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American Philological Association

Preliminaries to an Explicit Theory of Greek Metre
Author(s): A. M. Devine and Laurence Stephens
Reviewed work(s):
Source: Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974-), Vol. 107 (1977), pp. 103-
129
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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PRELIMINARIES TO AN EXPLICIT
THEORY OF GREEK METRE
A. M. DEVINE and LAURENCE STEPHENS
StanfordUniversity

I. INTRODUCTION

iaE'pe?l oS E
pLrpov pv0Opov^.v-Ar ev yadp TroLs uErpoLts (uvAAafr) Kat
Xwups oavAAapis OVK av YEVOLTO JLETpOV,0d pV0ULOS ylverat Lev KalEv
crvAAaflas, ylveTrat o Kal Xcopls av,AAaf3rs Kal yap Ev KpOT(r' o'Tav
ILev yap Tovs XaAcKEaS lcJ/LEV Tas (arvpas KaTaW/epovTas, apja Tiva
,
Kal caI;UOl,SKL' Kal' lT7cV ?e ITOAEt
ropela
p, O
pv0/os
' '
vofla K'
Kal
pVOljOv aKovotLEV. rla K7vr7a
8aKT7ACov Kal /LEAXv oX Tara Kal Xop8)v KLVtjzLaTa Kal T'V OpvlOwv

T
TTOorS. "ET TOLVVV 8aLC)EpEL pVULOV TO fLETpOV, TO ,EV iE'pOV 7ET'-
yOTaS EXEL TOVS XPOVOVS,iCKpOV TE Ka.l paXv Kal TOv LTa; TOVTOWV
TOV KOLVOV KaAO EVOV, Kato
oS avToS 'v7rTvWu /LaKpS EorTLV 77 IppaXvs'
d oEpv(yVoS
vt s o3eO'ra
ET yOVV Kal TOV
AKELTOVS Xpovovsc. roTTAAaKLt
ppaXvv XpOVOV 7TOLEL tLaKpov.

(Longinus, Proleg. in Heph. 83.1-16 Consbruch)
In the above passage Longinus clearly formulates the distinction
between rhythm and metre and indicates the nature of the linguistic
units that are relevant to metrical structure; he makes a binary classifica-
tion of syllables and notes the (correct) interpretation ofsyllaba communis
as not a separate category but arising from variation of certain phono-
logical sequences between the categories of light and heavy syllable.
The traditional teaching of Greek (stichic) metre in schools and uni-
versities and the accounts in many handbooks reflect such an analysis
of metre in terms of two metrically distinctive syllable weights and two
corresponding metrical elements. For some years now, however,
there has been an increasing tendency, particularly in the work of West

I M. L. West, "A new approach to Greek prosody," Glotta 48 (I970) I85 ff.

M.I04 A. The resultingmetricalschemesare. phonetic variationsof individualperform- ances.and we shallargue in this paper that in one critical supposition the two schools are closer to each other than either is to traditionalmetrics. Dale.5to go beyond this traditionalbinary classificationinto heavy and light syllableand longumand breveelements.one may suspectthat the ultimategoals and motivationsof the two schools are not so disparate.2but alsoin that ofIrigoin. and the variable. Metrica e criticastilistica (Roma 1963). Pap. Maas. at a higher level of generalization. it follows that the requirementsof the metricalpatternare independentof and more abstractthan the concrete. The rhythmical patternsof standardperformancestyles are again not directly relevant 2A. Similarly. Although of course the latterwere arrivedat on the basisof quite other criteria. Dale. We refer to this modern school as the metrical- rhythmical(MR) school. H. trs. on the one hand. Since even the same line may be performedwith differentrhythmical characteristicswithout its metre being changed thereby. The Lyric Metres of Greek Drama (Cambridge 1968 2) and CollectedPapers (Cambridge 1969) = Coll.replacingthem with a multiplicity of supposedly metrically distinctive classes of syllabletypes to which areascribeddifferencesof phonetic durationand a multiplicity of metrical elements correlating with subsets of those classes. M.4andincipiently in that of Maas. 4 A. Wifstrand. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 and A. differentstyles of performancemay have differentrhythmicalpatterns. externally imposed rhythmicizations. Greek Metre. Rossi. in complexity. in GGA 217 (1965) 224 ff. 3J. Irigoin. 2. review of L. reminiscent of the rhythmicalconstructsof Boeckh and Westphal. Von Kallimachoszu Nonnos (Lund I933). Accordingly our discussion will not be directed towards performance factors.3 Wifstrand. Lloyd-Jones (Oxford 19622). DISTINCTION BETWEEN METRE AND PERFORMANCE In any discussionof metre and rhythm it is essentialto distinguish clearly between the structurallyrelevant propertieswhich determine what are and what are not acceptablelines. whether these be close reflections of the metrical pattern or more divergent. . M. structurallyirrelevant effects of performance on the other. 5 P.

. Ourconcernin thisarticleis with the and principles determinants of metricalityin the fundamentalsenseof the characteristics thatareinherentin all acceptableverses(of a given metricaltype) and the rules that generate(or define)all and only acceptableverses. 7 A.and his proceduresand assumptionsare instructivefor an understanding of all laterelaborationsof thisorientation.they deal only with the initialclarificationof procedures in metricalanalysis. We discussthese distinctionselsewhereand draw attentionto the confusionsthathave arisenfrom neglectingthem. however. One of the primaryobjectsof this traditionin metricalscholarshipwas the reconstruction of the rhythmical values of the standard performances of Greek verse. Stephens. 3.Vol. De metrisPindari (Berlin 18II) IO5. " Greek metrics: methods and goals.treatedasgiven(atleastfromthepointof view of metricalityas definedabove). A basic axiomof his theorywas: "necesseest." to appear in GRBS. Devine and L. Boeckh. Boeckhis generallyregardedastheprimaryfounderof thisrhythmical tradition. ut versibuspervariarhythmica genera compositisadhibitumsit remedium qualecunque. He was the firstmodernscholarto makethe connectionbetween"long anceps" andthe alogiaof Aristoxenus andwascharacteristically concernedwith the problemof the durational valuesthatwereassignedto the syllables of a spondaicfoot in an iambiccontextin orderto preservethe dura- tionalratioscharacteristicof thatrhythm.6 As indispensable as they are. He proposedthatthe ratio of S to S in such a spondeewould have been 9/7 to I2/7. ANALYSISOF THE ORIGINSAND DEVELOPMENT OF MR THEORY Beginningin the early part of the nineteenthcenturythe major emphasisin metricaltheorycenteredon theelucidationandapplication of thedoctrinesof Aristoxenus andtheancientrhythmicians to metrical structuresthatwere.quo iis aequalisinserereturtemporumdivisio. but they do not therebybecomemetricallyacceptable."7 The attemptto determine theseremedia constituteda centralandconstantgoal of the rhythmical 6 A. IO7] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE o05 to metricalstructure:unmetricalsequencesmay be rhythmicized. Accordinglyour discussionwill not be concernedwith rhythmicalpatternin thissense.in effect.

