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#1 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.

INCREASE YOUR CHANCE OF PASSING THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR
TEACHERS, USING THESE FREE, ONLINE DRILL QUESTIONS WITH
RATIONALIZATIONS.

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You don't have to get out of the comfort of your home.

Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET!

1. What is the first step in planning an achievement test?

A. Select the type of test items to use.
B. Decide on the length of the test.
C. Define the instructional objectives.
D. Construct a table of specifications.

You may be tempted to answer C - Define the instructional objectives - because objectives
are always prioritized in the world of teaching. However, notice that the question does not
talk about providing instruction. Rather, it talks about test construction.

Be careful. Always consider the main thought of the whole option, not just a word or two.

The answer for this item is D - Construct a table of specifications. Remember that TOS's
are very important in the process of constructing tests. It is the "first step."

Now, let's talk about options A and B. Both A and B are processes involved in the
construction of a table of specifications.

TEST-TAKING SKILLS:

[!] Be careful about words that were slipped into the options to confuse you.
[!] Eliminate options that are under the umbrella of another option.
[!] Usually, umbrella options are the correct answers.

2. Standard deviation is to variability as mean is to _.

A. Discrimination
B. Level of Difficulty
C. Correlation
D. Central Tendency

There are three ways of measuring a data's central tendency. First, we have the mean. The
other two are median and mode. Obviously, the answer is option D.

Now, let's discuss options A, B and C. Options A and B are very similar. Isn't it that we have
two things to consider in an item analysis - the discriminatory index and the level/index of
difficulty? You don't need any choice that is the same with another option. Eliminate such
options.

Correlation, on the other hand, can be measured using special mathematical fomulae like
the Pearson R. Mean can never determine the correlation of two sets of data.

TEST-TAKING SKILLS:

[!] Eliminate similar options.
[!] Know the definition of important terms.

3. Which characteristic of a good test will pupil be assured when a teacher constructs a
table of specification for test construction purposes?

A. Scorability
B. Reliability
C. Economy
D. Content Validity

Reliability refers to the consistency of test outcomes across populations. One of the
important things that a test must have to be have consistency is validity. Validity must first
be achieved before reliability.

All tests are scorable. It is only that different types of tests have different levels of
scorability. Essays are less scorable than multiple-choice tests; this is why essays usually
need rubrics. No matter how good a teacher is in constructing TOS's, the scorability of a
type of test doesn't change.

Economy, when it comes to test construction, is the lack of need to spend too much to
administer and examination. We don't get economy from tables of specification; it is a
matter of experience and technique for the teacher.

The answer is option D.

4. In his conduct of item analysis, Teacher A found out that a significantly greater number of
the upper group of the class got the test item #5 correctly. This means that the test item:

A. Has a positive discriminating power
B. Has a negative discriminating power
C. Has a high reliability
D. Has a low validity

Item analysis is a method of increasing the reliability of a test. However, option C - Has a
high reliability - is not the correct answer.

If you try to notice, although the teacher used item analysis, the question refers to a specific

item in the test - item #5. Remember that each item in a test under item analysis is
compared to other items' index of discrimination and index of difficulty.

The answer for this item is option A - Has a positive discriminating power. First of all, option
A and B are directly opposite choices. Second of all, comparing the upper and the lower
group is a form of discrimination. Finally, the upper group is expected to perform better than
the lower group.

5. Which is implied by a positively-skewed score distribution?

A. The mean, the median and the mode are equal.
B. Most of the scores are high.
C. The mode is high.
D. Most of the scores are low.

The answer for this item is option D - Most of the scores are low. Notice that option B and D
are direct opposites.

A positively-skewed distribution shows that most scores are low; a negatively-skewed
distribution shows that most scores are high. Here is a photo that shows a positively
skewed distribution:

TEST-TAKING SKILL:

[!] Choose from two opposing options.

6. A negative discrimination index means that _.

A. Less from the lower group for the test item correctly.
B. More from the lower group answered the test item correctly.
C. The test item could not discriminate between the lower and the upper group.

The answer is actually option A .Completion. The blank is at the end of the question. Options B. More from the upper group answered the test item correctly. none of them is the correct answer. The central problem is not packed in the stem. Option C is the correct answer. TEST-TAKING SKILLS: [!] Eliminate options taking about the same thing. First of all. It is open to more than one correct answer. Completion B. C.D. Edgar Allan Poe had written a lot of stories. that's what makes them different from one another. 8. it's wishful-thinking to say that the black alone can coach the student the answer. Which guideline in test construction is NOT observed in this test item? EDGAR ALLAN POE WROTE _. . C and D are under "Objective Select. Which does NOT belong to the group? A." Under this category. So. B and D. B. Completion is under the category of test- types called "Objective Supply. The length of the blank suggests the answer. 7. option D is the same as option A." This type or category of tests allows the students to supply the answer and expects a convergent answer.It is open to more than one correct answer. Multiple Choices D. It requires a lot of content knowledge. This is the reason why you have to eliminate A. Also. Although there really is a chance that the length of a black can suggest the answer for the item. D. So. [!] Look for key words. A. there is not problem if the central problem is not packed in the stem or if the blank is at the end of the question or not. the answer is actually option C . students are given choices. Alternate Responses This kind of question is a bit tricky. Although options A and B are direct opposites. Matching C.

She compares every individual student's score with others' scores.is actually a rough application of Standard Deviation.Is compared with the average scores . As teachers. Teacher A does norm-referenced interpretation of scores. respectively. 49th percentile Median refers to the average of a set of data. Which of the following does she do? A. She describes what should be their performances. 11. 40th percentile B. norm-referenced interpretation is that which involves the comparison of a specific score with the achievement of the whole class or other students. C. Based from what we have learned from the previous item. She uses a specified content as its frame of reference. 12.A and B. one only has to cut [rough description] something half to get a median. This leaves us with only two options . Option C . 50th percentile D.9. because options A and B are actually the accurate definitions of criterion-referenced interpretation and norm-referenced interpretation.Does not need to be compared with any measure . All examinees obtained scores below the mean. . A graphic representation of the score distribution will be __. The answer is C . Is compared with the set mastery level B. the school or the agency of education. D.must be eliminated immediately. Is compared with the average scores D. On the other hand. Based on this premise. "Med" means middle. Q1 is 25th percentile as median to _. Which is claimed to be the overall advantage of criterion-referenced over norm- referenced interpretation? An individual's score A. 75th percentile C. criterion-referenced interpretation involves the comparison of an individual score with a level of mastery set by the teacher. Funny. B. So. Does not need to be compared with any measure. Is compared with that of his peers C. 10.50th percentile. option D . She describes a group of performance in relation to a level of mastery set. we have to interpret scores as a part of the measurement and evaluation process. It tries to determine the difference (how far away) a certain score is from the average of the group. A.

. A perfect normal curve is when a group of examinees got a normal distribution of scores represented by a bell shape. Enumeration B. If you have a t-score of 60. Negatively-skewed B. Two SDs below the mean B. This happens when scores are just about the mean. Analogy We all know that enumeration. One SD above the mean T-scores are set to 50 to represent the mean. 15. the distribution will be negatively-skewed. you have one SD above the mean and if you have a t-score of 40. Range D. the answer is A . Perfect normal curve C. It usually requires only memorization or recall. the distribution will be positively-skewed.Two SDs above the mean.Mode. A. requires logic and reasoning. Leptokurtic D. Obviously. #5 DRILLS FOR PROF. First. A. all examinees obtained scores below the mean. on the other hand. we have the mean. Mode B. Which type of test measure higher order thinking skills? A. 14. Matching C. 70 (t-score) = 50 (mean) + 10 (SD) * 2. Pearson R We have to remember that there are three measures of central tendency. a T-score of 70 is _. This is why it is under the category HOTS. Also. a score of 10 represents 1 Standard Deviation. Completion D. the answer is B . we have the median and the mode. Standard deviation is to variability as _ is to central tendency. matching and completion are usuallyused for lower order thinking skills. Positively-skewed If all members of a group of examinees obtained scores above the mean. So. 13. Quartile C. ED. In a normal distribution curve. One SD below the mean D. So. A leptokurtic distribution is a thin curve. you have one SD below the mean. Two SDs above the mean C. Analogy.A. In this case.

So.is an advantage on the part of the teacher. This is why option B .Now. Remember that a leptokurtic curve is that which has scores about the mean. It may be "true or false."the strongest disadvantage. You may learn a lot from this item. we talk about correlation.absence of analysis ." right or wrong. The encouragement of rote memory D. we refer simply to the difference between the lowest and the highest value. The absence of analysis C. Skewed distributions are not symmetrical. When we mention Pearson R. So. Leptokurtic B. When we mention Quartile. The question demand a negative answer ." "yes or no. . when we mention range." etc.demand for critical thinking . it should be positively-skewed. D . 17. A. The high possibility of guessing Focus. One more option to go and obviously. The demand for critical thinking B. Remember that an alternate-response test requires the student to choose from two polar options.must immediately be eliminated. Symmetrical Considering that two opposite options contain the right answer. Positively-skewed distributions are to the right (This indicates poor scores) and negatively- skewed distributions are to the left (This indicate high scores). A class is composed of academically poor students. The strongest disadvantage of the alternate-response type of test is _. #6 DRILLS FOR PROF. Leptokurtic curves are also symmetrical. let's talk about why B. Finally.is the answer. you can determine that option A . we only have two more options to eliminate." At first glance alone. A. 16. ED. Alternate-response test do demand analysis.the high possibility of guessing . Outcomes of tests from a group of academically poor students are likely low figures. we refer the values that divide a list of numbers into quarters. along with mesokurtic and platykurtic distributions. C and D aren't the answers. Skewed to the right C. The distribution will more likely be _. Skewed to the left D. let's focus on B and C.

18. Which statement about median is correct?

A. It is a measure of variability.
B. It is the most stable measure for central tendency.
C. It is the 50th percentile.
D. It is a significantly affected by extreme score.

All you have to remember here is that median is no a measure of variability but of central
tendency. Measures of variability include Standard Deviation.

No one measure of central tendency is stable. All of them are affected by different factors.

Median is significantly affected by extreme scores. Median is not that much.

#7 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.
19. What does a skewed distribution mean?

A. The scores are normally distributed.
B. The mean and the median are equal.
C. The mode, the mean and the median are equal.
D. The scores are concentrated more at one end or the other end.

If a distribution of scores is normally distributed, it will not be skewed. This question talks
about skewed distributions. Therefore, option A - The scores are normally distributed - must
be eliminated.

We should bear in mind that there there are two types of skewed distributions - positively-
skewed distributions and negatively-skewed distributions. A positively-skewed distribution is
that where scores are more on the left side (low scores). A negatively-skewed distribution is
that where scores are more on the right side (high scores).

The answer if option D - The scores are concentrated more at one end or the other end.

20. What does not belong to the group?

A. Short-answer
B. Restricted-response
C. Completion
D. Multiple-Choice

Short-answer tests and restricted-response tests are actually kinds of essay tests. None
between A and B is the answer.

Completion is a supply-type test. So are short-answer and restricted response tests. There
are the tests where students are expected to provide the answer themselves.

A, B and C are supply-type tests. Option D - Multiple-Choice - is not a supply- but a select-
test. Therefore, D is the answer.

21. Which is a type of graph in which lines represent each score or set of scores?

A. Scattergram
B. Histogram
C. Frequency Polygon
D. Scatterplot

Scattergram and scatterplot are the same things. Eliminate options A and D.

Histogram is a kind of graphic representation, using, usually, vertical bars to show
frequencies of individual items. A frequency polygon is where midpoints of the interval of
corresponding rectangle in a histogram are joined together by straight lines. It gives a
polygon i.e. a figure with many angles

#8 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.
22. It is the process of acquiring, remembering and applying knowledge, skills,
attitude and other modes of response.

A. Education
B. Learning
C. Teaching
D. Development

Notice the last phrase. "Other modes of response" is obviously a behaviorist's statement.

Do not forget that behaviorists define learning as the process of acquiring, remembering
and applying what has been observed or predicted from the environment. Therefore, the
answer is option B - Learning.

Do not be deceived by option A - Education. Not all those who are educated are learned.
One can be learned without having been educated.

Teaching, as we all know, is the process of imparting knowledge, skills, attitude and other
modes of response. So, obviously, this is not the answer for this item.

On the other hand, development is the weakest dummy option in this item. We are all aware
that development is a biological process. It exists and proceeds regardless of and even in
the absence of learning and teaching, not to mention one's lack of education.

23. Behavior changes according to its immediate results: pleasurable results
strengthen behavior, unpleasant ones weaken it. What principle of learning is
described?

A. Recency
B. Excitation
C. Extinction
D. Reinforcement

The answer for this item is option D - Reinforcement. A behavior has to be reinforced for it
to be modified. Negatively or positively reinforced behaviors are more likely to reoccur.
Negatively or positively punished behaviors are less likely to occur.

There is no such thing as law or principle of excitation in the realm of pedagogy.

24. A factor which affects learning that emphasizes that learning should be made
recent in the minds of the learners so that they will not forget what they have learned.

A. Recency
B. Excitation
C. Extinction
D. Reinforcement

Based on the previous item, option D - Reinforcement - is not the answer for this item.
Obviously, it is option A - Recency. All one has to do is to notice how the word "recent" was
used in the question.

There is no such thing as law or principle of excitation in the realm of pedagogy.

#9 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.
25. When learning occurs through association, and neutral stimulus becomes
conditioned stimulus, what theory is described?

A. Operant Conditioning Theory
B. Behaviorist Theory
C. Social Learning Theory
D. Classical Conditioning Theory

Notice how options A, C and D are under B - Behaviorist Theory. Although there is no such
thing as the "Behaviorist Theory," in a sense that it is called that way, there is a chance that
an examinee would answer B, just to be safe. However, it must be pointed out that not all
umbrella options should be considered.

First of all, the question is asking for a specific theory. We all know that behaviorism deals
with stimulus and response and that the questioned mentioned the word "stimulus." We are
now sure that we are talking about behaviorism.

it seeks a more general term. Classical Conditioning Theory . A theory that focuses on the sequence and processes by which behavior is learned. Social Learning Theory D. Law of Exercise talks about whether learning is strengthened or weakened. Law of Exercise D. which theory under behaviorism? There are three major theories under behaviorism: Operant Conditioning Theory. Law of Readiness C. there is this question of whether to answer an umbrella option or a specific option. It does not mention anything about punishment or reward or conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Classical Conditioning Theory The same options for the previous item was used in this item. Law of Effect B. where else can we encounter this term? Yes. 27.D. Behaviorism C. The Law of Effect deals with the consequences of learning. A law of learning which states that learning is strengthened when it results to satisfaction but weakened when it leads to annoyance. A. the answer is B . The term "conditioned stimulus" was mentioned. it does not deal with whether the learning leads to satisfaction or annoyance. So. Again.Behaviorism. B and C. However. . we are left with A. Classical Conditioning Theory and the Theory of Connectionism. It only deals with the most probable response a learner has for a specific stimulus based on what he is more likely to "ready to respond" with. And. Operant Conditioning Theory B. Law of Appreciation There is no such thing as Law of Appreciation under Connectionism. It is only concerned about whether learning is frequent and intensive. A. the answer is A . This time. So.Law of Effect.However. Which among these three? The easiest way around this is to look for keywords. 26. Law of Readiness does not talk about whether learning is strengthened or weakened. Therefore.

All of the above This here is a tough question. One of the four medieval religious institutions which attempted to support authority of the church by the intellect. Option D . 30. 28. is signaled by the word "discipline" in the question and the word "control" in the option. One who can read or write in a way that others may understand is not a strong proof of discipline. A man who has greater ability to use his intellectual powers for controlling his emotional life Here. we are confronted by a rather tricky question. We all know that disciplining oneself means controlling the same. A man whose highest intellectual powers are developed C. ED. merely. This. One who can use his mind/intellectual capabilities to deal with problems does show "discipline. Which of the following is a method of Greek education? A. The Guild System is is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. Scholasticism B.#10 DRILLS FOR PROF. we are looking for the best answer.All of the above . Indeed. A man equipped to deal with the problems that confront him by intellectual means D.Guild System. to be honest." to some extent. All of the options are plausible. This is because all of them are the answer. Moreover. to justify faith by reason and to substantiate theology by logic A.is the answer for 29. A man who is able to read and write legibly B.A man who has greater ability to use his intellectual powers for controlling his emotional life . Monasticism C. having the highest intellectual power does not guarantee discipline. Option D . can be a very plausible option. However. Humanism D. Letter C. Direct imitation of living models B. Learning through example D. Which describes best a man with a disciplined mind? A. The earliest types of . Direct inculcation of certain qualities C. The keyword to be kept in mind is discipline. Guild System Eliminate option D . 29.is the answer. there had been a lot of instances where an intelligent person has done mistakes characteristic of an undisciplined mind.

Tell her to pursue the course she is interested in. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places. B and C are very shallow ways of assistance. Misbehavior in the classroom must always be handled. emotion and psyche. we are only left with 3 options . trade union. D. with intelligence. D. Student B was observed to be always clowning.Scholasticism. Humanism is a moral stance. and a secret society.is correct. . It would be best for you. what assistance are you going to give her? A. Ask him why he is behaving this way. Remind him of the possible consequences of his behavior.is a way of life. They often depended on grants of letters patent by a monarch or other authority to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members. B. The answer is A .Monasticism . To tell and to inform belong to the lowest levels of advisory functions. As her adviser. a cartel.Ignore what he does . To advise.A. ED. Advise the student to take an aptitude test to determine the area where she is likely to succeed. 31. Tell her to follow the trend. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association. #11 DRILLS FOR PROF.Advise the student to take an aptitude test to determine the area where she is likely to succeed . Options A. involves knowledge. Ignore what he does. B and C. option D . to: A. Option D . and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. skills. Now.guild were formed as confraternities of workers. as a teacher. B . C. on the other hand. B. Options A and C are also good options but the best answer is C . C. Tell him how to behave in class. creating distractions in your class. Not because it is the longest answer but because it is the best answer. Student A cannot decide which course to enroll in her college. skills and sympathy. 32.Ask him why he is behaving this way. Inform her of the financial aspect of the course she may likely to take. Scholasticism is a movement/institution that aimed to defend the dogma of the Catholic Church because of the pressures of a pluralistic society.might probably the stupidest thing a teacher would do in a situation such as this.

A. Buy all your food from the canteen and request for a discount. .Bring food for you and your children. you are also one of those who head the PTA project . but always make it a point to buy from the canteen.a school canteen the proceeds of which are to finance PTA needs and the sales of which are a little bit higher. 34. the answer is option A . Aside from that. The keywords here are "National Anthem. You are a parent and a teacher at the same time.options A. C. D. Every person must earn a college degree. Eliminate option D. Every person must go to school. B. Pragmatist C.33. "Every person has the same predicament and the same possibilities. Bring food for you and your children. Option B is unacceptable.Every person must be given access to education." This is said by an teacher who adheres to existentialist principles. Every person must be given access to education. C. What is its implication? A. Buy all your food from the school canteen even if you cannot afford to do so every day. Naturalist D. Don't eat in the canteen. Teacher A believes that the singing of the National Anthem is essential to education." O f course.are. Which of the following should you do? A. Nationalist B. Teacher A is an _. Option C seems extreme. ED. Bring food enough for you and your children. but always make it a point to buy from the canteen. They don't seem to provide learners any choice. Obviously. D. The best answer is D . Option D seems too much. Every person must go through the same form of education.Teacher A is a nationalist. Socialist Socialism is a form of economy. 35. B. the answer is A . B and C . #12 DRILLS FOR PROF. Notice how strict the first three options .

The child listens to a lecture on fossils. still. What should she look for? A. B. we are looking for the best answer. That which is prescribed by educational leaders B. 37. The child goes out and discovers for himself some rock fossils. C. Teacher B is deeply interested in quality PDP's . We all know how mentally cumbersome and torturing the task of summarizing is. What most better answer can be given beside option D? Yes. It's very easy to answer this question.36. Teacher B should look for Professional Development Programs that are responsive to her needs as a teacher. It is not neither interactive nor fun. . The child summarizes a science textbook discussing fossils. speaking and viewing. option B .The child goes out and discovers for himself some rock fossils. ED. [!] Remember that there are already 5 macro-skills: reading.That which is dependent on one's availability of funds are also considerations in choosing Professional Development Programs. writing is not as interactive as option A. Although writing is one of the five (5) macro-skills.Professional Development Programs. D.That which is prescribed by educational leaders. That which is dependent on one's availability of funds D. Obviously. There is nothing interactive about listening to a lecture. That which responds to one's needs as a teacher Although option A . That which is required for the renewal of professional license C. We all know how boring lectures can get. writing. the answer is option A . How much more would it be for a child? There is nothing interactive about summarizing a section of a textbook. The child writes in his notes lists of fossils from the board. #13 DRILLS FOR PROF. listening.That which is required for the renewal of professional license and option C . Which of the following shows an interactive learning environment? A. The old four-macro-skill idea is already outdated due to the inundation of technological advancements.

we can safely conclude that the best answer is option D . Study the life of Filipino heroes. Teacher C wishes to stand by the belief that teachers are trustees of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under the obligation to transmit to learners such heritage.were the correct answer. what would become of informal education and other alternative learning systems? What about those who cannot qualify for the formal education system? . D. If the answer is D . Observe continuing educational technology.and option C . The acceptance of exclusive schools for boys and girls. #14 DRILLS FOR PROF. Option B . EDUCATION FOR ALL. Practice of inclusive education. One can stand by such an idea with only the use of the black board or the manila paper.Use the latest educational technology . The stress on the superiority of formal education over that of alternative learning systems. What should she do? A. They talk about educational materials. C. Psychological factors B. D. B. Any thinking person will immediately know the answer for this question. Using interactive teaching strategies does not have even a lick of effect to a teacher's being a trustee of cultural and educational heritage. DepEd plans to cluster remote stand-alone school under one school head. Historical factors C. B. The concentration on formal education system. What is its implication? A.38.The concentration on formal education system .Study the life of Filipino heroes. Eliminate option A. Basing our arguments on paragraph 1 and paragraph 2. Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET! 40. What factor must be prioritized? A.Use interactive teaching strategies. Social factors Do we still need to go into details? No. Use the latest educational technology. C. Use interactive teaching strategies. Geographical factors D.Observe continuing educational technology are the same with option A . ED.Geographical factors. 39. OPTION C .

please visit http://reviewlet. RA 7836 D. AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES BY ESTABLISHING CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE. AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR.blogspot. CREATING A TEACHER EDUCATION COUNCIL FOR THE PURPOSE. To read more of RA 7784.RA 6728.com/2014/06/ra-7722.html.blogspot.com/2014/06/ra-7784.The stress on the superiority of formal education over that of alternative learning systems . APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR. To read more of RA 8545. RA 6728 C.Here. Student A has to transfer to a private school due to the large population of students in every classroom in the public school where he tried to enroll.Practice of inclusive education . please visit http://reviewlet. RA 7784. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE REGULATION AND SUPERVISION OF THE PRACTICE OF TEACHING IN THE PHILIPPINES AND PRESCRIBING A LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. However. Of course. 41.html.is the best answer. RA 7722 The answer is option B . APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. Therefore. please visit http://reviewlet. On the other hand. RA 7722 is known as the Separation of Basic and Tertiary Education Act or more formally. RA 7836 is very much known to all education students. This Act is also known Public-Private Partnership in Education or more formally.promotes gender discrimination. on the other hand. please note that this Act has already been amended by RA 8545. RA 7836 is commonly known as the Professionalization Act for Teacher or more formally. please visit http://reviewlet. .html. Finally. it is noticeable that option D and option B . To read more of RA 6728.are the same. is known as National Centers for Teacher Education Act or more formally. From which Republic Act can he avail assistance/support? A. AN ACT CREATING THE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION.html. option A .The acceptance of exclusive schools for boys and girls .com/2014/06/ra-8545.blogspot. option C . RA 7784 B.blogspot.com/2014/06/ra-6728. To read more of RA 7722. AN ACT PROVIDING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN PRIVATE EDUCATION.

Here is a test item: "Jose Rizal was born in Calamba. This is true because there are two kinds of test-score comparison/evaluation: one that is criterion-referenced and another which is norm-referenced. 1861. The blank is very short.Dictates what learners should do . The authoritarian setting in the Filipino home is reinforced by a classroom teacher who: A. By this token. Ask open-ended questions An authoritarian setting is an unpleasant.Planning effective instructional devices . We all know that teacher are encouraged to bring out students' higher order thinking skills when constructing test items.42. Dictates what learners should do C.should immediately be out of the picture. #15 DRILLS FOR PROF. 44. Planning effective instructional devices D.and option C .is the correct answer. Option B .Comparing test score. This is because of the fact that they do not deal with test-construction but with instructional-planning. it is safe to say that option A . Remember that identifying pupil's difficulties is done through a process called diagnostic assessment. Laguna on June _. A. 43. B. undesirable setting. Establishing learning objectives B. Encourages questions and doubts B. ED. It is open to more than one correct answer. Comparing test score Remember that this item talks about test-construction. They are all pleasant and desirable. It is concerned with trivia." What error is noticeable in this item? A. Identifying pupils' difficulties C. Test norms are established in order to have bases for _. Is open to suggestions D.Establishing learning objectives . The blanks are near the end. . The answer is option D . The reason behind this is that knowledge level is not enough for global competency and that anyone can memorize facts. Options A. The result of the "test" itself is proof/basis in determining with which area students are hard up. D. Option B also seems to be a tantalizing choice but a simple scrutiny will reveal that it should not be the answer for this item. C. C and D are all positive options.

To be honest. C. What does this mean? A. The mean covers about 68. we can't do away with them. Surpassed the performance of 80% of her fellow examinees B. However. Indeed. 45. D. Most of the scores are on the +2SD. . Most of the scores pile up between -1SD and +1SD.It is concerned with trivia. I don't like these kinds of questions. 46. 47.26% of a nomarl distribution curve.It is open to more than one correct answer . there is also no problem about an item where the black is near at the end. In the conduct of item analysis. A. the answer is letter B . A. Got a score of 80. That's it. Is valid C. Most of the scores are on the -2SD. Has a positive discriminating power A valid item can be easy and difficult. So. Answered 80 items correctly. This indicates that she _.There nothing wrong about an item having a very short blank. ED. The score distribution follows a normal curve.also makes a bit of a sense. Teacher Maria found out that a significantly greater number from the upper group of the class got test item #5 correctly. we all know that Jose Rizal was only born within a day and was not given birth by his mother once more after that. Michelle obtained an NSAT percentile rank of 80. just around 0SD (T Score: 50). #16 DRILLS FOR PROF. The mean is represented by the T Score 50 or 0SD. So. The mean of normally-distributed curve is between -1SD (T Score: 40) and +1SD (T Score: 60). options B and C don't make any sense. The scores coincide with the mean. Although option D . Has a negative discriminating power B. either way. This means that the test item _. C. B. Is easy D. Surpassed the performance of 20% of her fellow examinees D. An easy or difficult item can be valid.

