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Plasma proteins, also termed serum proteins or blood proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.

They serve many different
functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and metals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity and
functioning and in the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement components, protease inhibitors or kinin
precursors. Contrary to popular belief, hemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum.

Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins, and is a major contributor to maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the
transport of lipids and steroid hormones. Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones, and lipids assisting in
immune function. Fibrinogen comprises 7% of blood proteins; conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin is essential for blood clotting. The
remainder of the plasma proteins (1%) are regulatory proteins, such as enzymes, proenzymes, and hormones. All blood proteins are
synthesized in liver except for the gamma globulins.

Separating serum proteins by electrophoresis is a valuable diagnostic tool as well as a way to monitor clinical progress. Current research
regarding blood plasma proteins is centered on performing proteomics analyses of serum/plasma in the search for biomarkers. These efforts
started with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis[1] efforts in the 1970s and in more recent times this research has been performed using LC-
tandem MS[2][3] based proteomics. The normal laboratory value of serum total protein is around 7 g/dL.
The sun shines white and black light to our planet. The white light has all the colors in it. In our upper atmosphere, we have dust
particles and oxygen molecules. The white light meaning all of the colors in a rainbow shines through the upper levels of the
atmosphere and the blue light scatters across the entire planet. That is why our sky is blue. Now, during sunrise and sunset, the light
traveling through atmosphere is longer at the horizon, then if you were to look up high in the sky. There are more dust particles and
oxygen molecules at the horizon, so that is why you see such pretty colors like red, oranges and yellows.

As the Earth spins on its axis, producing night and day, it also moves about the Sun in an elliptical (elongated circle) orbit that
requires 365 1/4 days to complete. The Earth's axis is tilted at 23.5 degrees and is why we have seasons. When the Earth's axis
points towards the Sun, it is summer for that hemisphere. When the Earth's axis points away, winter can be expected.

A tornado begins as a funnel cloud with spinning columns of air that drop down from a severe thunderstorm. When they reach the ground they become
tornadoes. Tornadoes are between 300 and 2,000 feet wide and travel at speeds of 20 to 45 miles per hour. They usually only last a few minutes, but
their spinning winds, up to 300 miles per hour, can lift houses into the air and rip trees from the ground.

Clouds are white because they reflect the light of the sun. Light is made up of colors of the rainbow and when you add them all
together you get white. The sun appears a yellow color because it sends out more yellow light than any other color. Clouds reflect all
the colors the exact same amount so they look white.

We get rain when there is an area of disturbance, usually associated with a low-pressure system. The water vapor in the clouds
creates droplets and those droplets keep getting bigger and bigger until the fall. When they fall, it creates rain!

Because the sun ALWAYS rises in the east and sets in the west, you can tell the time just by looking at where the sun is. When you
look east and the sun is on the horizon that means its approximately 6:00am. When the sun is directly above your head that means its
noon. When you look to the west and the sun is on the horizon that means its approximately 6:00pm.

You might not have noticed this, but the Earth tilts over slightly. If you have a globe at home or in school, you can see that the line
between north and south poles, that goes through the center of the Earth, isn't vertical. It's actually tilting over by about 23
degrees. In our summer, the north pole is pointing towards the Sun so the Sun rises and sets roughly from due east to due west. In
winter, the Earth is on the other side of the Sun so the North Pole is pointing away from the Sun. This means the Sun rises and sets
more towards the southeast and southwest. You might notice this as you look out of the window. Think back to how high in the sky the
sun was during the summer. Compare this to where the sun is during the winter and you'll see it's much lower down towards the
horizon. Because the sun is lower down on the horizon, there's less time for it to travel between horizons. There's less distance for it
to travel so the sun rises later and sets earlier meaning there's less daylight.

Tornadoes are truly a mystery. Basically, they start as a horizontal column of air that rotates. For some reason, some of these turn
vertical. Meteorologists are still unsure why this is. Once they turn vertical, they turn into a funnel cloud. As soon as they touch the
ground, they become a tornado.


Cloud drops form when warm air cools and the water in the air condenses. With lots of drops and movement (winds and currents) the
drops bump and merge until heavy enough for gravity to pull out the drops as rain.

Hurricanes form in warm ocean water from an area of low pressure. Once the low starts to spin counter-clockwise, it can gain a
tremendous amount of strength, but it can only do this if conditions in the atmosphere are right for development.

Clouds are made up of tiny water droplets or ice crystals, usually a mixture of both. The water and ice scatter all light, making clouds
appear white. If the clouds get thick enough or high enough all the light above does not make it through, hence the gray or dark look.
Also, if there are lots of other clouds around, their shadow can add to the gray or multicolored gray appearance.

A cloud forms when air heated by the sun. As it rises, it slowly cools it reaches the saturation point and water condenses, forming a
cloud. As long as the cloud and the air that its made of is warmer than the outside air around it, it floats!

Hail is created when small water droplets are caught in the updraft of a thunderstorm. These water droplets are lifted higher and
higher into the sky until they freeze into ice. Once they become heavy, they will start to fall. If the smaller hailstones get caught in
the updraft again, they will get more water on them and get lifted higher in the sky and get bigger. Once they get lifted again, they
freeze and fall. This happens over and over again until the hailstone is too heavy and then falls to the ground.

Thunder is caused by lightning. When a lightning bolt travels from the cloud to the ground it actually opens up a little hole in the air,
called a channel. Once then light is gone the air collapses back in and creates a sound wave that we hear as thunder. The reason we
see lightning before we hear thunder is because light travels faster than sound!

Yes, you can use thunder to tell how far away a storm is. Next time you see a storm, count the number of seconds between when you
see the lightning and hear the thunder. Take the number of seconds and divide by 5 and that will tell you how far away the storm is in

Your breath is reasonably warm and humid and it has invisible water vapor as a large component of the gas. Warm moist air meeting
the cooler air outside the body causes the invisible water vapor to condense the cooler air outside are visible and form the cloud that
you see. The relative humidity which depends upon water content and temperature goes to 100%. As the breath gets further from
the person's face the water content dilutes and the relative humidity goes down and the droplets go back into vapor form.

El Nino is the warming of the equatorial waters in the Pacific Ocean, while La Nina is the cooling of the equatorial waters in the
Pacific Ocean. Both of these have an impact on our weather, depending on where you live.

We get snow when there is an area of disturbed weather, usually associated with a low-pressure system. The water vapor in the
clouds creates droplets and those droplets keep getting bigger and bigger until the fall. When temperatures get below freezing, it
creates snow!

The characteristics of clouds are dictated by the elements available, including the amount of water vapor, the temperatures at that
height, the wind, and the interplay of other air masses.

The most commonly accepted theory of how lightning forms is that, when ice and water particles collide in a cloud, they are charged.
Lighter particles tend to be positively charged and end up near the top of the cloud, while negatively charged particles are near the
bottom of the cloud. So in your typical storm cloud, the negative charge at the bottom of the cloud enhances the positive charge at
the ground. The cloud wants to "complete the circuit" and creates lightning. Each bolt has the potential to be as strong as a billion
volts with temperatures as high as 54,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Because a lightning bolt is so hot, it superheats the air around it. The
air particles quickly expand and contract, so fast that they break the speed of sound and create a sound wave that is called thunder.

We see lightning first, because light travels faster than sound. Think of it like this, when you're watching fireworks, what happens
first, seeing the bright lights of the fireworks or hearing the loud boom? Of course, you see the fireworks and then you hear the
boom from them. Lightning and thunder work in the same manner.

Aurora occur due to energetic particles from a solar storm, which cause the gases in the upper atmosphere to glow. It takes place
between 50-100 miles above the Earth and can last anywhere between a few minutes to a few hours. Aurora are most common in polar

As the sun warms the Earth's surface, the atmosphere warms too. Some parts of the Earth receive direct rays from the sun all year
and are always warm. Other places receive indirect rays, so the climate is colder. Warm air, which weighs less than cold air, rises.
Then cool air moves in and replaces the rising warm air. This movement of air is what makes the wind blow.

In the summer, our dew points are much higher due to warm and humid air coming from the Gulf of Mexico and that is why we have
humid weather. In the winter, our dew points are much lower due to cold and direr air coming from Canada. The lower the dew point
the better it is to create static electricity, so that's why you see it more in the winter.
Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer Earth
may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. When
scientists talk about the issue of climate change, their concern is about global warming caused by human activities, like pollution.