led to elaborateandcomplicateddurational schemes.all theseproposedrhythmicalschemestook the metrical structurein the senseof the arrangement of linguisticheavyandlight syllablesas its startingpoint: thisis clear since the rhythmicaltradition neverattemptedto workout the additionalrulesfor andconstraints on or rhythmicization plasma in relation to linguistic unitsthatwould be necessary if the metricalstructure were to be deducible from a scheme of rhythmicaldurations. the sharpnessof the dichotomybetweengesungener andgesagterVers.of "mixedfeet.and so on. TheoriedermusischenKunste derHellenen.however. ForexampleWestphal.] . Apel. For metresconsisting.clearlya secondaryissue.asit wasthought. 7roLdas plasma.quiteunlikethe modern MR analyses. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 traditionfrom Voss. It shouldbe kept in mind that the Igth centuryrhythmicaltheoriestacitlyassumedthe relation: arrangementof linguistic units-Aaa > durationalvalues/context whereas. 8 R.theMR theoriesdominantin the20thcentury explicitlyassumethe contrary: durationalvalues-> arrangement of linguisticunits thatis. althoughperhapsrelevantin some regards. and Westphalto Kral and del Grande. They were. M. the text matter is identical to that of the work cited in note I9 which contains different prefatory matter by Westphal. howevertheindividualrepresentatives mightdifferon suchissuesasthe use of modernmusic.for others.most scholarsof the rhythmical traditionwere interestedin differencesof phoneticdurationbetween syllablesdependingon segmentalstructure andwordboundary.etc. Justlike the modernMR theorists.the strengthof the Takteinheit. Westphal and H. Xpovotrjs pv6o- taot. [This work is identical in title to that cited in note I7.).aswe shallsee. erste Abtheilung: Allgemeine Theorie dergriechischenMetrik (Leipzig I8873) 95 ff.for somethiswas simplynot a relevantquestion.Io6 A. they seekto explain(andthereforepredict)the distributionof linguisticunitsin metreasa consequenceof thedurational requirements of a quasi-rhythmicalpattern.thesuggestedremedia.RossbachandGleditsch8 acceptedin a modified form the remarksof Choeroboscusin Hephaestion(I80 Consbr.. Gleditsch. rhythmicizations.neverexplicitabouttherelationbetweentheseassumed phoneticdurationsandthedurational valuesorratiosof theirrhythmical schemes. dritter Band."andfor Aeolicin particular. But it shouldbe understoodthat.

Io For the Westphal school. but the variation between the syllable weights S and ? of sequences involving these phenomena was given sound.claiming that the latter. to rhythmicalplasma. IO7] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE I07 Dionysius of Halicarnassus(De Comp.thatit did not have Xpovotyvopql. in marked contrast to the untenable theories current in this century. .9 The aAoyia of Dionysius of Halicarnassus was explaineddiachronicallyin performanceterms in the discussionsof the hexameter. diachronic linguistic explanation. even in regardto the asymmetrybetween the dactylicarsis and thesis in the matter of hiatus. in contrast to the MR approach. but XpovoL dyvwaurot. Rossbach and R.Griechische Metrikmit besonderer Rucksichtaufdie Strophengattungen unddieubrigenmelischen Metren(LeipzigI8893) I2-78. even Porson's bridge was treated non- durationally. even. In Gleditsch's traditional discussions of prosody the ayvauTrotXpovot were not mentioned.these five quantitieswere supposed to have been reorganizedfor metrical purposes into 2. resonantlengthening. and consequently was not structured in feste Takte but it might be thought that the 5 assumeddurationalcategories Versfiisse. zweite Abtheilung: SpecielleGriechische Metrik.Vol. But this analysis in the Westphal school remained performance oriented and left gesagterVers a less stable and precise version of gesungenerVers. however. Theorie der musisichenKunste der Hellenen.digamma. did not function in terms of the Xp6vos P7rpcros.failureof epic correption. Verb. 576 UR) and Aristides Quintilianus(41 f W-I) on the fractionaldurationsof consonantsand recognized 5 syllable "quantities"in the Greeklanguage.in the treatmentof which there is no hint of the relevanceof suchsub-categoriesof linguisticsyllables. In asmuch asWestphalhad come to insiststrongly on the separationof gesungenerfrom gesagterVers. etc.Orjo alTOTaeL. Westphal. similarlyLudwich in his excursus on Nonnus never sought to relatethe many word boundaryrestrictions to constraintson phonetic duration motivated by the verse rhythm. dritter Band.Hauptiktus Nebeniktus / S#[S 9 The asymmetry between arsis and thesis was not accounted for. being explained by quasi-phonetic assumptions about ictus: -. so that it would seem none was individuallyrelevant to metricalstructureor. unlike the former. of the languagewould have played an importantrole in the analysisof spoken verse. It was simply assertedthat kyklischeMessungwas to be assumedfor die HexameterderBukolikerand no data from the metrical use of language items were offered. 10A.

. M.however. 12 T." TAPA 38 (1907) 63. ShoreyI believed in 7 quantities and apparently considered them somehow metrically relevant. Shorey. that no attempt should have been made to elaboratea system of correlationsbetween the two.receiveonly theNebeniktus (note 10. 223).thatmetricalitywas basicallya matterof time-values. the syllablesof a trochee in a dactylic context would be assigneddifferent durationsas follows: VCC(C)V | / - VCVTR. The more preliminary and fundamental questions of metrical theory. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 so that# had to be excludedafterS in the fifth foot of the trimeter becausethefifthfoot must. Chapterson Greek Metric (New York I90I) 212. Goodell. " P.Io8 A. whether for describing the rhythms of verse performance or the language itself. "Choriambic dimeter and the rehabilitation of the antispast. given the concerns and assumptionsof the rhythmicaltradition. In particular.metrists continued to assume. For example.madedifferentassumptions aboutthe relevanceof assumedphoneticdifferences in syllabledurations. . if tacitly. > /- Obscure remarks such as Herodian's (2. however. But with the decline of interestin externalrhythmics. The general concern was to establishtheir programmaticassumption that a binary distinction of syllableswas mechanisticand inadequate. the emphasis was shifted to a concern with the historical origins and development of Greekmetre and a classificatoryanalysisof lyric on the basisof constituentsubsequences.709 Lehrs) TO vcr?EttaKpov iEl iv raTrrov0ea EL OaKpovwere sought out as explanatory principles. GoodelI2 speculatedthat the rhythmicizationof "mixed feet" might vary dependingon the segmentalstructuresof the light and heavy syllables implementing them.aswasassumed. It is easy to understand. remained largely unexamined. although they never receivedmore than cursoryor incidentalnotice.these time-valuesassumed a new status: they no longer referred to the durationalrelations of musical notes but came to be associated with the elements of the metricalpatternitself. With the rise of the "New Metric" at the end of the nineteenth century. Otherrhythnmists.

Witkowski. Bay. "Observationes metricae in Herodam. The full consequences of thiswork andorientation. I4 A. J. De pedibussolutis (Berlin 1866).note 6). 107] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE IO9 By this time a considerablebody of detailedphilologicalwork had developed on the metrical distributionof linguisticphenomena. is given by = 2! dpiJ . Euripidis Hecuba.were not articulatedinto a theory of metreuntil the 20th century. 191) uses the term "mean-time" erroneously: the figures he gives are the mid-points between the extreme values of his parameters. 15F.Vol. To calculate the mean-time of a Westian position correctly. "Zur Geschichte des griechischen und lateinischen Hexameters." Analecta Graeco-Latina philologis Vindobonae congregatis(Krakow I893) I if.'4et al. V. "Ueber positio debilis und correptio attica im iambischen Trimeter der Griechen.4:1ratio'6are 13R. Thus if syllable type i had duration di and relative frequency pi in positionj." RhM 3 (1835) 517. Scholarsfrom Porsonand Hermannto Naeke. Hilberg. The decisivestepappearsto havebeentakenby Maas.however. Maas'sanceps witha "timevaluesomewhere betweenthatof longum andthatof breve"andWest's1. A.for he assumedthat metricalelementswere defineddirectlyin termsof time valuesrather thanmerelyrhythmicized intothosevalues. Wernicke15and Hilberghad alsonotedrestric- tionson positionallengthening. the mean-time of position j. Miiller." RhM 41 (i886) 258 if. W. (1884) 979-1089. Witkowski.but attributingto thema metricalrather thana rhythmicalstatus. Tryphiodorus (Leipzig 1819) I73. F. Forthemostpartthisworkwasdone purely at the observationallevel and in conjunctionwith textual criticism. W. Apparentrestrictionson the sorts of intervocaliccon- sonantspermittedin resolutionshadbeencollectedby Seidler. Meyer. De versibus dochmiacis tragicorumgraecorumII (Leipzig I812) 385. S. for West's scheme it is the expected value of the "duration" of a position. Naeke. Wemicke. G.in hisattemptto definethe phenomenaofancepsandbiceps. Akad. 16 West (note I. The mean is the expected value and measure of the central tendency of a frequency distribution. information which West does not provide or even consider. Seidler." Sitzb..Miiller. Porson. "Callimachi Hecale IV.HilbergandMeyer13 had observeda disconcertingly largenumberof restrictions on word boundaries. Kopp. Hermann. C. dj. Thushe wasdrawinguponconstructs of the old rhythmicalschool.but there grew with it an explanatoryframework:these phenomenawere to be accountedfor in termsof phoneticduration- "ut in efferendoanapaestus facilefluat"(Witkowski. Orphica (Leipzig I805) 692. Das Prinzip der Silbenwaegung und die daraus entspringendenGesetze der Endsilben in der griechischenPoesie (Vienna 1879). supplementum ad praefationem (Cambridge I8022) xxx-xxxiii. one would need to know the frequency distribution of his posited syllable types in that position.