What is an element of norm-referenced grading? A. Portfolio C. B. The median will be higher than the mean and the mode. Achievement test 54. She explained that she wanted to know what the class as a whole already knew about the Philippines before the Spaniards came. It is easy to administer. for evaluation purposes? A. The M/PC is a form of _. Platykurtic B. the teacher administered a misconception/preconception check. A test is considered reliable if _. Better adapted to the needs of the students C. Which happens when the score distribution is positively skewed? A. Placement test C. 52. Highly valid D. The performance of a group D. C. The mode corresponds to a low value. Anecdotal records B. A class is composed of bright students. A. Criterion-referenced test D. A. Observation reports D. What constitutes a perfect score 49. A.48. It is consistent and stable. Skewed to the left D. It serves the purpose for which is constructed. Diary 50. On the first day of class after introductions. More objectively scored 53. An absolute standard C. Diagnostic test B. The student's past performance B. Very normal 51. Skewed to the right C. Highly reliable B. . Which term refers to the collection of student's products and accomplishments for a period of time. It is easy to score. D. B. This distribution will most likely be _. Which is an advantage of teacher-made tests over those which are standardized? A.

Scores are normally dis4tributed. Which measure(s) of central tendency separate(s) the top half of the group from the bottom half? A. 0. About what percentage of the cases falls between +1 and -1 SD in a normal curve? A. Median and Mean D.1 B. A simple frequency distribution is a graphic representation of _.9 C.1 B. 99. D. 68.5 D. 10? . 9. Which applies when skewness is zero? A. 6. A.3 57. 0. The mode corresponds to a high value. C. 43. Standard Deviations C. 95. A. Mean is greater than the median. What is the mean of the score distribution: 4. 60.4 C. 1.C. Median B. Standard Deviation is to variability as mode to _.8 D. Median is greater than mean. 0.0 58. 7. Central tendency 61. In which competency do my students find the greatest difficulty? In the item with a difficulty index of _. Lowest and highest scores 56. B. 8. Discrimination C. Means B. Raw scores D. 5. Mode 59. Scores have three modes. 55. Correlation D. The mean will have a higher value. A. D. Mean C. Level of difficulty B.

14. 7 B. . Mode and Median C. Median D. The second student has significantly higher intellectual ability. Which describes norm-referenced grading? A. Both students are functioning in the average range of intellectual ability. Compact disk search B. Individual teachers giving weights to factors considered for rating 65. Formulating tests that vary from one teacher to another C. B. Using common conversion table for translating test scores to ratings B. Standard Deviation is to variability as mean is to _. 16. Allowing individual teacher to determine factors for rating D. Which conclusion can be drawn? A. What measure/s of central tendency do/es the number 16 represent in the following data: 14. Coefficient of correlation B. Mean 64. while the send has above average potential. 17. 15.A. 20. C. Manual search C. One has a full scale IQ of 91. Discrimination Index D. Computer search 67. A. An absolute standard 66. Central Tendency C. Level of Difficulty 63. 7. Online search D. 8. What constitutes a perfect score C. The first student is probably below average. 19. The performance of the group B. The students' past performance D. Which one can enhance the comparability of grades? A.5 D. 16? A. Two students are given WISC III. A. The search for related literature by accessing several data bases by the use of the telephone line to connect a computer library with other computers that have database is termed _. while the other has an IQ of 109.5 62. Mode B. 16. 6 C.

Identifying average performance of a group 72. A. 6. The range for SET B is 6. Neither difficult nor easy 70. HERE ARE TWO SETS OF SCORES: SET A. 3. Alternate-response test C. Very difficult because only 1 got the item correctly C. 6. 9 Which statement correctly aplpies to the two sets of score distributions? A. 7. Teacher A is researching on family income distribution which is quite symmetrical.D. 6. 4. Constructing test items in terms of instructional objectives B. Short answer test B. What does this imply? The test item must be _. 1. Another IQ test should be given to trully assess their intellectual potetial. Mean and Median 69. 5. 4. Essay Test D. The difficulty index of a test item is 1. Which holds true to norm-referenced testing? A. The scores in SET A are more spread out than those in SET B. 7. Identifying an acceptable level of mastery in advance C. Mean C. 8. 9 SET B.0. The range for SET A is 5. Moderate in difficulty B.a 73. 5. Determining task that reflect instructional objectives D. The scores in SET B are more spread out than those in SET A. Mode B. B. 68. Very easy because everybody got the item correctly D. D. 2. Median D. 4. C. Generosity Error . 5. Which measure/s of central tendency will be most informative and appropriate? A. Which error do teachers commit when they tend to overrate the achievement of students identified by aptitude tests as gifted because they expect achievement and giftedness to go together? A. 3. Portfolio 71. Which assessment tool will be most authentic? A.

6 C. External Range We all know that when we deal with the dispersion of data. 7 75. To determine student's entry knowledge and skills.Not highly reliable. then. Which statement correctly applies to a student who got a score of 72 in a test? A. Severity Error D. Central Tendency Error C. Highly reliable The lower group is expected to have difficulties with test items. External range and Quartile range B. Standardized C. 7. Quartile Deviation D. He obtained a raw score of 72. 8. Which one(s) should you recommend? A. He correctly answered 72% of the items in the test. 8. Aptitude B. Teacher X wants to make use of the most stable measure of variability. When a significantly greater number from the lower group gets a test item correctly. this implies that the test item is _. 10? A. A. 6. If the a significantly greater number from the lower group gets a test item correctly over the upper group. D. The answer for this is B. Logical Error 74.5 B. C. 78.B. 5. there's something wrong with the item.5 D. we always use Standard Deviation. He surpassed the scores of 72 students. B. 77. 7. Not highly reliable D. The answer for this item is option C . Diagnostic . Very valid B. which test should be given? A. 9. What is the mean of this score distribution: 4. Standard Deviation C. Not very valid C. 76. He answered 72 items in the test.

assesses what areas a student is likely to have difficulties with. C and D. Answer is option D -placement. Physics . This kind of test is administered for the purpose of identifying the teacher's effectivity and the progress of the teaching-learning process. We're down to three. on the other hand. it does not belong to the same line of categorization as options A. A diagnostic test. Moreover. An aptitude test assesses what a student can do or what he knows right now. Diagnostic tests are given. Study this group of test which was administered with the following results. then answer the question. a placement test assesses what a student can do or what he know right now for the purpose of placing him in the right section or group. Any type of test can be standardized. Study this group of tests which was administered with the following results.should be eliminated immediately. 79. then answer the question that follows. SUBJECT MEAN SD RONNEL’ SCORE Math 40 3 58 Physics 38 4 45 English 75 5 90 In which subject(s) were the scores most homogenous? A. usually. Finally.D. Placement Option B . at the start of the school year to direct the teacher of what learning objectives to set. We all know that the opposite of standardized is teacher-made.Standardized . SUBJECT MEAN SD RONNEL’ SCORE Math 56 10 43 Physics 41 9 31 English 80 16 109 80. English B. It's a test of how far has one gone in his studies.

An individual learner is adequately characterized by a test score. Portfolio assessment is dynamic assessment. D. Under which assumption is portfolio assessment based? A. C.C. An individual learner is inadequately characterized by a test score. Assessment should stress the reproduction of knowledge. B. Math and English D. Math 81. .

we have Critical Thinking Test may not be correlated with Reading Comprehension Test. this time. statistical data are compared using psychological traits or factors that theoretically influence scores in a test. There are ways of establishing (types of) validity. b. Criterion validity has two purposes: a.TYPES OF VALIDITY Validity in assessment is the degree to which an assessment instrument measures what it is intended to measure. It is the most important criterion of a good assessment instrument. For example. for construct validity. established statistically (i. we have Critical Thinking Test may be correlated with Creative Thinking Test. Is the instrument. if written. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY Construct validity is. easy to read for the students? Are there smears or eye-irritating lines that can distract the test- takers? CONTENT VALIDITY Content validity is done through a careful and critical examination of the objectives of assessment so that it reflects the curricular objectives. like criterion validity. For example.e. There are two types of construct validity: a. Is the testing emphasis parallel to the teaching emphasis? CRITERION VALIDITY Criterion validity is established statistically (i. by the use of statistical tools). However. Divergent Validity is established if an instrument can describe only the intended trait and not the other traits. Predictive Validity describes the future performance of an individual by correlating the sets of scores obtained from two measures given at a longer time interval. It also refers to the usefulness of the instrument for a given purpose. FACE VALIDITY Face validity is the physical appearance of the instrument. . Convergent Validity is established if the instrument defines another similar trait other than what it is intended to measure. by the use of statistical tools) such that a set of scores revealed by the measuring instrument is correlated with the scores obtained in another external predictor of measure.e. Concurrent Validity describes the present status of the individual by correlating the sets of scores obtained from two measures given concurrently. b.

ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING includes three types of assessment done before and during instruction. 2. it can be deduced that placement assessments are done to know where to "put" the students. scoring and interpreting the results of both externally-produced and teacher-produced assessment methods. 5. colleges and universities determine whether to "place" aspirants in the school or out of the school. Teachers should be skilled in recognizing unethical. These are assessment for learning. . 6. Teachers should be skilled in using assessment results when making decisions about individual students. and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment information. Teachers should be skilled in developing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. 4. 3. Teachers should be skilled in choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. From the term itself. Teachers should be skilled in communicating assessment results to students. Teachers should be skilled in developing valid pupil grading procedures which use pupil assessments. 7. formative and diagnostic assessments. illegal. A good example of a placement assessment is entrance examinations. Under this we have placement. PURPOSES OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT There are three purposes of classroom assessment. and school improvement. developing curriculum.STANDARDS FOR TEACHER COMPETENCE IN EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS This standards was developed by the American Federation of Teacher National Council on Measurement in Education National Education Association. 1. and other educators. Placement assessment is done prior to instruction. planning teaching. other lay audiences. parents. assessment of learning and assessmentas learning. The teacher should be skilled in administering. Entrance examinations in schools.

This is usually referred to as summative assessment. Its results reveal whether or no instructions have successfully achieved the curriculum outcomes. parents and other stakeholders for decision making. Teacher A planned for a two-day lesson about adjectives. .The purpose of placement assessments is to assess the needs of the learners to have basis in planning for a relevant instruction. Teachers use this assessment to know what their students are bringing into the learning situation and use this as a starting point for instruction. 2005). Say. It is also a powerful factor that could pave the way for educational reforms. It searches for the underlying causes of students' learning problems that do not respond to first aid treatment. In the first day. ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING is done for teachers to understand and perform well their role of assessing FOR and OF learning. The results of this assessment place students in specific learning groups to facilitate teaching and learning. It is this assessment where teachers continuously monitor the students' level of attainment of the learning objectives (Stiggins. Summative assessment is used to certify what students know and can do and the level of their proficiency or competency. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING is done after instruction. What she did is a formative assessment. She conducted an assessment to see where the students' weaknesses lie. Formative assessment is done during instruction. Teacher B noticed that his students don't seem to understand his lesson about adjectives. The information from assessment of learning is usually expressed as marks or letter grades. Say. The results of the assessment are communicated clearly and promptly to the students for them to know their strengths and weaknesses and the progress of their learning. Diagnostic assessment is done during instruction. Diagnostic assessment is used to determine students' recurring or persistent difficulties. The results of which are communicated to the students. It helps formulate a plan detailed remedial instruction. he administered an assessment to see how the students are doing. It requires teachers to undergo training on how to assess learning and be equipped with the following competencies needed in performing their work as assessors.

as agent of. A teacher has the right to engage. Section 2. and under Rule 31. suspension from the practice of teaching profession. A teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as the primary principle of personal behavior in all relationships with others and in all situations. or be financially interested in. A teacher is. Article III or R. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could serve as a model worthy of emulation by learners.ARTICLE XII OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS Disciplinary Actions Section 1. peers and all others. a human being endowed with life for which it is the highest obligation to live with dignity at all times whether in school. A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as guide of his own destiny and of the destinies of men and nations. 23. or elsewhere. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to the financial matters such as in the settlement of his debts and loans in arranging satisfactorily his private financial affairs. No. 7836. directly or indirectly. 7836. any commercial venture which furnish textbooks and other school commodities in the . or reprimand or cancellation of his temporary/special permit under causes specified in Sec. Any violation of any provision of this code shall be sufficient ground for the imposition against the erring teacher of the disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his Certification of Registration and License as a Professional Teacher. directly or indirectly. above all. Section 4. ARTICLE XI OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teacher as a Person Section 1. Article VIII. provided that it does not relate to or adversely affect his work as a teacher. Section 3. ARTICLE X OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teacher and Business Section 1. No teacher shall act.A.A. in the home. Section 2. in legitimate income generation. of the Rules and Regulations Implementing R. Section 3.

further. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or discriminate against a learner. except only when his assignment is inherently. ARTICLE VIII OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teachers and Learners Section 1. ARTICLE IX OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teachers and Parents Section 1. Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial relations with parents. Section 5. Section 3. Section 2. and shall deal justifiably and impartially with each of them. directly or indirectly. of the progress and deficiencies of learner under him. that members of duly recognized teachers cooperatives may participate in the distribution and sale of such commodities. teachers concerned shall immediately take appropriate actions. provided that such determination shall be in accordance with generally accepted procedures of evaluation and measurement. and shall discourage unfair criticism. A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from learners. provided. A teacher shall not accept. A teacher shall hear parent's complaints with sympathy and understanding. . through proper authorities. Section 4. Section 3. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first and foremost concern. and shall conduct himself to merit their confidence and respect. their parents or others in their behalf in exchange for requested concessions. any remuneration from tutorials other what is authorized for such service. related to such purchase and disposal. Section 6.purchase and disposal of which he can exercise official influence. observing due process. exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out the learner's deficiencies and in seeking parent's cooperation for the proper guidance and improvement of the learners. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the academic marks and the promotions of learners in the subject or grades he handles. Every teacher shall inform parents. Section 2. provided they shall be in accordance with the existing regulations. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learner’s work only in merit and quality of academic performance. In case of any complaint. especially if undeserved.

and shall extend needed assistance in preventing or solving learner’s problems and difficulties.Section 7. and private school teachers are issued contracts specifying the terms and conditions of their work. provided that they are given. Section 5. Section 8. Section 3. All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy. dignified administration. No school officials shall dismiss or recommend for dismissal a teacher or other subordinates except for cause. ARTICLE VII OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS School Officials. . the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid scandal. responsible leadership and enlightened directions. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestation of poor scholarship. and Other Personnel Section 1. and other school personnel shall consider it their cooperative responsibility to formulate policies or introduce important changes in the system at all levels. Section 9. in accordance with existing laws. giving them due recognition for meritorious performance. gossip and preferential treatment of the learner. teachers. School officials. if qualified. subsequent permanent tenure. Section 4. Teachers. helpfulness and sympathy towards teachers and other personnel. and allowing them to participate in conferences in training programs. School authorities concern shall ensure that public school teachers are employed in accordance with pertinent civil service rules. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between teacher and learner. A teacher shall ensure that conditions contribute to the maximum development of learners are adequate. School officials shall encourage and attend the professional growth of all teachers under them such as recommending them for promotion. Section 2. such practices being standards of effective school supervision.

Section 3. ARTICLE V OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teachers and the Profession Section 1. and shall give due credit for the work of others which he may use. they shall avoid jeopardizing the interest and the welfare of learners whose right to learn must be respected. has a right to seek redress against injustice to the administration and to extent possible. A teacher shall transact all official business through channels except when special conditions warrant a different procedure. teachers shall support one another. Section 5. Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest effort to understand and support the legitimate policies of the school and the administration regardless of personal feeling or private opinion and shall faithfully carry them out. or the profession is at stake in any controversy. A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual obligation to live up to his contract. Section 3. be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty. especially under anonymity. and full cooperation with colleagues. and transfer of teachers are made only on the basis of merit and needed in the interest of the service. Every teacher. a teacher shall organize for whoever assumes the position such records and other data as are necessary to carry on the work. mutual confidence. in which case. Teachers shall. Section 6. A teacher shall not make any false accusations or charges against superiors. . In doing so. self-sacrifice for the common good. assuming full knowledge of employment terms and conditions. he should present such under oath to competent authority. and faith in one another. Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that appointments. such as when special conditions are advocated but are opposed by immediate superiors. When the best interest of the learners. However. Section 4. the school. Section 2. if there are valid charges. the teacher shall appeal directly to the appropriate higher authority. Before leaving his position.ARTICLE VI OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teacher and Higher Authorities in the Profession Section 1. promotions. individually or as part of a group. Section 2. shall raise grievances within acceptable democratic possesses. A teacher is not entitled to claim credit or work not of his own. at all times.

Section 5. enhance the prestige of the profession. A teacher shall hold inviolate all confidential information concerning associates and the school. but shall not make improper misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other questionable means. preferably in writing. Section 3. . A teacher may apply for a vacant position for which he is qualified. this may be done only if there is incontrovertible evidence for such conduct. without violating the right of the individual concerned. Section 2. Section 7. A teacher may submit to the proper authorities any justifiable criticism against an associate. ARTICLE III OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teacher and the Community Section 1. he shall. However. shall make the best preparations for the career of teaching. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the development of the youth. and shall pursue such other studies as will improve his efficiency. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the noblest profession. or remove records from files without permission. provided. virtues. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education. to seek support from the school. It shall be the responsibility of every teacher to seek correctives for what may appear to be an unprofessional and unethical conduct of any associate. Section 4. and shall be at his best at all times and in the practice of his profession. and productivity in order to be nationally and internationally competitive. if duly authorized. further. that all qualified candidates are given the opportunity to be considered. Section 5. provided that he respects the system of selection on the basis of merit and competence.Section 4. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program of the Professional Regulation Commission. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a manner that makes it dignified means for earning a descent living. and shall not divulge to anyone documents which has not been officially released. and shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling. Every teacher shall help. Section 6. ARTICLE IV OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS A Teacher and the Profession Section 1. and strengthen his competence.

and to actively be involved in matters affecting the welfare of the people. Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full commitment and devotion to . each teacher is a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage as well as to elevate national morality. mentally and morally fit. Section 2. cultivate love of country. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own. Section 8. Section 5. economic and civic betterment. therefore. much less illicit relations. A teacher posses freedom to attend church and worships as appropriate. Section 4. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social recognition for which purpose he shall behave with honor and dignity at all times and refrain from such activities as gambling. and promote obedience to the laws of the state. refrain from disparaging the community. Section 2. especially in the barangay. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state. Section 3. render the best service by providing an environment conducive to such learning and growth. instill allegiance to the constitution and for all duly constituted authorities. and shall welcome the opportunity to provide such leadership when needed. Section 7. and shall take an oath to this effect. and other excesses. drunkenness. Every teacher is intellectual leader in the community. ARTICLE II OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS The Teacher and the State Section 1. Section 3. individually or collectively. social. Every teacher shall provide leadership and initiative to actively participate in community movements for moral. Every teacher shall help the school keep the people in the community informed about the school’s work and accomplishments as well as its needs and problems. study and understand local customs and traditions in order to have sympathetic attitude. therefore. but shall not use his positions and influence to proselyte others. educational. promote national pride. Every teacher shall maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official relations with other professionals. as appropriate. with government officials. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry out the declared policies of the state.therefore. to extend counseling services. Section 6. smoking. and with the people. Every teacher shall live for and with the community and shall. every teacher shall be physically.

Section 8. Section 6. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political. Section 5. Section 7. if the results are inimical to the declared policies of the State. . the provision of this Code shall apply. technical. or receive any money or service or other valuable material from any person or entity for such purposes. The Philippine Constitution provides that all educational institution shall offer quality education for all competent teachers. therefore. and secondary levels whether academic. directly or indirectly. religious. and shall not. solicit. Section 2. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and responsibility.duty. require. This Code covers all public and private school teachers in all educational institutions at the preschool. or other partisan interest. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce any other person to follow any political course of action. they shall be brought to the proper authorities for appropriate remedial action. whether on full time or part-time basis. The term "teacher"• shall include industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and /or administrative functions in all school at the aforesaid levels. to all teachers in schools in the Philippines. special. provided that. ARTICLE I OF THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS Scope and Limitations Section 1. Committed to its full realization. primary. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have privilege of expounding the product of his researches and investigations. collect. or non-formal. elementary. vocational.

Teacher C made the first group of students clean the comfort room because of breaking the television.F. and values OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning is a type of learning in which a learner's behavior is shaped and affected by reinforcements are punishments. Examples of punishment: 1. observe. and they strictly adhere to. Preamble Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesses dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence in the practice of their noble profession. B. section 6. However. otherwise known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a).A. of R. standards. Reinforcement is a consequence of an action that causes the behavior to occur with greater frequency. "Since you cleaned the room without me asking you to do so. Article 11. Here's where a lot of misconceptions are made. one must be familiar with different terms related to this type of learning. Skinner is not the first person to discover this type of learning. 7836.F. No. Burrhus Frederic Skinner or B. and practice this set of ethical and moral principles.D. Teacher B told her students. No." Punishment is a consequence of an action that causes the behavior to occur with less frequency. Skinner is the one who popularized this with his experiments with pigeons and rats. It was Jerzy Konorski. the Board for Professional Teachers hereby adopt the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers. especially between negative reinforcement and punishment. To understand Operant Conditioning. P. 223. . I am now removing the restriction in using the TV until 4:00 this afternoon.PREAMBLE TO THE [OLD] CODE OF ETHICS CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e). as amended. Examples of reinforcement: 1. Teacher A gave a student a book for topping the final examination. 2.

Negative reinforcement is used by removing an unfavorable condition to sustain a desirable behavior. It was observed that because of such system of reinforcement. it seldom got near to such items. Positive reinforcement. also known as escape. Because of this. Due to such system. An example of a positive reinforcement is when Teacher E gave an additional point for a student who honestly declared his error in the test paper. Teacher D lessened the morning snack time from 15 minutes to 10 minutes because his students were late for his class. Skinner's Box Experiment. In B. the rat in the cage received a pellet of sugar for each instance that it pulled a lever. An example of positive punishment is when Teacher G commanded a student to pick up the pieces of paper in the classroom for being noisy during the discussion. The rat noticed that every time it stepped on a lever.F. Skinner's Box Experiment. is the insertion or delivery of an unfavorable condition (for the learners) to make a undesired behavior occur less frequently. Skinner's Box Experiment.F. An example of a negative punishment is when Teacher H lessened the snack time from 15 minutes to 10 minutes because they were late. also known as penalty. is the deletion or a removal of a unfavorable condition (for the learners) to make a desired behavior occur more frequently. Remember.F. also knows as only punishment. a loud. Positive is a insertion or a delivery of a stimulus after a response. also known as only reinforcement. is the removal or deletion of a favorable condition (for the learners) to make an undesired behavior occur less frequently. Positive punishment.2. In B. An example of a negative reinforcement is when Teacher F removed a quiz for tomorrow because of the students' initiative to clean the room without having ordered to do so. In B. . is the insertion or a delivery of a favorable condition (for the learners) to make a desired behavior occur more frequently. the rat pulled the lever very frequently. sharp noise is played towards a rat in the cage. the noise died out. the rat stepped on the lever very frequently. positive reinforcement is used by adding a favorable condition to sustain a desirable behavior. an electric shock is given to a rat in a cage whenever it gets near to certain items in it. Negative is a deletion or a removal of a stimulus after a response. Negative reinforcement. Negative punishment. Positive punishment is used by adding an unfavorable condition to cut off an undesirable behavior. Negative punishment is used by removing a favorable condition to cut off an undesirable behavior.

attitudes and skills interfaced with local wisdom. respecting the learners' uniqueness of intelligence. 2. meaningful and useful to the learners. Rigid subject matter boundaries were felled and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to problems and issues were founded. values. Learner-Centered and Learner-Oriented Curriculum There has been a change in the role of the teacher in the teaching-learning process. co-curricular activities and the human climate are established by the relationship existing therein. skills and competencies. A Holistic Integrated Approach to Education Before. Learners are no more selected using a single or fixed criteria. Different learners have different interests and preferences. However. This is to give way to modern strategies of teaching and learning. 3.with the freedom to use mixed modes of instruction and more interactive technology. teachers are now facilitators and motivators of learning. education also aims the development of values and attitudes. due to the advent of technology and the conceptualization of the idea that learners have innate potentials. it is no a well-established fact that student selection should be more open and that multiple standards be taken into account. knowledge is the only learning outcome sought in the classrooms. The heart of education is the education of the heart. Traditional pedagogues are also discouraged. It is broadened to encompass globalized knowledge. motivations. Before there is what's called a prescribed pedagogy which applies across all learners. Its vision and mission. . These themes are generated from the global realities and the culture that is relevant. Before. Knowledge limited to the local scene is changed. many different teaching styles are are employed. Now. Now. Contextualize-Learning Pre-organized subject matters are changed to contextualize themes. Due to the advent of the idea that every child is special in his own way (the multiple intelligence and learner diversity theories).MAJOR PARADIGM SHIFT IN EDUCATION 1. needs and situations. not through classroom instruction alone but the entire school culture and atmosphere. There has been a change from a knowledge-dominated curriculum to more attention being given to values education and emotional learning. teachers are the sole sources of knowledge.

Provide a quite & comfortable setting. Anticipate questions that students may ask. Lifelong Education For All Limited access to education is now discouraged. It should be away from unnecessary noise. Examinations should be perfect but if nobody's perfect. Last time we had GUIDELINES IN ARRANGING TEST ITEMS. how effective the teaching methods. let's have GUIDELINES IN ADMINISTERING TESTS. Either way is not good.4. Examination is the tool of the teacher to gauge the learners' understanding and mastery of the subject matter in a specific period of time. 2. An examination should be conducted in a classroom where students could comfortable sit and think. Examinations are inevitably essential tools for learning. how far has the students gone in terms of mastery. Teachers should bear in mind that distractions can lessen the reliability and validity of an examination. with the boundaries of time or space. teachers should always try to make their assessment tools (exams & tests) perfect but they should also try to expect what questions might the students ask about. The society is given the chance to learn borderlessly. It is used to measure how well the students understand the lessons. This is a progressive view that teachers must take necessary steps to make learning and assessment easy for the learners. This could lead the students to lose focus or could give them the chance to cheat. Of course. the teacher must clarify everything. 1. now. . strategies and techniques used by the teacher are and what improvements should be made to better the teaching-learning process. This is why teachers should keep in mind the basic things to consider in conducting an examination. he said this to encourage physical activities in curriculum but this could also be used to argue that examinations should be done in a conducive environment. GUIDELINES IN ADMINISTERING TESTS Teachers are facilitators of learning. how can a piece of paper be? Yes. Before the disseminating the papers. Examinations require the workings of the mind and John Locke said that a sound mind should be in a sound body.