During the spring and summer the leaves have served as factories where most of the foods necessary for the tree's growth are
manufactured. This food-making process takes place in the leaf in numerous cells containing chlorophyll, which gives the leaf its green
color. Along with the green pigment are yellow to orange to red pigments as well. Most of the year these colors are masked by great
amounts of green coloring. But in the fall, because of changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature, the leaves stop
their food-making process. The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange to red colors become
visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor. The best time to enjoy the autumn color would be on a clear, dry, and cool day.

If your dog always comes inside right before it rains, you may think that animals can predict the weather. It's probably more
accurate to say that animals react to certain environmental signals that accompany weather changes, not to the weather itself. A
prevalent opinion is that animals can detect certain events, like earthquakes, as soon as they happen, even if the originating event is a
great distance away. The majority of researchers say that animals make greater use of their existing five senses, especially when
compared to humans. The most critical sense is hearing.

Mrs. Stewart, Elementary School Teacher
In the case of thunder and lightening phobias, children who are excessively afraid may carefully monitor the daily weather, and may
refuse to participate in activities such as sports or other outdoor activities if there is even the slightest cloud in the sky. For these
children, the help of a child psychologist can be extremely important to help the child return to their everyday routines without
avoiding things. There are several techniques that have been used by psychologists to help children with such fears of thunder and
lightening. First, therapists who are carefully trained in how to conduct relaxation therapy may help teach children to relax during a
thunderstorm. Children are also often thought to readjust their anxious thoughts about thunderstorms and to obtain accurate
information about when to be concerned, how to keep safe, and when it is okay NOT to worry. It is also important that children
practice these skills during storms. Although therapists unfortunately do not have the power over mother nature to cause a
thunderstorm right in time for a therapy session, there are other ways that storms have been re-created so that children can learn
to face their fears. Children can purchase CD's of thunderstorms, which are available in most music stores. Children are encouraged
to practice positive coping skills while listening to thunder storms. Several museums have lightening exhibits where the phenomenon
of lightening is explained, and created in the museum for children to learn about it. In addition, other techniques, such as having a
therapist use a strobe light while the child listens to a lightening and thunder tape, can help children re-create the feeling of being in
a storm. Ultimately, exposure to real storms can help children see that if they take proper precautions, they do not need to be
excessively afraid.

Promoting sustainable economic growth and industrialisation: solution to
mass unemployment and poverty.

This paper analysed the twin-problems of unemployment and poverty. The methodology adopted in the analyses was a combination of the
historical and logico-mathematical research perspectives. The results showed that the technologically advanced nations (TANs) experienced
mass unemployment, low productivity, high inflation and prevalent poverty problems for many centuries before they achieved industrial
revolution (IR). When they achieved the modern IR, not only did the mass unemployment problem disappear, but also, there were not enough
adults persons to fill the employment openings created by the industrialisation. Consequently, industrialists resorted to employing children
who worked in factories for many hours everyday, and prevented them from receiving education. Unemployment and poverty, therefore are
symptoms of stagnation and lack of industrialisation (the disease). The long-term solution to mass unemployment and poverty therefore is

industrialisation, for there is no industrialised nation that is poor. The short-term solution is promoting sustainable economic growth and
competence-building. However, because achieving sustainable economic growth, competence-building and industrialisation are learning
processes, Nigeria and other developing nations need to develop good educational systems. They should also establish suitable frameworks
for training university graduates, scientists and engineers in particular in a curriculum-based scheme to acquire complementary practical skills
in the economy outside campuses. This is how the poor nations can achieve sustainable growth, build-up individual and national
competence, promote industrialisation and eliminate unemployment and poverty problems, speedily.

Industrialization; Poverty; Sustainable economic growth; Unemployment


Sunscreen is something many people trust to keep them from getting sunburnt but how exactly does it keep the
skin safe from harmful UV rays? The reason sunscreen works so well is because it uses multiple active ingredients
that each do their part in protecting your skin. Most sunscreens use inorganic ingredients such as titanium oxide or
zinc oxide to reflect UV radiation away from the body while organic ingredients such as octyl methoxycinnamate or
oxybenzone convert the remaining UV rays into heat. The end results are creams with varying SPFs (Sun
Protection Factors) that keep the body protected from UV radiation.


Hiccups are triggered by uncontrolled impulses of the phrenic nerve which lead the diaphragm to spasm.
These contractions result in a quick intake of breath which is what we refer to as a hiccup. Hiccups can be
caused many ways such as by eating or drinking too quickly, consuming spicy or cold food, drinking
alcohol, or by quick breaths because of surprises, laughs, coughs, or sneezes. In some cases they occur
for no real reason at all, which can be quite annoying. So how exactly does one cure the hiccups? I have
heard of many remedies including drinking water upside down, holding your breath, eating peanut butter,
distracting yourself one way or another, or getting someone to scare you. Some of these may seem
ridiculous, but all of them either distract you or cause you to hold your breath which allows the diaphragm to relax and can help stop the
spasms. If none of these remedies works, and the hiccups do not subside, it may be necessary to get medical attention. The longest case of
hiccups ever recorded was with a man named Charles Osborne whose fit lasted 68 years. He hiccupped an estimated 430 million times and
averaged from 20-40 hiccups a minute throughout his lifetime. Next time you find yourself complaining about hiccups, just be glad that they
will be gone sooner than his were.


Freckles are flat tan, brown, or black spots that can appear on skin that has been exposed to the sun. These spots
are abnormal collections of melanin, a pigment that is produced by cells in the skin called melanocytes. The
melanocytes create freckles to protect the skin from sunlight, and therefore they occur more often on those with
lighter skin that burns more easily. Freckles are more common on the face, arms, and shoulders because those
areas get the most sun. For many people freckles fade during the winter only to return during the spring and
summer months. In some cases too much sun exposure can cause certain cells to become cancerous, so any
suspicious looking freckles should be checked out by a dermatologist. The best way to prevent skin cancer from
developing is wearing clothing or sunscreen when exposed to the sun.

Chopping Onions

No matter how manly you think you are, cutting onions will make you tear up. Onions release an enzyme known as
Lachrymatory-factor synthase into the air when they are cut open. The enzyme converts the sulfoxides (amino
acids) in the onion into the unstable compound sulfenic acid which rearranges itself into something called syn-
ropanethial-S-oxide. Syn-ropanethial-S-oxide is a chemical irritant which causes the lachrymal glands to release
tears when it comes in contact. If you have never cut onions yourself than you may not be so convinced, but shortly
after the knife cuts the onion you are sure to notice. Three ways to help prevent this is to run water near to where
you are cutting the onion, to put the onion in the fridge half an hour before cutting it, or to avoid cutting the root. If
you still tear up while cutting onions, and have nothing better to spend your money on, you can always purchase the
incredibly useful Onion Goggles for $19.95 (available in black, white, or pink!).

Wrinkled Fingertips

If you have ever spent time in a hot tub for too long then you most likely emerged with wrinkly fingertips. They go
away soon after you dry off, but what causes them to get that way? The body has three layers of skin, the
subcutaneous tissue (fats, nerves, large blood vessels), the dermis (small blood vessels, nerves, hair roots, sweat
glands), and the epidermis (protects the skin beneath and keeps water inside the body from evaporating). These
layers are tightly connected, and biologists have found that when the skin is submerged for a long time the
epidermis begins absorbing water. Because it is so tightly connected to the dermis underneath, the skin warps which leads to the wrinkles.
The reason this mostly occurs on the fingers and toes is because the epidermis in those areas has calluses which take in more water.

Goose Bumps

Goose bumps are the dots that form on the skin when a person is cold, afraid, or experiencing strong emotions. The reflex that causes goose
bumps is known as horripilation and it occurs in other mammals as well. The goose bumps are caused when individual
muscles at the base of each hair contract which make the hair stand straight up. This reflex is linked to the sympathetic
nervous system which is responsible for most fight-or-flight responses. Goose bumps provide no known benefits for
humans, but the reflex makes sense for animals. When humans are cold, horripilation causes their hair stand up, but
humans in general do not have much body hair. For animals with fur, air pockets are trapped between the hairs which
create an extra layer of insulation. In response to fear or anger, raised hair would make an animal seem larger and more
intimidating. The best example of this is the porcupine whose spikes stand up when threatened. It seems that
horripilation is simply a reflex left over from the evolutionary process, a constant reminder that humans were not always as they are now.