2I. Epitome doctrinaemetricae(Leipzig 1844) 13.IIO A. Gleditsch. It was finally possible for the metristto escapefrom the rigid constraintsof the "entweder- oder" (Shorey. baseshis conclusionson the formula (max dj . Theorie der musischenKiinste der Hellenen. Now a fundamentaldistirctionwas drawn by Igth century scholars between rhythmical analysisand metrical analysis. At first sight. Hermann warns againstthe confusion of the former with the latter: "prorsusdiversae sunt. by the distributionalstudies of the Igth century. Westphal. however. . xpovos (tempus irrationabile)von I4 Moren" (our italics) (note Io. 17 R. Hermann. it might appear that in attributing metricalstatusto the old rhythmicalunits. on the contrary. as he remarks. note 11..but.)/2 which can readilybe seen not to give a mean value. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 clear descendants of Boeckh's I2/7:9/7.. but it misses the essential methodological innovation: evidence was now sought in the metricaldistributionof linguisticunits for the hypothesized additionalmetrical elements. The philological foundationsof this approachhad alreadybeen laid. as we have seen. Theorie der musischenKunste der Hellenen.5 7 and of widespreadidentificationof ancepswith the dAoyosXpovosand quite in contrast with. Likewise. erste Abtheilung: Allgemeine Theorie dergriechischenMetrik (Leipzig I8873) I32. erster Band: Griechische Rhythmik (Leipzig 885 3) xiii. 20 Becauseof certainperformancecharacteristics attributedto Westphal'spostulated Hauptiktus. 191). and for the rhythmistto West. Pap. dritter Band. I80).. dem Rhythmusnach ist sie jedoch nur ein aAoyos. Coll. the postulation of a distinct metrical element bicepsgrows out of the rhythmicaldhoyta of the cyclic dactyl. Thus for Westphal in anceps position "Die Thesis kann sich daher 20 . M. This is probablya valid criticism. note 2.the school of metricsfounded on Maas was not achieving an advance. im Metrumdurch eine lange Silbe ausgedriicktwerden. Hermann'8 ?533 and 65-66 which allow free variationof the distinct metricalelements longumand breve. e. 59) of the "print-and-paper-limitedfashion" longs and shorts(Dale."'9 following the ancients.merely blurringa previously recognized distinction." Westphaltreatsthem "getrennt"as "selbstandigeDiscipline. Westphal's 2:I.g. I9 R. I8 G. Westphal and H.min di.

reachedits culminationor reductio in the theory of West. Its distinctiveelements are greater in number and implemented at a lower level of phonological abstractionthan is to be expected on the basis of what we know of other metrical systems of languagesthroughoutthe world. IO7] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE III "risein revolt againstsyllable-countingmetrists"(Shorey. Although.is not as strong as it is for the traditionalbinaryclassesof heavy and light syllable. This is why we referto this approachas the metrical- rhythmical(MR) theory. 63) on the basis of philological data ratherthan of musicalspeculation.this generalapproachoperateswith the samesort of data as the latterbut. He endeavouredto explain"die Unauflosbarkeitderlonga" in the hexameter by assuming that metricallythe first element of the dactylic foot (in this metre) was shorter than the second element (the biceps)and thus shorterthan two light syllables.note I I. This makes the MR analysis typologically suspect. uses those data to establisha pattern that is both formally and substantiallya rhythmicaland not a metricalpattern. it is distinctboth from the purely rhythmical tradition of Westphal.Vol. This approach.he attemptedto supportthis contention by adducingadditionallinguistic data such as the limitation of positional lengthening before initial digammato the longumand similarrestrictions. rather than hetero- geneous ad hocclassificationsor subdivisions. A related point is that the evidence for the independent existence of the posited multiple classes of durationsas distinctive and functional classesin the language. It was Wifstrand who began to articulatethis theory to its full potential. 4. as we shallargue. and from the purely metrical traditionof Hermann.which saw in durationthe prime explanationfor distributionaldifferencesin all conceivablecircumstances. where there are never more than two metricalelementsand these elementsare alwaysimplementedby major phonological classes or superclasses.which function as suchin importantrulesof the phonology and the morphology. Most importantly. firmly . Nor do the posited metrical elements always appearto have single. in fact. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF MR THEORY The metrical-rhythmicaltheory of Greek metre is idiosyncraticin a number of ways.

Firstly MR theories assume more than two structurallyrelevantmetricalelements. the "distortion"theory and the "standardidealvalues"theoryfor which distortionis not an essentialcharacteristic of metricality. specifiesnot a value or ratioas the ideal to be aimed at. or might be. Dale "a short vowel followed by mute+ liquid [representsa linguistic sequence] which in a given context could be adaptedto the requiredlength by modifyingthe pronunciation"2I (our italics). less sophisticated versionof the IdealValuestheorythe claimis made(implicitly)that metre is a set of instructionsfor and limits to the modificationor distortionof languagerequiredto satisfytheidealvaluesof themultiple metricalelements. Within the IdealValues theorytwo subtypesshouldbe distinguished. The Parametertheory. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 correlatesin the language. The second version operateswith a lessperformance-orientedconceptionof metricalityand either assignsfixed ideal durationsto its multiple elements or specifies the durational ratios in which those elements ideally stand. M.112 A. MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MR THEORY AND TRADITIONAL METRICS MR theories of all types differfrom traditionalmetricalanalysison two fundamental and distinct points. but an interval or parameterof durationsdefined by the minimum and maximum permissibledurations:each metrical element is thus describedin terms of a parameter. They are the "Ideal Values" theory and the "Parameter"theory. on the other hand. 5. "Observations on dactylic. We shallsee thattheseidio- substantiated aresymptomsof majorshortcomings syncrasies both in the evaluation of thedataon whichMR theoryis basedandin thetheoretical assump- tionswith whichit operates. In the first. adduced to substantiatethe hyperbinary durational categories ascribedto the Greeklanguageand assumedto be metricallyrelevantin MR theory. M. For instance. . Dale.in the view of A. Therearetwo majorcategoriesof MR theory.distinguished by the way in which the patternelements are defined. 185. and the hyperbinarymetricalelementsthat dependin part 21 A." Coll. M. Pap. and often more than two metrically relevant linguistic categories: we shall examine below the philologicaland theoreticalevidence that has been.

