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On the Change of the Teenage Electricity

of the Third Generation Electric Vehicle

February 20, 2017, 00:00:00

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Source: electric car network

Since the beginning of this century, electric vehicles show explosive

development trend. Europe, Japan, the United States and China, the four major
groups in a short period of ten years together to force the replacement of
electric vehicles to the traditional fuel vehicle launched the final charge.
At present, the global auto giants are racking their brains to compete for
electric vehicle battlefield, all resorted to all efforts to gain access to
the future of electric vehicle technology leadership, in this game, although
China in 2015 to replace the United States to become the world's new energy
car sales rankings in the world In 2016 this advantage is further expanded,
but this is only because the government's subsidy policy to stimulate the
results, the number of advantages does not mean that the technical leader, the
Chinese auto companies in the core technology but not too much Achievements
and major breakthroughs, Europe is also the mainstream of the main electric
car technology, the main Japanese and the United States Department of the two
Nissan hear the wind electric car
At present, the global electric car market is colorful, many brands
contests, but all in the sale of pure electric vehicle products follow nothing
more than two very different technical routes, the two routes to build the
future of electric vehicles are completely different ecosystems Different
judgments and design strategies, thus forming two distinct technical systems.
1. Japanese technology route represented by Nissan hear the wind, also
known as pure electric vehicle version 1.0 or the first generation of electric
vehicles. Which is characterized by:
it comes from Japan's best at the hybrid car, which has a hybrid car's
creative logic and "birthmark."
Nissan hear the wind technology program that the cost of manufacturing
and mileage in these two options, should be more inclined to lower
manufacturing costs, and sacrifice a longer mileage, which is the same concept
with the hybrid car. Therefore, the pure electric passenger cars should not be
loaded with too much capacity of the battery, 20 ~ 25kwh enough, although the
mileage is not more than 200 km, but the vehicle price is expected to be
compressed in the same specifications of the fuel tank 2 times, so that
Accepted by the tolerant market.
electric car power output should be the same as the same type of fuel
vehicles, 1.6L engine installed A-class car to switch to electricity as a
driving force, conversion of the single-speed motor than the maximum output
power should reach 80KW or so. In this context, with about 20kwh battery to
drive the maximum power of about 80kw motor, it must continue the hybrid car
program with magnification-type battery, the battery discharge rate
characteristics should reach 10C.
energy supply mode should choose fast charge mode, and the smaller
reserves of the battery technology is more likely to achieve fast charge, the
goal is 10 minutes can be filled with 80%, so you can make up for the defects
caused by lack of mileage.
This is the Nissan hear the wind (electric vehicle version 1.0) complete
technical system. China in addition to BYD outside the vast majority of car
prices in the Nissan after the advent of the wind are invariably adopted with
the fuel vehicle to follow the same strategy, have accepted the Nissan hear
the wind of the technical program, and the products are also Nissan Feng Feng
imitation version The
This technology system is feasible, depending on the two conditions:
First, 10 minutes fast charging technology to achieve a breakthrough. If so,
this technical system is perfect. Second, the battery life is enough to make
vehicles traveling 300,000 km, to achieve the battery and vehicle life.
Therefore, the four major car prices in Japan and more than a dozen
professional companies since 2008 to set up fast charge association, and set
up more than one billion US dollars of fast charge technology development
fund, unfortunately, after six years of research and development, burning ten
After hundreds of millions of dollars, it has been proved that the high
current charge can not match the current through the battery conductor, the
electrolyte, the diaphragm and the pole, and can not prevent the damage caused
by the battery. The fast charge is not technically feasible ( At present,
China's car prices and Tesla provided by the fast charge mode, is not really
meaningful fast charge, but the speed of charging). Therefore, Japan's fast
charge association disintegrated in 2014, and led to the Japanese car prices
once abandoned the research and development of lithium car and turned to the
main fuel cell vehicles.
And the battery mileage is a charge mileage and battery cycle cycle of the
product, in the mileage of less than 200 km under the premise of the same
cycle can achieve the battery life is very low mileage. Nissan in the wind in
Tokyo, 150 taxi less than 3 years, life mileage to decay to tens of
kilometers. Facts show that this technical route in two key areas have
suffered a great setback.
2. Tesla model as the representative of the technical route, also known as
the electric vehicle version 2.0 or second generation electric vehicles. The
technical route is characterized by:
in the mileage and vehicle cost options, more inclined to choose a
higher mileage, while the expense of lower vehicle costs. 400km above the
mileage is basically lifted the user's mileage anxiety, but the price of the
vehicle has doubled, so that the product has become a "rich toys." Even so,
can also be cultivated with a certain size of the "niche market."
to make the vehicle has enough mileage, you must load more capacity of
the battery, battery capacity and even up to 4 times the wind heard the day,
you can dilute the discharge current of the single cell, 3C discharge is
enough, so there is no It is necessary to use high-power battery, but to match
the high-energy battery - this is an important feature of the electric vehicle
version 2.0.
Because the battery load is large (90Kwh), 10 minutes fast charge (6C)
