule? Or is he indeed to be esteem’d most know- ing in the matter. polish’d it.’’ Who tells you thus? ‘‘Your R. then another. then. Whose is the better R of the two. and Why no further?’’ What is a moderate Fortune. to add [] still more and more to my Estate or QuaAlity?’’ For Where am I to take up? Begin. and fitter to be rely’d on? The Prac- tiser’s. but all to the outward Things they aim at? Or if any Application be requisite.

For Every-one. of necessity.’’ The Question is only.     P establish’d. Sect. . son concerning his own Happiness. The End of the Second Volume. ‘‘What his Good is.’’ A [] BY this time we found our-selves insensibly got home. must rea. . and we return’d to the common Affairs of Life. ‘‘Who reasons best?’’ For even he who rejects this reasoning or deliberating Part. and what Philosophy. his Ill. and from a Persuasion ‘‘That this is best. Our Phi- losophy ended. does it from a certain Reason.

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