. Teachers should announce the major examination ahead of time to set the students' mind ready. Also. It would be of great help for them if the teacher informs them how much time they still have but overdoing it would only put more pressure in them. 6. Discourage cheating. that Jesus is looking at them or Satan will make them his disciples when they cheat could discourage cheating. This is more of an idealistic philosophy in the pedagogy. anyone can say "hadn't you cheated when you were in college and the answer could be affirmative but still. Yes it could but atmosphere here refers to non other than the school's and the students' atmosphere.3 . We should try to uphold moral and spiritual values in the classroom. Established cheating rules should be implemented during the exam. The students have to see this. Set a proper atmosphere for testing. 4. Simply saying that you don't want them to cheat. Implement established cheating rules. The fact that you cheated in high school and in college doesn't give them the chance to cheat and it doesn't give you the rights to tell them that they can cheat. Setting a proper atmosphere for testing could be confused with providing it in a quiet and comfortable setting. conducting a surprise major examination would not be a very good idea. Yes. If someone was caught cheating and sanctions were not implemented. teachers must discourage cheating. 5. it could lead to two things: the students will lose their trust and respect and they will worsen cheating. Help students keep track of time. Having prepared. The students are under pressure during examinations and they are most likely to forget that time is ticking away. Conducting an examination during a time when there are many activities in the school where the students are involved in could lessen the validity and reliability of an examination. the students' atmosphere would be proper enough to conduct testing.

color of the exam paper.understanding. Thorndike's Law of Effect. fifty percent of grades are taken from written examinations. This could scrabble ideas in the students' minds. They show how bright/dull or active/inactive a student is in a specific period of time. 1. test two on another and so on. of course. This means that they have to do everything to make their examinations standard enough to gauge or measure what has to be measured -. Test one will focus on a specific category (say. as I've mentioned a while ago. . ARRANGE items logically Test items should be logically arranged. multiple-choice). in numerical order. in light of E. 2. SELECTION before supply Examples of selection-type test-category are multiple-choice. there are also physical factors -. This is. font and font size used in the paper. Others say that test items should also be arranged in a way that the first items are easier than the succeeding items. Psychologists say that selection-type test-categories are easier than supply-type because it gives students choices. 3. font spaces used and many physical factors may affect the test's validity and reliability.physical factors in the students' part and physical factors of the examination paper itself. They say this in light of Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect. This is why it has been practiced by many students that the examination is divided into tests. Should be arranged categorically It would be really hard for a student if the test items are randomly categorized. Aside from psychological factors that may lessen the validity or reliability of an examination. This is why students have to write more and speak less to acquire higher grades. Examples of supply-type test-category are those which require students to identify or fill out blanks. Arrangement of test items. Students must first feel ease in answering so that they will not be demotivated. matching type and other examples where students only have to choose the best answer. Unfortunately. Teachers aim to collect valid and reliable results from examinations. Here are some guidelines in arranging test items.GUIDELINES IN ARRANGING TEST ITEMS Grades are the figurative representations of students' scholastic performances. One of the most common logical arrangement is.

4. 7. 6. Teachers must be very careful in making clear the directions. Idealism pushes through morale and spirituality inside the classroom. though inevitable. Not only that very closely crammed test items cost the face validity of an examination.. According to a long-existing child philosophy. 9 2. Therefore: teachers must make things easier for students if possible. 8. they also lessen the students' ability to focus on the exam. I personally loathe this when I was in high school. . It causes me to lose my concentration. This will give students more time to think. students fail examinations because of vague questions and directions.idealism. I hate it when the question for a multiple- choice item is in the first page and the choices are in the next page. 8 STRATEGIES TO PREVENT CHEATING BEFORE THE EXAM Cheating. 5. children are naturally evil and teachers should prevent this evil to spread all over the students' bodies. AVOID splitting test items across two pages. One way is get bad things nipped in the bud. Teachers should exhaust each and every possible means to prevent it from happening. 8. Wrong questions lead to wrong answers and wrong directions lead to wrong executions. sometimes. the child-depravity theory. This means that short items should go before. what the hell is that for.. Most of the time. AVOID cramming items too closely to each other. One thing that the teacher should avoid is for the students to lose concentration. SHORT items before essay Essay-categories require more time and they require more thinking. NUMBER items consecutively. SPECIFY and make clear the directions.4. anyway!? It would be very confusing for the students. 6. There is no way you could write 1. And. should be discouraged in the classroom. One last thing: teachers are facilitators of assessment and learning. This is deeply rooted under a long-founded philosophy of education -. for you test items. It would be hard for them to read the questions and it would risk their understanding. 5.

as a teacher. For those who did well in reviewing. 1. 4. A week before the examination. 3. the students must be informed about the nature and the coverage of the test. Use idealistic principles.Cheating is evil. Not only can a teacher detect easily when someone cheats but also. The students cannot afford the former. We must be responsible in doing everything to make our lessons palatable to the taste of the students. So far. Teach well. Only. They will find a way. This could actually encourage students to review and to study more. She's actually disarranging us so that we couldn't sit near our closer friends. though I don't agree much. Saying that cheating is a bad thing. this isn't a problem whatsoever but for those who didn't. to prevent cheating. this is the safest way to prevent cheating. here are the strategies to prevent cheating BEFORE the examination. I had a professor who wouldn't start the exam without us arranges in a one-meter distance from each other. Erasures mean wrong. This is a very effective technique. . They could try to cheat but it will be a dilemma. 5. teachers should keep in mind that corrections aren't erasures. 6. Imagine giving students a day to prepare for a major exam. Give the students sufficient time to prepare for the test. One can say that there are also student-factors but teachers hold the wheels. this could get them in a messy situation. the students will hesitate to extend their necks. The students wouldn't need to cheat if they understood the lessons. Keep distance. Two things could happen: they fail or they pass. Acquaint the students with the nature of the test and its coverage. Give students announcements about the exam beforehand. Anyway. Distance is one safe way to prevent cheating. 2. This will serve as help for them and will serve as a tool for you. Some teachers over do it. that students who cheat are Satan's disciples and Jesus wouldn't like to see them cheating are long-time techniques but they are as effective as they were before.

Let them define cheating. you can use them. FLIP is an approach or method that could be used by teachers to establish colorful learning environment and ambiance that are conducive to education. If it came out from their own mouths that cheating is not good. Friendliness. Letting the students know what the consequences of their actions be will serve as a warning sign for them. it didn't mean that a teacher could utter all the words he'd like to say. Though it might be true that English should be the medium of instruction. Simple words are enough. be sure that you will implement these disciplines because if you don't you will lose the students' respect and trust. Language. 7. 33-b subjects are the two innovative teaching methods: FLIP & PORPE. A teacher must always consider the linguistic capabilities of his students. Simplicity is beauty. We've been studying so much about these principles. too many to learn. This is why smiling or befriending with the students could lead to better outcomes. Letting them define what cheating is a great way of deterring cheating. The remaining time isn't enough to learn all the things which are ought to be learned. INNOVATIVE TEACHING METHODS As education students we are bound to study principles. methods. It could give them the confident to express themselves further during discussions or to share what's wrong. approaches and techniques in teaching. methods. . A teacher must always keep in mind that pressure is one of the barriers of learning. Explain the discipline imposed when caught cheating. 33-a and Prof. Be careful not to lessen the validity of the examination by giving the students too much information. *** Two of the things we've learned from our Prof. This makes us fear the day we will take the Licensure Examination for Teachers. Ed. it will activate their conscience. Now. Ed. 8. still.Giving pointers to review and announcing the types of test are great if they aren't over done. They say we need these things to become competitive in our field and to become effective for the learners. approaches and techniques and there are. It's like letting them discourage one another. Except for harsh and inhuman punishments and sanctions. High-sounding or highfalutin are not advisable is he wanted to ensure learning.

This instrument must go in line with their interest. a teacher must be very good in observing the behavior of the students. The learners are individuals. They have different inclinations. Was the instruction effective? Did the students learn? Were the students able to catch up with the lesson? There are reflective evaluations that a teacher must undergo to improve future instructions and to determine errors in instruction. Observe. They must anticipate what may ever happen in the classroom. Since students' background and prior knowledge are essential factors for the succeeding lessons. Organize. Rehearse. Observation is one of the ways of gathering data. This helps the teacher to get ahead of them and to avoid being caught flat footed. A teacher must predict what the learners are thinking. procedures and contents of the new learning experience. The teacher must be prepared at all times. Are the learners ready for this lesson? Do they have enough schema for a new learning experience? Can the learners relate these new things to those which they already know? These are the questions concerning prior knowledge. Practice involves drills that teachers always have to do. Therefore. Rehearsal involves foreseeing what will happen and what should happen. Organization of ideas is an essential tool for smooth and understandable flow of ideas. planning or doing. Predict. Teachers must be good fortune tellers. In the selection of learning content and experiences a teacher must always consider the interest of the learners. a teacher must carefully think about the instrument of learning to be used. Violence is the use of unnecessary force and conflict is the diversity of ideas towards one problem. Prior Knowledge.Interest. Practice makes perfect what one rehearsed. He must be well rehearsed. Peace is the creative transformation of conflict. Evaluate. What the students know should critically be considered before plotting the objectives. Teacher must rehearse what to say in case that arguments arise. Practice. *** PORPE is well known as a strategy of test preparation but it could also be applied as an effective teaching method. BASIC CONCEPTS IN PEACE EDUCATION What is PEACE? Peace is the absence of violence. Observation is one of the scientific methods. .

Resolution of conflict and 2. Political and Economic Realities 2. 3. without the works of the hands. Responsive Peace – Peace attained through following orders. Conflict can be resolved through DIALOGUE and NEGOTIATION. Military Rebellion SRA is a comprehensive action program based on the Philippines Medium Term . Muslim Separatist Movement 3. Egocentric Peace – the peace within the person. STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IS THE ROOT OF ALL PHYSICAL VIOLENCE. abuse. smelt or felt. Conscientization 3. 4. Constructiveness CLEMEÑA’S SPHERES OF PEACE FOR FILIPINOS 1. etc. Acquiescent Peace – Peace brought about by conforming to rules and laws. only some structural violence can be penalized and mostly be seen as rottenness within the society. poverty. Creative Conflict Transformation CREATIVE TRANSFORMATION OF CONFLICT is the use of conflict to maintain the status quo of peace. etc. Realism of the head 2. tasted.’’ THE C’S OF PEACE MAKING: 1. GOVERNMENT FRAMEWORK IN THE PEACE PROCESS: 1. seen. Examples of structural violence are nepotism. Examples of physical violence are robbery.THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF VIOLENCE: Physical and Structural Violence. misuse of power. Dialogue points out the importance of communication between and negotiation involves the giving in of one of the parties. Compassion 2. 2. murder. While most structural violence can be penalized by the law. mishandling of governmental responsibilities. THREE WAYS OF PEACE MAKING: 1. TWO WAYS TO MAINTAIN PEACE: 1. Integrative Peace – Peace that is felt when there is a spirit of brotherhood. are futile and hypocrite. Idealism of the heart “Talking about peace and telling other people of your interest in peace. Physical violence refers to those that can be perceived – heard.

Ensure the welfare and protection of the civilians.Development Plan. MERCADO): 1. The philosophy that cheating is not an accepted behavior in the classroom started from idealism. should try to do everything to plant conscience in the students' hearts. 2. reduce the impact of armed conflict on them. Community-based Peace Process 2. 4. Humanization of Conflict – The con-combatant civilians must be spared from the atrocities of war. nurture and enhance a positive climate for peace. 6. FIVE COMPONENTS OF THE PEACE PROCESS 1. Healing and Reconciliation—The peace process must include strategies for psychological and spiritual values formations. children are naturally good people who are only confused with the surrounding factors in the society. The teachers should utilize strategies to make the students realize that they are good people. Teachers. Social Compact or Contract 3. Economic Development – Development must be equitable and sustainable. Peaceful Solutions of the Issues SIX STRATEGIES OR PATH FOR PEACE (FR. Government and Empowerment – Establishment of a political system that encourages enduring peace. Implement programs for reconciliation. 3. . 5. empower the people. Build consensus. 2. economic and social reforms. and ensure participation of the people of all levels. Implement political. even though they know all along that cheating is inevitable. Build. 3. Idealism pushes through morale and spirituality inside the classroom. According to a long-existing child philosophy. FRAMEWORKS OF THE SRA: 1. the innate-goodness theory. reintegration to mainstream society and rehabilitation. 4. Pursue peaceful negotiations with all rebel groups. 5 WAYS TO PREVENT CHEATING DURING THE EXAM Cheating cannot be totally annihilated because it's as natural as breathing but we have to impress in the students' minds that cheating is not accepted in our society and it results in ostracism.

if you know what I mean. Students feel they are watched over if they see the teacher walking around. This is why we study human experiences through history. contents and knowledge. ready to be received and to be learned. Prepare alternate forms of the test. Have students sit in alternating seats. The learner should have his own initiative to open his senses and accept reality around him. There is no reason for students to borrow things from their classmates if the examination was properly announced. These things can be used by the students to cheat. animals through zoology. *** Like the idealist. Have students put down unnecessary things. as a punishment for a student who cheats. Preparing alternate tests and giving them to the students alternately (also called as set-A-set-B exam) may deter cheating. 3.1. 2. 5. In criminal psychology. REALISM. Prohibit borrowing things from classmates. Borrowing things gives chances the students chances to talk and things like the calculator are subject to anomaly. Borrowing the calculator during the exam is a usual scenario in a Math exam but it should be avoided. this is called police visibility. seats must be arranged in a way that cheating will be very obvious and students would actually hesitate to do so. the realist stresses the importance of separations between subject matters. plants through botany and many more. It give importance to active learning and condemns purely receptive intake of information. Alternate forms of tests can be given as a special exam for students who missed the exam and also. Also. A PHILOSOPHY Realism asserts that the learner can come to know of the truth through his senses and reason. Unnecessary things include bags. This philosophy stands under the belief that knowledge and information are around us. mobile phones. Sitting arrangement (you might as well look the difference of "seating" and "sitting" up in the dictionary) could easily turn into "cheating arrangement. Go around the testing room and observe students. other gadgets and things which are obviously not essential to take the test. . It has been believed that criminals actually hesitate to execute a crime if they see policemen around." This is why many teachers try to disarrange students and separate friends from friends during examination. 4. This is also true about conducting an exam.

science. This is why Basic Elementary Education focuses on these. writing. changes are chaotic and radical ideas are unacceptable. *** REALISM: Changes. The Philippines has very many religious groups teaching as many different doctrines as they are.we have the SPIRITUAL CORNER. the Philippines is not totally . etc.we pray before we start the day and to our classroom designs -. separations. art. This leads to the modification of CATECHISM as a subject to CHRISTIAN LIVING to generalize the idea. this philosophy made its way to our daily routines -. arithmetic. as an idealistic belief. the realists believe that truth and reality are achieved through the help of science and art and morality can only be maintained through the stability of a society's heritage. What may be right for me may not be right for other people and what may be wrong for me may be acceptable for others. *** The three R's (reading. senses. writing and arithmetic) are centers of basic human education. This is rooted in the belief that religion is the way to a better life and people who are morally and spiritually upright are not likely to commit any wrong.Mathematics and other subjects that sharpen and cultivate the mind are given stress because rational thought and logic are considered important in realism. A PHILOSOPHY Idealism holds that morale and spirituality should be incorporated within learning contents and experiences of the students. truth. Though many could agree with this idea. Be that the case as it may. logic. *** Spirituality is the belief and the obedience to a supernaturally good deity. morality is relative. morality should still be taught in the classroom to maintain status quo because. Unfortunately. In the Philippine setting. Also. teaching religion is highly argued upon due to our diverse religious beliefs. IDEALISM. If idealism focuses on the classics and considers the classics as the main sources of information. This led to the incorporation of VALUES EDUCATION and PEACE EDUCATION in our curricula. reading. *** Morality is what is right and what is wrong in the society. Changes in subject matters are welcome since the world must adopt with changes and changes are a part of reality but the culture of the society must be constant. Proper conduct in a society should be learned for someone to be able to fit in.

social decorum. *** Idealism promotes the study of the Classics since. It provides food and guidance for a while but it is clear in its mind that. changes in our society are inevitable. according to this principle. PRAGMATISM. Since it changes. morality.Christian. the world goes around a pattern. etc. unchanged. is useless and unwise for the pragmatists. as a pragmatist. must teach the learner as a bird teaches its young. the learner must be equipped with sufficient skill to solve problems that may occur by and by. soon. we must use these changes to improve our lives -. appropriate measures can still be used to deal with these changes. . social restrictions. spirituality. doesn't only have to teach the learner what to think but how to think. an observable pattern. Since the world changes and the world undergoes a cycle of problems. as a pragmatist. eternal life. To a pragmatist. thus. this young one will be fully fledged and will. This forces the teacher to give the child all the things he needs during his stay in the training ground (school) before he faces the battle ground (the real world). One of the most popular pragmatists is John Dewey and his scientific method of solving problems. For the idealist. *** Pragmatism purports that changes are products of interactions between learners and their environment. If idealism focuses on classical knowledge (the changeless) and realism gives more importance to stable societal heritage. a great pragmatist. soar the world alone. *** John Dewey. life after death. someday. pragmatism promotes and adopts changes in all aspects. Even if it undergoes changes from time to time. knowledge comes from the external ideas and universal truths found in the arts. To disregard social change. The teacher. curricula and scholastic instructions are and must be constant. consciousness. viewed education as a process of improving (not accepting) the human condition. A percentage of its constituents is Islam. *** IDEALISM: status quo.not to maintain it nor to step backwards. This line of reasoning is parallel with the belief that the world changes. A PHILOSOPHY Pragmatism is also called experimentalism. The teacher. purpose of life. His contribution is one of the best in pragmatism since pragmatism emphasizes on problem solving to attain learning. to consider only the changeless or the heritage.

self-affirmation. perception and understanding of the things around him and the world that moves beneath his feet. the great devotions. concept. at least fails while daring greatly. not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles. explanations. Existentialism assures that no one can say that a person has done the wrong thing in a particular situation in a particular point of time since we all live inside different glasses through which we see the world. Every individual has his own definition. step-by-step methods. but who does actually strive to do the deeds. who errs. the spot of pragmatism in every person's heart grows wider. interpretation. It is not the critic who counts. etc. if he fails. so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat. Every time we make decisions.*** Because the world started to embrace science from the 1800's. learning by doing. who spends himself in a worthy cause. experimentation. A PHILOSOPHY Existentialism stresses on human existence and emphasizes on the human as an individual. This institution gets the learners ready for what is outside. people are bombarded with choices every hour and every minute in their lives. who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement. you feed him forever. *** Pragmatism is an educational philosophy in line with "if you give someone a fish. The individual is the master of his own fate and the captain of his soul and his decisions lead to self-definition. whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena. etc.Theodore Roosevelt *** . who comes short again and again. and who at the worst. preparation. processes. you feed him for a day." *** PRAGMATISM: Scientific method. changes. The essence that a person has and the meaning or purpose of life that he lives by are created through his decision-makings. The school stopped from being a disciplinary camp and began to become a specialized miniature social environment that resembles that which is outside. According to this philosophy. science. who knows great enthusiasms. EXISTENTIALISM. or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. we become more different from the people around us in terms of how we see the world. who strives valiantly. If you teach someone how to fish. There may be choices which are only of minor significance but there are also those which have major implications. point-of-view. -. because there is no effort without error and shortcoming.

therefore. responsibilities. As fast as technology and innovation grew was the birth of new learning theories from people with applaudable explanations regarding learning. appropriate for a curriculum that adopts this philosophy. therefore. technology made its way to people's lives and innovation conquered the world in every inch. emotional. . many educators still think that it's too unsystematic and laissez-faire to be incorporated in the elementary education. From time to time. subjective. -. people from times before Jesus argued and debated about what learning really is. I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. mind and spirit is more capable to be productive. political and religious restrictions since it argues that a person is a natural being. choice. *** EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom. It matters not how strait the gate. How charged with punishments the scroll. This is the basic principles under which we choose what to major in in college and what curriculum to belong to during basic education. subjective. is a place where students' freedom to choose and learning are restricted and limited since students are under the control of adults inside scholastic institutions. Even though existentialism envisions almost absolute child-centered learning. This is also why vocational high schools offer different choices of what to study and what skills to possess. This philosophy suggests educating the young ones about freedom and responsibility. FIVE MAJOR LEARNING THEORIES Many years ago. etc. aesthetic and philosophical are. There rose a lot of definitions of what learning really is and how it occurs. *** Existentialists believe that a free person in body.William Ernest Henley *** This philosophy also rejects societal. The learners must have the freedom to choose and must take on responsibilities for their own actions.Existentialism prefers the learners to choose what they want to study. Freedom is the source of progress and responsibility maintains established progress. aesthetic. School. Literature and the arts are advisable. Learning contents and experiences which are personal.

They also stress that certain behavioral tools may facilitate learning. learning is the interaction between the learner's senses and the working of the brain. the more the student is stimulated to learn. Law of effect states that the learner's learning or retention may be facilitated by the pleasant experiences that a student experiences or will experience during or after the learning process. Law of readiness states that the learner should be given the chance whenever he's ready because it a delay may discourage or demotivate him. the more the student learns. This gives emphasis on the importance of prior knowledge in a person's learning. Whenever the learner experiences a new thing. According to cognitivists. He said that the human brain is composed of schemata where learning experiences are written.Today. *** Behavioral Learning Theories Behavioral learning theories emphasize the importance of human behavior in defining learning. The law of intensity states that the harder the activity is. Behaviorists define learning as a permanent change of behavior. of readiness and of exercise. he brings out some of his schemata which relate to the new schema. Curriculum developers thought that learning what learning really is would help teacher and future educators to make the teaching-learning process better. Cognitive Learning Theories Cognitive learning theories emphasize the importance of the functions and working of the human brain in defining learning. we have five prevailing learning theories that help us explain the process of learning. Now let us have a simple overview of these theories. Law of exercise is divided into two sub-laws: the law of frequency and law of intensity. Discovery Learning Theories . The law of frequency states that the more frequent or longer the duration of an activity or learning process is. One popular BLT theory is Edward Thorndike's Laws of Learning: law of effect. One popular cognitive theory is Jean Piaget's Schematic Learning. *** The study of these learning theories is incorporated within professional education subjects.

since we spend at least 16 years of our lives in academic institutions. these theories state that the learner learns more when his part in the teaching learning process is more on "receiving. Money: A person who spends money on cosmetics is obviously beauty-conscious. we spend 2/3 of our days in scholastic activities. at home." Social Learning Theories Social learning theories open the importance of environment and community in the learning of a student. Reception Learning Theories Reception learning theories underline the importance of demonstration and teacher instruction. a person who allots money in books has an inner motivation for learning.Discovery learning theories stress on the importance of self-discovery and self-definition. INDICATORS TO AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES Learning is a change in behavior. anywhere.F. This is why affects are also assessed. a very important contribution is from Albert Bandura's Learning by Modeling. learning is a behavior. . This states that students learn by imitating the elders. affects are also learned in school. Robinson and Shaver (1993) enumerated a few indicators or approaches to the assessment of affective outcomes. etc. However. by interacting with people in it. The way content knowledge is. Skinner disproved that notion using his Operant Conditioning. depending on the reinforcements applied. morals. We acquire interests. preferences. attitudes. This is why teachers are demanded to act most accordingly since students look up to them. in the church. measured and evaluated by teachers. Since then. which may become seldom or frequent. Learning occurs randomly in the school. not permanent. This is why teachers have to prepare and arrange learning contents and experiences to facilitate their learning. most of the things we know and people we befriend with are products of this social institution. Within at least 16 years. habits. To put it simply. On the other hand. 1/3 (8 hours) in sleeping. Many people say that learning is a permanent change in behavior but B. Here they are: 1. Jerome Bruner's discovery learning theory informs educators that learning may also occur from students' discoveries.

His experiences may clearly let his readers understand the whys. as the adage goes. Lord. Who knows!? May be he's a scientist. Here comes interest. 5. Interest is a driving force to retain what and what not to. "Not everyone who says to me. thus. a time spent is an indicator of a person's interest. I'm sure most of us will agree about that. answers in considerable speed.. but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. A person who spends time in the gym thinks that physical fitness is of utmost importance. This is in line with Fund of Information. Fund of Information: A person who know a lot about the history of the Roman Catholic Church might probably have read a lot money and time to reading and buying material about it. we seem to choose what to learn and what to retain in our minds. A person who is most interested in grammar doesn't take much time to identify that a sentence has an error. etc. According to behaviorists. Time: Time is gold. 3. Diana. Verbal Expressions: But the words you speak come from the heart. Sociometric Measures: . 'Lord. Speed of Decision or Reaction Time: My classmate. This is why. leads us to the conclusion that time and money and other indicators are more concrete manifestations of affective outcomes. -. when asked anything about the periodic table.Matthew VII : xxi This. -. like money. Though (since I already involved the Bible). Written Expressions or Personal Documents: Edgar Allan Poe wrote a lot about love woven with death and tragedy.. 6. 7. not all who speaks of God and Jesus are believers. She surely is very familiar with these matters and it indicated his interests.Matthew XV : xviii A person who talks about politics is more likely interested in politics. 4.2.' will enter the kingdom of heaven. inclinations. Ray Bradbury wrote his books and short stories dealing with the future and technology and their implications in the lives of the people.

Tell me who your friends are and I'll tell you who you are. Reasoning Students’ ability to use their knowledge." LEARNING TARGETS Knowledge Students’ mastery of the content. Affects Students’ emotional attainments. The choice of friends of a person indicates a lot about himself. . 8. Though I do not believe in this. 11. Activity Level Methods: A person's endurance in something or anything. in general. 12. based on some standardized or systematized recorders. 9. Memory Measures: The ability of a student to retain and recall pieces of information despite of distractions and other factors is an indicator. Simulations: Game-like activities and other interpersonal activities reveal a person's attitude. Observations: Observations of the teacher. Specific Performances and Behavior Sleeping in Math classes and reciting actively in the Biology class say that a learner is bored and stimulated. 10. CLARITY & APPROPRIATENESS OF LEARNING TARGETS Assessment should be clearly stated and specified and centered on what is truly important. it is a powerful indicator of affective learning. Products Students’ ability to create. Skills Students’ ability to demonstrate what they have learned. his speed in reading or writing and others speaks loudly about a person's affects. 12 PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT 1. "Teaching emphasis should parallel testing emphasis.

ASSESSMENT METHODS LEARNING TARGETS Objective Supply Knowledge Objective Select Knowledge Essay Reasoning Performance-based Skills. DOMAINS OF LEARNING: Cognitive Affective Psychomotor HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES (BLOOM) (ANDERSON) Evaluation Create Synthesis Evaluate Analysis Apply Application Analyze Comprehension Understand Knowledge Remember 4.2. BALANCE Assessment methods should be able to assess all domains of learning and hierarchy of objectives. VALIDITY Assessment should be valid. skills Self-report Affects 3. RELIABILITY . APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT METHODS Assessment should utilize assessment methods suitable for a particular learning target. TYPES OF VALIDITY Content Validity Face Validity Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity Discriminant Validity Construct Validity 5. products Oral-question Knowledge. reasoning Observation Knowledge. There are several types of validity that are to be established.

