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Thermal (Thermomechanical
Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI),
- to help consumers and recyclers properly
recycle and dispose of each different type based
on its chemical makeup

According to:


Thermoplastics Soften and flow under the action of heat and pressure Upon cooling. . the polymer hardens and assumes the shape of the mold (container) When compounded with appropriate ingredients. 1. This behavior is similar that of candle wax. can usually withstand several of these heating and cooling cycles without suffering any structural breakdown.

Examples of Thermoplastics Polystyrene Polyethylene Nylon .

After they are heated and formed. creating a three- dimensional network. . these molecules cannot be re-molten and reformed. 2. Thermosets Or thermosetting plastics are synthetic materials that undergo a chemical change when they are treated.

Historical Milestones of Thermosets Goodyear discovered 1839 vulcanization of rubber. .

. Baekeland granted his “ Heat 1909 and Pressure” patent for phenolic resins.Historical Milestones of Thermosets Goodyear discovered 1839 vulcanization of rubber.

Historical Milestones of Thermosets Goodyear discovered 1839 vulcanization of rubber. 1926 Alkyd was introduced. . Baekeland granted his “ Heat 1909 and Pressure” patent for phenolic resins.

.Historical Milestones of Thermosets Urea formaldehyde was 1928 introduced commercially.

.Historical Milestones of Thermosets Urea formaldehyde was 1928 introduced commercially. Ellis patented unsaturated 1933 polyester resins.

Ellis patented unsaturated 1933 polyester resins. . Historical Milestones of Thermosets Urea formaldehyde was 1928 introduced commercially. Henkel made melamine- 1935 formaldehyde resins.

Historical Milestones of Thermosets Melamine was introduced 1938 commercially. .

1939 First patent on epoxy. .Historical Milestones of Thermosets Melamine was introduced 1938 commercially.

. 1939 First patent on epoxy. Historical Milestones of Thermosets Melamine was introduced 1938 commercially. Epoxy introduced 1947 commercially.

2. Thermosets Properties: Cross-linking Can melt and take shape only once Irreversible chemical reaction Retain their strength even when heated .

Production of Thermosets .

Thermosets Specific methods of molding thermosets are: Reactive injection molding .used for making pipes.used to shape SMC and BMC thermosetting plastics Spin casting .used for objects such as milk bottle crates Extrusion molding . gaming miniatures.used for producing fishing lures and jigs. 2. figurines. threads of fabric and insulation for electrical cables Compression molding . emblems as well as production and replacement parts .

Categories of Thermosets .

bonding of insulator. Urea Formaldehyde and control knobs. handles. strong. Examples of Thermosets NAME PROPERTIES PRINCIPAL USES Good electrical insulator. hard. strong. hard. brittle unless Casting and laminated. Stiff. hard. brittle. tableware Stiff. good electrical insulator adhesives . Casting and hard. good electrical Polyester Resin encapsulation. electrical stains insulation. resists bonding of other materials chemicals well Stiff. reinforced. brittle unless Epoxy Resin encapsulation. adhesives. resists Laminates for work Melamine Formaldehyde some chemicals and surfaces. resists other materials chemicals well Electrical fittings.

According to:

(SPI), 1988

Polyethylene terephthalate
A plastic resin and the most common type of
Two monomers—modified ethylene glycol
and purified terephthalic acid—are
combined to form the polymer called
polyethylene terephthalate
Discovered and patented
1 in England in 1941

Polyethylene terephthalate
Physical Properties:
Has an excellent level of wear resistance compared to
other plastics
Has a high flexural modulus (making it flexible)
Has a superior level of stability making it versatile and
Has a low coefficient of friction making it useful in
various applications in which other plastics are not
The plastic's chemicals do not leak into the fluid or
food stored within it - making it one of the most
important products for food storage

water bottles. Since it is easy to mold. This includes soda bottles. Commonly used for the storage of chemicals. including household cleaners. . Used to hold cosmetics. peanut butter jars and even in frozen foods packaging. bakery products. manufacturers can create very specific shapes for a variety of cosmetic products. Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE or PET) Uses: Commonly used in bottles and other plastic containers.

Examples of PETE or PET Soda bottles Cosmetic bottles Household Cleaner Bottles .

which is the basis for the formulation of many varieties of polyethylene compounds. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Introduction: Karl Ziegler and Erhard Holzkamp invented high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Thermoplastic material composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms joined together forming high molecular weight products as shown in this figure: 2 . The process included the use of catalysts and low pressure.