is technically more difficult. To drive 90kwh battery vehicles for 10 minutes
fast charge, not only the battery will suffer irreversible damage, and the
charger power must reach 500kw or more, a charger need to match a 630kva
independent transformer, if installed in a parking lot 10 A fast charging
device, even the power grid can not afford. Therefore, 10 minutes fast charge
is not suitable for 2.0 electric vehicles, Tesla and the vehicle to match the
power supply is slow to charge the main way to fill the name of the fast
recharge as the secondary charging method.
Tesla model due to life mileage increased to 400km or more, even if the
summer air conditioning, open the winter wind can still be about 300km,
basically to meet the psychological needs of owners. Longer life can also
produce more important results: Assuming Tesla model and Nissan hear the wind
used by the same cycle of the battery cycle, are 1000 cycles, while the
battery mileage is the cycle of life and mileage of the product, the former
The battery mileage is 400,000 km, 16,000 km higher than the latter greatly
And in fact because the Nissan hear the wind of the battery load is
equivalent to Tesla model of 3 times, resulting in its battery life cycle than
the model 25% lower, the mileage life can only reach 120,000 km, the result is
Tesla technology system Of the battery mileage is more than 3 times the Nissan
hear the wind - although the owners in the early to pay a higher price to buy
vehicles, to the latter to remove the cost of replacing the battery, from this
point, the second generation of electric vehicles than the first On behalf of
the electric car more long-term vision.
The above is the complete technical system of the Tesla model (version 2.0
of the electric car). China's BYD is in the Nissan hear the wind, Tesla model
has not yet come out, it is different from the Nissan hear the wind, and Tesla
similar to the technology, the difference is the use of magnification-type
lithium iron battery, Updated for the energy-type ternary battery, and Tesla
technology is basically the same. While China's other car prices, imitation
Nissan hear the N years later, until nearly 2 years, only to abandon the wind
technology and Tesla technology system closer.
However, the Tesla model (electric car 2.0) still has many fatal flaws:
(1) the vehicle's long life and low prices can not have both, expensive
price so that it can not enter the civilian car market, although Tesla to
develop $ 35,000 price A-class car, but will sacrifice more than 400km life
The original advantage.
(2) load 60-100kwh battery to maintain high battery life, you must use
high-energy battery, single cell energy density should be greater than 200wh /
kg, or even more than 300wh / kg. But as the energy density of the battery
increases, the temperature rise at work will be more intense and the safety
will deteriorate. Therefore, the battery must be temperature management, even
with the cooling method to cool. The result but increased the weight of the
battery box, an increase of vehicle costs and electricity load, reduce
electricity efficiency, security, there are still significant hidden dangers.
(3) by the charging pile to provide power supply, its efficiency is very
low. A city with 2 million motor vehicles, the construction of 100,000
charging pile for a small number of vehicles, is to meet the demand. But if
the number of electric vehicles rose to 50% of motor vehicle ownership, to 1
million electric vehicles to provide charging piles and charging spaces, there
is no possibility. Especially for the operating vehicle, the long charging
time will squeeze its attendance time, which is the taxi and the network about
the car owners are unacceptable. And the operating intensity of the operating
vehicle and exhaust emissions is 5-10 times the private car, if not for the
operation of vehicles to provide efficient power supply, it means that such a
technical system is not perfect.
(4) for private cars, 300,000 km battery mileage has been basically
satisfactory, but for the operation of vehicles, single-class attendance of
the taxi driving about 300 km per day, two classes attendance taxi daily
Driving about 500 km, driving 10-16 million km, according to 2.0 electric
vehicle battery mileage calculation, 2-3 years the battery reached a life
limit of 300,000 km, it can not be used normally, in the 8 years of vehicle
use Period, the need to replace 2-3 times the battery pack, which is any one
taxi owners are not willing to bear. Therefore, Tesla technology system can
not meet the requirements of the taxi industry, and this industry is the test
of electric cars "touchstone."
BYD in the hesitated years later, finally built in Taiyuan electric taxi
full alternative fuel taxi model project, but after less than a year of
testing, has exposed a lot of problems, the price of expensive vehicles forced
the government to higher than the fuel truck Part of the price to pay, and the
attendance rate is a major drawback can not be overcome, with the continuation
of the test, the battery life problems gradually exposed, and ultimately will
lead to this model project can not be copied in other cities to promote.
In summary, both the 1.0 version (Nissan hear the wind) or 2.0 version
(Tesla) electric vehicles are not the only way to replace the fuel car
electric car program.
The third generation of electric vehicle technology system
The third generation of electric vehicles is the crystallization of
China's original technology, it is by the Tsinghua University Economic
Research Center, led by Professor Cai Jiming electric car R & D team, led by
Han Jianfang invited senior researcher, after seven years of tackling tough,
hard research and development technology Results. The results in two electric
car prototype has been fully reflected, these two electric vehicles are based
on the Kay wing C3 platform development conditions maintenance 340 (single
battery capacity of 2.2ah), 390km (single battery capacity (Single battery
capacity of 2.2ah), 508km (single battery capacity of 2.6ah), 625km (single),
the unit is equipped with a battery Battery capacity of 3.2ah) rechargeable
dual-mode electric seven-seat SUV. These two electric vehicles in the key
technical indicators have been significantly beyond the Nissan hear the wind
and Tesla model.