1. Compare and contrast the images formed by concave and plane mirrors.

Plane mirrors always produce virtual images which are upright and located behind the mirror; they are always the same size as the object
Concave mirrors can produce both real and virtual images; they can be upright (if virtual) or inverted (if real); they can be behind the mirror (if
virtual) or in front of the mirror (if real); they can also be enlarged, reduced, or the same size as object.

2. Identify the means by which you can use a concave and/or a plane mirror to form a real image.
Only a concave mirror can be used to produce a real image; and this only occurs if the object is located at a position of more than one focal
length from the concave mirror.
Plane mirrors never produce real images.
3. Identify the means by which you can use a concave and/or a plane mirror to form a virtual image.
A plane mirror will always produce a virtual image. A concave mirror will only produce a virtual image if the object is located in front of the
focal point.
4. Identify the means by which you can use a concave and/or a plane mirror to produce an upright image.
A plane mirror will always produce an upright image. A concave mirror will only produce an upright image if the object is located in front of
the focal point.
5. Identify the means by which you can use a concave and/or a plane mirror to produce an inverted image.
Only a concave mirror can be used to produce an inverted image; and this only occurs if the object is located at a position of more than one
focal length from the concave mirror.
Plane mirrors never produce inverted images.
6. Are all real images larger than the object?
No. Real images can be larger than the object, smaller than the object, or the same size as the object.

Diagram of Mitosis
This follows the page about the context of mitosis - explaining its position in the sequence of processes that, together, form the "cell cycle" for
somatic cells.

Definition: Mitosis is defined as the type of cell division by which a single cell divides in such a way as to produce two genertically identical
"daughter cells". This is the method by which the body produces new cells for both growth and repair of aging or damaged tissues throughout
the body - as opposed to for sexual reproduction (when meiosis applies).

Mitosis is the simplest of the two ways (mitosis and meiosis) in which the nucleus of a cell can divide - as part of a process of whole cell
division. The four stages of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase) are illustrated and described below.

Mitosis (Nuclear Division)

Interphase Interphase is not part of mitosis but is included here as a reminder that interphase preceeds mitosis. the nuclear envelope breaks down. It can be stained with dyes in order to watch the process of mitosis using a microscope. 1 . This is the substance that chromosomes are made from.  As the microtubules extend in length between the centrosomes.) Chromatin is material in a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and protein. Metaphase Metaphase is characterized by the "metaphase plate". it has the number 0. Above: Early Prophase Above: Late Prophase Prophase  Early in the prophase stage the chromatin fibres shorten into chromosomes that are visible under a light microscope. (Each prophase chromosome consists of a pair of identical double-stranded chromatids. This is a mid-point region within the cell that is formed/defined by the centromeres of the chromatid pairs aligning along the microtubules at the centre of the miotic spindle.)  Later in prophase. (Hence. the centrosomes are pushed to opposite "poles" (extremes) of the cell. the spindle extends between two opposite poles of the cell. Above: Early Anaphase Above: Late Anaphase .  Eventually. 3 . 2 . the nucleolus disappears. and the two centrosomes begin to form the miotic spindle (which is an assembly ofmicrotubules).0.

.  The identical sets of chromosomes . Two new "daughter cells" .  A new nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass. Living cells divide to form new cells in order to repair worn-out or damaged tissues throughout an organism. 0 .which is called Cytokinesis (Cytoplasmic Division). 4 . strictly. interphase begins (see further up this page).which are by this stage at opposite poles of the cell. When cytokinesis is complete. dragging the trailing arms of the chromosomes towards the pole/s.  Nucleoli appear. In the case of animal (as opposed to plant) cells.  Eventually the miotic spindle breaks-up. these terms refer to the stages of division of the cell nucleus for somatic (non-reproductive) and reproductive cells.) The two types of cell division are generally called mitosis and meiosisbut.the cycle is about to repeat itself. they appear to be "V"-shaped because the centromeres lead the way. a cleavage furrow forms around the cell's equator then constricts as a ring until it cuts completely through the cell. This begins the next "cell cycle".see top of page The cycle is about to start again . specifically the ovum of the female or the spermatozoon of the male. (A gamete is a mature sex cell. and (in the gametes only) to enable the exchange of genetic material at the initial stage of the process of sexual reproduction. interphase begins (see further up this page).cytokinesis being a part of both types of processes of cell division). thread-like chromatin form. . Interphase is not part of mitosis but is included here as a reminder that interphase preceeds mitosis. When cytokinesis is complete. Introduction to Cell Division This follows the page about the structure of an animal cell. respectively.  As the chromosomes are pulled by the the microtubules during anaphase. it has the number 0.which then move to the opposite poles of the cell: When they are seperated the chromatids are called chromosomes. Anaphase  The centromeres split seperating the two members of each chromatid pair . uncoil and revert to the long. This begins the next "cell cycle".) then the cytoplasm begins to divide around the two new nuclei . Interphase . thin. (Hence. Telophase  Telophase begins after the chromosomal movement stops.. Cytokinesis (Cytoplasmic Division) Cytokinesis is the process by which the cytoplasm of the original cell forms the two new ("daughter") cells around the two new ("daughter") nuclei formed by the process of mitosis (or meiosis .

Myositis. . Further detail about the process of meiosis is included on the page about meiosis. the strands previously called "chromosomes" are referred to as "daughter-chromosomes".each chromosome being composed of two sister chromatids joined together at a centromere.  Diploid The word "diploid" is an adjective that may be used to describe cells.  Chromatid The simplest complete definition of a chromatid is that it is one-half of a replicated chromosome (About: Biology). In the human species. which contain only 23. The nucleus of each human somatic cell (i." But what is n ? n is a number that varies according to species. When the centromeres separate (during anaphase of mitosis and anaphase 2 of meiosis). An example of use of these adjectives is: "In the case of the human species. That is . Miosis. Further detail about the process of mitosis is included on the page about mitosis. Meiosis occurs prior to the formation of sperm (in males) and ova (in females). Definition of Meiosis Meiosis. the gametes are haploid following meiosis. Mitosis From Wikipedia. a situation sometimes summarised as 2n. Mitosis is also referred to as "binary fission". n=23.23 of maternal origin (from the mother) and 23 of paternal origin (from the father). the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with Meiosis. or Myosotis. **The cells return to having the normal (called "diploid") number of chromosomes after fertilization of the ova by the sperm. therefore there are 46 chromosomes in all human body parts except for the gametes. and also on the illustrations of mitosis. those relating to the nonreproductive parts of the body) contains 46 chromosomes . This (centromere) becomes attached to the spindle during mitosis and meiosis.The more detailed version is that a chromatid is one of two identical strands of DNA that. Genes (the most basic units of genetic material) are arranged in a line along the length of chromosomes. When chromosome division occurs the centromere divide longitudinally.meiosis only occurs in the "gametes". Meiosis enables the exchange of genetic material between chromosomes. Meiosis consists of two successive divisions.e. which is also referred to as "reduction division". Definitions: Before studying the pages about the processes of mitosis and meiosis. This is better understood when compared with the term "haploid": The word "haploid" (and also the word "monoploid") is an adjective that may be used to describe cells.Definition of Mitosis Mitosis is the type of cell division by which a single cell divides in such a way as to produce two genetically identical "daughter cells".  Centromere A kinetochore is another term for a centromere. together. each of which is divided into four phases. Chromosomes are composed of a long double filament of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) coiled into a helix together with associated proteins. nuclei or organisms in which each chromosome (except the Y sex chromosome) is represented twice. A centromere (or "kinetochore") is the part of a chromosome at which the two chromatids (see above) are attached together. The first meiotic division is similar to mitosis (defined above) and the second meiotic division is the "reduction" stage. The term "chromosome" applies provided that the centromeres remain in contact. This is the method by which the body produces new cells for both growth and repair of aging or damaged tissues throughout the body. it is useful to understand the following terms:  Chromosome A chromosome is a thread-like structure found in the nucleus of cells. form a chromosome . is the form of cell division in which a cell divides into four "daughter cells" each of which has half** of the number of chromosomes of the original cell. nuclei or organisms that contain a single set of "n" unpaired chromosomes.