The powder form is cheaper but can give problems of materials handling and feeding. . High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Available in both granular and powder form. Sold in both compounded colors and as natural material for coloring on the extrusion machine by techniques such as masterbatching and dry coloring. When dry coloring do not use adhesion promoters such as paraffin. Control the mixing time precisely as too short a mixing time gives poor dispersion and inadequate adhesion while too long a mixing time may cause pigment compaction.

Densities of 0. HDPE has better resistance to low temperature impact and to oxidation. Compared to PP homopolymer.965 g/cm3. .5 . High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Mechanical Properties: Has good dynamic fatigue resistance but not as good as PP and exhibits no living hinge effect. The shrinkage of HDPE is 1.4% ( and even 5% in thick sections). Have less chain branching giving higher levels of crystallinity and therefore higher densities than LDPE.940 to 0.

Ductility of HDPE .

Is attacked by UV light and the use of carbon black or UV screens for outdoor exposure is essential. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Chemical Properties: Not attacked by concentrated salts. acids or alkalis at room temperature and resists some oxidizing agents such as hypochlorites. Such materials will also cause swelling at room temperature. Has no known solvent at room temperature but will dissolve in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons above 60 C. .

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Chemical Properties: Is affected by environmental stress cracking (ESC) when it is subjected to external or internal stress in the presence of polar liquids or vapors. . When this material is heated in a flame it ignites easily then burns with a yellow-tipped. blue flame giving off only a little smoke. It forms burning drops and when the flame is extinguished gives off a smell like candle wax.

High-density polyethylene
Flow Characteristics:
Because the impact resistance of HDPE decreases
and notch sensitivity increases as molecular weight
falls the most commonly used grades of HDPE have
high molecular weights i.e. low values of melt flow
index (MFI). Using the traditional 2.16 kg weight at 190
C, HDPE extrusion grades all have values below 0.3.

Applications of HDPE

Waste Containers
Safety Related Service Water at


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

The world's third most widely produced
synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and
A thermoplastic material that can be melted repeatedly
at certain temperatures and will harden upon cooling.
It comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes
abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible.


and oil/chemical resistance. even in the absence of fire retardants.PVC is highly resistant to oxidative reactions. durability. Fire retarding properties . Durability .PVC has inherently superior fire retarding properties due to its chlorine content. . Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Properties: Maximum continual use temperature: 60°C or 140°F Chemical Stability .PVC possess fire retarding properties. and maintains its performance for a long time.

Processability and Moldability .PVC is resistant to acid. Mechanical Stability . alkali and almost all inorganic chemicals. since its melt viscosity is comparatively high. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Properties: Oil/Chemical Resistance . .PVC is a chemically stable material.PVC is not suitable for injection molding of large sized products. .

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Other properties that make PVC versatile: PVC has polar groups (chlorine). . PVC is the only general purpose plastic that allows free. wide and seamless adjustment of the required physical properties of products. and is amorphous.

Uses of PVC Rigid PVC Construction . .It is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications. .

Surgical equipment. medical packaging Automotive . moldings. seat coverings. Uses of PVC Flexible PVC Electrical . pharmaceuticals. drug delivery. exterior side moldings. interior doors and pockets .Protective strips.Coated wires and cables Medical .

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) A thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene. produced in 1933 by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) using a high pressure process via free radical polymerization. 4 . First grade of polyethylene.

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Properties: Has more branching than HDPE LDPE HDPE .

Density is lower .Resilience is higher . Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Properties: Intermolecular forces (instantaneous dipole induced-dipole attraction) are weaker Its molecules are less tightly packed and less crystalline due to the side branches Compared to HDPE. .Tensile strength is lower .

and some solvents cause swelling. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Properties: Not reactive at room temperatures. it is quite flexible and tough . Can withstand temperature of 80 0C continuously and 95 0C for a short time Made in translucent and opaque variations. except at strong oxidizing agents.

and oxidizing agents Halogenated hydrocarbons Excellent Good Limited Bad . mineral oils. ketones and vegetable oils Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemical Resistance SUBSTANCES RESISTANCE Dilute and concentrated acids. alcohols. bases and esters Aldehydes.

History of LDPE ICI developed the autoclave process 1933 1938 WWII Discovered by accident BASF developed the in an experiment first tubular process conducted by Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett in ICI .