2016 Haitian feast show debut Zhongji Ming Yang V3EV pure electric SUV (ie
Chery Kay wing C3EV)
Three generations of electric vehicles of the typical characteristics and
technical indicators:
First generation Second generation Third Generation Third Generation

Torch V3 (SUV)
On behalf of models Nissan hear the wind Tesla model S Torch EV (to be listed)
Long wide high 4970 * 1964 * 1445 4250 * 1720 * 1510 4665 * 1790 * 1750

Curb quality 1260kg 2200kg 1360kg 1780kg

Low temperature lift Low temperature

Using battery type Magnification type Energy type (unsafe)
(safe) lift (safe)

Battery specifications Laminated type Cylindrical 18650 Cylindrical 18650 Cylindrical 18650

Single battery capacity 3.4AH 2.2AH 2.6AH

Battery storage capacity 24kwh 90kwh 40.5kwh 77.8kwh

Battery box weight 320kg 950kg 285kg 430kg

Rated motor power 40kw (middle) 120kw (high) 18kw (low) 20kw

Average arithmetic 0-10000 turn below

0-15000 turn 0-5000 rpm> 90% (high) 0-5000 rpm 88%
efficiency of motor 80% (low)

Weighted average
75% 75% 92% 90%
efficiency of the motor

Water cooling Water cooling

Motor cooling method (power (power Natural air cold Natural air cold

consumption) consumption)

3C discharge 1C discharge
Battery work intensity 9C discharge (high) 1C discharge (low)
(medium) (low)

Automatic power
Charging Pile (low Replace double
Match the charging mode Fast charge (failure) exchange (high
efficiency) mode

Working conditions mileage 160km (low) 420km (high) > 340km (high) > 518km (high)

Maximum mileage 200 557km 430km 668km

7.8kwh / 100 km
Urban area 100km power 10.3kwh / 100 km 9.2Kwh / 100 km
7.9kwh / hp (low) (Very
consumption / ton (high) (middle)
100 kg battery box

operating conditions 50km 50.52km 121.32km 117.44kg


Bare car: 16
Vehicle price $ 240,000 (medium) $ 85,000 (high) Bare car

Battery Life 8-12 million km 20-25 million km Lifetime warranty Lifetime warranty