6. RELIABILITY CAN BE MEASURED USING: Test-retake or Retest Method Giving the same examination after several minutes to several years. 8. Test of Stability Giving the same examination content but not in the same manner or form after several minutes to several years. etc. FAIRNESS Assessment should give equal opportunities for every student. . Because assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. age. Kuder-Richardson Establishment of reliability using KR 21 and KR 20 formulas. PRACTICALITY & EFFICIENCY Assessment should save time. It should be resourceful. ASSESSMENT FORMS: PLACEMENT ASSESSMENT Done before instruction to assess the needs of the learners to determine their capacities and capabilities. SPLIT-HALF This is used to establish internal consistency using Pearson r formula. Parallel-form/Equivalence test Giving the same examination within the day.Assessment should show consistent and stable results. etc. AUTHENTICITY Assessment should touch real life situations and should emphasize practicability. 9.) 7. it should be continuous. ASSESSMENT IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Done during instruction to monitor students’ progress and to reinforce learning. money. There should be no discrimination of any kind (racial. There are methods which can be used to measure and establish reliability. gender. Measurement of stability & Equivalence Giving the same examination content but not in the same manner or form within the day.

It should motivate students to learn and do more and should give way to improve the teacher's instruction. preferences. CLEAR COMMUNICATION Assessment's results should be communicated to the learners and the people involved. 12. they should also be assessed. POSITIVITY OF CONSEQUENCE Assessment should have a positive effect. a skill acquired or an attitude patterned.and post-test reviews. 10. ASSESSING AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES The main goal of the teaching-learning process is learning. ethics. One example of this is the right to confidentiality. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Done after instruction to assess students’ achievement and to see the result of the teaching-learning process. Learning is should be facilitated and assessed. FIVE LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE DOMAIN OF LEARNING Receiving – Being aware or attending to something in the environment Responding – Showing new behaviors as a result of learning/experiences Valuing – Showing some definite involvement or commitment Organizing – Integrating new values into one’s general set of values and giving ranks or prioritizing them Characterization – Acting consistently with the new rule . ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT Assessment should not be used to derogate the students. Within the school. a learner also learners to interact with other people and from his experiences he learn. It can be a knowledge learned. 11. Communication should also be established between the teacher and the learners by way of pre. Since affects are also products of the teaching-learning process. beliefs. Learning doesn’t only refer to substantive or content knowledge because learning can be in many forms.DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT Done to see the problems and learning difficulties of the students. feelings. morals. etc.. acquire or pattern his attitudes.

Writing reflects who a person is. If he chooses to attend the seminar. belief. Sociometric Measures. it shows his love or interest in what he does. Observing how a person conducts himself is the best way to assess his affects. It is helpful for a teacher to know different approaches to assess whether students are learning affectively. One who knows a lot about the solar system has more likely spends time and money to know such information. Activity Level Methods. Time is gold. more likely. People spend most of their money in things which they consider important. Observations. Verbal Expressions. Emily Dickinson’s poems are always about bravery towards death. APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT OF AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES Robinson & shaver (1993) mentioned ways to assess attitudes and dynamic outcomes. it means that he has strong belied or conviction that seminars are more important. It only shows her attitude. it still prevails that who your friends are is who you are. Time. They are as follows: Money. A student who spends money on books has. A person’s behavior toward something is his attitude. A person who hurts animals may be an animal-hater or just a violent person. Speed of Decision or Reaction Time. Recalling something easily reflects affects.ASSESSMENT OF AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES Only a few approaches to the assessment of affective outcomes have been translated into classroom use. This shows his affective inclination to the field which interests him. A person who speaks of the Bible is obviously affectively inclined to the Words of God. Gold in important. Specific Performances and Behaviors. Though a lot of contentions can be said against this. preference. Written Expression or Personal Documents. etc. An activity that arouses one’s interest and in which he exerts a lot of energy is more likely the activity that he prefers. an inclination to reading and it can be deduced that he loves what he does. beliefs and attitudes. A person who makes quick decision between attending ballet recitals or seminars shows his preference. Memory Measures. If some spends his time on something. Fund of Information. Our memory absorbs the best when it is stimulated to do so. .

12. 4. Self-report 2. 5. role playing and other activities that represent outside interaction are good conditions from which one’s affects can be observed. Checklist WRITING ITEMS FOR SELF-REPORT AFFECTIVE MEASURES These are guidelines and criteria to be considered to develop or edit activities that measure affective outcomes (Payne. THERE ARE WAYS to gather affective data. 11.Simulations.” “just. Simple Projective Techniques 5. Avoid statements that contain universals: “only. Avoid statements referring to the past. 13. . 8. In this part of the lecture. Self-expression Techniques 6. Avoid statements that are factual or are capable of being interpreted as factual. Games. one by one: 1. ambiguous or indirect language. 10. The Semantic Differential Technique) 3. Avoid statements that are formed with compound or complex sentences. Instead. 2003).” “merely. 6. 9. Avoid statements that are likely to be endorsed by everyone or by no one. we will have the following. Attitude scale (Forced-Choice Selection Method.” “none” and others of familiar nature. 7. Avoid statements that are too long (more than 20 words). 3. Avoid using highfalutin words or words difficult to understand. Avoid using complex. The Free Response and Opinionnaire Method 4. Avoid statements that are irrelevant to the psychological object under consideration. 2. Avoid statements that can be interpreted in more than one way. Summated Ratings or Likert Scale. Avoid statements that contain more than one complete thought. Avoid reflecting the entire range of affectivity. Avoid double negatives. Payne cited several things to avoid: 1. refer to the present.

and produces scores that are easily analyzed. and encircled plus (+) sign symbolized that the student strongly agrees with the statement. let your students write three or four statements towards cheating. For example. Values can be assigned to responses. Refer to the given example below. (1996) described an effective method to construct an attitude scale. Of course. they can indicate this using a question (?) mark. 2 ? 0 If the maximum possible score is 150. Using a criteria cull 30 items from a pool of 50 or 60 statements. Score the inventory. is quick. produces a better distribution. This is not a test. The forced-choice selection method: minimizes the subjectivity of the exam. respectively. This is instead of choosing the degree of favorableness or intensity. there is no right and wrong answer. The minimum can be 30 score and the indifference can be 90. this will indicate a favorable attitude. If students are uncertain. reduces fakability. All the sentences in the list represent ideas that some people hold about cheating on tests. The format is the same with that of a multiple-choice examination and can be a description of a situation. Select the best statements. ATTITUDE SCALING: SUMMATED RATING OR LIKERT SCALES . ATTITUDE SCALING: FORCED-CHOICE SELECTION METHODS This method requires/forces respondents to select among choices that differ in content. Students can make use of the plus (+) sign or the minus (-) sign to indicate whether they agree or disagree. Administer the inventory. these indications can be modified.STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING AN ATTITUDE SCALE Berdie et al. 3 Encircled . If you plan to have an attitude scale for cheating. Symbol Points given Encircled + 5 + 4 . There are steps and they are as follows: Collect a pool of statements. Students can intensify their responses by encircling the symbol they incurred. efficient and objective. The respondent is to choose the statement that best describes him.

___ .___ .___ .___ . ATTITUDE SCALING: SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL TECHNIQUE This method makes use of bipolar adjective scales.___ .___ . Inclusion of items of interest and face appeal to the respondents 3. The following criteria are to be considered in preparing an opinionnaire (Gable.___ -____ Slow Good ___ .In this method.___ .___ -____ Weak There are steps in developing a semantic differential scale. Design a response sheet. D and E) which are assigned with response categories (strongly agree. There are enumerated as follows: 1.___ . A pre-categorized type is very closely related to the forced-response . Numerical weights are best used for easiness of computation. uncertain. It is designed to measure attitudes.___ . 1996): 1. respondents are to choose among numbers (1.3.___ . B. 6. Write instructions. feelings and opinions by degree from very favorable to highly unfavorable.___ .___ -____ Active Strong ___ . Provision for depth responses 4. Wording should neither be suggestive nor unstimulating. Phrasing of question should not be too narrow. It should allow respondents a reasonable latitude. C. 4 and 5) or letter (A.___ .___ .___ . Brevity 2.___ . 4. Phrasing of questions should allay suspicion about hidden purposes and should not embarrass/threaten respondents. The students are free to respond the way they deem proper. 2. 5. Refer to the examples below: Fast ___ .___ .___ -____ Bad Quite ___ . Choose appropriate bipolar scales. There are two types of opinionnaires – the close/pre-categorized type and the open/free- response type. Identify the concepts to be rated. FREE RESPONSE AND OPINIONNAIRE METHOD This method brings out every relevant response and ensures that all necessary questions are asked. 3. 2. agree. disagree or strongly disagree).

Johari’s Window and other modified forms are the best examples of this. gives absolute freedom for any type of response. definite and complete. Unfinished sentences are done by letting the student fill out missing parts of a sentence. Motivate the students to answer thoughtfully. 8. Spell out objectives. There are general cautions to be considered when preparing an opinionnaire: 1. purposes and specifications for the instrument. CHECKLISTS This is the simplest way to gather affective data. 5. Be sure that directions are clear. Control the questionnaire’s administration. Try to limit the length of the questionnaire to ten questions. unfinished sentences or unfinished stories. 9. . 6. 2. Use a sequence of questions. Make sure that the students understand the purpose of the questionnaire. on the other hand. Urge student to ask clarifying questions. SIMPLE PROJECTILE TECHNIQUES SPT or (simple projectile technique) can be done using word association. Students are only required to tick items that are either desirable/favorable or undesirable/unfavorable for them. 10. The former. Urge the students to express their own thoughts.technique in that it requires a respondent to choose between or among categorized responses. Pilot-test the questions that are not clear to them. Word association is done by presenting a word and letting the student respond using the first word that comes out from his mind. Unfinished story is done by asking students to tell how a story should end. 7. 3. 4. SELF-EXPRESSION TECHNIQUES SET give the student the opportunity to express their ideas and opinions about themselves and others.

Reward can be perceived in two forms. 1. Teacher A asked student A to clean the room before leaving and teacher A said she'll be back to check it. .FIVE BASES OF POWER [CLASSROOM POWER] As I have mentioned last time. COERCIVE POWER Coercive power is the power of a teacher based on the expectation of the student that he will be punished by the teacher if he does not conform to the influence exerted by the teacher. so to speak. One is that the teacher will provide something pleasant and another is that the teacher may remove something unpleasant. Reward power and coercive power are flip sides of a coin. This may also extend outside the school setting. This extends even outside the school setting. These five bases of power are founded in the perception of individuals over whom the power is exerted and are concerned with the particular influence or effect that a specific type of power produces. The strength of a teacher's coercive power depends upon the student's perception of the degree of the punishment. French and Raven (1968) qualified other definitions of power by providing the five bases of power. Although French and Raven did not write this for classroom management. hand in hand. The punishment for nonconformity to the teacher's influence attempt has two perceived nature. These two powers work together. REWARD POWER Reward power is the power of a teacher based on the expectation of the student that he will be rewarded by the teacher if he does conform to the influence attempt of the teacher. It is also notable that in any environment where there is a strong peer-force against the teacher. 2. the probability that the reward may actually be given and the probability of receiving greater reward from other sources. the coercive power of the teacher is considerably low even if the teacher exert higher degrees of punishment. the strength of the reward power depends upon the student's perception of the degree of reward. Just like the coercive power. One is the punishment that the teacher may provide something unpleasant and another is the punishment of removing something pleasant. the probability that the punishment will actually be implemented and the probability of greater punishment from other sources. we can see how it relates to our context below.

Student E is teacher D's student in another class. This is also based on the perception that the student always tries to make a connection or relationship between him and his teacher. 4. This power views the teacher as someone "assigned" to take over the classroom and to manage students' behavior. as a "less powerful figure. Before the lesson starts. requested student B. etc. cleanliness. REFERENT POWER Referent power is based upon the student's identification with the teacher. the teacher has the power to demand silence. Since the teacher is a "more powerful figure. Student E immediately extended help. One time. respect. the weaker the legitimate power. Legitimate power is based upon the perception that the teacher has the bestowed rights to make certain demands and requests for the betterment and improvement of the classroom or the school environment and the teaching-learning process. A change of behavior or understanding led by the teacher shows a high degree of expert power. The strength of this power depends upon the student's personal relationship to the teacher. LEGITIMATE POWER Legitimate power is also perceived as the power carried by the teacher vested in him by a higher institution or office. the students still holds them true. teacher C asked student C to throw the garbage and student D to erase the writings on the board. EXPERT POWER Expert power is based upon the student's assumption that the teacher is competent and knowledgeable in his area of specialization or in any field. This creates an atmosphere of respect for the teacher every time he stands in front or talk to the students regarding that specific course of knowledge." the student. 3. Student B followed the instructions immediately without complaint. who's a Math teacher. Thus. the stronger the referent power is. to photocopy some documents for her. Since the function of the teacher is to manage the students' behavior. This power is only effective within the classroom or the school vicinity and is least likely to be observed in other places. who has low grades in Math. Even though ideas presented by the teacher are not yet proven in any objective way. the expert power has some kind of intellectual influence upon the students." tries to get himself identified by the teacher. from the students. The stronger the student's identification with the teacher. Student E saw teacher D carrying heavy books and on her way to her next class.Teacher B. The thinner the wall. . 5.

Knowing something isn't teaching yet until it is communicated. in some extent. *** Some educators believe that teachers must communicate a certain degree of power to give way for learning. itself. This way. In the same way. *** But what is power. the degree of power that he holds. will have a great impact on the teaching-learning process because teaching is communication. The foundation for this view is the belief that without the power of the teacher. In spite of the technologies and researches that this modern world has brought to the walls of schools and to the covers of the textbooks. Powerless is a teacher. without his ability to communicate. by the way? Other educators argue that communication. anyway? Power can be defined differently across different cultures and disciplines. has undergone developments and innovations. when used effectively.The strength of this power depends upon the confidence of the teacher and the validity of the ideas he professes. Student F asked his English teacher what the correct spelling for "behavior" is. the more often he must use it. the ways and extents that a teacher communicates with the learners determine. student F didn't feel the necessity of looking it up in the dictionary and went on fully believing what the teacher said. *** Power and communication are interrelated. is the teaching process. the learners wouldn't learn. Teaching is a skill and so is good communication. POWER IN THE CLASSROOM Education. the traditional view of education still prevails: learners must submit themselves to the teacher. therefore. the weaker the expert power is. approaches and methods of teaching are being developed from time to time. After the teacher answered. Power. The teaching-learning process aims to attain learning and what is the teaching process. This view means that the teacher's authority inside the classroom and over the learners cannot be questioned. Others continue to suggest that the more power the teacher employed. for the past centuries. Power that is not used is power that doesn't exist and communication is required to use power. The more the students doubt or question the teacher's ideas. learning is defined as the maintenance of power of the teacher over the students -.which is rather questionable. New techniques. We need the the definition of power which can describe that which the teacher . They also stress that there are two things to be communicated among the learners: information and power.

world-class. Education must not be mediocre. Education must be applicable and not only theoretical. democratic. It should possess democratic principles such as due process and freedom." This broad view was successful to include the teacher's ability to let a learner do something which he would not do had he not been influenced by the teacher. A broader view says that power is the teacher's "ability to influence a learner's or a group of learners' behavior." The problem is that this view didn't take into account intellectual assent to influence on the part of the learners. functional. It must have an effect on the society and on the children. Three educators defined power as "the teacher's ability to affect. It must be outstanding. in some way. FUNCTIONAL. relevance and sustainability. effective. DEMOCRATIC. These characteristics imply that education must be excellent. This is particularly true in some instances where a teacher was able to influence a student's decision or choice. the student's well-being beyond the student's control. Education is expected to produce learning outcomes through contents and experiences.holds inside the classroom. equity. The learners must be able to derive valid or worthwhile knowledge. legitimate. . Education must not exclude anyone only because of culture. It must be of the learners and not of the teachers. Education must have purposeful. referent and expert powers. They qualified these definitions by noting that the result of a power must be the effect of a specific type of power exerted by the teacher and not just any combination of other external forces. EFFECTIVE. INCLUSIVE. EXCELLENT. skills and experiences from it. ethnicity or religious or political beliefs. CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Education for the 21st century is characterized by four things: quality. It must not dictate but suggest. *** The definitions of power above are well said and well accepted until the came of French and Raven's (1968) BASES OF POWER. MEANINGFUL. futuristic and universal. reward. The result of the specific power exerted must be specific and thus the birth of the FIVE BASES OF POWER: coercive. inclusive. meaningful. It must be for all.

aim to improve the society and prepare it for what will come." thus leading to changes in points of view and perspectives in politics and governance. UNIVERSAL. lay-outing. they only have to bring out knowledge from the learners. Globalization is the process by which all the aspects of society interact and operate in an international scale. This increases the demand for different skills such as encoding. Human Development. It must look into what will happen. Typist don't have to encode anymore. The nature of works has shifted from completely-manual to technology-assisted. Instead. Cultural Homogeneity. It must not be stagnant and rigid. GLOBAL AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRENDS AND DIRECTIONS IN THE 21ST CENTURY 1. they only have to encode. 3. Teachers don't have to teach everything anymore. Not only this but also people from communist or totalitarian governments are starting to realize that there such a thing called "democracy. thus increasing the potential for learning. For example. The Changing World of Work." 4. just like what John Dewey said. Globalization. Due to the advent of different media. morals and attitudes were also influenced the changing world. photo-editing. most of the people of the world are informed immediately of anything happening around the globe. not only those within our society but also those without and not only those who share the same skin . Changing Environment or Political and Cultural Landscapes. Work nowadays are becoming easier and easier. Nations all over the world are starting to adapt a single culture. It must be integrated with what the whole world can offer and it must bring out what the learner can do not only for his immediate environment but for the world.FUTURISTIC. web-designing. We have adopted. the English language (language is a part of culture) is now being spoken by at least most of the people of the world. Revolution and High Connectivity. 2. Due to the advent of different modes of transportation and different media of communication people all over the world start to understand and adapt cultures from other countries. Instead. The things around us are not the only ones that have changed. People are connected and brought together by new technologies in communication. for the past decades. 5. The Information and Communication Technology. 6. a concern for the dignity of all human persons. Our values. etc. It must. Education must not be local or provincial. The use of computers and the internet has becomes a part of our "global culture.

000.00) or imprisonment of nor less than six (6) months nor more than five (5) years. 28. — Except as otherwise allowed under this Act. Many years ago. shall also apply to any school official who shall cause or be responsible for the commission of any of the above-enumerated acts. (c) Any person who gives any false.00) nor more than Twenty thousand pesos (P20. ARTICLE IV OF R. 7836 ARTICLE IV PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRACTICE OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION Sec. Appropriations. (b) Any person who represents or attempts to use as his own certificate of registration that of another. Now.000. (f) Any person who. Attitude towards gays have changed. and (g) Any person who violates or who abets the violation of any of the provisions of this Act. (e) Any person who uses a revoked or suspended certificate of registration. Penal Provisions.A. at the discretion of the court:cralaw (a) Any person who practices the teaching profession in the Philippines without being certified in accordance with the provisions of this Act. — The following shall be punishable by a fine of not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. 29. no person shall practice or offer to practice the teaching profession in the Philippines or be appointed as teacher to any position calling for a teaching position without having previously obtained a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Commission. personality aberration is considered a psychological disorder.color with but also those who do not. or fraudulent evidence of any kind to the Board or any member thereof in obtaining a certificate of registration as teacher. or both. otherwise assumes. Inhibition Against the Practice of the Teaching Profession. as provided in this section. 27. Sec. uses or advertises any title or description tending to convey or conveys the impression that he is a teacher without holding a valid certificate. Sec. — Such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of . in connection with his name. we consider is as a gender preference. The penalty of fine or imprisonment or both. (d) Any person who impersonates any registrant of the same or different name.

for any reason. presidential decrees. 31. shall be given (5) years temporary certificates from the time the Board for Professional Teachers is organized within which to qualify as required by this Act and be included in the roster of professionals.this Act shall be included in the 1996 General Appropriations Act and thereafter. 30. Sec. Transitory Provision. 7836 AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE REGULATION AND SUPERVISION OF THE PRACTICE OF TEACHING IN THE PHILIPPINES AND PRESCRIBING A LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.cralaw Sec. Arts. copies of the implementing rules and guidelines within thirty (30) days after its promulgation. Separability Clause. executive orders. Sec. and Culture. otherwise known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees" and other pertinent administrative and/or penal laws. That the Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) shall still be administered by the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Education. ARTICLE I TITLE . 33. — All incumbent teachers in both the public and private sector not otherwise certified as professional teachers by virtue of this Act. Sec. rules and regulations or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. Repealing Clause. — If. — This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its complete publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation. — The Board shall formulate and adopt the necessary guidelines for the effective implementation of the provisions of this Act within sixty (60) days of its approval. 6713.cralaw The Board shall submit to both Committees on Education. Implementing Guidelines. Culture and Sports for the year 1995. Provided. Any violation of this section shall render the official/s concerned liable under Republic Act No. Sec. — All laws. no other section or provision of this Act shall be affected thereby. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 32. 34. any section or provision of this Act or the application of such section or provision to any person or circumstance is declared unconstitutional or invalid. and the Committees on Civil Service and Professional Regulation of the Senate and House of Representatives. Effectivity Clause. however.

Short Title. hereinafter called the Board. 4. (b) "Teachers" — refers to all persons engaged in teaching at the elementary and secondary levels. 3. at the elementary and secondary levels in accordance with the curriculum prescribed by the Department of Education. 5. Creation and Composition of the Board.SECTION 1. 2. the State shall ensure and promote quality education by proper supervision and regulation of the licensure examination and professionalization of the practice of the teaching profession. Definition of Terms.Towards this end. Culture and Sports. — For purposes of this Act. — There is hereby created under this Act a Board for Professional Teachers. ARTICLE II BOARD FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS Sec. — This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994. Sec. hereinafter referred to as the Commission. Statement of Policy.cralaw Sec. the following terms shall mean:chanroblesvirtualawlibrary (a) "Teaching" — refers to the profession concerned primarily with classroom instruction. composed of five (5) members who shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines from among the recommendees chosen by . (c) "Board" — refers to the Board for Professional Teachers duly established and constituted under this Act. (d) "Commission" — refers to the Professional Regulation Commission. whether on part-time or full-time basis in the private or public schools. and (b) The supervision and regulation of the licensure examination. — The State recognizes the vital role of teachers in nation- building and development through a responsible and literate citizenry. a collegial body under the general supervision and administrative control of the Professional Regulation Commission. development and professionalization of teachers and the teaching profession. whether on full-time or part-time basis. including industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools in the aforesaid levels and qualified to practice teaching under this Act." Sec. — This Act has the herein objectives: (a) The promotion. Objectives.

adopt such measures as may be deemed proper for the enhancement and maintenance of high professional and ethical standards of the profession.Such ethical standards. administer and enforce rules and regulations necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Act in accordance with the charter of the Professional Regulation Commission. (k) Investigate such violations of this Act. 6. That the members of the first Board appointed under this Act shall be automatically registered as professional teachers and issued with the certificate of registration and professional license upon payment of the fees for examination. or revoke the certificate of registration for the practice of the teaching profession. proctors. use buildings and facilities of public or private schools for examination purposes. suspend. and other fees prescribed by the Commission. and places of examination. (j) Ensure that all educational institutions offering elementary and secondary education comply with the essential requirements for curricula. dates. (e) Prescribe and/or adopt a code of ethical and professional standards for the practice of the teaching profession. and for . faculty and facilities for the elementary and secondary levels.cralaw (i) Look into the conditions affecting the practice of the teaching profession and whenever necessary. — The Board shall have the following duties and functions: (a) Promulgate.The recommendees shall be chosen from the list of nominees selected by the accredited association of teachers. rules and regulations to take effect sixty (60) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in any newspaper of general circulation. who duly possess all the qualifications prescribed in Section 8 of this Act. licensure and practice of professional teachers in the Philippines. appoint supervisors. Sec. (d) Prescribe and collect examination and other fees as it may deem proper. the rules and the code of ethical and professional standards for professional teachers as it may come to the knowledge of the Board. Duties and Function of the Board. (h) Adopt an official seal of the Board. (b) Determine and fix the frequency. registration. The chairman and the voice-chairman of the Board shall be appointed from these five (5) members by the President: Provided. (g) Supervise and regulate the registration. and other personnel as needed who shall be entitled to a daily allowance to be fixed by the Board for every examination day actually attended. (c) Issue.the Commission. (f) Administer oaths in connection with the administration of this Act.

Sec. (b) Be at least thirty-five (35) years of age. or their equivalents. college. That the first appointees to the Board under this Act shall hold office according to the following terms: one (1) member shall serve for one (1) year. including equitable representation of the different fields of specialization. — Each Board member must at the time of his appointment: (a) Be a citizen and resident of the Philippines. the membership to the Board shall be evenly distributed to cover all levels of education.That. and neither connected with a review center or with any group or association where review classes or lectures in preparation for the licensure examination are offered or conducted. (d) Be a professional teacher with a valid certificate of registration and valid professional license. and (l) Discharge such other powers. and (f) Not be an official or member of the faculty of. enhancement. 8. however. (c) Be a holder of the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science in Education and preferably a holder of a master's or doctorate degree in education. Sec. and possessed of high moral values in his personal as well as professional conduct and has not been convicted of any offense involving moral turpitude. from a university. development and growth of education in the Philippines. No person who has served for two (2) consecutive terms shall be eligible for reappointment. duties and functions as the Board may deem necessary for the practice of the teaching profession and the upgrading. . of proven integrity. recognized and/or accredited by the Philippine government. Vacancies shall be served for the unexpired term only.this purpose. the chairman. The chairman or any member shall take his oath of office prior to the performance of his duties. academy or institute duly constituted. school. Term of Office. — The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3) years from the date they assume office: Provided.Appointment to fill an unexpired term shall be considered an appointment to a complete term. 7. and one (1) member for three (3) years. Provided. save those members who shall compose the first Board for Professional Teachers. college. one (1) member for two (2) years. nor have pecuniary interest in any university. or institution conferring a bachelor's degree in education or its equivalents for at least three (3) years prior to his appointment. school. to issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum to secure the appearance of witnesses and the production of documents in connection therewith. (e) Has been a professional teacher in the active practice of the teaching profession for at least ten (10) years in the elementary and secondary level. vice-chairman. Qualification of Board Members.