the distinctivephonologicalsyllablefeaturevaluesheavyand light(or + heavy)arematchedwith or mappedonto the metricalelementswhich are likewisedefinedby some comparablemetricalfeaturevalues. 5. An importantconsequenceof this model of the perceptionof metricalityis that it does not necessarilydependon linguistic categorizations.Thussyllablesareassumednot to be evaluatedfor metricalityon the basisof categorizations preassigned by the language. abstraction. Sucha conceptionof metricalitywouldbe consonant with the very physicalistinterpretation of the functionof durationin metre.andthatthisideawould neverhave beenentertained if certainempiricallynecessarydistinctions in levelsof phonologicalabstraction23 hadbeenproperlyandconsistentlydrawn. Let us considerthislatterpointfirst. ." Poetics I6 (1975) 411 f. 23 Autonomous. MODEL OF PERCEPTION OF METRICALITY Traditionalmetricsworks in termsof featurematching.whichis implicitin the work of someMR theorists. not morphophonemic.be a rhythmicalpattern of externalnatureto which languageis being versified.22 longum andbreve(? longum).MR theoriestendto operatewith a quitedifferentunderstanding of theperceptionof metricalityby poet andaudience.potentially. Secondly.i.startingwith the most physical level andproceedingtowardsthe moreabstract.Vol. but to be examined singly and directlyin orderto ascertain whichmetricalelementor elementstheysatisfythedurational requirementsof..and we shall arguebelow thatthisis the implicitconceptionof the metricalpattern in MR theory.I.e.the syllablesof a particularlanguagesequenceare measuredindividually accordingto theirdurationand then assignedto the correctmetrical element(idealvalueor parameter). (a) Is the criterionof metricalitythe durationof any given syllableat thelevelof its actualphysicaldurationin thenonceutterance ? No: if 22 This is a fundamental principle of all metrical systems. IO7] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE II3 on the metricalrelevanceof those categories.ForMR theory.on the otherhand. Let us brieflyconsidertheselevels.and less obviouslybut equallyimportantly. But it is easyto seethatphysicaldurationat thelevelof theutterancecannotbe the metricallyrelevantproperty. it could. and we discuss it in detail in "The abstractness of metrical patterns.

becausethecurvesof thefrequencydistribution of actualdurations stilloverlapevenwithnormalized tempo. A Spectrographic Analysis of Consonant Length in Standard Italian.in Hungarian. I965) has developed a procedure for normalizing segment durations. the tempo ti is ti = d/lni. somelong vowelsarein actualutterances shorterthansomeshort vowelsandsomeshortvowelslongerthansomelong ones. pre-sandhi representation is never to be considered a third quantity. i. i.24 the tailsof thesecurvesoverlap.25 Thereforesome abstraction(i. (b) Is the criterion metricalitythe durationof any given syllable of when allowanceis made for differenceof tempo (ratiotheory)?26 No. so that tokens from different utterances can be compared as if they were all spoken at constant tempo.if this were the metricallyrelevant level of phonologicalabstraction. of all utterances in question. Trubetzkoy. i. This is so becauseat thislevel. N f= 1/N 2 t. t=! (3) the normalized duration of a syllable token in any given utterance i then is its actually measured duration multiplied by the normalizing factor f/ti..e. 26 Gordon Peterson (reported by A. Forinstance. University of Michigan. not relevant here. A sandhi rule either applies or does not apply. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 it were. " Quanti- tat als phonologisches Problem. the normalized duration tj of syllablej with actual duration stj in utterance i is 3tj = (tf x O)/ti. is.the requirements of the elementum longum would be satisfiedby at least some instances of the phono- logicallylightsyllable(and vice versathose of the breveby the heavy): but they are not.II4 A. (2) Determine the average tempo.althoughthe physicaldurationsof phonologically heavy and light syllablestypicallyfollow normalor Gaussiancurves with differentmeansandvariances.S due to sandhi processes. .." Actes du IV"meCongr. vowel durationhas been 24 It is interesting to note that the variance of the distribution for long vowels is uniformly greater than that for short vowels: Ua2 > av2..we feel that(hereandbelow) the same relationships would most likely apply also outsidemono- segmentalsyllables. For syllables the pro- cedure would be as follows: (I) define the tempo of an utterance (respectively verse performance) as the average duration of a syllable in that utterance.e. ceterisparibus correctionor normalization) mustbe applied. Therefore. PhD diss. N. of course. 25 S . etc. Although we haveno measurements for syllables.e. Rosenzweig.. a language with quantitativemetre interalia. thus if di is the duration of utterance i and there are nj syllables in that utterance. Int. des Linguistes (Copenhagen 1938) 117 ff. the abstract. Cf. M. unmetricalstichoiwould be acceptedas metrical.

"Can the problem of automatic speech recognition be solved by analysis alone?" Rapp.. at this level of phonological abstrac- tion too unmetricalstichoiwould be generated.it is clearthat metricalitycan only be defined at a considerablyabstractphonological level. . or the like.2. we find that a short vowel in the final syllable of a dissyllabicword is longer than a long vowel in the final syllable of a tetrasyllabicword.availabledata indicate the possibility of overlap for such pairs as crrp-r . Although phonetic measurements on typo- logically comparablelanguageshave not been published. d'Acoustique(Liege 1965) 371 ff. At all events. a con- clusion which emphasizesits linguisticbasisand contradictsthe physi- calistview of durationin metre. Tarnoczy.) Therefore. even apartfrom this possibility. because the require- ments of the elementumbreve would be satisfied by at least some instancesof the phonologically heavy syllable (or those of the longum by the light). Likewise the durationof syllablesis influencedby their position in the larger discourseunits such as the sentenceand even the paragraph. to which it is not entirely appropriate. If sufficienttypological confirmationwere obtained. THE METRICALLY RELEVANT LINGUISTIC CATEGORIES Now that we have discussedthe termsin which durationis metrically assessed.Vol.such data would establishthe complete impossibilityof defining the metri- cally relevantcategoriesin terms of purely durationalmagnitudes. Int. . du 5rmeCongr... and in final syllables of words of differentlength. IO7] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE II5 shown to be criticallydependenton length of the word. Thusthe model of metricalperception that deniesthe matchingof linguisticwith metricalfeaturesand assumes direct durationalmeasurementof syllableswill have to operate at the above specified level of abstraction. 5. because there is some evidence to suggest that the actual durationsof phonologically heavy and light syllablesat a normalized tempo in comparablediscourseenvironmentsmay overlap for certain segmental structures. vs.. 7.27 (In one instance an initial long vowel is shorter than a final short vowel by almost 30% of its own duration.let us turn to the other differencebetween traditionaland MR 27 T. (c) Is the criterion of metricality the duration of any syllable when allowance is made for factorscovered by (a) and (b) above? Even this is arguable.