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Process Theory: Free radical reaction: ▪ Initiation I  R. R + CH2CH2  RCH2CH2 . + R. . . R(CH2CH2)n-1CH2CH2 + CH2CH2  R(CH2CH2)nCH2CH2 . Initiators: Typically organic peroxides ▪ Propagation .

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Process Theory: Free radical reaction: ▪ Termination ✓ Combination: . . ✓ Disproportioning: . Rx + Ry  Px+y . Rx + Ry  Px + Py .

. Rx  Py + Rx-y . Rx + M  Px + M . ▪ Cracking – results in shorter chains . Rx + CH2CH2  Px + R1 . ✓ By modifier: . Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Process Theory: Other reactions: ▪ Chain transfer – important to control molecular weight ✓ By monomer: .

This new compressed gas is melted again with unreacted gas and compress in the second compressor. Polymerization . Polymerization is obtained in the reactor at a certain pressure and temperature.Gaseous ethylene is supplied and melted with a part of unreacted gas from the process in oreder to be compress in the first reactor. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Manufacturing Process: Compression of gas .An initiator (organic peroxide) is added to the second compressed gas into the reactor and the materials are mixed inside the reactor through stirrer . .

. Extrusion . Storage and Packaging .The unreacted gas is then separated by 3 levels of separators. notice than a part will be exclude from the process. the polymers can be extruded and pelletized. Those unreacted gas will be injected before the compressor. The degassing is done by hot air injection. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Manufacturing Process: Separation of Gas .The pellets are dried through a dryer and classified pellets by pellet size.Once the unreacted gas is removed.

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Types of Manufacturing Process: Autoclave Process Tubular Process .

Autoclave Process .

Tubular Process .

adiabatic. EVA copolymers over 40% vinyl acetate up to 10% vinyl acetate Lower reactor capacity – 150 kt/y Reactor capacity up to 400 kt/y . Tubular Process AUTOCLAVE TUBULAR Conversion up to 21% . Autoclave vs. Conversion up to 36% .reaction heat reaction heat removed by reactant partly removed by coolant only 1300-2000 bar operating pressure 2500-3200 bar operating pressure Lower capacity of hyper but higher Higher capacity of hyper compressor load Organic peroxide initiators only Cheaper oxygen initiator possible Specialty polymer capability – EVA Film grades with higher clarity.

Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages ▪ Low specific gravity ▪ Very low ▪ Chemical resistance strength/stiffness ▪ Impact strength ▪ Poor heat resistance ▪ High coefficient of thermal expansion .

Uses of LDPE 4% 5% 7% 8% Film Extrusion Coating Injection Molding 76% Wire and Cable Others .

Uses of LDPE PROCESS USES ✓ Cling film Making film ✓ Milk carton lining ✓ Buckets Injection molding ✓ Bowls Blow molding ✓ Squeezable bottles ✓ Flexible water pipes Extrusion ✓ Cable jacketing .

Uses of LDPE Cling Film Bucket Squeezable bottle Flexible Water Pipes Bowl Cable Jacketing Milk Carton Lining .

As LDPE is heated. it turns from a solid to a viscous gummy liquid and then to a mobile fluid as temperature is increased. (Melting point: 115 0C) Because of LDPE’s nature of having such a low density and melting point. Separation is performed in a flotation tank using water to execute the separation. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Recycling Recycling company melts the plastic to eliminate the contaminants. it allows for a process called “float-and-sink” to be used to separate it from other polymer chemicals. .

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Recycling The material is fashioned into thin sheets. The degradation in the materials makes LDPE useful in other applications such as treating carpet or manufacturing clothing. recycled plastic bottles are NOT turned into more plastic bottles. Contrary to popular belief. . which the recycling company sells to manufacturers.

Paul Hogan and Robert L. Banks first polymerized propylene in 1951. Polypropylene (PP) History: Phillips Petroleum chemists J. Syndiotactic polypropylene was also first synthesized by Natta and his coworkers. 5 . Propylene was first polymerized to a crystalline isotactic polymer by Giulio Natta as well as by the German chemist Karl Rehn in March 1954.

92 g/cc Has the lowest density among commodity plastics Tough and flexible Good resistance to fatigue .895 to 0. Polypropylene (PP) Mechanical Properties: Density = 0.