safety High current High-energy battery Small current discharge Small current

discharge (poor (poor safety) (good safety) discharge

safety) (Good
Maximum speed km / h 144 240 140 135

0-100km time 10.74s 5.1s 12s 12.5s

In all 18 comparable key technical indicators, the third generation of

electric vehicles Huaju sedan EV and torch SUV pure electric vehicles get 16
optimal, only the highest speed and 0-100 km acceleration time than Nissan
hear the wind But the Tesla model is a luxury car, the price is 3 times higher
than the pursuit of the feeling of the sports car, and this pursuit does not
meet the electric car's energy saving, environmental protection concept The In
this sense, the third generation of electric vehicles have the absolute
superiority of unparalleled position. Therefore, only the third generation of
electric vehicles to break the restrictions on the full popularity of electric
vehicles, "the four major problems", its products will be in the future market
competition to win a strong.
The Technical Strategy and Effect of the Third Generation Electric Vehicle
Technology System
3.0 version of the reason why the technical indicators of electric
vehicles far more than 1.0, 2.0 version of the electric car, because its
technical strategy and 1.0,2.0 electric car is completely different, resulting
in a huge difference in technical indicators. What is the technical strategy
of the 3.0 electric car?
(1) 1.0,2.0 electric vehicle technology is the electric car is defined as
the electric version of the fuel car, in addition to the power system is not
the same, the other should be exactly the same. Therefore, the vehicle
characteristics as the starting point to plan and match the design of the
battery and the three electrical systems. And 3.0 technology that electric
vehicles should be the characteristics of power battery as the starting point,
to maximize the battery characteristics, in accordance with the
characteristics of the battery to design and design of the vehicle and the
three systems.
(2) the battery only in the small current discharge, low temperature rise
in order to achieve maximum life and safety, and these two points, is the key
to life and death of electric vehicles. Therefore, EV technology should be a
small battery discharge, low temperature rise for the premise of planning
three electrical system, the key indicator is the mobility ratio - is the
battery storage capacity and power assembly rated output power (including the
three electrical systems Cooling the auxiliary energy consumption) ratio.
Take the Nissan hear the wind and model, for example, the battery capacity
of 24kwh, 90kwh, respectively, the motor rated output power of 40kw, 120kw,
auxiliary energy consumption were 2.5kw, 6kw, the ratio calculation is 0.56: 1
and 0.71: 1 , Which determines the wind can only use the bulky rate of battery
type, and life mileage and battery life is very short; and modeld battery
strength compared to hear the wind has been significantly reduced, the battery
life will be longer. However, according to the battery characteristics, only
when the capacity ratio is greater than 2: 1, the battery safety and service
life is possible to achieve maximum. So, 1.0 and 2.0 electric cars do not meet
the requirements.
(3) the mobility ratio is the ratio of battery capacity to motor rated
power, there is two ways to improve the mobility ratio, one is to increase the
capacity as the denominator of the battery, the second is to reduce the motor
power as a molecule. Increase the battery capacity must meet the battery box
weight does not exceed 25% of the weight of the vehicle reasonable limit, you
can improve the battery and battery box energy density method to solve. Reduce
the motor power, should be the highest vehicle speed of not less than 130 km,
0-100 km acceleration time is not greater than 15 seconds for the premise
(equivalent to 1.5L engine passenger car power performance). Can be developed
that can achieve the vehicle technical performance standards and power
consumption and a small motor, is to obtain high-performance than the key
(4) 1.0,2.0 electric car is the fuel car "heat engine" concept grafted to
the electric car, that the motor, electronic control, the battery in the work
of the temperature rise and heat are like fuel engines as a matter of course,
Three electrical system as a "heat machine" to deal with, need to be forced
cooling. The 3.0 technology is concerned about the 1.0,2.0 electric car to
ignore the direction - the potential of the three electrical system, as long
as the three electrical system reasonable match, optimize the design, it can
be transformed into a "cold" power system, The battery, motor and electronic
control for forced cooling, can save the weight of the forced cooling device
with an additional battery replacement, without increasing the weight and cost
of the case to significantly extend the mileage and battery mileage, the final
To achieve high mileage and battery life warranty.
(5) To make the motor, electronic control, the battery becomes a "cold
machine", you can use the following technical approach: Narrow speed motor and
its transmission combination, than Nissan hear the wind, Tesla motor more
efficient. In the motor parameter design, if the motor with single speed ratio
mode, in order to let the vehicle rush to 200 km or more, the motor speed can
only use wide design, such as 0-15000 turn, we must take into account the low
speed zone and high Speed area of the characteristics of indicators, it is
difficult to achieve the highest high efficiency.
While the motor matching multi-file transmission, only 0-4500 rpm narrow
range of speeds, you can achieve a maximum speed of 140 km, but also get 97.5%
of the highest efficiency, and 400-4400 rpm 94.13% of the arithmetic mean
Efficiency, are significantly more than Nissan hear the wind and Tesla
motor. In particular, the speed of the single-speed vehicle is less than 20 km
and higher than 80 km. The motor works in the inefficient area, thus reducing
the weighted average efficiency of the motor. Under the comprehensive
conditions, the weighted average efficiency is only 75 %about. The 3.0 version
of the drive system using multi-speed transmission, the motor work in the
efficient area (efficiency of more than 80%) and ultra-efficient area