— The examinations for the elementary and secondary school teachers shall be separate. Sec. the President may preventively suspend the respondent. including applications for examination. except as otherwise allowed under this Act. — The chairman. shall provide the secretariat and other support services to implement effectively the provisions of this Act. Sec. all applicants for registration as professional teachers shall be required to undergo a written examination which shall be given at least once a year in such places and dates as the Board may determine upon approval by the Commission. vice-chairman. administrative cases and investigative cases and investigations involving professional teachers shall be kept by the Commission. 14. unethical. 10.Sec. incompetence. commission or toleration of irregularities in the examination. unprofessional. — Except as otherwise specifically allowed under the provisions of this Act. through its chairman. Examination. All records. 11. Secretariat and Support Services. 15. and members of the Board shall receive compensation comparable to the compensation received by existing regulatory boards under the Professional Regulation Commission. namely: professional education and general education. 13. Compensation of the Board.cralaw Sec. namely: professional education. Removal of a Board Member. The examination for teachers in the elementary level shall consist of two (2) parts. In the course of investigation. Supervision of the Board and Custodian of its Records. — No applicant shall be admitted to take the examination unless. on the date of filing of the application. — The Professional Regulation Commission. Registration and License Required. examination papers and results. 12. Sec. general education. — The chairman or any member of the Board may be removed by the President of the Philippines upon recommendation of the Commission for neglect of duty. after having been given the opportunity to defend himself in a proper administrative investigation. Sec. A valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Commission are required before any person is allowed to practice as a professional teacher in the Philippines. The examination for teachers in the secondary level shall consist of three (3) parts. 9. ARTICLE III EXAMINATION AND REGISTRATION Sec. minutes of deliberation. computed on the basis of the number of examinees/candidates. he shall have complied with the following requirements: . Scope of Examination. immoral or dishonorable conduct. — The Board shall be under the supervision and control of the Commission. Qualification Requirements of Applicants. and field of specialization.

This license shall serve as evidence that the licensee can lawfully practice his profession until the expiration of its validity. (2) For teachers in the elementary grades.(a) A citizen of the Philippines or an alien whose country has reciprocity with the Philippines in the practice of the teaching profession. . vice-chairman. (c) In good health and of good reputation with high moral values. stamped with the official seal. 16. suspended and/or revoked in accordance with law. be issued a certificate of registration as a professional teacher bearing the full name of the registrant with serial number and date of issuance signed by the chairman of the Commission and the chairman. report the ratings obtained by each candidate to the Professional Regulation Commission for approval and appropriate action. and members of the Board. Issuance of Certificate of Registration and Professional License. a bachelor's degree in the field of specialization or its equivalent. (e) A graduate of a school. college or university recognized by the government and possesses the minimum educational qualifications. (b) At least eighteen (18) years of age. — The registration of a professional teacher commences from the date his name is enrolled in the roster of professional teachers. with at least eighteen (18) units in professional education. Sec. as evidence that the person named therein is entitled to practice the profession with all the rights and privileges appurtenant thereto. Report of the Results of the Examination. a bachelor's degree in education or its equivalent with a major and minor. — The Board shall. upon payment of the registration fee. a bachelor's degree in elementary education (BSEED) or its equivalent. 17. (3) For teachers in the secondary grades. Sec. a bachelor's degree in early childhood education (BECED) or its equivalent. or a bachelor's degree in arts and sciences with at least ten (10) units in professional education. as follows: (1) For teachers in preschool. within one hundred twenty (120) days after the examination.cralaw A professional license signed by the chairman of the Commission and bearing the registration number and date of issuance thereof and the month of expiry or renewability shall likewise be issued to every registrant who has paid the annual registration fees for three (3) consecutive years. and (4) For teachers of vocational and two-year technical courses. Every registrant who has satisfactorily met all the requirements specified in this Act shall. The certificate shall remain in full force and effect until withdrawn. (d) Has not been convicted by final judgment by a court for an offense involving moral turpitude.

he or she shall be allowed to take the examination for a second time. In taking this examination. Should he or she fail to pass the merit examination for the second time. and (d) Enjoy such other benefits as may be promulgated by the Board. Incentives. — Teachers who pass the merit examination shall: (a) Be awarded a diploma of merit by the Board. however. — Every registrant shall be required to take his professional oath before practicing as a professional teacher. be used as a ground for his/her dismissal or demotion. — The Board shall have the power. Those who have been registered with the Board but are not members of the said integrated organization shall be allowed to register as members of the said integrated organization within three (3) years after the effectivity of this Act. Sec. every professional teacher shall be encouraged to become a member of the integrated national organization. to suspend or revoke the certificate of . and Cancellation of Temporary or Special Permit. 18. after due notice and hearing. Suspension from the Practice of the Teaching Profession. 21. — The teaching profession shall be integrated into one national organization which shall be recognized by the Board and the Commission as the one and only integrated and accredited association of professional teachers. then he or she shall be required to take a DECS accredited refresher course or program before being allowed to retake the examination. — To encourage continuing professional growth and development and to provide additional basis for merit promotion. Sec. (c) Be placed in the priority list for government scholarship. in addition to their performance rating. 19. Revocation of the Certificate of Registration. Failure of any permanent teacher to pass the merit examination shall not. 22. 20. Sec. Integration of the Teaching Profession. Sec. 23. — If a teacher fails to pass the merit examination. Oath Before Practice. Sec. Periodic Merit Examination of Teachers. teachers may take an oral and written examination at least once in five (5) years as basis for merit promotion. (b) Earn merit points for purposes of promotion in salary or to a higher position or grade level. The professional teachers shall receive the benefits and privileges appurtenant to their membership in the said integrated and accredited organization of professional teachers only upon payment of the required membership fees and dues. Membership in the integrated organization shall not be a bar to membership in other associations of the teaching profession. Similar incentives shall be given to teachers who make inventions.Sec. develop new methods of teaching. Upon registration with the Board. write a book or books and create works of artistic merit. no fee shall be required. Failure to Pass the Merit Examination.

(e) The use of or perpetration of any fraud or deceit in obtaining a certificate of registration. 26. conferences and the like or the continuing education program prescribed by the Board and the Commission. (d) Malpractice. — A roster of professional teachers containing the names and addresses of professional teachers. the Department of Education. and other data which in the opinion of the Board may appear pertinent shall be maintained. Sec. Registration by Reciprocity. further. Copies of the roster shall be provided by the Commission to the Board. (c) Declaration by a court of competent jurisdiction for being mentally unsound or insane. for any of the following causes: (a) Conviction for any criminal offense by a court of competent jurisdiction. that the requirements of certification of teachers with said foreign state or country are substantially the same as those required and contemplated under this Act: Provided. workshops. no person shall engage in teaching and/or act as a professional teacher as defined in this Act. and the code of ethical and professional standards for professional teachers. — No teacher of a foreign nationality shall be admitted to the examination. (b) Immoral. professional license or special/temporary permit. date of registration or issuance of certificate. Culture and Sports. gross negligence or serious ignorance of the practice of the teaching profession. gross incompetence. Roster of Professional Teachers. to reprimand or to cancel the temporary/special permit of a holder thereof who is exempt from registration. That the laws of such state or country grant the same privilege to Filipino professional teachers on the same basis as the subject or citizens of such foreign country or state. or be given a certificate of registration or be entitled to any of the rights and privileges provided under this Act. Registration and Exception. Sec. and (h) Unjustified or willful failure to attend seminars. Sec. 25. and the integrated and accredited organization of professional teachers. 24. — Two (2) years after the effectivity of this Act. unless the country or state of which he is a subject permits Filipino professional teachers to practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as subjects or citizens of said country or state: Provided. unprofessional or dishonorable conduct. The decision of the Board to revoke or suspend a certificate may be appealed to the regional trial court of the place where the Board holds office within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the said decision or of the denial of the motion for reconsideration filed in due time.registration of any registrant. unless he is a duly registered . elementary or secondary level. whether in the preschool. (f) Chronic inebriety or habitual use of drugs.cralaw (g) Violation of any of the provisions of this Act. the rules and regulations and other policies of the Board and the Commission.

Upon approval of the application and payment of the prescribed fees. Provided. Inhibition Against the Practice of the Teaching Profession. or (c) Not qualified under paragraphs one and two but with any of the following qualifications. 27. orcralaw (b) A registered professional teacher with the National Board for Teachers under the Department of Education. and a holder of a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license or a holder of a valid special/temporary permit. Culture and Sports. who at the time of the approval of this Act. and shall be assigned by the Department of Education. Culture and Sports (DECS) pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1006. That those who have failed the licensure examination for professional teachers shall be eligible as para-teachers and as such. is: (a) A holder of a certificate of eligibility as a teacher issued by the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Education. shall be issued by the Board a special or temporary permit. albeit qualified. — Except as otherwise allowed under this Act. ARTICLE IV PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRACTICE OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION Sec. no person shall practice or offer to practice the teaching profession in the Philippines or be appointed as teacher to any position calling for a teaching position without having previously obtained a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional . That they shall be given two (2) years from the organization of the Board for professional teachers within which to register and be included in the roster of professional teachers: Provided. That those incumbent teachers who are not qualified to register without examination under this Act or who. to wit: (1) An elementary or secondary teacher for five (5) years in good standing and a holder of Bachelor of Science in Education or its equivalent. or (2) An elementary or secondary teacher for three (3) years in good standing and a holder of a master's degree in education or its equivalent. furthermore. Culture and Sports (DECS) to schools as it may determine under the circumstances.professional teacher. were unable to register within the two-year period shall be issued a five-year temporary or special permit from the time the Board is organized within which to register after passing the examination and complying with the requirements provided this Act and be included in the roster of professional teachers: Provided. further. the certificate of registration and professional license as a professional teacher shall be issued without examination as required in this Act to a qualified applicant.

Implementing Guidelines. (e) Any person who uses a revoked or suspended certificate of registration. (b) Any person who represents or attempts to use as his own certificate of registration that of another. and the Committees on Civil Service and Professional Regulation of the Senate and House of Representatives. Arts. as provided in this section. 30. The penalty of fine or imprisonment or both. 28.00) or imprisonment of nor less than six (6) months nor more than five (5) years. (d) Any person who impersonates any registrant of the same or different name. Transitory Provision. — All incumbent teachers in both the public and private sector not otherwise certified as professional teachers by virtue of this Act. Sec. — The following shall be punishable by a fine of not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. 29. in connection with his name.00) nor more than Twenty thousand pesos (P20. shall be given (5) years temporary certificates from the time the Board for Professional Teachers is . and (g) Any person who violates or who abets the violation of any of the provisions of this Act. or both. Sec. Appropriations. Sec. shall also apply to any school official who shall cause or be responsible for the commission of any of the above-enumerated acts. Any violation of this section shall render the official/s concerned liable under Republic Act No. or fraudulent evidence of any kind to the Board or any member thereof in obtaining a certificate of registration as teacher. (f) Any person who. (c) Any person who gives any false. copies of the implementing rules and guidelines within thirty (30) days after its promulgation.000. uses or advertises any title or description tending to convey or conveys the impression that he is a teacher without holding a valid certificate. 6713.license from the Commission.cralaw The Board shall submit to both Committees on Education. at the discretion of the court:cralaw (a) Any person who practices the teaching profession in the Philippines without being certified in accordance with the provisions of this Act. otherwise assumes.000. — Such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act shall be included in the 1996 General Appropriations Act and thereafter. otherwise known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees" and other pertinent administrative and/or penal laws. — The Board shall formulate and adopt the necessary guidelines for the effective implementation of the provisions of this Act within sixty (60) days of its approval. 31. and Culture. Sec. Penal Provisions.

That the Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) shall still be administered by the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Education.A. whether on full-time or part-time basis. Sec. Finally. According to it: "Teachers are all persons engaged in teaching at the elementary and secondary levels.organized within which to qualify as required by this Act and be included in the roster of professionals. 32. 7836 (Philippine Teachers' Professionalization Act of 1994) defines teaching this way: "Teaching refers to the profession concerned with the classroom instruction at the elementary level and secondary levels n accordance with the curriculum prescribed by the Department of Education whether on part-time or full-time basis in public or private schools. and of teaching. any section or provision of this Act or the application of such section or provision to any person or circumstance is declared unconstitutional or invalid. memoranda. in the Philippine setting. BASIC CONCEPTS ON RELEVANT LAWS Here are basics concepts that are essential to one's understanding of this course. Moreover. Effectivity Clause. Separability Clause. including industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools in the aforesaid levels and qualified to practice teaching under this act. however.cralaw Sec. R. RELEVANT LAWS FOR TEACHERS. executive orders. for any reason. 7836 mentions a definition for teachers.A. rules and regulations or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. 33. in particular. — All laws. presidential decrees. — This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its complete publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation. no other section or provision of this Act shall be affected thereby. Culture and Sports for the year 1995. — If. circulars and the like that were approved by proper authorities and have become legal bases in the conduct of educational process. it must also be understood that RELEVANT LAWS refer to legal acts. ordinances. R. BASIC CONCEPTS IN ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION . Sec. Repealing Clause. orders. Provided. 34. decrees. in general.

assessment feeds the teacher results which he will. Authentic Assessment. Evaluation is a process of systematic interpretation. journals and the likes. Authentic assessment refers to the use of assessment methods that simulate true-to-life situations. Measurement is a process by which the teacher quantifies the degree to which someone or something projects a specific trait. Measurement. A test is an instrument designed to measure any characteristic. This could be objective tests that reflect real life situations or alternative methods that are parallel to what we experience in real life. analysis. . It must also be noted that assessment is prerequisite to evaluation. Teacher C decided that Student A fail in the subject due to very low scores and very sparse attendance.Here are terms that a student of this course should first fully understand: Test. REMEMBER: A test is an assessment Teacher A administered a 30-item quiz. Traditional Assessment. measure. Assessment is a process of gathering and organizing quantitative or qualitative data into an interpretable form to have a basis for judgment or decision-making. graded the first performer with score of 89. measure trait. judgment should be based upon what the assessment and measurement reflect. To measure is to assign numerical or symbolical value to a given. It provides the information which enable evaluation to take place. The teacher judges whether the student is going to pass or fail the subject. Assessment. in turn. Traditional assessment refers to the use of pen-and-paper objective test. quality. On the other. It involves judgment about the desirability of changes in students. Evaluation. this is a form of measurement. using a standardized rubric. this is a form of assessment. Alternative Assessment. No teacher can judge a student's stand in the subject without sufficient assessment. The teacher assigns a quantitative values to the performance. portfolios. this is a form of evaluation. Alternative assessment refers to the use of methods other than pen-and-paper objective test which includes performance test. Of course. appraisal or judgment of the worth of organized data as basis for decision-making. Teacher B. knowledge or skill. ability. It is comprised of items in the area which it intends to measure. projects. Assessment is a prerequisite to evaluation.

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Educational technology is a process, a product, a profession and a discipline.

As a process, it is the theory and practice of designing, developing, utilizing, managing and
evaluating processes and resources intended for learning (AECT, 1994).

As a product, educational technology refers to results of the education-technological
processes like programmed texts, TV progras, computer software, audio-visual media,
interactive multimedia and entire courses of instruction (Hackbarth, 1996).

As a profession, it is composed of various job categories such as media technicians,, media
specialists, instructional developers and others (Ibid.).

As a discipline, it is an academic field of specialization within the larger discipline of
education (Ibid.).

[Technology Integration is the process of determining where and how technology fits into
teaching and learning (Williams, 2000).

A READING TEACHER
A reading teacher is someone who goes through an active, purposeful, organized cognitive
process that is used to make sense of the world, such process being improve by:

Becoming aware of one's thinking process. A teacher must always be aware of the
workings of his own mind. He must fully understand the way he thinks and the way he best
learns.

Carefully examining the thinking process. A teacher is expected to be able to example
how he thinks and how other people think.

Practicing one's thinking ability. A teacher should and must train body and, most
especially, his mind. Mens sana encorpore sano: A health mind inside a health body. He
must engage himself in continuous mental activities that will develop his cognitive skills to
the fullest.

Moreover, a reading teacher is expected to think critically. He must carefully examine his
and other people's thinking, in order to clarify and improve his own understanding. A
person's lack of knowledge on the way other people think usually end up having vague
understanding on certain aspects.

Critically thinking, reading teachers should also examine and test suggested solutions to
see whether they work. He must not reject suggestion and he must not stick to one solution
to problems. Having a duplicate key for a lock is always better.

Finally, a teacher is also expected to engage in critical thinking activities such as thinking

actively, carefully exploring situations with questions, thinking for oneself, viewing situations
from different perspectives and discussing ideas in organized ways.

CURRICULUM
Like learning and teaching, the term "curriculum" has also had a lot of definitions by
different experts.

Curriculum is defined or described as the learning experiences and intended outcomes
formulated through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the
auspices of the school for the learners' continuous and willful growth in personal-social
competence; the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge. (Tanner, D. and Tanner, L.)

It is a plan for learning (Hilda Taba); a course of study on a specific topic; includes all the
learning experiences of students as planned and directed by the school to attain its
educational goals (Ralph Tyler) or for which the school assumes responsibilities (Popham
and Baker).

Curriculum is that which is taught in school; set of subjects, materials and performance
objectives; everything that goes on within the school, including extra-class activities,
guidance and interpersonal relationships in the school (Olvia).

It is also known as a structured set of intended learning outcomes that come in the form of
knowledge, skills and values; affected by important factors of program philosophy, goals,
objectives and evaluation.

***

Do you have your own definition of curriculum? Let's here that!

TRIADIC ELEMENTS OF TEACHING
There are three elements of the teaching-learning process: the teacher, the learner and the
content.

THE TEACHER

The teacher is the key factor in any teaching-learning process. He constructs well-designed
plans to achieve objectives of the lesson. He prepares the learning environment which is a
direct factor to the students' learning. He selects appropriate contents, based on the
learners' interests and preferences. He selects appropriate activities in the same way he
selects appropriate contents. Finally, he adjusts the contents and activities to the learners'
environment.

THE LEARNER

The learner is the most important element of learner. His characteristics -- age, maturity,
grade level, health, abilities, family background, experiences, motivation, cultural

background, values attitudes and traditions, among others -- influence the teachers' choices
and decisions in the classroom.

THE CONTENT

The contents of the teaching-learning process are directly guided by the teaching strategies
that the teacher employs. The teaching contents are chosen to be taught, by the teacher, to
achieve desired objectives of the lesson. Subject matter, the other term for content, is
carefully paralleled with specific teaching materials that aim to facilitate learning.

TEACHING, DEFINED
Teaching is a very abstract idea and can never be adequately defined in a simple sentence.
This is why there have always been an attempt to explain or, at least, define, this
phenomenon. This time, let us consider the following definitions which are more accepted in
the field of education.

Teaching is a process. It is not a phenomenon done by chaotic occurrences. It involves
planning and planning is the backbone of teaching, tutoring or educating.

It stands for the method or practicing of disseminating academic or theoretical concepts. It
is anchored in training and nurturing.

It also refers to the process of engaging students into activities which aim to induce learning
among them. By this definition, we can conclude that the direct purpose of teaching is to
produce learning. Learning may be in the form of knowledge, skill, values, attitudes and
others.

It is an aggregate or an overall cluster of organized activities or strategies aimed to produce
learning. This is through explaining, questioning, demonstrating and motivating.

Teaching is also labeled as a field of science and a form of art. It is a field of science
because it is based on findings and results of psychological and neurological researches
which identify the underlying cause and effect of teaching and learning. It is a form of art
because it involves personal and aesthetic touches.

Teaching is composed of stuff that are not easily assessed, measured, explained or
observed. These stuffs include, but are not limited to, values, experiences, insights,
imaginations and perceptions.

It is the interplay of the triadic elements of teaching. To know more about the triadic
elements of teaching, click the link below.

LEARNING, DEFINED
There has been a lot of attempts to explain and define what learning really is but still there
are raging disputes. However diverse the definitions are, my favorite definition of learning is

emotional. heredity. development (as a term). capacity and proportions is referred to as "growth. Here are other definitions of learning: 1. This term usually refers to the physical traits of the individual. at least in a further extent. a two-year-old baby is expected to be able to utter simple words like "mama. 7 CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT Development among children is a very broad idea." "papa. These are the seven concepts of development which include growth. Increase in height. stages of development and developmental tasks. environment. This is why the term "developmental retardation" is used to label those who have attained a specific level of growth but do not operate in the level of development expected from their level of growth. It is an ongoing process of continued adaptation to one's environment assimilation of new information and accommodation of new input to fir prior knowledge. 2. cognitive." DEVELOPMENT Development refers to the gradual and orderly unfolding of the characteristics of an individual as he goes through the successive stages of growth. weight. An individual who has attained the growth of. Further understanding of the term "development" with reference to growth can be acquired by considering this next example. . etc. However." I define learning as "permanent" since if something learned is forgotten. it can be understood. there's no learning at all. by being able to identify the seven things around which development takes place. We have physiological. Moreover." etc. number of bones."the state in which a learning acquires permanent change of behavior. GROWTH Growth refers to the progressive increase and continuous advancement of the child from birth to maturation. linguistic.) For example. Learning is a process by which behavior is either modified or wholly changed through experience or training. say. maturation. This term refers to a sense of simplicity to a sense of complexity. socio- emotional and moral developments. Development is also compared to growth in that a person in a specific stage of growth (physical) is also expected to show development (psychological. Let's discuss each of these concepts in the following paragraphs. there are different types of development. eighteen years is expected not to act like three-year-old children.

the ability to jump. Those who operate in the highest socio-emotional development are believed to be able to handle relationships and to be able to adjust. is a kind of progress where the individual acquires an improved use of his social and emotional skills. attitude. Signs of maturation are readiness and higher-level of mental functions. the church. Environment refers to an individual's total surrounding conditions that are believed to be the keys unlocking his heredity traits.Physiological development is a kind of progress where an individual acquires an improved control of the functions of his body. moral development is a kind of progress where the individual acquires an improved sense of what is right or what is wrong. This means that the dimensions of his society all contribute to his development. Finally. Those whose moral developments are well-advanced are believed to have better decision-making and benefit-harm-weighing skills. HEREDITY Heredity is the process of transmitting traits fro parents to offspring through genes. the basic and most direct social dimension. depending on the context of the society in which he lives. etc. belief. If heredity is nature. on the other hand. Examples of this include the ability to do mathematical operations. There are arguments regarding the roles of nature and nurture to an individual's life and nature seem to be ahead. depending on circumstances. the basic unit of heredity. It is usually referred to as "the internal ripening" aspect of an individual. ENVIRONMENT Environment is the opposite of heredity. They are also believed to be have a good control of their emotions. then environment is nurture. Heredity is usually the predetermination of an individual's maturation. preferences. Examples of this include the ability to write. etc. simply. the peers. the neighborhood. the ability to process written language. structural changes within an individual which are caused by experiences and metacognition. The social dimensions that affect one's development include the family. growth and development. Socio-emotional development. the school. Maturation is. indicating that growth has already reached optimal level. . It is one of the risk factors for developmental problems. These are all contributory to a person's behavior. The society in which an organism lives is the whole picture of his environment. etc. etc. Cognitive development is a kind of progress where an individual acquires an improved use of his brain. MATURATION Maturation refers to that part of development that is honed through experiences.

000 years ago. how to build huts. As a consequence. Life span is arbitrarily divided into these stages or periods. Tribe elders.we have already started educating people. involves spiritual and worship activities. Theoretical education. Why is this? Well. First is the practical education and second is the theoretical education. . on the other hand. how to swim. those who reached considerable age. Beliefs traditions. whenever the adults have time to discuss and show the skills. how to produce fire and many more.verbal or nonverbal -. the family had become the agent of education and the center of practical and theoretical training. The primitive form of education. as counterparts. For since our species began to use language -.wisdom and moral counselors of the tribe. There were no schools or other educational institutions during the time when primitive education was prevalent in the world. walking for two-year-olds. These are necessary for one's acceptance into the society. rituals and customs are taught to the young so that they can carry on with what the tribe also learned from their fathers and their fathers' fathers and so on. Fathers were tasked with the duty to train the boys how to hunt. writing for six-year-olds and writing essays for fifteen-year-olds are but a few examples of the very many developmental tasks. is also known by the name "education for conformity. DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS Developmental tasks are traits or behaviors expected from a certain stage of development. Children were taught of whatever. it's because of the fact that education before did not involve anything other than how to survive and how to blend in with the tribe to which one belonged. Speaking for one-year-olds. it has always existed. were tasked to train the girls to manage the household. with each period being a part of a whole.STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Stages of development are referred to as the number of periods in the life cycle in which the functions and relative emphasis of a given type of behavior differ from those at other periods of life. Mothers. were considered the high priests -.000 to 50. There are two type of education within this form of education. which started 100. especially those within our communities and those within our families. PRIMITIVE EDUCATION Education did not start just a millennium or two in past. Practical education involves activities and skills necessary for one to stay alive like hunting and fighting skills. There were no levels of instruction. on the other hand.

common. 3. The methods used were enculturation. GENERALIZATION The answer for this item is letter A -.common -.Negative. (They are all negative. People were able to adjust and adapt to political and social life since primitive education is flexible and pliant. COMMON C. Assupmtion is just a guess or a hypothesis. indoctrination and tell- me-and-show-me. SUMMARY C. one of them is the correct answer.They were organic and trial-and-error in nature. summary and synthesis are all methods of producing or creating a composition. SYNTHESIS D. the proponents of primitive education. This medium allowed little changes to occur and accumulate into enormous changes over the decades. 2. primitive people. Which does not belong? A.) However. Which of the following does not belong? . Recurring questions 1. The words "inadequate. through the words of mouth. to answer that general idea only disregards the specific fact that they are negative. it is tempting to answer letter B -. especially when the specific description is logically under the general description.Assumption. Culture was passed on and preserved for generations. ASSUMPTION B. Yes. POSITIVE B. Generalization. were able to meet their economic needs and were able to survive. NEGATIVE D.Contents of primitive education were usually ritualistic and prescriptive. TEST TAKING SKILLS: If there are two opposite choices. TEST TAKING SKILLS: Always prefer specific descriptions over general descriptions. NEUTRAL The answer for this item is letter C -." "uneducated" and "illegitimate" have prefixes that are: A. Due to this flexibility." "disembark.because the words are. indeed.

obviously. 4." A. on the other hand. The article the. METER The answer for this is.are very broad ideas. Humanity C. when attached to a positive-degree adjective. RECURRING QUESTIONS #3 1. CENTIGRADE C. On the other hand.letter B. THOSE The answer is letter C -. However. Artistry B. The phrase "the poor" means "all those who are poor at the time being. Meter. B. Pottery The answer for this item is C -. The closest distractor is letter D -.A. . CELSIUS D. THEY C. Pottery does not make use of drafting. THE D.Drafting is considered as the universal language of industry. the other two choices -." The other choices are completely irrelevant. PLEASE TRY TO TASTE THE PIE BY DIPPING YOUR FINGER. The answer for this is to participate -. Drafting is considered as the universal language of? A." A. Choices A. C. you can immediately cross out letter D. D. supporting something does not directly and actually mean participating in it.to support.Meter. B and C are temperature-related terms. letter D -. Of course. PLEASE TRY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE GROUP. makes a collective noun. "Blessed are __ poor. What do you mean when you say "Please try to put your finger in the pie. FAHRENHEIT B. is a distance- related term. PLEASE TRY TO SUPPORT THE GROUP.artistry and humanity -.The. Industry D. YOU B. PLEASE TRY TO JOIN THE GROUP. 5.