Irigoin. Snell.we find that most of them rest either on wrongly posited distributionalasymmetriesor on real distributional asymmetrieswhich. "Lois et regles dans le trimetre iambique et le tetrametre trochaique. one is generally faced with the problem that a properly worked out theory explainingthe statusand number of metricalelementsposited is never offered. "The myth of the lex de positione debili. L.28 When we examinethe variousproposedadditionalmetricallyrelevant categoriesof linguisticduration. Parker).for the distributionalasymmetryhe claims to have discovered. B. We shall take the former first. being written in Greek. The main exception is for the parametertheory of West." Phoenix 29 (I975) 171 ff. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 metrics. however. Irigoin. . I957-I970.. But the major difficulty is that no author is willing to explain why the assumptionof an additionaldurationalcategoryis the only explanation. In discussingthe opinions of the MR school in this matter. should explicitly state why the durational hypothesis should be superior to other conceivable explanations. Tragodoumenonlibri tres (Krakow I925) 150 et passim." REG 72 (1959) 75. For discussion of the linguistic and metrical issues involved and a statistical demon- stration of the falsity of this claim see L. 186) writes: "The beginner is told that a hexameter is made up of dactyls." In fact the "advanced metrist.namely the number of metricallyrelevantlinguisticcategories and the number of metricalelements. M. In other casesthe distributionalasymmetryis statisticallysignificant.it is simply assumed.. In the simplest situation. West [note I]. but due to the simple fact that Greek verse. must reflect the naturaldistributionof syllabletypes within the Greek 28 For instance West (note I. Parker." if he is to deserve his title. overly concise and opaque. . 29 T. Zielinski. or even the best explanation. the advanced metrist knows that this is incorrect . Snell. ." Lustrum I5 (I97I) 68.29the small differencesbetween frequenciesof mutacumliquida afterthe vowels of light syllablesimplementingresolutionsand those of light syllables implementing the ordinary breve element are purely random fluctuationsdue to chance. the distri- butionalasymmetryclaimedis simply not statisticallysignificant:this is the case with the claim that mutacumliquidais not permittedbetween the vowels of a resolution (Zielinski. I3.and this constitutesa petitioprincipii. Grie- chische Metrik (Gottingen I9623) II. however. J. The durationalexplanationis not discussed. the presentationof which is. Stephens. "Greek metric. are better explained without assuming additionaldurationalcategories.II6 A. There would be no reason why a short fial vowel in arsis should make a long syllable with following mute and liquid far more often than in thesis.

syntax. is unnecessary. Phonologicalvaria- tion originates interalia in dialect mixture.and 30 Irigoin (note 3)." CP 71 (1976) 141 f. Io07] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE II7 language.as. Thus if. Anyone positing additional durationalcategoriescannotaffordto neglect eitherthe factorof simple statisticalsignificance. lexicon.while certainother sequencesmay implement only one and not the other..digamma. this is becausein the one caseit is a heavy syllableand in the other case a light syllable and the poetic language in question accepts this variation.g.One of the most striking characteristicsof Kunstsprachen in general.Vol. morphology. shortvowel plus mutacumliquidamay implement either longumor breve.30 In such cases. irrespectiveof whether they are implemented in quantitativeverse or not. reflex asymmetries forced by the statisticalstructureof the language.. unlike the assumptionof phonological variation. is the coexistenceof variantsat all linguistic levels. by Snell (note 27. it would in fact be equal distribution that would be evidence for metrical distinctiveness. the new monolithic durational categoriesposited in its place are ad hocand typologically as unique as variationis well attested. phonology. which too can be explained without duration) accounts for the distributionalasym- metry of CVC vs.which was used as a basis for an additionaldurationalcategory and metricalelement by Irigoin. . e.g. Thus the assumption of an intermediate category of duration. and in some casesthe proposeddurationalexplanationis simply absurd and contradictsbanal facts both of languageper se and of its use in a traditionalKunstsprache. A third large group of additionaldurationalcategoriesis posited by West in his parametertheory (in some instancesanticipatedby other scholars such as Wifstrand and Snell) on the basis of asymmetrical distributionsinvolving word boundaries.g. In all these cases satisfactoryalternative explanationsare availablethat do not entail new durationalcategories. We discuss this fully in "The Homeric hexameter and a basic principle of metrical theory. e. This factor (togetherwith Wernicke'sLaw. especially as. 55). phonostylistic variation. archaismand its analogicalhyper-extensions. e. Homer.or the factor of automatic. CV(C) in the hexameter. sequencessubjectto "epic correption" (V#V) and "failureof metrical sandhi" (VC#V = S#V). There seems no reason to go out of one's way to deny phonologicalvariation(butnot variation at other linguistic levels) in. mutacum liquida..

and that Ais shorterin these words than in words such as Aa/Saqvco.Ain Ae'os.which is contradictedby instanceslike aTrreKpvEvSE E`pyov II. /-TR vs.when all other durationaldifferences betweenconsonantsarenot metricallyrelevant in thatenvironment? In at leastone instancethe positedparameters for metricalpositionsseem to be inaccurately stated:the maximum value for position5Pfin the hexameteris given as NA (versusxx in other f positions). AEcITrc.. West'sversionof theMR approachto thesedatais theonepresented in the most detail..should be equal[when]it dependson the samefactor. ovSE FLEV resonantsat the appositiveboundary. VT-R).although.epiccorreptionand(TC#Farek.TTrTOVSII. I9I) that"theabsolute difference.2 differencein West's units). DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 the sameis truefor all distributional asymmetries of theformin which the samelinguisticsequenceimplementsboththeelementum longum and the elementum breve.718. The remainingasymmetries allinvolvewordboundary.sinceonlylightsyllablesimplementbrevia andonlyheavy syllableslonga.II8 A." it is thereforehard to see why the durationaldifferencebetween digammaandanyotherconsonantshouldbe almostthreetimesasmuch aftera shortvowel as aftera long vowel (0.never- theless. sincelengtheningbefore tLOL. Howeverlinguisticvariationby itselfdoesnot accountfor all of the distributionalasymmetries invokedas a basisfor new durationalcate- gories. 9. The assumptionis ratherstrangeanyway: was the durationaldifferencebetweenw and any other consonantso much greaterthanthatbetweenanytwo of theotherconsonants thatit could be metricallyrelevantin the environmentVC#.374. Anotherweaknessis the necessityfor adhocexplanations for datathat leadto embarrassing consequences if the durationalist interpretationis appliedwith a consistency: more accurate statementof A categories (I) and k (2) would have to exclude the consonantsin questionin a considerablenumberof individuallexicalitems:F (digamma) in 18-.Forinstance.55versus0. etc. Now it would be absurd to assume that in these wordsthe digammais longerthanin otherwordssuchas 'pyov.g.often actingin conjunctionwith segmentaldifferences. I .if the durationalist is not to beg the questionby interpretation . M. Sincetwo differentsyllabletypes are involved (e. thereisno longeranydistributional asymmetry in thesecases.it is not entirely satisfactory.even in its own terms.it is claimed(noteI.

"Zur griechischenPoesie I: die Positionsbildungbei Homer.from J to :x):on the otherhand.biceps restrictionsreflectthe insufficient durationof the avoidedsyllableto fill the contractedbicepsposition:sinceword-final QC is morestrictlyavoidedthanword-medialVC (thelatteris in fact not avoidedat all (seeDevine & Stephens. makingit too shortfor the (non-ictusbearing)biceps.for resolutionsandPorson'sbridge. V = I. 107] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE II9 pickingandchoosingits explananda.a durationalist interpretationof the word-boundarywould have to assumethat it subtracted duration. . it will leadto just sucha reductio."The early Greekhexameter. ForIrigoin. ForFerdinandSommer3Iword boundarysubtractsduration from finalVC. 33) word boundaryboth afterandbeforea syllableaddsdurationto thatsyllable.it is assumedby all MR theoriesto addduration..1_.wordboundaryregularlyaddsduration. by moving a sequenceinto the next higherdurationalcategory(so VC = .Vol. Therefore.however.whichturnsout to be contra- dictorybothfromone scholarto anotherandself-contradictory within the work of one and the samescholarin two majorversionsof the theory.in the caseof the sequences shortvowel plus mutacumliquidaand long vowel followed by any vowel.in West'sscheme. For Porter32the word boundaryaddedduration.shiftingthe formerdownto onecategorylower. For Wifstrand(note 4.note 30)). V# = but in the case of the sequenceshort vowel plus resonantor cr an interveningword (or appositive)boundaryhasthe effectof shiftingthe sequenceup 3 cate- gories. Sommer.a theorywhich makesthe durationalinterpretation of bridgesimpossiblesinceword initialsyllableswould also violatebridges."YCS I2 (I951) if. whenceWernicke'sLaw. Similarly. 32H. V#/C-= .thus makinglong word final syllablesso long thatthey were avoidedin the contractedbiceps. Thatwordboundaryshouldadddurationbeforeinitialstopplusvowel and subtractit beforeinitialstop plus certainresonantsis primafacie phonologicalnonsense(whereasthe explanationinvokingthe relation 31 F. But perhapsthe most seriousinconsistency lies in the interpretation of word boundaryby the MR school." GlottaI (I909) I93. word boundaryis assumedto subtract duration.thelatterto two categorieslower. Porter.on the otherhand.for Sommera durational inter- pretation of Porson'sbridge is not a possiblewithout contradiction of his basicpremise.