metaphase. Discovery[edit] German zoologist Otto Bütschli was one of the first researchers who might have claimed the discovery of the process presently known as "mitosis". dividing cells showing mitotic figures e. non-dividing cells b.[7] Mitosis was discovered in frog. divide by a different process called binary fission.[12] Chromosome duplication results in two identical sister chromatids bound together by cohesin proteins at the centromere. organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. These stages are prophase. and telophase. The cell then divides by cytokinesis to produce two genetically-identical daughter cells. genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. the chromosomes. The sequence of events is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes—complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function. and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time by the Polishhistologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875. which lack a nucleus. . rabbit.[4] For example. This occurs during the S phaseof interphase. Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell. The process of mitosis is fast and highly complex.[8][9] The term is derived from the Greek word μίτος mitos "warp thread". prometaphase. Mitosis divides the chromosomes in a cell nucleus. anaphase.[3] Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells and the process varies in different organisms. During mitosis. whilefungi undergo a "closed" mitosis. each in its own nucleus. which have already duplicated. In general. The primary result of mitosis and cytokinesis is the transfer of a parent cell's genome into two daughter cells. Onion (Allium) cells in different phases of the cell cycle enlarged 800 diameters.[10][11] Overview of mitosis[edit] Time-lapse video of mitosis in a Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Certain types of cancer can arise from such mutations.Mitosis in an animal cell. a. where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate.[1] Mitosis and cytokinesis together define themitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells. which divides the cytoplasm. nuclei preparing for division (spireme-stage) c. pair of daughter-cells shortly after division Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle process by which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes. the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis.[6] a term coined by Walther Flemming in 1882.[5] Prokaryotic cells. animalsundergo an "open" mitosis. condense and attach to fibers that pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus.[2] Errors during mitosis can induceapoptosis (programmed cell death) or cause mutations. karyokinesis (division of the nucleus) is followed by cytokinesis.

preprophase is characterized by the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band) underneath the plasma membrane around the equatorial plane of the future mitotic spindle.[17] Prometaphase[edit] Main article: Prometaphase At the beginning of prometaphase. In animal cells. such as algae or trichomonads. chromatin fibers condense into discrete chromosomes that are typically visible at high magnification through a light microscope. At the onset of prophase. the two centrosomes begin . corresponding daughter chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell. as is the case for human heart muscle cells and neurons. This motor activity. the cell begins cytokinesis. a transverse sheet of cytoplasm that bisects the cell along the future plane of cell division. However. It alternates with the much longer interphase. The nucleolus also disappears during early prophase. The centrosome is the coordinating center for the cell's microtubules. A new nuclear envelope forms around the separated daughter chromosomes. and finally divides (M) before restarting the cycle. the chromosomes condense and become visible. the genetic material in the nucleus consists of loosely packed chromatin.[16] Condensing chromosomes. instead. and G2 (second gap). The nucleolus. All chromosomes (blue) but one have arrived at the metaphase plate. condensing chromosomes (middle) and condensed chromosomes (right). where the cell prepares itself for the process of cell division. This can occur when cells become overcrowded (density-dependent inhibition) or when they differentiate to carry out specific functions for the organism. Some G0 cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle. In plant cells. the motor activates. provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids. coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules. disintegrates into small vesicles. chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase. kinetochore microtubules begin to search for and attach to chromosomal kinetochores. which makes ribosomes in the cell.[14] and are not absolutely required for animal cell mitosis. undergo a variation called closed mitosis where the spindle forms inside the nucleus. and it occurs in most multicellular organisms. the cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. which isduplicated by the cell before a new round of mitosis begins. cyclin-dependent kinases. In most eukaryotes. The phases follow one another in strict order and there are "checkpoints" that give the cell cues to proceed from one phase to another. which segregates the DNA from the cytoplasm. As the cell elongates. using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome.[18][19] In late prometaphase. Although centrosomes help organize microtubule assembly. This band marks the position where the cell will eventually divide.When mitosis begins. Close to the nucleus of animal cells are structures called centrosomes. Thus. a cell grows (G1). continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S). [20][21] A number of polar microtubules find and interact with corresponding polar microtubules from the opposite centrosome to form the mitotic spindle. [14] The preprophase band disappears during nuclear envelope breakdown and spindle formation in prometaphase. The cells of higher plants (such as the flowering plants) lackcentrioles. which occurs after G2 interphase. the nuclear envelope. As mitosis concludes. [13] Sister chromatids at this point are called daughter chromosomes. grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2). As this happens. During interphase. attach to the centromeres. microtubules invade the nuclear space. phosphorylation of nuclear lamins causes the nuclear envelope to disintegrate into small membrane vesicles. S (synthesis). [22] Although the kinetochore structure and function are not fully understood.[15] Prophase[edit] Main article: Prophase During prophase. This is called open mitosis. Interphase nucleus (left). consisting of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a loose collection of proteins. a cell plate forms between the two nuclei. it is known that it contains some form of molecular motor. Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell.[20] A kinetochore is a proteinaceous microtubule-binding structure that forms on the chromosomal centromere during late prophase. or the microtubules penetrate the intact nuclear envelope. prophase is preceded by a pre-prophase stage. also disappears. the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Preprophase (plant cells)[edit] Main article: Preprophase In plant cells only. The two centrosomes polymerize tubulin to help form a microtubule spindle apparatus.[12] All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins. Interphase is divided into three phases: G1 (first gap). Main article: Metaphase After the microtubules have located and attached to the kinetochores in prometaphase. A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division. In addition to phragmosome formation. Phases of cell cycle and mitosis[edit] The cell cycle Interphase[edit] Main article: Interphase The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. and other cell cycle proteins. Fungi and some protists. giving a pair of centrosomes. Cells may also temporarily or permanently leave the cell cycle and enter G0 phase to stop dividing. This is achieved through the formation of a phragmosome. the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin. since they are absent from plants. microtubules form a spindle on the surface of the nucleus and are then organized into a spindle by the chromosomes themselves.[23]When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore. Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. and align the chromosomes centrally within the cell. the cell prepares to divide by tightly condensing its chromosomes and initiating mitotic spindle formation. they are not essential for the formation of the spindle apparatus.[23] Metaphase[edit] A cell in late metaphase. In highly vacuolated plant cells. The microtubules then contract to pull the sister chromatids of each chromosome apart. During all three phases. after the nuclear envelope breaks down.