Guidelines B. Letter A -. One of the best practices of good draftsman is never to letter without what? A. However. on the other hand. The solidity of this object is shown by gradual darkening of its particular portions. the only difference between the two is that orthographic drawing is art in itself while isometric drawing is a method of clarification using labels (for planning. Shading C. Darkening B. An isometric drawing C. A. Pencil C. Lettering pens D. Drafting is known to be the universal language of industry because it is a form of communication that is very technical and very exact. Lighting The question already contains a clue that the answer is letter A -. TEST-TAKING SKILL: Immediately cross out very broad ideas.Darkening. Ink . 3.). 4. An axonometric drawing The answer for this item is letter C -. axonometric drawing is a three-dimensional projection used to create a pictorial drawing of an object. Shading. Shadowing D. etc.even drafting and pottery are under them. What process was used? A. Darkening is the method of showing an object's solidity by the use of gradual strokes that darken its portions.orthographic drawing -. An orthographic drawing B. where the object is rotated along one or more of its axes relative to the plane of projection.cannot be the answer since it refers to the phenomena of projecting three-dimensional images in a two-dimensional medium. it is classified as _. A freehand drawing D. Freehand drawing refers to the method of drawing in which the artist completes the piece without the help of any instrument. 2. is the technique of showing the object's depth by darkening the portions around it. Isometric drawing is related to orthographic drawing in that it also is the projection of three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional plane. It drives economic activities in all phases of the society. Finally. Lighting and shadowing are by-products of darkening and shading.A freehand drawing. If a drawing is generally made without the aid of any instrument.

CENTER LINE C.Center line. 2. in manual lettering. A. Edeng maligaya sa ami’y pumanaw. CUTTING PLANE LINE The answer for this item is letter B -. there's nothing wrong about not using any of them because there are alternatives to serve the same purpose. bayang masagana sa init ng araw. there is no other alternative. Also. Andres Bonifacio B. Who was the first to translate Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios to Tagalog? A." In a symmetry. RECURRING QUESTIONS #2 1. for accuracy. del Pilar .The answer is obviously letter A -. VISIBLE LINE D. entitled "Huling Paalam": "Hulíng Paalam" Paalam. the center separates the two parts of an object in congruent halves.Jose Gatmaitan. One can still letter with the use of B. 5. at perlas ng dagat sa dakong Silangan. Marcelo H. Here is the first line of Jose Gatmaitan's translation of Mi Ultimo Adios. Jose Corazon de Jesus The answer for item #1 is A -.Guidelines. sintang lupang tinubuan. He constructed the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. Graciano Lopez Jaena C. However. To have letter C as an answer is vague since visible lines are the heaviest and the most obvious lines in a draft. than guidelines. Andres Bonifacio D. EXTENSION LINE B. C and D. Jose Gatmaitan B. Apolinario Mabini C. The clue in the question is the word "symmetrical. The lightest or the finest line that represents the axis or center of objects with symmetrical shapes is know as what? A.

An example of a Tagalog alamat is "Isang bangin. Awit is a Filipino term for song. This is a story in poem-form which includes the the adventures. puno ng patalim.' . in fandango style.Jose Palma." 3." In 1919.D." Jose Palma wrote the first original. Paz Marquez Benitez. Spanish version entitled "Filipinas." In 1956 the Surian ng Wikang Pambansa or the Institute of National language composed the current Filipino version. "Lupang Hinirang. the term awit can also refer to one of the two types of metrical romances -." Riddles are short oral-puzzles. 'koridos' or 'corridos. An example of an alamat in Tagalog mythology is Mariang Makiling. one of greatest poets. Pamulinawen B. What is the country song of the people of Pampanga? A. Let's summarize the history of the Philippine National Anthem: Juan Felipe composed the tune of the anthem under the name "Marcha Filipino Magdalo.Ati Cu Pung Singsing. At the end of the song. Bugtong B. Bugtong. in fact." which was later renamed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina. Leron Leron Sinta is a Tagalog song. is "riddle. Awit refers to a metrical story. Alamat is what we call in English "legend.Epiko. Dandansoy D. Epiko D." Legends are fictitious stories believed to have happened. in English. means "I once had a ring. when translated to English. Ati Cu Pung Singsing C. This song. However. On the other hand." It's a Kapampangan song. 4. Awit The answer for this item is letter C -. a ballad. Pamulinawen is an Ilocano song. he promises to worship anyone who can bring his ring back to him. Jose Palma The answer for this item is D -. Leron Leron Sinta The answer for this item is letter B -. usually sung to the accompaniment of a guitar. which explain the existence or occurrence of someone or something. relating a story about a person who lost his ring when he thought he hid it in a chest. constructed an English version entitle "Land of the Morning. life and heroism of the main character who possesses extraordinary skills and unusual characteristics. Alamat C. A. Dandansoy is a Visayan song and finally. Epiko is a Fililpino term for epic." [A well full of knives].awit and korido. the author of Dead Stars.

are heavily influenced by foreign literature. "I shall return.as Philippine romances are generally called. 1944. During Japanese colonization. 5.500–10. was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60. Jonathan Wainwright was forced to surrender the troops on Corregidor and the other three fortified islands. 1942) Landing in Leyte (Oktubre 20. They were the most popular among the Spanish colonial literary forms. from a few hundred to several thousand lines. and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese war crime. letter C. In Japanese. The 128 km (80 mi) march was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder. Letter be cannot be the answer because the Fall of Corregidor is. The Death March. It must also be pointed out that korido deals with events and happenings.Death March. This is a fulfillment of his promise. which began on April 9. 1942. Death March The answer for this item is letter D -. Landing in Leyte.and vary in length. One of these is _. Fall of Bataan C. 1942) Death March (April 9.RECURRING QUESTIONS . A.000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three- month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. Bataan is a province within which Corregidor lies. cannot be the answer because it refers to the coming of General Douglas Arthur McArthur in the Leyte on Oktubre 20.000 Filipino and 100-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach their destination at Camp O'Donnell.000-80. All told. the same as the Fall of Bataan. Filipinos faced many trials and tribulations. Landing in Leyte D. in itself. 1944) NEXT RECURRING QUESTIONS>>> Posted by Mad Pen No comments: Labels: GENERAL EDUCATION. approximately 2. HISTORY AND LITERATURE. Here's a timeline one should remember: Fall of Corregidor (April 9.mono-riming and assonant quatrain -. Letter A cannot be the answer since the Fall of Corregidor was only the part of history when Lt. They are of uniform stanza pattern -. and resulted in very high fatalities inflicted upon prisoners and civilians alike by the Japanese Army. this is called Batān Shi no Kōshin. Fall of Corregidor B." before he went Australia from Corregidor with the behest of the then-President Franklin Roosevelt.

Choice D is an obvious dummy because there are only three possibilities and other than the three. between them is the correct answer. 2. Remains the same B. Percussion group B. Remember. Brasswind instruments are called that because they are USUALLY made of brass and metal. Becomes higher C. . This is a consequence of their weight. nothing else can happen to a pitch. the pitch normally _. Brasswind and woodwind instruments have similarities.RECURRING QUESTIONS #1 1. The French horn belongs to the brasswind group. Disregard A and D for this instance because of the opposite choices. This is because thinner strings vibrate faster than thicker strings.the pitch normally becomes higher. a pitch is the highness and lowness of a tone. valves. French horn is under _. A French horn was developed by the French kings for elaborate hunting calls. Imagine a guitar. None of the above. The answer for this item is letter B -. Becomes lower D. A. The pitch is higher for thinner strings. TEST TAKING SKILL: Choices B and C are opposite. Rondalla C. crooks and keys. Sound is produced by the vibration of a body and as the vibration becomes faster. therefore. A. They are both played by being blown and they are usually tubular. Woodwind group D. Brasswind instruments are basically tubular and they produce different pitches by the use of slides. Brasswind group The answer for this item is letter d – brasswind group.

are the most familiar example for percussion instruments that are sounded by being struck against the same instrument. Now. maracas. Tone. clarinets. by hand or by the similar instrument. Cymbals. we have examples of woodwind instruments: flutes. sticks. The French horn does not belong to the percussion group since percussion instruments are musical instruments that are sounded by bring struck or scraped by a beater. The letter name of the fourth space of a staff (treble staff) is __. can be defined as the overall quality of a sound but is generally known as a step in the musical scale. . Here are examples of brasswind instruments: trumpets. French horns. euphoniums. woodwind instruments. Finally. Timbre D. hornpipes. woodwind instruments have reeds that convert the air into vibrations (except for flutes). 4. the laud. Anyone who knows this definition will easily cut down the choices into two: tone or timbre. Pitch B. 3. Timbre is defined as the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity. The Rondalla basically has the following instruments: banduria. (1) Brasswind instruments only amplify the vibration created by the player’s blow. saxophones. (2) Brasswind instruments change their pitch by the change of the length of the tube. on the other hand. the octavina. Tone C. xylophones and the tambourine. baritone horns. Examples of hand percussions are the triangle. Enables us to distinguish between sounds of various instruments and voice levels. the guitar and the bass-guitar. Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound while intensity is the loudness or quietness of a sound or also known stress or dynamics.The differences between them are as follows. on the other hand. cornets. change their pitch by the change of where the air escapes from the instrument. on the other hand. Intensity Letter c – timbre – is the answer for number 3. alto horns and trombones. The most popular example of a percussion instrument struck by a beater is the drum set. tubas. Rondalla is an ensemble of stringed instruments. piccolo trumpets. oboes and bassoon. A.

The treble staff is represented by a G- clef and the bass staff is represented by an F-clef. the answer should be letter d – tenor. The male voice generally has four registers: the bass (the lowest). Here is the first line of Jose Gatmaitan's translation of Mi Ultimo Adios. the mnemonics for the spaces is ACEG (All Cows Eat Grass) and for the lines. the lower. Apolinario Mabini C. Andres Bonifacio D. lowest). Jose Corazon de Jesus The answer for item #1 is A -. in range with contralto). C D. has three registers: the contralto (also known as alto. Tenor For this item. male voice A. A C. For the bass staff.A. on the other hand. Soprano D. Who was the first to translate Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios to Tagalog? A. Alto C. The mnemonics for the spaces in the treble staff is FACE. For the lines in the treble staff. 5. E The answer for this item is letter d – E. GBDFA (Good Bikes Don’t Fall Apart). A higher register. The female voice. Jose Gatmaitan B. The treble staff is the upper staff and the bass staff. the baritone (between the lowest and the highest).Jose Gatmaitan. the tenor (one of the highest) and the countertenor (one of the highest. RECURRING QUESTIONS #2 1. it is EGBDF (Every Good Boy Does Fine). Basically there are two staffs in a musical notation: the treble and the bass staff. entitled "Huling . the mezzo- soprano (between the lowest and the highest) and the soprano (the highest). F B. Bass B. There are generally two types of male voice and the female voice.

A." Jose Palma wrote the first original. life and heroism of the main character who possesses extraordinary skills and unusual characteristics. Edeng maligaya sa ami’y pumanaw. Leron Leron Sinta is a Tagalog song. a ballad.Ati Cu Pung Singsing." 3. Pamulinawen B. Bugtong B.Paalam": "Hulíng Paalam" Paalam. when translated to English. This song. in fact. Pamulinawen is an Ilocano song. del Pilar D. Leron Leron Sinta The answer for this item is letter B -. Ati Cu Pung Singsing C. This is a story in poem-form which includes the the adventures. Dandansoy D. he promises to worship anyone who can bring his ring back to him. Epiko . 4. He constructed the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. 2." In 1919. Spanish version entitled "Filipinas. "Lupang Hinirang. Andres Bonifacio B. Marcelo H. bayang masagana sa init ng araw. A. means "I once had a ring. Alamat C." It's a Kapampangan song. at perlas ng dagat sa dakong Silangan. Graciano Lopez Jaena C. Jose Palma The answer for this item is D -. relating a story about a person who lost his ring when he thought he hid it in a chest. What is the country song of the people of Pampanga? A.Jose Palma. Paz Marquez Benitez. one of greatest poets. constructed an English version entitle "Land of the Morning. Dandansoy is a Visayan song and finally." In 1956 the Surian ng Wikang Pambansa or the Institute of National language composed the current Filipino version." which was later renamed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina. the author of Dead Stars. sintang lupang tinubuan. At the end of the song. Let's summarize the history of the Philippine National Anthem: Juan Felipe composed the tune of the anthem under the name "Marcha Filipino Magdalo.

A. are heavily influenced by foreign literature. The Death March. In Japanese.500–10. An example of an alamat in Tagalog mythology is Mariang Makiling.awit and korido. 5." Riddles are short oral-puzzles. All told. Epiko is a Fililpino term for epic. Letter A cannot be the answer since the Fall of Corregidor was only the part of history when Lt. the same as the Fall of Bataan.mono-riming and assonant quatrain -. and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese war crime. Filipinos faced many trials and tribulations. One of these is _. Fall of Bataan C. They are of uniform stanza pattern -. which explain the existence or occurrence of someone or something. and resulted in very high fatalities inflicted upon prisoners and civilians alike by the Japanese Army." [A well full of knives]. in fandango style. cannot be the answer because it refers to the coming of General .000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three- month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. puno ng patalim. It must also be pointed out that korido deals with events and happenings. Death March The answer for this item is letter D -. Alamat is what we call in English "legend. Awit refers to a metrical story. Landing in Leyte. An example of a Tagalog alamat is "Isang bangin.Epiko. this is called Batān Shi no Kōshin. was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60." Legends are fictitious stories believed to have happened. 1942. The 128 km (80 mi) march was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder. However.and vary in length. in itself. letter C. They were the most popular among the Spanish colonial literary forms. Letter be cannot be the answer because the Fall of Corregidor is.D.000 Filipino and 100-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach their destination at Camp O'Donnell. Jonathan Wainwright was forced to surrender the troops on Corregidor and the other three fortified islands. 'koridos' or 'corridos. Bugtong. Awit is a Filipino term for song. which began on April 9. from a few hundred to several thousand lines. During Japanese colonization.' as Philippine romances are generally called. is "riddle.Death March. in English. Awit The answer for this item is letter C -.000-80. On the other hand. usually sung to the accompaniment of a guitar. the term awit can also refer to one of the two types of metrical romances -. approximately 2. Fall of Corregidor B. Bataan is a province within which Corregidor lies. Landing in Leyte D.

). 1942) Landing in Leyte (Oktubre 20. it is classified as _." before he went Australia from Corregidor with the behest of the then-President Franklin Roosevelt. This is a fulfillment of his promise. 1944) RECURRING QUESTIONS #3 1. Humanity C.A freehand drawing. An axonometric drawing The answer for this item is letter C -. Of course. 1944. If a drawing is generally made without the aid of any instrument. Freehand drawing refers to the method of drawing in which the artist completes the piece without the help of any instrument. A. the other two choices -. On the other hand.are very broad ideas. Here's a timeline one should remember: Fall of Corregidor (April 9. you can immediately cross out letter D.Douglas Arthur McArthur in the Leyte on Oktubre 20. even drafting and pottery are under them. the only difference between the two is that orthographic drawing is art in itself while isometric drawing is a method of clarification using labels (for planning. Finally. Artistry B. Industry D.cannot be the answer since it refers to the phenomena of projecting three-dimensional images in a two-dimensional medium.orthographic drawing -. It drives economic activities in all phases of the society. Drafting is considered as the universal language of? A. axonometric drawing is a three-dimensional projection used to create a pictorial drawing of an object. However. An isometric drawing C. where the object is rotated along one or . An orthographic drawing B. A freehand drawing D. TEST-TAKING SKILL: Immediately cross out very broad ideas. 2. 1942) Death March (April 9. Pottery The answer for this item is C -. Drafting is known to be the universal language of industry because it is a form of communication that is very technical and very exact. "I shall return.Drafting is considered as the universal language of industry. etc. Pottery does not make use of drafting. Isometric drawing is related to orthographic drawing in that it also is the projection of three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional plane.artistry and humanity -. Letter A -.

The clue in the question is the word "symmetrical. Lighting The question already contains a clue that the answer is letter A -.more of its axes relative to the plane of projection. Darkening B. is the technique of showing the object's depth by darkening the portions around it. One of the best practices of good draftsman is never to letter without what? A. Lighting and shadowing are by-products of darkening and shading. the center separates the two parts of an object in congruent halves. RECURRING QUESTIONS #4 . 3. than guidelines. The lightest or the finest line that represents the axis or center of objects with symmetrical shapes is know as what? A." In a symmetry. Pencil C. for accuracy. on the other hand. One can still letter with the use of B. CUTTING PLANE LINE The answer for this item is letter B -. To have letter C as an answer is vague since visible lines are the heaviest and the most obvious lines in a draft. in manual lettering. VISIBLE LINE D. EXTENSION LINE B. Shading C. What process was used? A. Ink The answer is obviously letter A -.Darkening. Lettering pens D. The solidity of this object is shown by gradual darkening of its particular portions. 5. Also. C and D. there is no other alternative. However. Darkening is the method of showing an object's solidity by the use of gradual strokes that darken its portions.Center line. CENTER LINE C. 4. Shadowing D. Shading.Guidelines. there's nothing wrong about not using any of them because there are alternatives to serve the same purpose. Guidelines B.

letter D -. 2. The words "inadequate.Meter. to answer that general idea only disregards the specific fact that they are negative. obviously. FAHRENHEIT B. THEY C. Meter. especially when the specific description is logically under the general description. Choices A. one of them is the correct answer. B and C are temperature-related terms. CENTIGRADE C. COMMON C. 3. GENERALIZATION The answer for this item is letter A -. "Blessed are __ poor. SYNTHESIS D. on the other hand.1. it is tempting to answer letter B -. common.Assumption. Assupmtion is just a guess or a hypothesis. Generalization.common -. Yes. CELSIUS D. (They are all negative." A. METER The answer for this is. is a distance- related term. NEUTRAL The answer for this item is letter C -.because the words are. ASSUMPTION B. Which of the following does not belong? A. summary and synthesis are all methods of producing or creating a composition. indeed. POSITIVE B. YOU B. Which does not belong? A. NEGATIVE D. SUMMARY C." "uneducated" and "illegitimate" have prefixes that are: A.) However. THE . TEST TAKING SKILLS: If there are two opposite choices. 4. TEST TAKING SKILLS: Always prefer specific descriptions over general descriptions.Negative." "disembark.

emotional and spiritual growth are INTERWOVEN. The closest distractor is letter D -.to support.creation of ADVANCE ORGANIZERS to link newly learned materials into existing ones Bandura Observational Learning is brought about by Learning OBSERVING. The answer for this is to participate -. The article the.D. PLEASE TRY TO TASTE THE PIE BY DIPPING YOUR FINGER. makes a collective noun.The. supporting something does not directly and actually mean participating in it. D. However. PLEASE TRY TO JOIN THE GROUP. B. The phrase "the poor" means "all those who are poor at the time being. C. Hope to hear from you again soon. 5." A." The other choices are completely irrelevant. THOSE The answer is letter C -. PLEASE TRY TO SUPPORT THE GROUP. when attached to a positive-degree adjective. (Use of five Theory senses) Bruner Constructivist Construction of knowledge Theory comes from SCHEMA or previously learned concepts Comenius Pansophism Clue: COMEnius COMET (Father of (Universal found in Modern Knowledge) the UNIVERSE= Universal- Education) Learning. not . Kristel! Proponent Theory Points to Remember Ausubel Subsumption Clue: AuSUBel Theory SUBsumption. What do you mean when you say "Please try to put your finger in the pie. LEARNING THEORIES Kristel Nacion contributed this post. Teaching must involve SENSES.letter B. PLEASE TRY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE GROUP.

conventional. Conventional. unconscious MIND has THREE DIVISIONS a. self- Moral centered interest Developmentb. Dewey Learning by Clue: Dewey: sounds like DO Doing IT! (Imagine how Americans pronounce do it) Learning by EXPERIENCE Erikson Socioemotional 8 STAGES of MAN which Development describes the CRISES met by man in every stage of LIFE. self-centered b. Post. SUPER-EGO.conforms to expectations c. ID. 1st stage – INFANCY: trust vs.primitive. merely MEMORIZATION. EGO.based on higher principles Locke Tabula Rasa Students: blank slates or blank tablets Teachers: “writer” of knowledge Maslow Hierarchy of Humans must satisfy the five Needs levels of needs. mistrust Festinger Cognitive CHANGE is brought about by Dissonance INCONSISTENCIES between BEHAVIOR and BELIEF. Freud Levels of MIND functions in different Consciousness levels: conscious vs.conscience Gagne Conditions of Different LEARNING Learning STYLE means different CONDITIONS of LEARNING means different TEACHING STRATEGIES Gardner Multiple There are 9 different kinds of Intelligences INTELLIGENCES Kohlberg Stages of a. logical portion. equilibrium c. Ex. Pre-conventional. *lower needs must be satisfied .

I talk to myself and I guess I'm not the only one who's doing it. MAPPING To put it in a smaller box. BODY MOVEMENT When I think of a problem -. Now. This is very common to many people. I don't command my hands through my circuit of system of nerves to this this but it naturally happens. Reasoning 6. Masking INNER SPEECH Every time I'm asked a problem or anything to solve. for one. Inner speech 2. LOL. One of the manifestations of inner speech is what we do in the bathroom and in front of the mirror. My friend. This proves that our mind is over our body. Mapping 4. THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE. we had a General Psychology course. Here they are: 1. We place it near .a really big problem --. I thought of posting this so that it could help people in their General Psychology lessons. We talk to ourselves. So that is why we always have to have reportorial presentations. Our bodies are affected by what is happening in our minds. Lev Vygotsky used this in his cognitive development theory. Body Movement 3. He said that we learn by instructing ourselves what to do. we put it somewhere in our storage house where we can retrieve it easily when we need the information. when we learn something. PSYCHOLOGY 6 ELEMENTS OF THINKING When we were in first-year college. It was very hard for me to search what the Elements of Thinking are. This is the part where I had to ask help from my professor. I tried the library and the internet but to no avail. blinks more often than usual when he's thinking. As education students we have to be trained to speak and teach in front. This is inner speech. In the Psychology course. PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING. I hold or scratch my head or forehead. Imagery 5. first before one can satisfy the other needs Posted by Mark Peña No comments: Labels: PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING. I was designated to present the Elements of Thinking.

HAPPY. Also. Most of the time. DUBITO ERGO COGITO ERGO SUM.  AUDITORY IMAGERY.  THERMAL IMAGERY.  OLFACTORY IMAGERY. I picture in my mind how smooth her dress was. whenever I think about music. How did you feel while reading William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily? How did you imagine the smell that the neighborhood complained about in the story? We picture the smell in our mind.  VISCERAL IMAGERY. I and my friend usually imagine in our minds how delicious the food would be. The whole process is done subconsciously as if the brain is designed for sorting and arranging. When I was reading Jack London's To Build A Fire. Imagine the some of long nails scratching the blackboard. according to what I read. we see Juliet making her monologue in our minds. Your mind gives you the information the sound would be really awful because you are picturing it in your mind. We see what we hear. we imagine the feeling in our minds. This means I DOUBT THEREFORE I THINK THEREFORE I AM. INTELLIGENCE IS NOT THINKING ABOUT THE THINGS YOU DOUBT BUT DOUBTING THE THINGS YOU THINK YOU KNOW. Because of this concept mapping. Upon hearing the word SAD. Temperature means a lot to the body and especially to the mind. I placed it near music information in my mind. There are many types of imagery.  VISUAL IMAGERY. I see in my mind how cold the setting was. EXCITED or any emotion. While reading or hearing the part where Juliet makes her monologue in the balcony. We arrange the information in our minds logically if possible. from a book I can't remember. I think about piano guitar. This way. Of course. especially when reading or listening to stories. While Geoffrey Chaucer is describing Allison's dress as one of the pilgrims.  KINESTHETIC IMAGERY. IMAGERY Imagery is the visual description we see in our minds when we are thinking. Talking about food. I learned to relate guitar and piano in playing chords. . Every time I dream about myself falling down from a building.information which are similar. This way we are MAPPING the concepts in our minds. it makes us salivate. REASONING Said Rene Descartes. I don't do this intentionally.  TACTILE IMAGERY. I wake up kicking.  GUSTATORY IMAGERY. The time I learned how to play the guitar. I imagine blue and white.