and this explanation seems to us consistentand convincing. even though the alternative explanatoryprinciplewas formulatedalreadyin I924 by Thea Stifler. There remain to be discussedthe durationalcategories posited to account for resolutionbridgesand Porson'sbridge..34 All word boundariesare avoided after the contractedbiceps. Stifler. V#V -> V#V).120 A.33 and applied with considerableacumen by Sidney Allen. "Das werickesche Gesetz und die bukolische Diharese.and the greaterthe potential of any particular word-fial-word-initial sequence for occurrenceelsewherein the line. That the avoidance of word end aftercontractedbicepsin general.with additionaloptions due to some inherent variation(e.). At all events.ve been some recent developments in the field of English metrics that might support the view. 34 W. there is an alternativeexplanation available for the distributionalasymmetriesof the hexameter(such as spondee zeugma. Wernicke's Law. is not due to durationalfactors is widely admitted even by durationalists (e.digamma etc. There h. epic correption. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 betweenthe boundaryandthe syllabledivisionrestson well founded andsolidlydocumentedprinciplesof phonology). VC#V..3 This concept of the avoidancehierarchyexplainsthese distributionalasymmetriesin the hexameter without positing (a) durational distinctions in the language for which there may be no general linguistic or language particularphonological support." Philologus 79 (1924) 323 f. which form the basisof many of the posited inter- mediate durations.g. probably implicitly held by many metrists.g.g. Accent and Rhythm (Cambridge I973) 290 f. . are just those categories that offer the greatest latitude for location elsewhere because of the possibility of different syllable weights in other sandhi environments(e. Now the categories most avoided (see the list above). 9-I ). M. 35 We discuss this further at note 30.that the 33 T. F-. That durationalfactorsare also unnecessaryto explainthe particularrarityof positionallengtheningof C before digammaand of before mutacum liquidahas not been so widely recognized. I90 note 6)).and in particularin the coda. by Snell (note 27. and by West (note I. VC#C) combined in most cases.and (b) the metricalrelevanceof the so posited categories. Sidney Allen.. F vs.V#V vs. the easierit is for that sequenceto be avoided at the contracted biceps.b.

we mustnow turnto the problemof what andhow many metricalelementsmustbe positedto producea metrical"grammar" thatwill generateall andonly metricallyacceptablestichoi.rules such as the constraintsagainsthiatusor (asin someLatinpoets)againstthesequence V#sT entailthe metricalrelevanceof certainaspectsof the segmental structureof syllables. theoretically. Whateverthe trueexplanation.therewill be fourprincipalanalysesof the elementsof Greek metreand theirrelationto the metricallyrelevantcategories.3.heavyandlight)and wordboundary(two values)arein factmetricallyrelevant. (Itshould be rememberedthat thereare othermetricallyrelevantphonological propertiesthat have not been under discussion. Biuniquenessis simplythe requirement thatmetricalelementscorrespondone for one with mutuallyexclusivesetsof metricallyrelevantlinguisticcategories.only syllableweight(two values. accordingas thesetwo criteriaare or are not admittedinto a theory. In the following discussionit shouldbe kept in mind that all the analyses treatedgo beyondsimplyenumeration of facts. Thuswe concludethatof all the linguisticpropertiesfor whichmetricalrelevancehasbeenclaimed by MR theory. Io7] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE 121 resolutionbridgeis motivatedby a requirement thatthe complication introducedintothemetricalstructure by resolutionshouldnotbe added to by a boundarymismatchbetweenlanguageunitandmetricalunit. THE METRICALELEMENTS Having establishedwhich phonologicalpropertiesare metrically relevant.variousdifferentways of organizingthe metricallyrelevantlinguisticcategoriesinto the metricalelementsthat are arrangedinto versepatterns. it remainsclearthatwordboundaryis a metricallyrelevantlinguisticproperty. Thus.Vol." The criterionof predictability blocksassignmentof element statusto (setsof) metricallyrelevantcategoriesthat. analytical postulatesandprocedures. There are. whereverthey occur.may alwaysbe derivedfrom othersetsby rulesspecifyingthe metricalenvironmentto which they are limited. It will be immediatelyclearthatin this too traditionalmetricsandMR theory operatewithquitedifferent criteria.) 5.theyarepartof theories . Thesedifferentorganizations arise fromdifferentattitudesto thecriteriaof "biuniqueness" and"predict- ability.

The resultingtheorynot only accountsfor the factsof distribution of the metricallyrelevantlinguisticcategoriesbut doesso in a way that takesinto accountthe differencein statusbetweenthe features+ word boundaryand + syllableweight.longumand breve.Thisis the positionof Maas. accordingto the principleof the hypothetical-deductive methodof scientificexplanation:no theorycan be acceptablefrom whichunacceptable implicationsmay logicallybe deduced.for whom ancepsand bicepsare elements(overlappingwith longumand brevein theirlinguisticimplementations) butforwhomwordboundaryrestric- tionsdo not giveriseto additional elements.e. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 of Greekmetre and as such the abstractentitiesthey posit and the additional consequences theyimplymustbe evaluatedbothwithregard to the theoreticalstructureinto whichtheyfit andto all othermetrical data. As in alltheanalysesdiscussed. butin thiscaseno simplifica- tion.muchlessexplanation. It positsat least4 metrical elements(onefor eachsyllableweightwith andwithoutwordbound- ary)andextensivefreevariationbetweenelementsin allpositions.It is not representedin the literature. suchelementsareabstract entitiesconnected with observedversetokensby postulates. M. restrictionsof word boundarysuchas Porson'sbridge. i.this would be West's theorymodifiedby the removalof the .for reasonsnotedin (4) below. (3) The third analysismaintainsthe criterionof predictabilitybut dispenseswith biuniqueness. Implicitly recognizingthatno explanatory advancewouldbe obtainedin thisway. is achieved.. (2) The secondtype of analysismaintainsbiuniqueness but dispenses with predictability.I22 A. and has accountedfor word boundaryrestrictionsby context sensitiverules.are predictable. (I) Traditionalmetricshas implicitlyrecognizedthe criteriaof bi- uniqueness andpredictability andalsothefactthat. (4) The final analysisdispenseswith both biuniqueness and predict- ability. scholarsnaturallynever entertainedthis secondtype of analysisas a seriousalternative. Therefore it haspositedonly two elements. Thispositionis examined below in the discussionof biuniqueness.a factordiscussed below.it is merelya translation of the explanandadirectly into theoreticalentities and rules.and it is instructiveto make the reasonexplicit.