forming single cells with multiple nuclei. The production of new cells in such instances is achieved by mitosis. The cells at the surface of hydra undergo mitosis and form a mass called a bud. New cells are formed by mitosis and so are exact copies of the cells being replaced. During anaphase B. forms around each set of separated daughter chromosomes (though the membrane does not enclose the centrosomes) and the nucleolus reappears. using the membrane vesicles of the parent cell's old nuclear envelope. resulting in binucleated cells. the hydra reproduces asexually by budding. but cell division is not. Cell replacement In some parts of body. As a result. zygote and also the basis of the growth of a multicellular body. a phase of mitosis but rather a separate process.. but the phenomenon is found in various organisms.[25] Telophase[edit] Main article: Telophase Telophase (from the Greek word τελος meaning "end") is a reversal of prophase and prometaphase events. with the cleavage furrow being clearly visible Main article: Cytokinesis Cytokinesis is not. e. cytokinesis and mitosis may occur independently. For example. begin to "relax" or decondense. This is the basis of the development of a multicellular body from a single cell. The most notable occurrence of this is among the fungi and slime molds. forming two identical daughter chromosomes. Mitosis is complete. causing the cell to elongate. cell division is also driven by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus. cells are constantly sloughed off and replaced by new ones. skin and digestive tract. Mitosis occurs in the following circumstances: Development and growth The number of cells within an organism increases by mitosis. this structure coalesces into a cell plate at the center of the phragmoplast and develops into a cell wall.e. i. Even in animals. each cell formed receives chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in number to the chromosomes of the parent cell. The same division happens during asexual reproduction or vegetative propagation in plants. sister chromatids fail to separate during anaphase. anaphase A precedes anaphase B.[26] In most animal cells. . now surrounded by new nuclear membrane. for instance during certain stages of fruit fly embryonic development. it proceeds to anaphase. and the latter will have only one copy. Therefore. Both sets of chromosomes. The lagging chromatid is excluded from both nuclei and is lost. the cohesins that bind sister chromatids together are cleaved.[22] To ensure equitable distribution of chromosomes at the end of mitosis. necessary for completing cell division. Errors and variations of mitosis[edit] An abnormal (tripolar) mitosis (12 o'clock position) in a precancerous lesion of the stomach (H&E stain) Errors can occur during mitosis.[31] Mitotic errors can create aneuploid cells that have too few or too many of one or more chromosomes. [24] If the cell successfully passes through the metaphase checkpoint. one of the daughter cells will be monosomic for that chromosome. the polar microtubules continue to lengthen.[32] In nondisjunction. red blood cells have short lifespan (only about 4 months) and new RBCs are formed by mitosis. The resulting tension causes the chromosomes to align along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane. starfish regenerate lost arms through mitosis. There are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately. Anaphase[edit] Main article: Anaphase During anaphase A. but some vertebrate egg cells demonstrate the opposite order of events. A new nuclear envelope. whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule array during cytokinesis. the metaphase checkpoint guarantees that kinetochores are properly attached to the mitotic spindle and that the chromosomes are aligned along the metaphase plate. On occasion. Cytokinesis[edit] Cilliate undergoing cytokinesis. they fail to complete cytokinesis and retain both nuclei in one cell. a condition known as trisomy. which move along microtubules to the middle of the cell. In like manner. At telophase. [28] In plants. For example. when cells experience nondisjunction.[34] Anaphase lag occurs when the movement of one chromatid is impeded during anaphase. in the technical sense.g.pulling the chromosomes towards opposite ends of the cell. The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants. Regeneration Some organisms can regenerate body parts. pinching off the separated nuclei.[25]Shortening of the kinetochore microtubules pulls the newly formed daughter chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell. [27] In both animal and plant cells. In animal cells. [33] One daughter cell receives both sister chromatids from the nondisjoining chromosome and the other cell receives none.[29] Each daughter cell has a complete copy of the genome of its parent cell. a condition known as monosomy.[33] This may be caused by a failure of the mitotic spindle to properly attach to the chromosome. Mitosis continues in the cells of the bud and this grows into a new individual. the former cell gets three copies of the chromosome. polar microtubules push against each other. especially during early embryonic development in humans. a condition associated with cancer.[30] Significance[edit] Mitosis is important for the maintenance of the chromosomal set. a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be. The end of cytokinesis marks the end of the M-phase. Asexual reproduction Some organisms produce genetically similar offspring through asexual reproduction. separating the two nuclei. an imaginary line that is centrally located between the two centrosomes (at approximately the midline of the cell). elongating the cell even more.

a portion of the cell’s plasma membrane pinches off to form a vesicle that will eventually fuse with an organelle within the cell. For this function they are popularly referred to as "suicide bags" or "suicide sacs" of the cell.[10] At pH 4. The lysosome maintains this pH differential by pumping in protons (H+ ions) from the cytosol across the membrane via proton pumps and chloride ion channels. then chairman of the Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. they failed to purify and isolate the enzyme from the cellular extracts. which are capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules. the free encyclopedia A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis. They are structurally and chemically spherical vesicles containinghydrolytic enzymes. The nascent peptide chains are translocated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum. [11][12] The lysosomal membrane protects the cytosol. Instead of being divided into two new daughter nuclei. "body") is a membrane-bound cell organellefound in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). Formation[edit] Many components of animal cells are recycled by transferring them inside or embedded in sections of membrane. However. Surprisingly the enzyme activity was increased to normal of that of the fresh sample. if the chromosomes duplicates repeatedly. even after a series of experiments.1–1. the interior of the lysosomes is acidic compared to the slightly basic cytosol (pH 7. Without active replenishment. To estimate the enzyme activity. lysosomes are responsible for cellular homeostasis for their involvements in secretion. and found that the activity was quite low (10% of the expected value). and therefore the rest of the cell. but prematurely terminate. They are frequently nicknamed "suicide bags" or "suicide sacs" by cell biologists due to their autolysis.carbohydrates.[30][36] The cells then re-enter G1 and S phase and replicate their chromosomes again. both from outside of the cell and obsolete components inside the cell. so that the enzymes were able to diffuse after a few days. This was the crucial step in the serendipitous discovery. while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC-7 Cl-/H+ antiporter. The presence of these . in endocytosis. Platelet- producingmegakaryocytes go through endomitosis during cell differentiation. Lysosomal protein genes are transcribed in the nucleus. food particles. lipids. and successfully obtained the first electron micrographs of the new organelle. They described the membrane-like barrier as a "saclike structure surrounded by a membrane and containing acid phosphatase. meaning "to loosen". In this way a steady acidic environment is maintained. de Duve and Novikoff confirmed the location of the hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomes using light and electron microscopic studies. One day. where they are translated by ribosomes. They succeeded in detecting the enzyme activity from the microsomal fraction. Thus lysosomes are the recycling units of a cell. Mutations in the genes for these enzymes are responsible for more than 30 different human genetic diseases." [6] It became obvious that an unrelated enzyme from the cell fraction came from a membranous fractions which were definitely cell organelles. Extracellular materials such asmicroorganisms taken up by phagocytosis. For instance. Vacuolar H+-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons. It is thought that lysosomes participate in this dynamic membrane exchange system and are formed by a gradual maturation process from endosomes. They already suspected that this enzyme played a key role in regulating blood sugar levels. as the biggest ones can be more than 10 times bigger than the smallest ones. [3] Synthesis of lysosomal enzymes are controlled by nuclear genes. This results in polyploidcells or. thus becoming full lysosomes. The size of lysosomes varies from 0. This led to the conclusion that a membrane-like barrier limited the accessibility of the enzyme to its substrate. including proteins. and in 1955 De Duve named them "lysosomes" to reflect their digestive properties.2). The enzymes are released from Golgi apparatusin small vesicles which ultimately fuse with acidic vesicles called endosomes. Enzymes of the lysosomes are synthesised in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. by which cellular components are separated based on their sizes using centrifugation. and ageing-related diseases. which are related to health and diseases. These diseases are due to deficiency in a single lysosomal enzyme that prevent break down of target molecules. as these enzymes are pH-sensitive and do not function well or at all in the alkaline environment of the cytosol. increasing the chromosome number with each round of replication and endomitosis. Further. where they are modified. [37][38] Lysosome From Wikipedia. Thus they act as waste disposal system of the cell by digesting unwanted materials in thecytoplasm. Lysosomes digest excess or worn-out organelles. Using a staining method for acid phosphatase. Lysosomes fuse with autophagic vacuoles (phagosomes) and dispense their enzymes into the autophagic vacuoles.[2] They were discovered and named by Belgian biologist Christian de Duve.8. the plasma membrane would continuously decrease in size. which are collectively known as lysosomal storage diseases.Endoreduplication (or endoreplication) occurs when chromosomes duplicate but the cell does not subsequently divide. and unwanted cell organelles are fused with lysosomes in which they are broken down to their basic molecules.[1] Depending on their functional activity their sizes can be very different. digesting their contents. polytene chromosomes. The cell is additionally protected from any lysosomal acid hydrolases that drain into the cytosol. mitosis. They can be described as the stomach of the cell. from the degradative enzymes within the lysosome. which is the first crucial enzyme in sugar metabolism and the target of insulin.2 μm. the replicated chromosomes are retained within the original nucleus. nucleic acids. and engulfed viruses or bacteria. the enzyme activity of purified cell fractions which had been refrigerated for five days was measured. Lysosomes are interlinked with three intracellular processes namely phagocytosis. mannose 6-phosphate.[36] This may occur multiple times. Function and structure[edit] Lysosomes are cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris. endocytosis and autophagy.[35] Endomitosis is a variant of endoreduplication in which cells replicate their chromosomes during S phase and enter. Novikoff from the University of Vermont visited de Duve´s laboratory. In the process the enzymes are specifically tagged with mannose 6-phosphate to differentiate them from other enzymes. Therefore they tried a more arduous procedure of cell fractionation.[13] The production of lysosomal proteins suggests one method of lysosome sustainment. who eventually received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. and consequently undegraded materials accumulate within the lysosomes often giving rise to severe clinical symptoms. a specific lysosomal tag.[4][5] Discovery[edit] Christian de Duve. macromolecules by endocytosis. Upon exiting the endoplasmic reticulum and entering the Golgi apparatus via vesicular transport. cardiovascular diseases. [7] That same year. plasma membrane repair. The result was the same no matter how many times they repeated the estimation. is added to the peptides. By 1949 he and his team had focused on the enzyme called glucose 6-phosphatase. and soma.[33][35] Endoreduplication is found in many species and appears to be a normal part of development. cancer. The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the pHthey require. Alex B. Further. They are known to contain more than fifty different enzymes which are all active at an acidic environment of about pH 5. they used that of standardised enzyme acid phosphatase. these genetic defects are related to several neurodegenerative disorders. had been studying the mechanism of action of apancreatic hormone insulin in liver cells. mRNA transcripts exit the nucleus into the cytosol. This ensures that cytosolic molecules and organelles are not destroyed in case there is leakage of the hydrolytic enzymes from the lysosome.[8][9] de Duve won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 for this discovery. cell signalling and energy metabolism. and cellular debris.