Commercial isotactic PP (160 to 166°C or 320 to 331°F) .Syndiotactic PP with a crystallinity of 30% (130°C or 266°F) . Polypropylene (PP) Thermal Properties: Its melting point varies: .Perfectly isotactic PP (171°C or 340°F) .

Polypropylene (PP) Optical Properties: Translucent Often opaque or colored using pigments .

Polypropylene (PP) Chemical Properties: Resistant to fats and almost all organic solvents except strong oxidants Can be dissolved in non-polar solvents (e.g. xylene. tetralin and decalin) Chemically less resistant than PE Liable to chain degradation from exposure to heat and UV radiation such as that present in sunlight Can be used as an implantable mesh in human body .

its environmental benefits. including impact and freezing. Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is used: In manufacturing piping systems (high-purity and ones designed for strength and rigidity) It is resistant to corrosion and chemical leaching It is resilient against most forms of physical damage. and its ability to be joined by heat fusion rather than gluing .

Applications of PP Stacking Chairs Yarns and Textiles Mint Box Lid Centrifuge Tubes .

and do not melt during industrial hot filling processes . Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is used: Plastic items for medical or laboratory Can withstand heat in autoclave Food containers made from it will not melt in the dishwasher.

cooler containers. pharmacy prescription bottles. both of which commonly have rather similar appearance. wastebaskets. and properties at ambient temperature . car batteries. Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is used: Polypropylene can also be made into disposable bottles Plastic pails. dishes and pitchers are often made of polypropylene or HDPE. feel.

is widely used in manufacturing carpets. . Polypropylene. highly colorfast.These BOPP sheets are used to make a wide variety of materials including clear bags. Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is used: Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) . rugs and mats to be used at home.

examples include bottle tops. Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is used: For plastic moldings. bottles. and fittings In the manufacture of loudspeaker drive units As a concrete additive to increase strength and reduce cracking and spalling In polypropylene drums .

. Its lower density also means that switching to PP reduces the absolute amount of waste. Polypropylene (PP) Environmental Impact: Polypropylene consumes the least amount of energy during production and produces the lowest carbon dioxide emissions when compared to other plastics.

gel forming or off-gassing. Parts made from PP can be recycled multiple times in a wide variety of applications before incineration is necessary. it is possible to recover more energy from PP during incineration than from any other comparable plastic. When that time comes. Polypropylene (PP) Environmental Impact: It also flows more easily as it degrades. . without cross linking.

Polystyrene (PS) 6 .

From storax. he distilled an oily substance. 3 Simon . Simon found that the styrol 2 had thickened into a jelly he dubbed styrol oxide ("Styroloxyd") because he presumed an oxidation. Several days later.1 History of Polystyrene Polystyrene was discovered in 1839 by Eduard Simon. an apothecary from Berlin. a monomer that he named styrol. the resin of the American sweetgum tree styraciflua.

They called the product "metastyrol". 3 .1 History of Polystyrene By 1845 Jamaican-born chemist John Buddle Blyth and German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann showed that the same transformation of styrol took place in the absence of oxygen. analysis showed that it was chemically 2 identical to Simon's Styroloxyd.

” 3 Berthelot Staudinger . “POLYSTYRENE.1 History of Polystyrene In 1866 Marcelin Berthelot correctly identified the formation of metastyrol/Styroloxyd from styrol as a polymerization process. following the thesis of 2 German organic chemist Hermann Staudinger (1881–1965). About 80 years later it was realized that heating of styrol starts a chain reaction that produces macromolecules. This eventually led to the substance receiving its present name.

Styrene .

Polystyrene Poly- .

transparent thermoplastic Solid or glassy state at normal temperature Colorless Relatively low melting point Translucent Can be put in a foamed state Slow to break down . Polystyrene (PS) Properties: Rigid.

Unfilled polystyrene is amorphous. sparkling appearance. It is also known as crystal polystyrene. . and has a glassy. Polystyrene (PS) Physical Properties: The density of polystyrene can vary from 10 kg/m3 to 50 kg/m3.

Polystyrene (PS)
Physical Properties:
An important property of extruded polystyrene is its
buoyancy or ability to float in water. This makes it the
perfect choice for making floating boards.

The viscosity of polystyrene, like all other non-
Newtonian fluids, depends on the shear rate. It is the
ratio of the shear stress to shear rate.