For.exceptwhere + wordboundaryimplementsa metricalboundarysuchasstichos end(andin its functionasa boundary markerit is hardlyanelement)." saq'wsaqw"fly slowly in circles" (Hess. andthissuggeststhatthecriterion of predictabilityis a relevantone. The other type of redundancy in language structures manifests itself in contextually predict- able and therefore non-distinctive or "etic" features. Metrical patterns contain two types of redundancy: one type occurs in periodic stichoi and is comparable to the sort of redundancy exhibited linguistically in vowel harmony and the "prosodies." A closer linguistic parallel to the periodic stichoswould be a language in which a portion of the lexicon was characterized by reduplication of the entire word (for instance in Snohomish saq'w"fly.Vol. IJAL [1966] 350).To startwith it will be necessaryto makea basicthree-folddistinction:thisis between linguisticclassand metricalelementon the one hand. The traditionalanalysisbettercharacterizes the secondarynatureof wordboundaryin metricalstructure. I07] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE I23 falsely posited metricallyrelevantlinguisticcategories.only unacceptable instancesof the samestichos will resultfrom changingthe value of the featureword boundary. Let us now turnto the criterionof biuniqueness.a separate parameterbeing set up for all positionswhere word boundaryis restricted(unlessof course other theoreticalconsiderations force a differentanalysis. Similarly aspiration is a phonetic- ally relevant category but not the basis for a phonological distinction in English. Butit shouldbenotedthat restrictionson + word boundaryare always predictable36 from context-sensitive rules. Sincewordboundaryis alwayseither predictableor a boundarymarker.butarealwayspositionalvariants.as notedabove. .there is a differencein statusbetweenword boundaryand syllableweight: -word boundarysyllablesfor instanceareneverthe only implementa- tionsof metricalelements. such as aspiration in English stops.seebelowfordiscussion). they are relevant and enlightening in this question. and metrical elementandpositionor environment in thestichos on theother. Word boundary constraints in Greek metre are predictable in this latter sense and thus not a basis for assuming additional metrical elements. Thosewho feelthatdespiteitspredictability wordboundaryis the basisfor distinguishing metricalelementswill haveto accountfor variousanomaliesin the resultingsystem. although reference to such principles has for some time been out of vogue.manymetristshave tendednot to set up distinctiveelementson the basisof wordboundarydistributions alone. Whereas by changingthevaluesof syllableweightin a stichos. a differenttypeof stichoscanbe produced. In the 36 Predictability is one of the principles of structural analysis which were worked out thirty or forty years ago.

e." which is describedby the propertythatuniquelycharacterizes the classandno otherclass.hasapproximately a dozen differentmetricalelementsfor the hexameterand the Ionic trimeter alone. andthesecategories arenotbiuniquelycorrelated (i. as in traditionaltheory)with the metricalelements.becauseboth are neededto producea uniquedefinitionof a stichos. no spondees) and so requires ad hoc explanation in a parameter theory.attheexpenseof courseof multiplying the metricalelements.sevenmetricallyrelevantlinguisticcategories-andten possible linearsequencesof themin a singleposition-the theoretical maximum 37 In fact not so very general.g... To explain the resultingalternationsMR theory adopts an analytical principleaccordingto which eachdifferentclassof alternants (i.a lightsyllableis theimplementation of the brevein the secondfoot of the trimeter.whereas in traditionalmetricsalternation. West.most of which occurexclusivelyeitherin the hexameteror in the trimeter! The readeris remindedof the distinctionbetween metricallyrelevantlinguisticcategoriesandmetricalelements.directandgeneralexplanation for the existence aswell asfor certainhithertounclearaspectsof metrical of alternation..I24 A..e. structuresuchas the absenceof resolutionof the longumin the hex- ameter.namelyan idealdurational valueor an intervalcontaining the durationsof the alternants. this is clearly a non-durational constraint since anapaest plus tribrach is permitted.only one elementcanstandin anyposition.The appealof thisapproachlay in its providingan inherent.and so forth.donotcorrespond one for one.(under the strongorderingconditionrequiredfor West'sdurationalinterpre- tation. In MR theory. all themetricallyrelevantcategoriesthatcanstandin anymetricalposition) is definedintentionallyas an invariantor metrical"eme. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 termsof traditional metrics. e.quantitytolerancesARE the elementswhichoccurin differentpositionsin stichoi:positionsand elementsarenot differenttermsfor the samething. For the pro- ponentsof MR theory. MR theoryoperateswithmanymetricallyrelevantlinguisticcategories.e. .is allowed.the idealvalues. non- durational explanations will still be required for constraints against.37Removalof thebiuniqueness constraint allowsthemetrical patternto be expressedby single elementswith no alternationof elements(sic)in a givenposition. since even apart from "rhythmical" bridges. suchas ancepsand biceps.slots. tribrach plus anapaest in the comic trimeter. M. In fact the very occurrence of anapaests in even numbered feet in the comic trimeter leaves a hole in the parameter of permissible durations (i.for instance.

e. non-empty subsets of {2} is 2n . (If sequences of maximum length r can occur in a position the maximum value of s is r Smax = mt i=2 Note that not all of these sequences may be possible: e..e. the maximum number of metrically relevant.e. However. the power set of {2} with the empty set removed).on the idealvaluesapproach.additionalelementshave been 38 In a purely distributional analysis of metrical positions each distinct. S1>p}(j = I.. i. West (note I.. I07] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE 125 numberof differentmetricalparameters.. while the traditionalbiuniquely con- strained binary classification. p = I. Thus if sequences of maximum length r are permitted. _ " + I) n(n i=1 2 wheren = 17. distinguishable sequences becomes Smax T r (m+i max= C(m + i .. there will be a set of n = m + s distinct items { i} = {SI}U{(Sk.. and such parameters with apparent holes in them are not considered distinct. follows this practice. a word medial syllable cannot follow a word final syllable. This sort of redundancy will reduce the actual value of s below that of smax permitted by the theoretical formula.which West terms "too crude for the detailedunderstandingof Greek metre. i." gives just two! Likewise. all the possiblevaluesfrom ' to Ix). (If in fact intermediate durations are excluded from certain positions. if it occurs uniquely in at least one metrical position. s). each distinct.. Thus.. define a metrical element.I.canbecalculated by the formula E _ .I (i. I88) requires that the duration of each syllable type be constant in all environments so that the duration of each sequence equals the sum of the duration of the individual members. linear order is therefore not distinctive in sequences. m. the parameter theory must introduce ad hoc. i) = ( m i -)! i =2 obtain the (the text formula for in the maximum number of metrical elements on a To obtain the formula in the text for the maximum number of metrical elements on a . Thus if m metrically relevant syllable types are posited and s different linear sequences of them are also posited as metrically relevant. non-empty subset of the set of metrically relevant syllable types and distinct linear sequences of those types will.. Thus the parameter theory imposes a constraint on a purely distri- butional analysis of metrical elements. non-durational explanations.elements. 2. although "allo- phonic durational rules" sensitive to linear order are conceivable in a parameter theory (so that d((SiSj>) ? d(<(SsS>). of course.g. i j).) First of all the number of distinct linear sequences of the relevant syllable types may be fewer in number on a parameter theory. West. the majority of these subsets will not be describable in terms of durational parameter. 2.) The maximum number of such distinct. and thus do not increase the number of metrical elements.38 Thisgives a maximum of I53 elements.. since they do not necessarily contain all the members of {2f} with "duration" intermediate between the minimum and maximum "durations" of their members. non- empty subset of which can define a metrical element.Vol.