Pollution events may affect fish species and fish age classes in different ways. The organs most affected are brain. Consequently the enzyme substrate. which in turn may be due to factors such as drought. some botanist strongly argued that these vacuoles are lysosomes. [5][6] . the fatty acid glucosylceramide accumulates. the charged protonated species of weak bases do not permeate biomembranes and accumulate within lysosomes.[23] andamantadine. known also as fish die-off. anaemia. ultimately leading to pathogenetic disorders. [14] Upon leaving the Golgi apparatus. such as high tissue-to-blood concentration gradients or long tissue elimination half-lifes.[17] The most common LSD isGaucher's disease. There are many causes of fish kill. many fish kill cases are designated as having an 'unknown' cause. poaching with chemicals. [1][2] The most common cause is reduced oxygen in the water. The initial effect is accumulation of specific macromolecules or monomeric compounds inside the endosomal– autophagic–lysosomal system. Fish kills may also occur due to the presence of disease. lipid biosynthesis and degradation and intracellular trafficking. and other catastrophic events that upset a normally stable aquatic population. Important lysosomal enzymes. Infectious diseases and parasites can also lead to fish kill. A reduction in dissolved oxygen may affect larger specimens more than smaller fish as these may be able to access oxygen richer water at the surface. high temperatures[4] and thermal pollution. sea-quakes.[3] Fish kills are often the first visible signs of environmental stress and are usually investigated as a matter of urgency by environmental agencies to determine the cause of the kill. ecological hypoxia (oxygen depletion) is one of the most common natural causes of fish kills. If toxicity is the cause. at least for a short tim Causes[edit] Depleted oxygen levels are the most common cause of fish kills. but oxygen depletion is the most common cause. or a sustained increase in water temperature. or non-enzymatic soluble lysosomal proteins. calcium homeostasis.000 live births. Controversy in botany[edit] By scientific convention. lungs. see Fishkill. species are more generally affected and the event may include amphibians and shellfish as well. viscera. the lysosomal enzyme-filled vesicle fuses with a late endosome. The enzymes are packed into vesicles for further transport to established lysosomes. such as acid sphingomyelinase. juvenile fish or species that are not cold-tolerant may be selectively affected. overpopulation.tags allow for binding to mannose 6-phosphate receptors in the Golgi apparatus. hydraulic fracturing wastewater.[30][31][32] These vacuoles are therefore seen as fulfilling the role of the animal lysosome. Many fish species have a relatively low tolerance of variations in environmental conditions and their death is often a potent indicator of problems in their environment that may be affecting other animals and plants and may have a direct impact on other uses of the water such as for drinking water production.[4] This results in abnormal signaling pathways. droughts. bone and cartilage. fish kills are most frequently caused by pollution from agricultural runoff or biotoxins. brain and bone marrow. oil or hazardous waste spills. a relatively acidic organelle with an approximate pH of 5. the term lysosome is applied to those vesicular organelles only in animals. sertraline. Plant vacuoles are found to be much more diverse in structure and function than previously thought. [25][26] Such compounds are termed FIASMAs (functional inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase) [27] and include for example fluoxetine. and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Based on de Duve's description that “only when considered as part of a system involved directly or indirectly in intracellular digestion does the term lysosome describe a physiological unit”. This phenomenon is called "lysosomotropism"[20] or "acid trapping". This explains a number of pharmacological properties of these drugs.osteoporosis. and the true figure expected to be higher as many cases are likely to be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed.[15][16] There is no direct medical treatment to cure LSDs.[35] Fish kill From Wikipedia.[22] levomepromazine.[28][29] Some vacuoles contain their own hydrolytic enzymes and perform the classic lysosomal activity. The rate of incidence is estimated to be 1 in 5. low blood platelets. may be inhibited by lysososomally accumulated drugs.[13] Disease[edit] Lysosomes are responsible for a group of genetically inherited disorders called lysosomal storage diseases (LSD). kidneys. high tissue concentrations and long elimination half-lives are explained also by lipophilicity and absorption of drugs to fatty tissue structures. This acidic environment causes dissociation of the lysosomal enzymes from the mannose 6-phosphate receptors. fungi and algae. [2] Because of the difficulty and lack of standard protocol to investigate fish kills. which is due to deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. The hypoxic event may be brought on by factors such as algae blooms. fatigue. these properties have been found for drugs such as haloperidol. The concentration within lysosomes may reach levels 100 to 1000 fold higher than extracellular concentrations. is a localized die-off of fish populations which may also be associated with more generalized mortality of aquatic life. The term fish kill. Discoveries in plant cells since the 1970s started to challenge this definition.[14] The late endosome itself can eventually grow into a mature lysosome. inappropriate re-stocking of fish. While the plasma and lysosomal membranes are permeable for neutral and uncharged species of weak bases. while there are conditions of defects in lysosomal membrane proteins that fail to transport the enzyme. and vacuoles to plants. agricultural and sewage runoff. The amount of accumulation of lysosomotropic compounds may be estimated using a cell based mathematical model. such as in their specific enzymes and lack of phagocytic functions. The disease is characterized by bruises.5. If it is a cold-related fish kill. Of known causes. [33] However. as evidenced by the transport of endosomal membrane components from the lysosomes back to the endosomes. which is autophagy.[18][19] Lysosomotropism[edit] Weak bases with lipophilic properties accumulate in acidic intracellular compartments like lysosomes. In this way eutrophication can have devastating consequences for the health of benthic life Fish kills may result from a variety of causes. the free encyclopedia For other uses.[24] However. They are a type of inborn errors of metabolism caused by malfunction of one of the enzymes. this is not universally accepted as the vacuoles are strictly not similar to lysosomes. particularly inwhite blood cells. or amitriptyline. Toxicity is a real but far less common cause of fish kill. The primary cause is deficiency of an acidic hydrolase. liver. algae bloom. [34] Vacuoles do not have catabolic activity and do not undergo exocytosis as lysosomes do. underwater explosions. a phenomenon that is crucial for proper packaging into vesicles destined for the lysosomal system. [21] A significant part of the clinically approved drugs are lipophilic weak bases with lysosomotropic properties. which in turn affects spleen.