(efficiency of more than 95%) the probability of a substantial increase, so
that the weighted average efficiency of 92% Speed drive system about 17%
Due to the high efficiency, the temperature rise in the energy conversion
process is very low, the entire power system becomes a "cooler" that does not
require forced heat dissipation, even if the multi-speed transmission is 5%
more energy than the single speed ratio reducer, Efficiency still has a huge
advantage of 12%.
(6) Since the 3.0 version of the motor is usually working in efficient and
ultra-efficient area, no need for motor and controller for forced water
cooling, only natural air cooling can solve the heat problem. Therefore, this
technology to fill more than 50kw drive motor using natural air-cooled global
blank, not only reduces the cost of powertrain, but also saves the pump, fan
auxiliary energy consumption, the power system of integrated efficiency than
the first, Second-generation electric vehicles increased by 20% or more. This
means that, in the case of the same battery load, 3.0 version of the electric
car than the 1.0 version, 2.0 version of the electric car mileage is higher
than 20%
(7) As the 3.0 version of the electric car with a motor and transmission
match, it greatly reduces the normal driving vehicle required motor power,
rated 20kw motor can achieve single-speed motor than the rated power of 40kw
the same technical indicators, so that Battery load decreased
significantly. In addition, R & D and 3.0 version of the electric vehicle to
match the high security, low temperature power battery is technically no
bottlenecks, electric battery 1C continuous discharge temperature rise is only
2.5 has been successfully developed, the battery load is greater than 40kwh
case , Not only can get the mileage of more than 340 km mileage of the
excellent indicators.
And the battery limit discharge intensity is only 1C! This technology
makes the electric car close to the "cold" a new height, there is no need to
include the battery of the three electrical system for forced cooling,
significantly reducing the weight of the battery box, the battery system
energy density of 160wh / kg or more, greatly More than the upper limit of
120wh / kg of the four ministries on the 2017-2018 subsidy standard. Not only
that, but also reduces the cost of the battery pack, further saving power
consumption. So that the most important technical indicators of electric
vehicles - tons of kilometers (working conditions) power consumption is only
7.8kwh, 20% lower than the wind and model; 100 kg battery life to reach a
record 200 tons km, And model more than 80%
(8) 3.0 electric vehicle technology in the energy supply on the use of
ultra-efficient automatic small recharge station technology, replace the
battery only need 1.5 minutes, charges, electricity at one go, more convenient
than refueling. And this supporting facilities only need to occupy 400 square
meters, only need to invest 3 million yuan, can be 200 taxis or 1,000 private
car to provide services, not only investment efficiency, efficiency is much
higher than the charging pile, and can be built Under the overpass, green belt
and wide road, you can also build a residential area in the area of 100 square
meters of convenient recharge station for the owners to provide, including
battery leasing, charging, battery maintenance and other convenient and
inexpensive services. This technology will bring revolutionary results:
compatible bare car sales, battery leasing, so that the final electric
car can be in the price and fuel cars flat, after the era of subsidies for
electric vehicles, the mainstream marketing.
compatible battery maintenance, users can provide life-long warranty
service, so that users completely lifted the battery life to worry about.
compatible with the secondary battery utilization and battery
recycling, can be less than the initial capacity of 85% of the battery flow to
low-speed electric vehicles, energy storage and other purposes, until the
waste batteries focus on dismantling, classification recycling.
charge in the power plant by the professionals, professional equipment
on the battery monitoring of the charge, the maximum guarantee of battery
safety, completely eliminate the electric car in the charging process of the
burning accident.
by charging the power station to focus on the battery charge, you can
make full use of 23 pm to 6 am in the trough time to charge a substantial
reduction in charging costs, not only benefit the owners, but also for the
recharge station to bring reasonable income The
Therefore, the electric vehicle 3.0 technology is not one or two aspects
of the individual technology, but a can be the world's most successful Nissan
hear the wind and Tesla far beyond the subversive innovation of the complete
technical system, the technical system of the sample The car has gone through
hundreds of thousands of kilometers of durability, reliability road test, the
performance of the excellent performance indicators have shown everything. As
soon as possible to 3.0 technology electric vehicle testing, identification,
application bulletin directory, to create a model project to achieve mass
production, will be a revolutionary event in the field of electric vehicles,
but also for the cooperative car prices, investors brought one stroke to the
world Electric vehicle technology peak of the heaven-sent opportunity!
At present, the electric vehicle 3.0 technology has been in the prototype
of the test data have been verified in the battery energy density below
250wh / KG under the premise of the use of 3.0 technology has been developed
conditions of life 600 ~ 700Km, the maximum battery 800 ~ 900km Of the
electric passenger car, which is 3.0 vehicle integration technology to bring
the results. But the production also in the vehicle after the announcement,
about the second half of this year can be listed on the sale. Therefore, the
electric vehicle 3.0 technology system is the key to unlock the chain,
although it is still "diving", but from the full stage of the market stage has
been far away.

Author Han Jianfang Department of Henan Province Government Electric

Vehicle Leading Group Committee of Experts Committee, Zhong Ji Ming foreign
electric car company CTO
EV Century 2017-02-08 11:07