But on the contrary in actual verses there is no statistical evidence to indicateany such preference. Forthe lattersee on Maasin the next paragraph.. and this is just the sum of the integers from I to n. the latter being metrically predictable. there would be a tendency for shorterlong syllablesto be chosen for anceps positions. the assumptionof an ideal value is unfounded. and thus. Now in fact. Thus the postulation of an ideal value presupposesa statisticalpreference for linguistic implementationswhich are closer to it among those which arepermitted.for instance. the ratios obtaining in actual speech between the variously structured heavy and light syllables are not constant. light syllableareirrelevant. For instance. Such a hypothesis is unfounded both in the frameworkof physicalistapproachesto durationand in the framework for which all durationaldistinctionsbelow the level of heavy vs. In any case. This takes the form of deducing a test implication from the "ideal values" hypothesis. ceterisparibus.the ideal value of ancepswas assumed to lie between the ideal value of longumand the ideal value of breve. by the modustollens. we must takethe set {1} of n = m + s' membersand put it in strictorderaccordingto duration: S. However. by definition. according to a common interpretationof anceps. If sucha preferencedoes not exist. There are longer and shorter varieties.that the "ideal values" theory cannot be true for positions of alternation. is unique and does not cover the full range of variationin durationswhich implementany particularmetricalposition. 2.of both syllable types.. < S2 < .126 A. . it would follow that. An ideal value.. parametertheory suchas West's. It will be shown that this implication is falsified by the data.. DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 posited to explain away alternation. In the formerframeworkthe hypothesisis liableto empiricalrefutation. . n from the above string. If metricality depended on how well ratios based on phonetic parametersfitted the ideal values of the ratios of pattern elements. we know that. ceterisparibus. The maximumnumberof such subsetsis just the number of ways of choosing substrings of length I. we have argued at length above that the multiple metrically relevant categories of duration posited in MR theory are groundlessand that the only relevant featuresare syllableweight and word boundary. M. < <StSj>n We then allow only those subsets{2Y:k < j < l} for all choices of upper and lower boundsof the durationalindicesk and I.

." GRBS 15 (1974) 173 ff. andthiscomponentwouldhaveto dealwith individually defined members of the parametersimplementingthe positions. metricalelement)implementedby a rangeof linguisticcategoriesanda positionfilledby an alternationof metricalelementseach implementedby its corresponding linguistic category). Sincea compromiseidealvaluewouldbe. Pearson.. . ase. However.Vol. it would be possibleto applythe MR analysisin termsof parameters or idealvaluesin orderto eliminatealternationsof elements.it is a fallacyin structural analysisto assumethatalternationbetweentwo itemsnecessarilyimpliesa third compromiseitem as the ideal aimedat: as LionelPearsonwrote:39 ". (Inthelattercase.etc. Considerations of frequencyandperiodicity(internalresponsion) point clearlyto oneof theresponding variantsbeingbasic.i.etc.sincethere is no advantageto rewritingtwo breviaas a durationalvalue. to all practicalpurposeswith longaandbrevia." The mere fact of alternationin anceps. The parameteranalysishas takenan obviouslyhierarchical structureand flattenedit into a single level of representation.e..e.this isjustwhatthelessextravagantversionsof MR theorydo. I07] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE I27 even workingwith two categories(heavyand light syllable)only.. In fact.thisfactconstitutes the motivationfor the traditionalprocesstermssuchas "resolution" and"contraction.thereis a fundamental aspect of alternationsthat the MR approachquite fails to accountfor." thetribrach isassumedto replacethebasiciamb.biceps(andresolution)positionsdoes not requireor justifythe assumption of a metricalelementdistinctfromtheoccurringalternating elements. In the parameterapproachthereis no inherentmechanismto capture the hierarchical relationshipholdingbetweenunresolvedandresolved elements. "Catalexis and anceps in Pindar.. Maas for ancepsand biceps. we 39 L.thereis a cleardifference betweena position filledby a singleparameter(i. as though in a restaurantwhich offered the alternationof tea or coffeethey [somemetricians] wouldbe contentif offeredsomethingin betweentea and coffee to drink. an additional "marking"componentwouldhaveto be addedto the description.The ideal values analysisfaresno better. Apartfrom the fact thatthe positedadditionalmetricalelementis superfluous andconsequently unfounded.whetherthedefinitionof thepositedadditionalelementbe in termsof a singleidealvalueor in termsof a parameterof permitted values.g.

whichis not alwaysthe basicone.sucha valuecouldonlyrepresent a reformula- tionof a "marking" devicein durational terms:yet threevaluesarenot neededto expressa hierarchywith two members.and the only metrically relevant categories will be heavy and light syllable ( word boundary). DEVINE AND LAURENCE STEPHENS [I977 haveargued. Finally. CONCLUSION At this point we can see how far the MR and the traditionaltheories diverge in their conception and models of metricality. Sucha situationstronglysuggeststhe traditional feature-matchingmodel for the perceptionof metricalityas superiorto the MR model positing numerical measurementof the duration of each occurrenceof a syllable.I28 A. Furthermorebiuniquenessand the feature matching model constitutein a specificmetricaldescriptionthe formal and psychological-substantiveexpressionsof the metricalmetatheoretic proposition that metrical systems are based on independent.and.the ideal value would probablyhave to be closer to the durationof the morefrequentalternant. metre is a patterned arrangement of LANGUAGEunits and not a random searchingthrough languagefor units that possessa property requiredby some externallystructuredpattern.in anycase. In other words.unfounded. linguistically relevant major classes defined at the level of organizationof categorical(non-parametric)featurevalues. It is not clearthat the multiple ideal values or parametersthat constitute the MR metrical .then the only metricalelementswill be longumand breve. pre- existing. thisis the casewith long ancepsin the trimeterwhich is morefrequentbut lessbasic. M. if the traditionalalternationsare to be accepted and main- tained. In supportof the latterthere is the fact that featurematchingis the most economical and psychologicallyimmediate(direct)model for a theory that main- tains biunique correspondence between metrical element and its linguisticimplementation. Numerical values or ratios of duration wouldcarrysuperfluous andthereforewouldconstitutean information improbable representationof the psychological organization of the relevantinformation:it is hardly likely that we would go to the effort of resortingitems that come alreadysorted correctlyby our organiza- tion of language. 6.

anexternallyimposeddurational "tune"). In otherwordsthemotivation for therebeingjust the positedoverlappingintervalsof durationor idealvaluesandnot othersseemsnot to lie in the languagebut else- where. restingas it does in parton the shortcomings under (I). Thatsuchanapproachcouldbe so widespread in thetwentiethcentury seemsto be duepartlyto the failureof traditionalmetricsto makean explicit and psychologicallyrealisticcase for its transformational approachto responsion andpartlyalsobecauseof a failureto distinguish betweena patterninherentin certainarrangements of language(i. (3)thatthemetricalpatternspositedasa consequence of(i) and(2) arenot metricalat allbut reallyrhythmical.since the linguisticitemsareso chosenbecause.. 107] EXPLICIT THEORY OF GREEK METRE I29 elementscorrelatewith any phonologicalclassesthat arenaturaland functionasa singleclassin therulesof thelanguage.andnot becausethe metrical elementsare closely and essentiallybound to establishedlinguistic featureclasses. metre) and a patternderived from musicor marchingor danceinto whichlanguageis fitted(i. thenthefactthattheyaresupposedto constituteequivalence classes for the metremustentailthe assumption thatthepropertyfunctioning as the criterionof classification is non-linguistic.they containthe externallydefinedclassificatory property.it is assumed.e.e. presumably rhythmical. andin parton a mistakenevaluationof the structuralsignificanceof alternationin responsion.(2) thattheassump- tion of metricalelementsotherthanlongum and breveis unwarranted.neglectof basicstatisticaltestsand variousshortcomingsof languageanalysisandscientificmethodin general. The fact that traditionalmetricaltheory uses the feature-matching modelandMR theorythe duration-checking model is symptomaticof this fundamental differencein theirconceptionsof the natureof metricalpatterns. ThefactthatMR theoryfindsevidenceforitspositedelements in languageclassesdoes not change this state of affairs.Vol.andthusin a sense morein thetraditionof BoeckhandWestphalthanin thatof Hermann.insofarastheydo not. To sum up: we have argued(I) that the attributionof metrical relevanceto linguisticcategoriesother thanheavy and light syllable (+ word boundary)is unfoundedand restson undetectedquestion- begging. ..and if it is non- it is linguistic.