Physical Properties

Specific gravity g/cm3 1.03 to 1.06

Apparent density g/cm3 0.60 to 0.65

Water absorption % 0.03 to 0.10

Polystyrene (PS)

Chemical Properties:
Polystyrene is chemically inert, and does not react with
most substances.
It dissolves in some organic solvents. It is soluble in
solvents that contain acetone, such as most aerosol
paint sprays and cyanoacrylate glues.

Polystyrene. Most of the chemical properties of polystyrene are as a result of the unique properties of carbon. on complete oxidation. as a characteristic of all aromatic hydrocarbons. is the main reason for its chemical stability. It is highly flammable and burns with an orange yellow flame. . Polystyrene (PS) Chemical Properties: The transformation of carbon-carbon double bonds into less reactive single bonds in polystyrene. giving off carbon particles or soot. produces only carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Polystyrene can be naturally transparent. . Polystyrene (PS) Applications: Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. but can be colored with colorants.

Forms Produced Sheet and Molded Foams Expanded Polystyrene Polystyrene Oriented Polystyrene Extruded Polystyrene Foam .

Sheet and Molded Polystyrene Molded sheets are for building insulation and packing material ("peanuts") for cushioning fragile items inside boxes. .

Foamed Polystyrene Polystyrene foams are good thermal insulators and are therefore often used as building insulation materials. such as in insulating concrete forms and structural insulated panel building systems. .

EPS is used for many applications e. It is usually white and made of pre-expanded polystyrene beads. closed- cell foam.g. trays. plates. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a rigid and tough. bowls and fish boxes. .

Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) is a high performance rigid insulation with a closed cell structure which makes it impervious to moisture. .

Oriented Polystyrene (OPS) Oriented Polystyrene (OPS) is a polystyrene film that is stretched to reduce haziness and improve stiffness. producing plastic sheet that is incredibly strong and clear. OPS is a relatively inexpensive material that is used in bakery. . deli and freezer applications.

Appliances Refrigerator Blender .

Food Service Hot Coffee Hot Noodle Cup Cup .

Medical Cell Culture Trays Test Tubes .

Packaging CD Cases Egg Tray .

Polystyrene can be used to create sterile disposable cutlery. Polystyrene can be used as packaging to protect goods from damage during transport. Polystyrene (PS) Advantages: Polystyrene is cheap and strong plastic that can be used in number of ways. . plates and bowls which can help reduce transferring bacteria and illness. Polystyrene can be recycled into domestic building products. Polystyrene can be used to insulate buildings which can make buildings more energy efficient saving on heating and cooling costs. which can save on repairs and damage.

Polystyrene (PS) Disadvantages: Polystyrene dis-cared in the environment does not break down and takes up precious space in landfill. ending up as litter in the environment where it can harm animals and marine life. Polystyrene is easily blown by the wind. Animals can mistake polystyrene for food and it can be lethal to bird and sea life that swallow it. .

Occupational Health Hazards . Polystyrene (PS) Environmental Impact: 1.Some of the acute health effects experienced include irritation of the skin. and the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal effects. Environmental Health Concerns Possible Carcinogen . eyes.The International Agency for Research on Cancer had already established styrene as a possible human carcinogen in 2002. .

. it is released into the environment leading to air pollution and health problems when inhaled by people and animals. Air Pollution Many of the chemicals used in the manufacturing process are toxic. and workers who make them are at greatest risk. When Styrofoam is burnt for energy or for disposal. and the liquid and solid waste produced need disposal. Polystyrene (PS) Environmental Impact: 2. emissions from these factories can pollute the air. Moreover.

energy consumption. polystyrene’s environmental impacts were second highest. . and total environmental effect. greenhouse gas effect. Extruded polystyrene is usually made with hydro chlorofluorocarbons blowing agents which have effects on ozone depletion and on global warming. Polystyrene (PS) Environmental Impact: 3. Effect on Global Warming In the product manufacturing process as well as the use and disposal of the products.

Plastic from urban runoff is the largest source of marine debris worldwide. Marine Pollution The lightweight and buoyant polystyrene travels easily through gutters and storm drains. As a result of the impacts on marine pollution and adverse effect to marine wildlife. non- biodegradable pieces that are ingested by marine life and other wildlife thus harming or killing them. . Pollution of waterways and waterfront negatively affects tourism and quality of life. eventually reaching the ocean. When polystyrene travels down waterways and storm drains into the ocean. it breaks down into smaller. Polystyrene (PS) Environmental Impact: 4. and cause flooding in our habitat.