WORKS AND WRITINGS OF JOSE RIZAL. PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO. WHEREAS. our mind masks things we think we should know. all educational institutions are under the supervision of. personal discipline. particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. only to find out that the video of the second tower falling only went out to the public after a week but people say that they have a clear memory of seeing the two towers collapse in the same video in the same day. shall be included in the curricula of all schools. are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds of the youth.As a part of the thinking process. The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to adopt forthwith . and subject to regulation by the State. WHEREAS. public or private: Provided. That in the collegiate courses. works and writing of Jose Rizal. he still can't erase in his mind the mask that it made. His nanny tried to make a alibi when they arrived home late. particularly the national hero and patriot. Jose Rizal. there is a need for a re- dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died. we doubt all information that comes in our mind and verify them by the use of our logically arranged and systematized storage house. SECTION 1. therefore. today. Courses on the life. and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character. we remember with special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have shaped the national character. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES WHEREAS. Now. AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF. WHEREAS. The memory in his mind is so clear that he's very sure that it really happened. RA 1425 AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. People who saw the news about the 9/11 Terrorist Attack thought that they saw in the television the fall of both of the towers in the same day. should be suffused. it is meet that in honoring them. especially during their formative and decisive years in school. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE. MASKING Jean Piaget can still remember the time when some guys attempted to kidnap him and his nanny. the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their English translation shall be used as basic texts. more than any other period of our history. particularly his novel Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. But everything was a hoax. the life. colleges and universities. works and writings of Jose Rizal. civic conscience and to teach the duties of citizenship. As a natural function. We reason out based on our prior knowledge. Even if Jean Piaget already knows the fact.

college or university. within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. colleges and universities to keep in their libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. cause them to be printed in cheap. The Board of National Education shall determine the adequacy of the number of books. p. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine hundred twenty-seven of the Administrative Code. No. RIZAL (Chapter 20-25) Scene 1: . as well as of Rizal’s other works and biography. including those of a disciplinary nature. readers and textbooks. It shall be obligatory on all schools. but not from taking the course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. The said unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required reading in all public or private schools. SECTION 3. Approved: June 12. depending upon the enrollment of the school. and cause them to be distributed. from the requirement of the provision contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section. SECTION 2. SECTION 5. Posted by Mark Peña No comments: Labels: RELEVANT LAWS. Vol. The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any fund not otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury to carry out the purposes of this Act. 52. SECTION 6. 2971 in June 1956. including the writing and printing of appropriate primers. to persons desiring to read them. Said rules and regulations shall take effect thirty (30) days after their publication in the Official Gazette. SECTION 4. to carry out and enforce the provisions of this Act. colleges and universities. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. The Board shall. Tagalog and the principal Philippine dialects. free of charge. The Board shall promulgate rules and regulations providing for the exemption of students for reasons of religious belief stated in a sworn written statement.measures to implement and carry out the provisions of this Section. 1956 Published in the Official Gazette. The Board of National Education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. popular editions. 6. RIZAL FREE SCRIPT FOR THE LIFE OF DR. prohibiting the discussion of religious doctrines by public school teachers and other person engaged in any public school. through the Purok organizations and Barrio Councils throughout the country. as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English. promulgate rules and regulations.

tila nagaabang sa sasabihin ni Jose. pagaralan at palaganapin ang mga pagbabago. at. Sa bahaging ito ay ipaliliwanag sa atin n gating kasamang si Pedro Serrano ang mga layunin ng Saligang-Batas ng Liga. Nais ko ring magpasalamat sa mabuti nating kasamang si Doroteo Ongjuangco na buong pusong nagpahintulot sa paggamit nating ng kanyang tahanan ngayon.| Ang matapang na pagbabalik ni Jose sa Pilipinas mula sa iba’t ibang bahagi ng mundo ay noong Hunyo. kundi sa Pilipinas na mismo. (Tatayo si Pedro Serrano at ipapaliwanag ang mga layunin.) Jose: Tinitawagan ko ng pansin ang lahat! Magsisimula na ang pagpupulong na ito. bilang panghuli. Ito ang pangalawa niyang pagbabalik sa Pilipinas.a (Uupo ang lahat at tatahimik. 1892. adyain ang bawat gusto at pangangailangan ng mga kapwa natin Pilipino. ipagtanggol ang mga Pilipino sa karahasan at kawalang-hustisiya. agrario at kalakalan. Naniniwala tayong sa bansag na “Unus Instar Omnium” o “Isa. Kailangan nating malaman na ang bawat miembro ay magbabayad ng dalawampiso sa kanilang paganib sa liga at dalawang sentimong ambag sa bawat buwan. . (Makikipagkamay at makikipagusap si Jose sa ilan sa mga kasapi ng Liga at pagkatapos ay tutungo sa palpito at magsasalita.) Jose: Salamat.) Pedro Serrano: An gating Liga ay naglalayon na buuin ang buong kapuluan at bigkisin bilang iisa at nagkakasundong katawan. mga kasama. sa inyong pagpapaunlak sa pagpupulong na ito. lahat tayo ay magtutulungan na gaya ng iisang katawan sa ikabubuti ng lahat. Mayroon bang anumang katanungan? Mariano Crisostomo: Paano naman nating matutustusan ang bawat gusto at bawat pangangailangan ng Liga at ng mga kasapi nito? Jose: Magandang tanong ‘yan. pangalawa sa kanyang paguwi noong Agosto. 1887. Jose: Salamat kasamang Pedro. himukin ang edukasyon. Gaya ng Lahat. Alam ni Jose na papasukin nanaman niya ang isang magulo at mapanganib na mundo ngunit determinado siyang ang laban ay hindi na sa Espanya.” Kaya naman. Salamat. Alam nating lahat na ang La Liga Filipina ay bunga ng hinanakit at karaingan ng La Solidaridad at ng Propaganda ngunit kailangan din nating malaman na ang pinakalayunin nito ay ang pagpapasaayos ng buhay at pamumuhay ng ating mga kababayan.

bilang panghuli ay pakinggan natin ang president n gating Liga. Villaruel: Kung kaya nga nating magbayad ng limpak-limpak ng salapi para sa buwis ng mga bangus. D. Salvador: Salamat kasamang Pepe. naitatag ang La Liga Filipina. At ngayon. Jose: Salamat sa pagpapaliwanag.) A. ang kasamang Ambrosio Salvador! (Papalakpak ang lahat hanggang magsalita si Ambrosio Salvador. pagsumbong sa awtoridad ng Liga ng anumang may kinalaman ditto. Zulueta: Ang gampanin ng bawat kasapi ng Liga ay kabilang ngunit hindi lang natatapos sa pagtalima sa Kataastaasang Konseho ng Liga.) J.) E. 1892. Sa bahaging ito ay ipaliliwanag naman sa atin ng kasamang Juan Zulueta ang mga gampanin ng bawat kasapi sa Liga. Ipinangangako ko na ang ating Liga ay magiging masigla at matibay sa aking pamumuno at sa mga susunod pang panahon. Ramos: Hindi ba mukhang labis ang presyo na iyon para sa inyo? (Tatayong bigla si Faustino Villaruel. Zulueta ay ipagliliwanag ang mga gampanin. (Tatayo si J. Biglang tatayo at magsasalita si Estanislao Legaspi. maaari na tayong umusad.(Maguusap sa kanilang sarili ang mga kasapi at tila aayon ang lahat. (Tatawa ang lahat. pagtuling sa pagpapalawak ng mga kasapi. kasamang Juan. Legaspi: Maganda ‘yan! Hindi kakayaning magpatuloy ng anumang samahan kung walang paghuhugutan ng mga pangangailangan nito at ng mga kasapi. pagkakaroon ng simbolikong pangalan ng hindi maaaring palitan ninoman maliban nalang siya’y maging presidente ng kanyang koseho. Gusto kong ihatid ang aking pagpapasalamat sa inyong lahat sa inyong pagtitiwala sa aking kakayahan.) F. pagkilos ng ayon saan batayan ng pagiging mabuting Pilipino at pagtulong sa lahat ng kasapi sa anumang mga paraan. Mabuhay ang Liga! Lahat: Mabuhay ang Liga! . Dadating ang araw na aalaalahin ng lahat ng mga Pilipino na sa taong ito. Umaasa din akong gagampanan ninyo ang lahat ng inaasahan sa inyo. kaya din natin para sa kapwa natin mga Pilipino. pagpipitagan sa hatol ng Kataastaasang Konseho ng Liga.) Jose: Tama ang sinabi ng kasama nating si Faustino Villaruel. Gayong nagkasundo na ang lahat sa aspetong iyan.

GD: Ah.) TELON Scene 2: | Pagkatapos ng pagpupulong ng La Liga Filipina. kakamay ang lahat kay Salvador at aalis na si Jose. Jose: Malakas ang kaso labang sa akin? Pero – GD: Tiniente! – . senor – GD: Bakit ka naparito.: Mabuhay ang Pilipinas! Lahat Mabuhay! (Unang kakamay si Rizal kay Salvador.) GD: Por favor. Malabo kang mapatawad dahil malakas ang kaso laban sa iyo. Kinailangan niyang makipagkita sa General upang pagusapan ang kaso ng kanyang pamilya. Ang kaso mo ang problema. Jose. (Papasok si Jose. Jose? Jose: Gusto ko hong kumustahin ang kaso ng aking pamilya – ng aking ama. GD: (Ngingiting sandali) Bueno. S. ng aking mga kapatid.A. permanecer de pie! Jose: Si. General. Jose. GD: Su nombre? Jose: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. el exiliado!? Ha-ha-ha! Sentarse – Jose: Gracias. GD: Mukhang mas magandang pagusapan nalang natin ang kinalaman mo kay Bonifacio? Jose: (Gulat) Wala akong alam sa sinasabi mo. at malaki ang posibilidad na mapatawad na rin ang iyong mga kapatid. Napatawad na ang iyong ama. dumeretso si Jose kay General Despujol sa Malacanan. akmang kakamayan ang General ngunit pipigilan siya nito. General.

Wala akong ki – GD: Huwag mo nang paikut-ikutin ang ulo naming Jose! No somos idiotos! Jose: General. Papalag siya sa unang pagkakataon. General!? GD: Donde estan los papeles y los pruebas? (Kukunin ng tinienta ang mga papeles at iaabot kay General. (Ihahagis niya ang mga polieto sa harapan ni Rizal. Jose: Wala ni isa sa mga ‘yan ang may prueba. isinulat mo ang El Filibusterismo bilang pagaalaala sa tatlong traydor na mga pari – Gomez. Ang mga akusasyong gaya ng mga ‘yan ay maaaring manggaling kahit kanino lang. Burgos at Zamora at ang layunin mo sa pagsusulat ay para sirain ang Kabanalbanalang Iglesia Katolika Apostolika Romana. Jose. kunin na ‘yan at ipatapon kay Capitan Carcinero! Jose: Kailangan ko ng patas ng paglilitis. sumulat ka ng mga libro at mga polieto na laban sa Espaniya at laban sa Simbahan.) Jose: Wala akong alam sa mga ito.) Tiniente: Aqui lo tienes – GD: (Tatayo at lilibot habang nagbabasa) Ayon sa kaso mo. Sige. General! Hindi tama ito! TELON Scene 3: STEAMER . nagsasabi akong ng totoo – GD: (Dahan-dahan) Ano ang kinalaman mo sa mga pagaalsa at ano ang alam mo kay Bonifacio? Jose: Wa – GD: Hindi kami mga tanga.Tiniente: Si. Jose. Bago pa man niya maiabot ay sinunggaban ni General ang mga ito. General! GD: Nasabat ang mga polietong ‘yan sa Ate Lucia mo.) Pobres Frailes – isang satirika laban sa simbahan at sa mga pari! (Papalakpak si General Despujol at akmang dadalpin si Rizal ng isang guardia. General.

Ikaw ay mananatili doon sa loob ng apat na taon sa ilalim ng aking superbisyon. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. (May ipapipirma ang kartero. CC: (May isusulat sa isang papel. gusto niyang bawiin mo ang lahat ng sinabi mo laban sa Iglesia Katolika at na gumawa ka ng mga pahayag na kontra-rebolusyon. Una. Jose: Akin nga iyan. Nabalitaan ko ang pagpapatapon sa iyo sa Dapitan kaya dali-dali akong sumulat kay Padre Obach upang ipaalam sa kanya ang iyong kalagayan at pangangailangan. Kung ako naman ang iyong tatanungin. Cebu.) CC: Anong pangalan mo? Jose: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. Bubuksan ni Jose ang sulat at babasahin ito. Bago tumuloy ang steamer ay binasahan siya ng hatol ni Capitan Carcinero at nakatanggap siya ng sulat mula kay Padre Pastells.) Kartero: Donde estan Jose Rizal? Jose: Si! Tengo una carta? Kartero: Galing ho kay Padre Pablo Pastells. ay ipinatatapon sa Dapitan sa kasong panguupat ng pagaalsa laban sa Espaniya at sa Simbahan. Iparirinig sa voice over ang nilalaman ng sulat. (Hawak pa rin si Rizal ng guardia habang binabasahan siya ng hatol sa kanya. Pangalawa. Sinabi niya sa akin na maaarin kang tumira sa kumbento ng Simbahan kung susundin mo lang ang mga payo niya sa iyo. aalis ang guardia at si CC. gusto niyang magbalikloob ka sa Simbahan at magkumpisal. Darating ang isang kartero na may dalang sulat para kay Jose.) Padre Pastells Compana de Jesus Filipinas Jose. Uupo siya sa gitna ng steamer.) Ikaw. patungong Dapitan. Naiintindihan mo ba ang hatol na ito sa iyo? (Hindi sasagot si Jose. gusto niya na kumilos ka ng naaayon sa mga gawi ng alipin . May mga taong nakaupo sa steamer. ako ay mabuti naman sa awa at tulong ng Dios. Magandang araw sa iyo! Sana ay natanggap mo ang liham na ito na nasa mabuti kang kalagayan. tatayo at babasahan si Jose.| Dinala si Jose sa isang steamer. Panghuli.

Francisco! Ikaw pala halika tul – Francisco: Jose. Bakit ako magbabalikloob sa Simbahan at magkukumpisal? Bakit ako magkukumpisal sa mga taong gaya ko ay makasalanan? Maninindigan ako sa mga bagay na ipinaglalaban ko at hinding hindi ako magpapataboy sa mga kundisyon ng sinuman. Hinding hindi ko babawiin ang mga nasabi ko laban sa relihiyon dahil ang lahat ng mga iyon ay tama.ng Espaniya at gawi ng mga pananampalataya. (Nasa loob ng bahay si Jose.) Jose: Hindi! Hindi ako papaya sa mga kundisyong ito para lang makapanirahan ng walang bayad sa kumbento kasama ng mga prayle. kinailangan niyang tumira kasama ng kanyang warden. Kakatok si Francisco. si Capitan Ricardo Carcinero.) Francisco: Tao po! Jose: (Ititigil ang pagbabasa ng diaryo) Sandali lang! Sino ‘yan? – Ah. si Padre Sanchez na makikipagtalo sa kanya tungkol sa relihiyon at si Pablo Mercado na espiyang ipinadala para manmanan siya. Aso lang ang kumakain ng sarili niyong iniluwa. may maganda akong balita sa iyo! Jose: Oh. Nagkaroon sila ng magaganda at malalalim na mga paguusap sa harap ng hapagkainan. Laging gumagabay. Nagustuhan ni Capitan Carcinero ang pagiging magalang at matalino ni Jose. Sana ay basbasan ka ng Dios sa mga plano mo. Isaisang darating ang tatlo niyang mga bisita – si Francisco na magbabalita sa kanya ng napanalunan niya sa bolahan. Padre Pastells (Tatayo si Jose at mananalumpati ng sagot niya sa sulat ni Padre Pastells. TELON Scene 4: |Dahil hindi pumayag si Jose sa mga kundisyon ni Padre Obach. ‘Di naglaon ay naging magkaibigan ang dalawa. Alam ni Capitan Carcinero na hindi isang kriminal si Jose kaya naan pinayagan niya siyang maglibot sa Dapitan na wari’y malaya. ano ba ‘yan? (Uupo) . kalma lang Francisco.

Nabalitaan ko sa labas na tumama ka raw sa higit anim na libo sa bolaha? Jose: Ah. Yun pala ay si Padre Sanchez) Jose: Bakit. Bukas idadaan ko dito ang bahagi mo sa bolahan! Jose: Huwag mong kalilimutan Francisco ha? Bukas! Sige! (Bubulong sa sarili) Swerte nga naman oo. Tapos. Jose! Aalis na muna ako. Dalawandaan naman ang ibibigay ko sa kaibigan kong si Basa na nasa Hong Kong – Francisco: -. Aakalain niyang si Francisco. oo.Anu ano naman? Jose: Una. ako at si Capitan Carcinero. Jose: Tingnan mo nga naman ang swerte ano!? Francisco: Tama ka diyan! Kaya maghahati tayong tatlo at makakukuha tayo ng tig-sais mil dos cientos! Jose: Marami akong paggagamitan ng perang makukuha ko – Francisco: -. (Pagupo ni Jose ay may kakatok nanaman sa pinto. siya.Francisco: Nananalo tayo sa bolahan! Jose: (Mapapatayo) Ano? Bolahan? Talaga? Magkano? Francisco: Tumama tayong tatlo ng bente mil – ikaw. ay nakalimutan ka ba Francisco? Ha-ha! (Bubuksan ang pinto.) FS: Jose! Jose: Padre Sanchez! Kumusta na kayo? Tuloy kayo! Buti naman at may panahon kayong dalawin ako dito? FS: Lagi akong may panahon para sa’yo Jose.Eh ang iba? Jose: -. Huwag mong . magbibigay ako ng dalawang-libong piso sa aking ama. Padre – FS: Alam ko namang magaling kang magmeneho ng pera. isang munting paaralan at negosyo dito sa Dapitan! Francisco: Oh.Ang iba naman ay ikakapital ko sa agrikiltura.

FS: Bakit hindi. FS: (Nanlulumo) Huwag mong sabihin ‘yan. Jose. siya. (Ihahatid ang pari sa pintuan. Gusto ko nang puntuhin ang ipinunta ko dito. Padre. Alam kong marami kang mapait na karanasan sa Simbahan pero hindi ‘yan dahilan para lumaban ka sa Santa Iglesia. huwag mong kalilimutan ‘yan. FS: Hindi ka na nagkukumpisal. Jose. FS: Maganda ‘yan. Padre? FS: Nawawalan ka na ng pananampalataya. Isa pa.iisiping hihingi ako ng balato kaya ako naparito ah? (Tatawa ang dalawa. Jose. Sandali lang din ako’t di ako pwedeng magtagal. Hinihiling ko sa Dios na nawa’y basbasan niya ang isip mo bago pa mahuli ang lahat. Jose. Padre. Nasa Simbahan ang kaligtasan. Siya nga pala. FS: Hindi naman bababa ang Dios dito sa lupa para pagkumpisalin ka. hindi ko kailangang mangumpisal.) Oh. (Babalik si Jose sa kanyang pagkaupo si Jose at susulat kay . Jose? Isa ang pangungumpisal sa mga tungkulin mo sa Dios. Jose. Jose: Para saan pa ang panalangin. (Hindi sasagot si Jose. Jose: Sa Dios o sa tao? Bakit ko nga ba kailangan mangumpisal? Bakit ko kailangang humingi ng tawad sa mga taong gaya ko ay makasalanan din? Sa Dios ako nagkukumpisal. Jose? Jose: Magkakaiba tayo ng pangmalas sa pananampalataya.) Jose: Susubukan kong palaguan ang perang makukuha ko habang nandito ako sa Dapitan. Jose. Jose. Jose: (Tatayo si Jose) Padre. Padre? Alam nating dalawa na ang panalangin ang nagiisang komunikasyon natin sa Dios.) Hanggang sa huling pagkikita! FS: Magingat kang lagi. Jose: Salamat sa dalaw mo. Jose: Anu iyon. Padre. Kaya nga siya nagpapadala ng mga kasangkapan niya. Hindi ko kailangan ng anumang ritual para mapalapit sa Kanya. Tutuloy na rin ako. hindi ang pangungumpisal ang batayan ng pananampalataya ng isang tao.

Naipatapon ka raw dito? Jose: Ah. oo. Your friend. Anu uli kamo? Kamag-anak kita? PM: Ah. Hindi mo na siguro ako maalala. Jose Rizal (Matapos magsulat ay makaririnig si Jose ng katok sa pintuan. I actually have a small boat in which to ride to kill time. ako ‘yan – Pablo Mercado at heto nga pala ang isang retrato mo. Heto. Take care. where I live with my mother. isang butones na may markang PM. I hope that you come here and see how idyllic life is in Dapitan. PM: Nakalulungkot namang malaman iyan. Jose: Nakatutuwa namang may kopya ka ng retrato kong ito. halika tuloy ka. Anung maitutulong ko sa iyo? PM: Ah! Pasensiya na kung nakaabala ako sa iyo. always. Pasensiya ka na ano pero hindi talaga kita maalala. Ipaalala mo nga ulit sa akin kung paano kita naging kamag-anak? PM: Naku! Mahabang kuwento ‘yan.) PM: Magandang hapon sa iyo. Pagpasensiyahan mo na ang hamak ko tirahan. I wake up very early in the morning to prepare food and prepare things I need for the day. Mukhang kailangan kong manatili ng ilang taon dito. I shall tell you how we live here.) Dear Blumentritt. I have three houses. Jose! Kumusta ka na? Jose: Maayos naman ako. One of the three houses is for my chickens. many fruit trees and many vegetables. Hirap na hirap akong hanapin ka. my sister Trinidad. my nephew and my students. kamag-anak mo ako! Jose: Ah. Wari’y magsusulat si Jose at maririnig sa VOICE OVER ang isinusilat niya. Ako si Pablo Mercado.) Jose: Sandali lang!(Bubuksan ang pinto at makikita ang hindi pamilyar na mukha – Pablo Mercado. Sulat lang ang tangi kong komunikasyon sa Maynila. oo.Blumentritt. Sa tingin mo’y may maitutulong ako sa iyo? . Jose! Aabutin tayo ng siyam-siyam! Siya nga pala. My friend. I have many farm animals. Ako si Pablo Mercado. Jose.

darating si Josephine Bracken kasama ang kanyang ama. may naisip ako! Anu kaya’t ako nalang ang maghatid ng mga sulat mo papuntang Maynila? Isang munting tulong ko nalang sa matagal ko nang hindi nakitang kamag-anak? Jose: Magandang ideya ‘yan pero mukhang mas magandang ang mga kartero nalang ang gumawa ng paghahatid ng sulat. miss. (Nakaupo si Jose.) JB: Hello. I’m Josephine Bracken from Ireland. Mahirap mangapa sa dilim. Naging manggagamot siya ng mga naninirahan duon. Rizal. Bubuksan ni JB ang pinto. Naku. Jose: Halika at maghanda na tayo ng hapunan. I see . Salamat sa oras mo. Ihahatid ni Josephine ang kanyang amain sa receiving area ng klinika ni Jose. PM: Salamat. Kahit abala si Rizal ay hindi naging hadlang ang mga gawain niya para makilala niya si Josephine Bracken. nagpinta ng magagandang mga obra maestro at naging negosyante. oo naman. good day! (Romantic music) Jose: Good day to you too. naging guro sa mga maliliit na mga bata. PM: Ah. Sa loob ng apat na taong pananatili ni Jose sa Dapitan ay naging produktibo ang kanyang buhay. Nakakatakot na rin ngang lumabas. Bukas ka nalang ng magang-maga tumuloy. Di naglaon ay nalaman niyang siya pala si Florencio Namanan. sasabihin ko sa’yo kung sakaling kailanganin ko ng tulong mo. Jose. PM: Ah. siyempre. Jose: Ireland? They say women from Ireland are beautiful.Jose: Wala naman sa ngayon pero huwag kang magalala. Alam naman nating bihasa sila sa mga ganung gawain. Jose. nagsulat ng mga tula. isang espiya ng mga prayle na nagbabalak makakalap ng mga ebidensiyang magpapadiin kay Jose. naging bihasa sa agham. TELON Scene 5: |Nakaramdam na ng hindi maganda si Jose sa taong nagpakilala sa kanya bilang Pablo Mercado. maggagabi na pala. Mas mabuti pa’y dito ka na magpalipas ng gabi. Baka tutuloy na rin ako. Jose: Aalis ka na? Gagabihin ka na sa daan. Come in! JB: You must be Dr.

they’re not mistaken.

JB: (Mahihiya) Thank you very much, Dr. Rizal.

Jose: I think it would be more fitting if you call me Jose. People
call me by that name.

JB: Uh, yes. Dr. Jose. We’ve heard of your expertise as an eye
physician even in my home town. I really need your help.

Jose: Why, Josephine, is there a problem with those big, beautiful,
blue eyes of yours? (Hahawakan ang mga mata ni JB.)

JB: (Mahihiya) Not me. My father.

Jose: Oh, I’m sorry. Would you mind bringing him in? (Dadalhin ni
JB ang kanyang ama sa loob ng klinika ni Jose. Susuriin sandal ni
Jose ang mga mata ng ama ni JB.)

JB: We’ve already consulted doctors from other countries. They fail
to give any help.

Jose: I’m afraid your father’s case is really a difficult one. If I
conduct an operation on his eyes, chances are low for us to recover
his eyesight; nevertheless and rest assured, I will try my best and
will exhaust everything that I can.

JB: Thank you, Dr. Jose.

Jose: (Titipunin ang buhok sa likod ng tainga ni JB.) Don’t call me
Dr. Jose ; just “Jose” is enough.

JB: Alright.

Jose: So, I guess you have to come back here on Wednesday so that I
can have plenty of time to prepare the necessary tool that I will
use. Don’t worry about your father’s condition.

JB: Thank you, Jose. We’ll come back on Wednesday. (Pagbubuksan ni
Jose ng pinto si JB at ang kanyang ama. Uupo siya at susulat ng
tula para kay Josephine na maririnig sa VOICE OVER.)

Josephine, Josephine
Who to these shores have come
Looking for a nest, a home
Like a wandering swallow;
If your fate is taking you
To Japan, China or Shanghai,

Don’t forget, on these shores
A hear for you beats high

(Papasok bigla si JB)

JB: Dr. Rizal! Dr. Rizal!

Jose: Josephine, you have come back? Whom are you with?

JB: I came here alone. I escaped from home them; I wanted to see
you again.

Jose: It’s a good thing you came back. Ever since I saw you, I
already felt strange inside me. See, (Ipakikita sa kanya ang ginawa
niyang tula) I made a poem especially for you. I think I’m in love
with you, Josephine!

JB: Yes, I know. I feel the same for you, Dr. Rizal –

Jose: (Pipigilan sa pagsasalita si JB.) Remember, I told you, not
to call me Dr. Rizal. Call me “Jose,” as if your own.

(Biglang makararamdam ng pagsisisi si JB. Tatayo at lalayo kay
Jose.)

JB: What am I doing!? Am I crazy? Is it really possible – to fall
in love with someone I’ve only seen a few moments ago?

Jose: Don’t be afrain, Josephine. We share the same feelings. If it
is insanity to love, then I, too, am insane.

JB: I love you, Jose.

Jose: I love you and I would love to marry you.

JB: Let’s marry –

Jose: -- and have children?

JB: Yes! Let’s make a family, Jose. You and me!

Jose: I will contact a priest as soon as possible! I will marry you
now! Today!

(Iiwan ni Jose si JB sa kaniyang klinika, kukunin si Padre Obach at
ipakikita sa kanya si Josephine. Papasok si Jose at Padre Obach.)

Jose: There she is, father, the love of my life!

Padre Obach: (Hihilahin siya sa tabi) Jose, anung bang naiisip mo?
Maghulusdili ka! Nababaliw ka na ba? Kakikilala mo lang sa babaeng
‘yan, gusto mo na ng kasal!?

Jose: Padre, nagmamahalan kami. Hindi ba’t yun naman ang mahalaga
sa isang kasal? Ang pagmamahal?

PO: Pagmamahal? Nababaliw ka na, Jose! (Nanggigigil) Kakikilala mo
palang sinasabi mo na ‘yan na wari’y ilang taon mo na siyang
kasama! Isa pa, Jose, hindi ko kayo pwedeng ikasal ng basta-basta.
Kailangan ko pang sumulat sa Obispo ng Cebu. Siguradong hindi rin
siya papayag kung malalaman niya ang bagay na ito!

Jose: Padre, ikasal mo na kami!

JB: Jose, my love, is there any problem?

Jose: No, darling. Please wait. I and father Obach are discussing
some matters. (Babalik kay Padre Obach.) Padre, wala akong
nakikitang mali sa pagmamahalan naming!

PO: Jose, wala na akong maitutulong pa sa iyo. Kung malalaman ito
ng iyong ina, tiyak na magiging kahihiyan niya ang inyong kasal at
magiging kahihiyan ng simbahan kung papayagan ko kaya. Pasensiya
na. (Lalabas na si PO. Hahabol si Jose.)

Jose: Padre!
JB: Doesn’t the priest want to solemnize our wedding?

Jose: He told me that our wedding could be a problem. Don’t worry,
Josephine. Weddings are not important! What’s important is that we
love each other.