farm waste. In Florida. Discolouration. Lime produces similar symptoms but is also often associated with milk eyes. strange growths or visible parasites. affected fish have swollen gills that are mottled and have the appearance of ground hamburger meat. these include Aphanizomenon. black or white spots on the skin 2.[8] Some early warning signs of fish suffering from disease or parasite infections include: [11] 1. resulting in the death of about 1. Some algae species also produce toxins. Fish are subject to various viruses. or crustaceans. inlet. Chlorine introduced as alkaline hypochlorite solution is also extremely toxic [14] leaving pale mucilaginous gills and an over-production of mucilage across the whole body. sewage. tail or belly up. Some notable fish kills in Louisiana in the 1950s were due to a specific pesticide called endrin. investigators suspect certain bacteria. loss of buoyancy 5. weakness. missing scales or lack of slime. The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in the water decreases by about 1 mg/l for each 10 °C increase in water temperature above 20 °C. England. In channel catfishaquaculture ponds. sometimes associated with autumn turn-over of lakes leading to complex chemical interactions between pH. since 2004 fish kills have been observed in the Shenandoah River basin in the spring.[12] Natural instances of toxic conditions can occur. but occasionally a spilled substance causes direct toxicity or a shift in water temperature or pH that can lead to fish kill. are more susceptible. This can lead to pH stress even when oxygen levels are high. So far. These are naturally occurring in many bodies of water. Florida. sluggishness. For example. Abnormal shape. calcium ions and complex polymeric salts of Aluminium[13] Human-induced fish kills are unusual. Oxygen levels normally fluctuate even over the course of a day and are affected by weather. bleeding.[7] For example. erratic. Depleted oxygen levels are the most common cause of fish kills. swollen areas. accidentally dumped 60 million gallons of acidic process water into Skinned Sapling Creek. Many cold water fish that have evolved to live in clean cold waters become stressed when oxygen concentrations fall below 8 mg/l whilst warm water fish generally need at least 5 ppm (5 mg/l) of dissolved oxygen. such as early morning. officials could not determine whether the fish kill was due to the bourbon directly or to oxygen depletion that resulted when aquatic microbes rapidly began to consume and digest the liquor. such as spawning or suboptimal water quality. in 1997 aphosphate plant in Mulberry. reddening of the skin. Oxygen enters the water through diffusion.[8] It is often difficult or impossible to determine whether a potential toxin is the direct cause of a fish kill. from the time water temperatures are in the 50s (°F) until they reach the mid-70s. hazardous waste spills can all potentially lead to water toxicity and fish kill. bacteria and fungi in addition to parasites such as protozoans. lack of activity 6. open sores. the "hamburger gill disease" is caused by a protozoan called Aurantiactinomyxon and can kill all the fish in an affected pond. flukes and worms. has been restored following a viral infection which killed all the fish. tip leachate and many other sources Diseases and parasites[edit] See also: Fish diseases and parasites This pond in New Forest. reducing the pH from about 8 to less than 4 along 36 miles of creek.3 million fish. the water temperature and whether the water is salty. Anabaena and Microcystis. convulsions.[8] In temperate zones oxygen levels in eutrophic rivers in summertime can exhibit very large diurnal fluctuations with many hours of oxygensupersaturation during daylight followed by oxygen depletion at night. or pond edges (though crowding at the surface during specific times of day. Aluminium compound can cause complete fish kills. For example. twisting.[10] In fish farming. hundreds of thousands of fish died after an accidental spill ofbourbon whiskey into the Kentucky River near Lawrenceburg. Abnormal distribution of the fish such as crowding at the surface. Additional dissolved organic loads are the most common cause of oxygen depletion and such organic loads may come from sewage. Cyanide fishing and Marine pollution § Toxins Agricultural runoff. is more likely a sign of low oxygen) 4. Listlessness. The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water depends on the atmospheric pressure. and the amount of living and dead plant and animal matter in the water. especially in poorly buffered water.Oxygen depletion[edit] See also: Hypoxia (environmental) and Hypoxia in fish Dead and dying European carp inLake Albert.[9] Associated with these photosynthetic rhythms there is a matching pH rhythm as bicarbonate ion is metabolised by plant cells. whirling. Loss of appetite or refusal to feed Toxins[edit] See also: Fish toxins. for example. chemical spills. and fish that are stressed for other reasons. the amount of sunlight available. In addition to altered behavior. and abnormal behavior – lazy. surface runoff.[8] Cyanide is a particular toxic compound that has been used to poach fish. gasping at the water surface or floating head. abnormal lumps. temperature. For example. Fish can endure short periods of reduced oxygen. where populations are optimized for the available resources. Abnormal activity such as flashing. a maximum of 8 mg/l of oxygen can dissolve in sea water (35 mg/l salinity) while a maximum of 9 mg/l of oxygen can dissolve in fresh water. along with environmental and contaminant factors that may cause immune suppression. parasites or disease can spread quickly. Algae blooms and red tides[edit] A small algae bloom on River Camnear Trinity College . However. Signs of disease include sores. In cyanide poisoning the gills turn a distinctive cherry red. or popeyes 3. at 20 °C (68 °F) and one atmosphere of pressure. Fish kills are often a sign of environmental stress.

so a period of sustained high temperatures can lead to decreased dissolved oxygen in a body of water. seismic testing. Water temperature[edit] A fish kill can occur with rapid fluctuations in temperature or sustained high temperatures. Dead fish wash up on beaches around Texas and Florida. The illegal discharge resulted in a complete kill of fish.[23] Spawning fatalities[edit] A salmon which has died after spawning Some species of fish exhibit mass simultaneous mortality as part of their natural life cycle.[26] Underwater explosions[edit] Underwater explosions can lead to fish kill. as the warmer water tends to stay near the surface and be further heated by the air. this mixing can reduce oxygen levels throughout the water column and lead to fish kill. which may result in a large drop in oxygen content. [15] When people manage algae blooms in fish ponds. but most fish kills due to algae bloom are a result of decreased oxygen levels. For example. A fish kill in a lake in Estonia in 2002 was attributed to a combination of algae bloom and high temperatures. water) temperature. the layers can mix. Fish kill due to spawning fatalities can occur when fish are exhausted from spawning activities such as courtship. If the fish remain in the area. mining or blast testing of structures under water. It produces a toxin which paralyses the central nervous system of fish so they cannot breathe. and they may also have been responsible for kills in the past which were thought to have had other causes. This toxin results in the fish developing bleeding lesions. are in confined situations such as shallow bays. it is recommended that treatments be staggered to avoid too much algae dying at once. Such kills are known to happen in this region in late summer and early fall. 2010.[17] Kills like these can be viewed as natural mechanisms for regulating the population of exceptionally abundant fish. September. In this case. a generally illegal practice known as blast fishing.[16] One of the more bizarre and recently discovered diseases produces huge fish kills in shallow marine waters. to produce free-swimming zoospores. Humans can also become seriously ill from eating oysters and other shellfish contaminated with the red tide toxin. like shoaling forage fish. the tilapia stop feeding when water temperatures drop below 60 °F (16 °C) and die when it reaches 45 °F (7 °C). A large algae bloom off the southern coast of England in 1999 Red tide is a reddish algae bloom caused by a microorganism common in the Gulf of Mexico See also: Algae bloom and Red tide An algae bloom is the appearance of a large amount of algae or scum floating on the surface of a body of water. 2010. frogs. particularly in the Gulf of Maine. though sometimes increased nutrient levels leading to algae blooms are due to fertilizer or animal waste runoff. It is caused by the ambush predator dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. Algae blooms are a natural occurrence in nutrient-rich lakes and rivers. Examples include the Atlantic salmon and theSockeye salmon where many of the females routinely die immediately after spawning. introduction of a large amount of decaying biological material in general to a body of water leads to oxygen depletion as microorganisms use up available oxygen in the process of breaking down organic matter. which is not normally toxic. a 10-mile-long fish kill in September. fish kill in Delaware Bay was attributed to low oxygen as a result of high temperatures. Some diseases result in mass die offs. This has been observed in cases where a fish native to a more tropical region has been introduced to cooler waters. an assessment of potential effects of underwater explosions on marine life must be completed and preventive measures taken before blasting. If a heavy wind or cold rain then occurs (usually during the autumn but sometimes in summer). Sometimes underwater explosions are used on purpose to induce fish kills. such as the introduction of the tilapia to bodies of water in Florida. Fish kills can also result from a dramatic or prolonged drop in air (and thus. tilapia that have survived and successfully reproduced in Florida are occasionally killed by a winter cold front. Underwater explosions may be accidental or planned. In high concentrations it discolors the water which often appears reddish-brown in color. An August. This type of bloom is caused by another species of dinoflagellate known as Alexandrium fundyense. When large numbers of fish. was attributed to a combination of high temperatures and low tide. Thus. The rate at which the kills occur increases as organically polluted land runoffincreases. [17] Fish kills by this dinoflagellate are common. a selective fish kill affecting an estimated 2 million juvenile spot fish was attributed to a combination of cold stress and overpopulation after a particularly large spawn. If the volume of low oxygen water is much greater than the volume in the warm surface layer. and fish with swim bladders are more susceptible. cooler layers because it has constant access to atmospheric oxygen. in the Sangamon River in Illinois was traced to discharge of animal waste into the river from a large dairy operation. a microscopic marine dinoflagellate which is common in Gulf of Mexico waters. nest building. and their skin flakes off in the water. but this one was unusually large.[19][20] The term "red tide" is also commonly used to describe harmful algal blooms on the northern east coast of the United States. This kind of fish kill is selective – usually the dead fish are species that cannot tolerate cold. Generally.[18] Red tide is the name commonly given to an algal bloom of Karenia brevis.[21] These blooms are natural phenomenon. [27] . and the release of eggs or milt (sperm). When the algae die. then the zoospores start secreting aneurotoxin. [24] A massive (hundreds of thousands) fish kill at the mouth of the Mississippi River in Louisiana. continuing to provide nourishment. The dinoflagellates then eat the blood and flakes of tissue while the affected fish die. decomposition uses oxygen in the water that would be available to fish. such as for construction. [8] In January. Native to Africa’s Nile River. Fish are generally weaker after spawning and are less resilient than usual to smaller changes in the environment. but the exact cause or combination of factors that result in red tides outbreak not fully understood. 2010. [22] Biological decay[edit] Just as an algae bloom can lead to oxygen depletion.[25] A short period of hot weather can increase temperatures in the surface layer of water. the excretions from the fish encourage this dinoflagellate. mussels and mudpuppies. the top warmer layer may have more oxygen than the lower. cooler water has the potential to hold more oxygen. 2011. In many places. A few species of algae produce toxins.