Public Contamination Polystyrene foam is often dumped into the environment as litter. these chemicals threaten human health and environment health. This material is notorious for breaking up into pieces that choke animals and clog their digestive systems. Heavily polluting resource These products are made with petroleum. . Polystyrene (PS) Environmental Impact: 5.

Other 7 .

Hermann Schnell of Bayer .While GE named it Lexan as linear PC . History of Polycarbonate 1955 ..Daniel Fox of GE independently 1898 synthesis a branched PC .Bayer won the patent and commercially produced it as 1953 Merlon ..Alfred Einhorn but was not commercialized .Dr.

Other Polycarbonate Carbonate group as its main precursor Amorphous/semi-amorphous Copolymer Can both be thermoplastic or thermoset No unique resin identification code .

Polymerized with the removal of water . Reaction of BPA with NaOH to get sodium salt of BPA 2. Other Polycarbonate Commonly produced by the reaction of bisphenol A and phosgene: 1. Then reacted w/ phosgene 3.

Other Polycarbonate Another type is one that is reacted with 2 allyl radical that will produce a crosslinked PC. This type are now usually used as the lenses for eyeglasses. .

Other PC as plastic: Manufactured via: ✓ Extrusion ✓ Injection Molding .

9 % . Chemical Properties of PC Formula C15H16O2 Melting Temp ⁰C 288 – 316 Molding Temp ⁰C 82 – 121 Heat Deflection ⁰C 140 @ 0.46 MPa Tensile Strength 59 MPa Flexural Strength 93 MPa Specific Gravity 1.6 – 0.19 Shrink Rate 0.

Other Physical Properties: High durability Shatter resistant Transparency Lightweight Thermostability .

Other Applications: Automotive Packaging Electrical/Electronics .

Other Recyclability No traditional way. yet Environmentally hazardous Persistent compound .

Carothers production (DuPont) created PLA .300 million pounds produced at the Blair.DuPont patented Polymers LLC Carothers’ process forms 1932 extremely high cost of . 1997 1954 .Cargill Dow Nebraska plant . History of Polylactide 2001 .

Other Polylactide Highly versatile thermoplastic material Made from 100% renewable resources Lactic acid is derived from various sources ✓ Corn ✓ Sugar Beets ✓ Wheat .

etc. Uses and Applications of PLA Extrusion Sheet. Vacuum Forming “Blister” packages Injection Molding . profile Blow Molding Bottles.

Other Polylactide Compares well with currently used packaging materials ✓ Clear/glossy like polystyrene ✓ Odor barrier/gas permeability similar PET (used for soft drinks and many other food products) Nonvolatile and odorless. classified as GRAS by FDA ✓ GRAS .Generally Recognized as Safe ✓ Safe for all food and packaging applications .

Products Made from PLA Disposable Cup Disposable Bag Bottle Memory Stick Casing Food Container Utensils .

Other Production of PLA: Start with starch from renewable resource Unrefined dextrose processed from starch Dextrose fermented into lactic acid Lactide produced through condensation Purification through vacuum distillation Solvent-free melt polymerization .

Production of PLA .

Propagation . Non-Solvent Process to Prepare Polylactic Acid By heating catalyst Distillation Fermentation Lactic Lactide Prepolymer Acid Formation Dextrose Distillation Unconverted Polymer Meso Lactide PLA Polymerization Corn Polymer Low D Coordination/Insertion Lactide Cargill Dow LLC Process. et. al. 2000. Gruber.

Other Unmaking PLA Fully combustible in composting facilities Can be converted back to monomer Can be completely broken down to H2O. and organics Degradation time: weeks to months . CO2.

000 CH3 O O O Opoly n OH OH CH3 CH3 O CH3 CH3 O OH + Opoly HO HO O O CH3 n O O Low Molecular Weight Prepolymer Mw=2.000 . Degradation Hydrolysis and cleavage of the CH3 ester linkage O CH3 CH3 O O O O HO O O Opoly O CH3 n O CH3 OH H OH O High Molecular Weight Prepolymer H Mw>100.000 –10.

Other Criticisms PLA releases carbon dioxide and methane during the biological breakdown phase Fossil fuels still needed to produce PLA Some believe that PLA will degrade too slowly to make a difference in waste streams .