JB: But people might say bad things about us.

Jose: I don’t care! What I care about is that we live in together
and make a family.

JB: I love you, Jose!

Jose: I love you too, Josephine. Today, I promise to you, in the
presence of God, that we are husband and wife.

WEDDING MARCH BY MEDDLESON

TELON

Scene 6:

) Aling Bebang.) Bebang: Jose! Jose! Manganganak na ata si Josephine. (Ihihiga si JB sa isang papag. patay ang bata. Nagaalala si Aling Bebang at kinakabahan na ang dalawa. (Dismayado) (Magugulat ang tatlong babae. oo. Maliit lang. Come on! (Magpapatuloy sa paghingal at pagiri at pagiyak si Josephine habang pinupunansan ni Aling Bebang ang ulo ni Jose at iniaabot kay Jose ng iba pang dalawa ang mga kagamitan. Paano mo sasabihin kay Josephine? Jose: Huwag muna nating sasabihin sa kanya. Pumutok na bang panubigan niya? Bebang: Ay naku. Josephine.) Aling Bebang: Jose. Hindi rin magandang sabihin sa kanya agad at baka mabigla siya. breath out. Just calm down.|Naging maganda ang pagsasama ni Jose at ni Josephine kahit na hindi sila kasal ng simbahan. Pagkatapos ng ilang sandal…) Jose: It’s a boy. Jose. (Ipapakitang buntis si Josephine at nagaayos sa bahay. Sige. Aling Bebang: Tama ka diyan. Kakausapin ni Jose si Aling Bebang. Hayaan nalang muna nating makapagpahinga ang isip at katawan niya. . Aling Bebang.) JB: Jose! Jose! Ahh! It hurts! Jose: Just calm down. Dalaldala naman ng dalawa pang iba si Josephine. Jose! Jose: Kalma lang ho.) Breath in. Naging masipag si Josephine sa pagtulong sa kanyang asawa at matiya niyang pinagaaralan ang wika ni Jose. Jose: (Tatango si Jose. Filipino. Nadaring ang isa sa mga kapitbahay ni Jose na nagkukumahog. Jose! Jose: Nasaan ho ba siya? (Papasok si Josephine na bitbit-bitbit ng dalawang kapitbahay. breath out! Just follow me: breath in. Aling Bebang. Ililibing ko ngayong gabi ang bata. Nagdalang-tao si Josephine ngunit sa kasamaang palad ay hindi nabuhay ang bata. Aling Bebang. maghanda ka ng ataol na gawa sa makikinis na kahoy.

Tao4: Oh. Jose: Magiingat kayo. Nakikiramay sila at nagpapaalam nang aalis. . Kaibigan: Isang sulat galing kay Governador Blanco. Ano bang maipaglilingkod ko sa iyo. (Uupo si Jose at tatabihan si JB. I know how it feels to lose a child.) Salamat sa inyo. Mabuti nalang at nandoon ang mga kaibigan at kapitbahay niya sa Dapitan upang makiramay sa kanyang pangungulila. Mukhang papayagan ka na sa pagtulong mo sa labanan sa Cuba. siya Jose tutuloy na kami. kasama. (Titingnan ni JB si Jose at hindi magsasallita. at malamang ay magiging manananggol din siya n gating Inang Bayan.) Tao1: Nakikiramay kami sa nangyari sa iyong anak.) I know the sorrow that you feel. Jose.) (Papasok ang isang kaibigan ni Jose dala ang balitang pumayag na si Governor Blanco sa pagtulong niya sa Cuba. Labis na naghinagpis si Jose sa pangyayaring ito sa kanyang buhay.) Kaibigan: Jose! Jose! Pagpasensiyahan mo na ang pagaalaba ko.Music: Funeral March by Chopin TELON Scene 7 |Nang gabing iyon ay inilibing ni Jose ang kanyang siyam-na-buwang anak sa isang kakahuyan sa Dapitan. Jose: Walang anuman ‘yon. Nakaupo naman si JB. Jose: (Ngingiti si Jose sandali. Jose. Tulala si JB. Hindi ko rin inaasahang ganun ang mangyayari. Tao3: Oo. Josephine. Inaasan din naming magkakaroon ka na ng anak. Jose: Salamat. Tao2: Kung nabuhay siguro si Francisco ay magiging kasing galing niya ang kanyang ama. Pinangalanan niya itong Francisco bilang pagalaala sa kanyang amang si Don Francisco. (Unang makikita si Jose na nakatayo kasama ang ilang mga tao. kasama.

) . 1897 natapos ang pagpapatapon kay Jose. Kaibigan: Hindi ka naming makalilimutan kailan man. Salamat. Jose! Nakatutuwa namang isipin na pinagyagan ka ng Gobernador sa iyong kahilingan. Salamat din sa pagtuturo mo sa mga kabataan dito. Marami kang nagawang proyekto dito at dahil sa mga ‘yun ay umunlad ang buhay at pamumuhay naming rito. Ngayong lang darating ito. Kaibigan: Salamat sa tulong mo dito sa Dapitan. (Binubuksan ang sulat. ang steamer na sinakyan ni Jose papuntang Maynila. Itinuring ko naring sarili kong tahanan itong Dapita. anong eka. TELON |Noong Hulyo 31.) Matagal ko nang ipinadala ang sulat ko sa kanila. JB: What is that. Apat na taon din siyang nanatili sa Dapitan.) Kaibigan: Oh. Napamahal na ako dito. (May isang kababayan niya na kakausap sa kanya. Jose: Walang anuman ‘yun kaibigan. Jose? Jose: It’s a letter from Governor General Blanco Josephine. Nawalan sila ng isang pangulo. Sa apat na taong pananatili ko dito ay naramdaman ko ang pagkalingan naramdaman ko sa Calamba. Jose. ng isang manananggol at ng isang kaibigan.Jose: Nakapagtataka naman. Scene 8 |Nang nasa Maynila na si Jose ay marami siyang nalaman na lubhang bumagabag sa kanya. Jose: Tama ka pero kailangan kong iwanan ang Dapitan. mula ngayon ay may maiiwan kang marurunong sa bayan na ito. Nagpaalam kay Jose lahat ng mga mamamayan ng Dapitan at untiunti silang lumuha habang untiunting lumalayo ang Espaniya. Jose? Jose: Sulat nga mula sa Gobernador. Kaibigan: Maganda ‘yan. He’s notifying me that he is accepting my help for the war in Cuba. Jose. Labis ang lungkot at pangungulilang naramdaman ng mga naninirahan duon nang umalis si Jose. (Babasahing sandal. Pinapayagan na akong tumulong sa labanan sa Cuba pero hinihiling sa aking dumaan muna sa Maynila para mapagbilinan ako sa pagpunta ko sa Espaniya. kasama.

Nueva Ecija at Tarlac. Kb: Nabalitaan kong kailangan mo raw pumunta sa Espaniya para makatulong sa labanan sa Cuba? Jose: Tama ka diyan. Jose: Nalulungkot akong malaman ‘yan. kaibigan. Jose! Jose: Magandang araw din naman sa iyo. kaibigan! Sasakay sana ako sa Isla de Luzon ngunit nahuli ako dahil nakaalis na pala ito kahapon ng alas singko. Laguna. Maaari mo bang ikuwento sa akin? Kb: Nalaman ng ga prayle ang planong pagpapatapon ng mga miembro ng Katipunan sa pamamahala ng Espaniya dito sa Pilipinas. TELON Scene 9 . Kb: Nalulungkot? Hindi ba’t dapat kang matuwa at nagsisimula nang kumilos ang mga Pilipino upang bawiin an gating kalayaan? Jose: Huwag mong isipin na hindi ko nais ang kalayaan.Kb: Magandang araw. Ano ang laban ng sumpit at bolo sa malalakas na mga armas ng mga kastila? Dadanak lang ang dugo at madadamay ang mga inosenteng mga Pilipino at mga Kastila. Cavite. dun ako sasakay. Ibon mang may laying lumipad.Salamat – Kb: Nabalitaan mo na ba ang mga pagyayari sa ating bayan? Jose: Mukhang nahuhuli na ako sa mga pangyayari dito. Kb: Kaya naman hihintayin mo ang susunod na steamer. kulungin mo at iiyak. kaibigan. Kb: Mabuti. Jose: May mga pagaalsa na bang sumiklab? Kb: Pumutok na ang mga paghihimagsikan sa iba’t ibang mga probinsiya gaya ng Bulacan. Pampanga. Hiling ko ang kaligtasan mo sa iyong paglalakbay – Jose: -. Batangas. tama ba? Jose: Tama at hindi na magtatagal at darating na ang Castilla. Ngunit sa tingin ko’y hindi pa tayo handa. Dahil don ay naguguluihanan na ang mga mga Kastilang opisyal.

) TK1: Eres Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado? (Titingin lang si Jose at hindi magsasalita. Que usted necesitas? TK2: Inaaresto ka naman. Hindi ko pwedeng baliin ang pangako ko. Sige. gamit kapangyarihang ipinagkaloob sa amin ni Gobernador General Ramon Blanco. Alam ni Jose na . Punong-punong ng mga sundalo at mga opisyal ang steamer. dakpin siya. Jose: Hindi ko pwedeng gawin ‘yon. Ang hulinh paguwi ni Rizal sa kanyang bayan ay noong 1896. Colon. inilipat si Jose sa steamer na Isla de Panay mula sa Castilla. isang mayamang taga-Maynila. habang may pagkakataon ka pa! Jose: Nangako ako kay Gobernador General Blanco na pupunta ako sa Barcelona at tutulong ako sa labanan sa Cuba bilang isang manggagamot.|Ala sais ng hapon. Doon ka mananatili hanggang makarinig kami ng kautusan mula kay Gobernador General Blanco. P2: Tumakas ka na. Magbabasa siya ng diaryo sa steamer at biglang darating ang mga tropa ng mga Kastila na aaresto sa kanya. Jose. noon Setyembre dos. Jose: Sa anong dahilan ako aarestuhin? TK1: Sumama ka nalang sa amin. mil nueve cientos nuventa y sais. Jose: Saan niyo ako dadalhin!? TK2: Ididitini ka muna naming sa Ceuta. Nakasama niya sa steamer na iyon si Don Pedro Roxas. P1: Jose. walang magagawa ang tapang mo. TELON |Pinabalik si Jose sa Maynila sakay ng isang steamer. Jose. (Uupo si Jose at aalis ang mga Pinoy na nagbabala sa kanya. Nakarinig siya ng babala mula sa mga kapwa niyang Pilipinong nakasakay sa steamer na iyon.) Eres Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado!? Jose: Si. Puputulin ng mga Kastila ang ulo mo. Kung gusto mong mabuhay nang mas mahaba. Mayroon akong palabra de honor at prisipyo na kailangan kong alagaan. nabalitaan naming may planong dakpin ka bago tayo makarating sa Barcelona. tumakas ka nalang at manahimik sa isang tagong lugar. P3: Jose.

2. Sumulat ka ng isang tulang pinamagatang Kundiman na mapanghikayat ng himagsikan. Isang dokumentong masonika na nagpapatunay sa iyong mapanghimagsik na serbisiyo. bilang bahagi ng iyong karapatan. Sumulat ka sa iyong pamilya na nagsasabing mabuti ang pagpapatapon dahil hinihikayat nito ang mga tao upang maghimagsik. Sumulat si Antonio Luna kay Mariano Ponce na nagpapatunay ng iyong koneksyon sa kampanya para sa reporma sa Espanya. (Ipapakita ang isang paglilitis. Sumulat si Marcelo del Pilar kay Deodato Arellano na nagpapatunay na ay kinalaman ka sa Propaganda sa Espaniya. . Nakaupo si Jose sa katabi ang kanyang mananaggol – Si Luis Taviel de Andrade. 6.iyon na ang pinakamalaking pagsubok sa kanya at maaring buhay niya ang maging kabayaran.) Juez: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. Isang di kilalang sulat na tumutuligsa sa pagpapatapon sa iyo. 4. ito na ang huling araw ng iyong paglilitis sa kasong panguupat ng himagsikan laban sa Espaniya. Sumulat si Dimasalang sa isang di matukoy na organisasyong na humihingi ng tulong nito para sa paghihimagsik. (Papalo) Tagabasa: 1. 5. Babasahan siya ng mga ebidensiya laban sa kanya ni Juez Francisco Olive. Isang sulat ni Ildefonso Laurel sa iyo na nagsasabing ikaw ang tagapagligtas ng mga Pilipino. 7.) Tagabas2: Narito ang ilang pang mga ebidensiya laban sa iyo: 1. 3. Sumulat si Carlos Oliver sa hindi matukoy na isang tao na naglalarawan sa iyo bilang isang taong magpapalaya sa Pilipinas. ang mga ebidensiya laban sa iyo. Isang sulat ni Ildefonso Laurel sa iyo na nagpapaalam sa iyo ng mga pinatatapon ng gobyerno. (Papalo nanaman si Juez. Babasahin sa iyo. Isang sulat na pinirmahang Dimasalang na nagsasaad na ikaw ay naghahanda ng isang lugar na maaaring tuluyan ng mga lumalaban sa Espaniya. 2. 3. 4.

Ano ba ang naging kasalanan niya? Nagsabi ba siya sa harapan ng madla ng pagkamuhi o paglaban sa Espaniya? Nagsdeklara ba siya sa madla ng paghihiwalang ng sarili niya sa rehimen ng Espaniya. Abogado Luis Taviel de Andrade. ang pangalang Rizal ay naging simbolo ng hindi mabilang na rebelyon. “Mabuhay ang Pilipinas! Mabuhay ang kalayaan! Mabuhay si Doktor Rizal!” 7.) Luis: Ako po si Luis Taviel de Andrade. Idineklara ba niya.5. Ngayon naman ay binibigyan ng pagkakataon ang nasasakdal upang magbigay ng panghuli niyang depensa. bibigyan ng pagkakaton ang iyong mananaggol na iprisenta ang inyong hulingdepensa. “Mabuhay si Jose Rizal! Kamatayan sa mga manlulupig!” 8. (Papalo nanaman ang Juez. Isang sulat ni Marcelo del Pilar kay Don Juan Tenluz na nagrerekomenda ng pagpapatayo ng espesiyal na organisasyon. 6.) Jose: Napaitapon ako sa Dapitan at nanatili doon ng apat na taon. Sa boong pananatili ko ay wala akong ibang iniisip kundi ang kalagayan ng aking pamilya at ang ikabubuti ng aking bayan. (Papalo. ang mananaggol ng nasasakdal – Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realando. Isang kopya ng talumpati ni Jose Turiano Santiago kung saan nakasaas. Siya rin ay naging simbolo ng mga karaingan ng mga tao at ngayon ay nabibinbin siya sa panganib ng kamatayan. Dalidali akong sumulat sa Gobernador General . Sa maraming taon. sa harap ng Simbahan at ng Espaniya. Pinagbuti ko ang pananatili ko sa Dapitan at sinikap kong maging produktibo ang pananatili ko doon. na lumalaban siya sa kapangyarihan ng mga ito? Hindi. Isang kopya ng talumpati ni Emilio Jacinto kung saad nakasaad. na kailangan ng espanya ng isang doktor na tutulong sa Cuba upang gumamot ng mga biktima ng digmaan. Kaya naman ipinapanalngin ko sa harapan ng kagalang-galang na korteng ito na bigyan ang ng kapatawaran sa kung ano mang pagkakamaling nagawa niya. sa pamamagitan ng sulat sa aking ng aking kaibigan si Ferdinand Blumentritt. Nalaman. Isang tula ni Laong Laan na pinagamatang Talisay na umaawit ng paglaban para sa karapatan. (Tatayo si Jose at magsasalita. Juez: Gracias.) Juez: Ngayong narinig na ang lahat ng ebidensiya laban sa’yo.

You don't have to get out of the comfort of your home. 7836 ARTICLE I TITLE SECTION 1.) ARTICLE I OF R. Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET! 1." #1 DRILLS FOR GEN.) Juez: Silencio. Babasahin na ang hatol sa nasasakdal. You don't have to attend any review center anymore. Hieroglyphics B. Abacus . mga kasalanang ipinupukol sa akin. Magkakagulo at magiingay ang mga tao. Short Title.para iaabot ang makakayao ngunit ito ang nakuha kong kapalit. Ikaw.A. USING THESE FREE. Printing Press D. ED. Nakalulungkot isipin na may mga taong sumamantala ng katahimikan ko sa Dapitan at ginamit ang aking pagkawala para idiin ako. Ngayon ay nadidiin ako sa loob ng korteng ito dahil sa mga paratang. (Papalo ang Juez. Ikaw ay pinapatawan ng kamatayan. This is considered to be the first manual data processing device developed in China in the 2th century BCE. (Papalo uli ang Juez. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. ONLINE DRILL QUESTIONS WITH RATIONALIZATIONS. You don't have to pay even a cent. Papyrus C. ay napatunayang nagkasala sa harap ng korteng ito dahil sa iyong panguupat ng himagsikan laban sa Espaniya. INCREASE YOUR CHANCE OF PASSING THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS. — This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994. Isa lang ang alam kong nagawa kong kasalanan – minahal ko ang sarili kong bayan. A.

The list includes Mesopotamia.The answer is letter D . Remember: Blaise Pascal = calculator. TEST-TAKING SKILL: [!] Choose the option that is very different from the other three. thereby transferring the ink. Notice how similar options A. what is talked about here is the 2th century. Greece and many others. Note. also called a counting frame. Charles Babbage Many people mistakenly answer C .Charles Babbage. is a thin paper-like material made from the pith of the papyrus plant. the time around which China developed their own version of the Abacus. Blaise Pascal D. mathematics and data processing. Charles Babbage originated the concept of programmable computers.Blaise Pascal . John Napier B. that China is not the only country which developed the Abacus. Africa. William Oughtred C. he contributed basic mathematical computing processes that gave rise to calculators. he devoted most of his life to inventing the first mechanical . Persia. Egypt. However.Abacus. He is considered to be the Father of Computing because of his contributions to the basic design of computer. however. Cyperus papyrus. which one is? It's letter D . B and C are to one another. traders and clerks in Asia. Egyptian hieroglyphs or mdw·w-nṯr were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. 2. All of them relate to writing while option D talks of counting. and elsewhere. on the other hand. However. The device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface made of movable type. is a calculating tool that was in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral system and is still widely used by merchants. This includes the New Testament. Since he was an engineer and a computer scientist. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood. if option C is not correct. Papyrus. It is very popular especially in the world of literature because many ancient texts excavated/found were written in papyri. Printing Press is a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (substrate) such as paper or cloth. A. The abacus. the syringe and Pascal's Wager (in Christian philosophy) So. remember that Blaise Pascal did not contribute to the design of computers.when confronted with this question.

By the use of C. Hardware C. Printer D. Monitor B. William Oughtred or Rev. on the other hand. After John Napier invented logarithms. and Edmund Gunter created the logarithmic scales (lines." A." Answering either A or C will overlook the fact that the questions seeks a general term used to refer to "actual machines" that compose "a computer system." Varieties of software. and he is credited as the inventor of the slide rule in 1622. Oughtred also introduced the "×" symbol for multiplication as well as the abbreviations "sin" and "cos" for the sine and cosine functions 3. TEST-TAKING SKILLS: [!] The correct answer is usually between two directly opposite options.printer .and option C .monitor . did they? D. didn't they? B. A computer system is actually made up of actual machines known as _. Software The answer for this item is option B . 4. don't they? C. it was Oughtred who first used two such scales sliding by one another to perform direct multiplication and division.computer that eventually led to more complex designs. On using D. William Oughtred (5 March 1574 – 30 June 1660) was an English mathematician and Anglican minister. With the use . A. A."The kidnappers wanted to surrender. The kidnappers surrender.hardware. [!] Eliminate options that are under another umbrella term. Which of the following is the best question form for the statement. The kidnappers wanted to surrender. are not actual machines but are programmed applications and systems used for people to interact with the computer system and get something done. The government should work for a total ban ___ of marijuana in our town. What did the kidnappers surrender? 5.are under the umbrella term "hardware. On the use of B. John Napier is more known for his contributions to logarithm and decimal notation. or rules) upon which slide rules are based. Notice that both option A . The kidnappers wanted to surrender. He also conceptualized the Napier's Bones or Napier's Rods used in the teaching of Mathematics and Languages today.

We need to herald a major economic and social changes brought about by technology. Master D. Fate 10. Which of the following words is pronounced with ð? A. What is the tense of the following sentence: Surprisingly. Which does not belong? A. Tore . A. Captain C. Wrath D.Thor C. Which word in the following passage does NOT need a change in pitch to show confidence? I am the master of my fate. Encourage 11. Am B. End B. Seethe . Respond to D. What does the word in all caps mean? . Betty has written a beautiful poem. Bear . There was a HIATUS of two years before I went back to college. Throw B. The word "herald" means __. I am the captain of my soul! A. Simple Past B.thieve B. Proclaim C. A.6.cheer 8. Perfect Present 9.sheathe D. Simple Present C. Than C. Give . Perfect Past D. Nothing 7. The following are minimal pairs.

3 B. Belittle 14. Length B. Have been working 13. /v/ D. Scoff B. Which of the following is NOT voiced? A. Continuation D. Mean B. What does the emphasized word mean? A. 1 16. Had been working D. which word has to get more emphasis to underline ownership? A. Brag D. He ___ for a long time. Deride C. Mr. Has been working B. Never GLOAT about anything. Is D. /f/ B.A. Your C. That is your assignment. That B. /b/ C. Assignment 15. In the preceding sentence. A. Lapse C. 4 D. Which of the following does not belong? A. Has been being working C. /d/ 17. 2 C. What a strange story! What is the pitch that the word "strange" should receive? A. Uninterruption 12. Sheet . Sabado will retire soon.

Do you learn D. Rarely _____ so busy. Walked C. This place is D. Are you learning B. How long ___ Japanese? A. Laughs D. To shampooing C. Played 20. Have you been learning C. Joked B. To shampoo D. Does this place 23. Jokes C. For shampooing 24. ___ the dogs. I _____ professionally.C. A. What kind of day is it? It is a cold day! What word should receive the most emphasis to answer the question? A. A. Which words ends with /z/? A. Have done it B. This place being B. Ship 18. Had done it . Buys 21. Which ends with /d/? A. Day D. Maps B. Shampooing B. Is your office always busy? No. Laughed D. Did you paint your car by yourself? No. Have you learned 22. Cold C. Cheap D. This 19. Is B. Is this place C. Where's your mom? She's in the backyard. A.

ONLINE DRILL QUESTIONS WITH RATIONALIZATIONS. which denotes an action taking place with continuity or at the present time. Has defined D.Define.Defines . Is defining If a statement is made to denote a factuality. Although A .is in the progressive present tense. Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET! 25. INCREASE YOUR CHANCE OF PASSING THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS. A prepositional phrase was used as intervening words in this item. Therefore. The only singular verb among the options is B . USING THESE FREE. Had it done D. Have D. You don't have to attend any review center anymore. 26. You don't have to pay even a cent. A number of heinous crimes ___ recorded by the police since the start of this . ED. The answer for this item is B . which denotes completion and perfection. Are Remember the simple rule that the agreement between a subject and a verb is not affected by intervening words. Option D . A. 27. A. Had gone #9 DRILLS FOR GEN. it cannot be the answer since it is a singular verb. You don't have to get out of the comfort of your home. What is the number of the subject? Singular. Need B. Option C . Scientists ___ evolution as a change within a period of time.is also in the simple present tense. the verb must also be in the plural form. it must be in the simple present tense. The subject is a plural noun. therefore.Is defining .is in the perfect present tense. Needs C.Has defined . Define C. the verb must also be singular. What is the subject here? The teacher. The teacher as well as her students ___ to attend the seminar on drug abuse. Defines B.Needs.C.

AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR RA 7796 . RA 8545 AN ACT AMENDING REPUBLIC ACT NO. The answer is C . APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR.is in itself structurally inconsistent. APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. So. On the other hand. there must be a be-verb helping it. Why. The proper phrasing should have been "Has been being. thus. 6728. RA 7784 AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES BY ESTABLISHING CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE. CREATING A TEACHER EDUCATION COUNCIL FOR THE PURPOSE. AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR RA 6728 AN ACT PROVIDING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN PRIVATE EDUCATION. when we say "The number of enrollees have increased. Has already been D. having no effect on the agreement between the subject and the verb. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. Have already being The expression "a number" does not affect the number of the subject." RA 7722 AN ACT CREATING THE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION." we are committing a grave structural flaw since the expression "the number" affects the agreement between the subject and the verb. Option D ." we say so with grammatical accuracy. Have already been B.year.Have already being . A. OTHERWISE KNOWN AS "AN ACT PROVIDING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN PRIVATE EDUCATION AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR." ESTABLISHING A FUND FOR THE PURPOSE OF SUBSIDIZING SALARIES OF PRIVATE SCHOOL TEACHERS. when we say "A number of guests have arrived. because a progressive verb to exist in any verb phrase. Are already being C.Has already been.

TO UPHOLD THE TIME-HONORED PRINCIPLE OF PUBLIC OFFICE BEING A PUBLIC TRUST. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES RA 8980 AN ACT PROMULGATING A COMPREHENSIVE POLICY AND A NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT (ECCD). PROVIDING FOR ITS POWERS. NO. PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES PD 1006 PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 7836). REGULATING THEIR PRACTICE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES RA 4670 THE MAGNA CARTA FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS RA 9293 AN ACT AMENDING CERTAIN SECTIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED SEVENTY- EIGHT HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SIX (R. RENAMING THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. CULTURE AND SPORTS AS THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 1006 PROVIDING FOR THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF TEACHERS. STRUCTURE AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES RA 9155 AN ACT INSTITUTING A FRAME WORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASIC EDUCATION.A. GRANTING INCENTIVES AND REWARDS FOR EXEMPLARY SERVICE. OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE "PHILIPPINE TEACHERS PROFESSIONALIZATION ACT OF 1994" RA 6713 AN ACT ESTABLISHING A CODE OF CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES.AN ACT CREATING THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY. ENUMERATING PROHIBITED ACTS AND TRANSACTIONS AND PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS THEREOF AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES RA 5447 AN ACT CREATING A SPECIAL EDUCATION FUND TO BE CONSTITUTED FROM THE PROCEEDS OF AN ADDITIONAL REAL PROPERTY TAX AND A CERTAIN PORTION OF THE TAXES ON VIRGINIA-TYPE CIGARETTES AND DUTIES ON IMPORTED LEAF . ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY.

DEFINING THE ACTIVITIES TO BE FINANCED. CREATING SCHOOL BOARDS FOR THE PURPOSE. AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFROM RA 6655 AN ACT ESTABLISHING AND PROVIDING FOR A FREE PUBLIC SECONDARY EDUCATION AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES RA 7687 AN ACT INSTITUTING A SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM AND OTHER PURPOSES .TOBACCO.