sewage effluent should receive advanced treatment. and there is significant reason to suspect pollution. temperature extremes. prevention is hard because often conditions cannot be improved and fish cannot be safely removed in time. in estuaries of the southeastern United States. Recommended stocking densities are available from many sources for bodies of water ranging from a home aquarium or backyard pond to commercialaquaculture facilities. Estimation[edit] Estimating the magnitude of a kill presents a number of problems. disease. and suffocation.[32] Investigation of the cause of a kill requires a multi-disciplinary approach including on-site environmental measurements. disease can spread rapidly and cause a fish kill. disease alone does not usually result in mass mortality. mechanical aeration and/or removal of decaying matter (such as fallen leaves or dead algae) may be reasonable and effective preventive measures. often several hours after the kill has occurred. When the excess plant growth decays. The loss of food supplies or recreational income may be very significant to the local economy. the incident is referred to as a fish kill. The discharge of dead organic matter into a watercourse from a sewer or from an industrial operation has the same effect. Many fish kills could be prevented by reducing the amount of pollution. cresols. forming an area with almost no oxygen and with lethal levels of hydrogen sulfide. Agriculture. Approximately fifteen hundred tons of dead fish and sixty tons of dead rock lobsters were washed ashore. The bloom sank and decomposed. toxicology. or pollution. Some very large fish kills may never be estimated because of these factors. During the 1990s the dinoflagellate Pfeisteria piscicida caused fish kills. fish autopsy. The discharge of red aluminium sludge from a reservoir in Hungary into the Marcai River is acknowledged as causing environmental devastation. GLOBAL ISSUES IN WATER. causes rivers to become toxic for various kinds of fish. Fish kill due to insufficient oxygen is really a matter of too much demand and too little supply for whatever reason(s). but under the artificial conditions of a hatchery or an aquacultureoperation. Many of these substances are used in industrial processes or in agriculture and are released through drains or are accidentally spilled into waterways. Helena Bay. Poisoning Fish may be poisoned by a wide range of polluting substances. Hypoxia. which is the artificial stimulation of plant growth by pollution with fertilizers. A common cause is eutrophication.[33] Fish Kills When a number of dead fish are found in one place. bubbles may form in their tissues and they die from gas bubble disease. Phosphates. Thermal Pollution. SANITATION. When fish move from cold water into much warmer water such as a heated effluent from a generating station. including pesticides. ranging from a few hundred to a million fish at one time. In 1994 in St. ammonia. Predators and scavengers remove and eat fish.[30] Prevention and investigation[edit] Fish kills are difficult to predict. Disease In natural environments. fungi. compounds of metals. bacteria. phenols. such as low-oxygen concentration. Droughts often occur in conjunction with high temperatures so that the oxygen carrying capacity of the water may also be reduced. acids. or cyanides.[28] 1. and atmospheric emissions from industry and transport should be carefully controlled at source. Nuisance algal blooms may also cause suffocation. Even when conditions that contribute to fish kill are known to exist. The reduced dilution increases the organic demand for oxygen further reducing the oxygen concentration available to fish Overstocking of fish (or an unusually large spawn) can also result in inland fish kills. review of meteorology and past history.Droughts and overstocking[edit] Droughts and overstocking can also result in inland fish kills. or atmospheric fallout. Acid rain. Water Pollution: Marine. or internal or external parasites. a large bloom of toxic and nontoxic algae formed in an estuary and extended into the open sea more than thirty kilometers out from the shore. investigation of inputs. derived from industrial pollutants in the atmosphere. invertebrate analysis and a robust knowledge of the area and its problems. Stressed fish may swim up tributaries and die there 6. causing low-oxygen conditions. Low river flows also reduce the available dilution for permitted discharges of treated sewage or industrial waste. Polluted waters are often very turbid or have low transparency making it difficult or impossible to see fish that have sunk 2. Biochemical. the reduced volume may not be enough for the fish population. A drought can lead to lower water volumes so that even if the water contains a high level of dissolved oxygen. 3. Rivers and streams can move fish downstream out of the investigation area. In these same natural environments. In small ponds. Small fish and fry can decompose or become buried in sediments very quickly and are lost from the count. it lowers the oxygen concentration. 5. entering waterways. Many kills are reported only when dead fish resurface due to decompositional gas formation. The three main causes of fish kills are poisoning. AND HEALTH . 4. sewage. The accidental spilling of a herbicide into a lake or stream may kill large quantities of aquatic vegetation.Water Pollution. especially nitrogen and phosphorus. it is more common for fish to be weakened by disease and then killed en masse by some stressful environmental situation. Many countries in the developed world have specific provisions in place to encourage the public to report fish kills [31] so that a proper investigation can take place. Applications of fertilizers should be matched to the needs of the crop. [29] The loss of adult fish also can have long term impacts on the success of the fishery as the following year's spawning stock may have been lost and recovery of the pre-kill population may take years. see also Acid Rain. Suffocation Suffocation occurs when the oxygen concentration in the water falls below the level at which fish can survive. Oxygen Demand. detergents. South Africa. Some types of toxic algal blooms kill fish. The disease may be caused by viral infections.

or the Institute of Medicine (IOM). 7 Organization of the Workshop Summary This workshop summary was prepared for the Forum membership by the rapporteurs and includes a collection of individually authored papers and commentary.. approximately one-third of the world’s population lives in areas with scarce water resources (UN. SOURCE: Reprinted from Mittelstaedt (2009) with permission from The (more. FIGURE WO-1 Population growth. reckless irrigation. or were explored in greater detail in other National Research Council (NRC) reports. the planet contains about 332 million cubic miles of it. simultaneously. rapid economic expansion has intensified demand for increasingly polluted water. 6 and issues related to runoff from farms and pollution of water supplies. 5 heavy metals. India.Water is a fixed commodity. We are using the same water that the dinosaurs drank. Lack of these basic necessities also influences the work burden. Recognizing that water availability. In the last few decades. The workshop promotes a dialogue among representatives from different sectors and allows them to present their beliefs about which areas may merit further attention. contains more than one-fifth of the world’s people but only seven percent of its fresh water (Thebaut. Lack of these necessities also establishes a vicious cycle. Global and Grassroots Perspectives The workshop opened with a screening of the film Running Dry (Thebaut. that the material presented herein expresses the views and opinions of the individuals participating in the workshop and not the deliberations and conclusions of a formally constituted IOM consensus study committee. 4 pharmaceuticals. education. its sponsors. and it will be necessary to transcend international and political boundaries to meet the world’s water needs in a sustainable manner that will conserve and preserve this common resource. China. however. and health. and also increasingly contaminated by domestic. . 2008. Seventy percent of China’s rapidly growing cities lack a sewage treatment plant. sanitation. to delineate a range of pivotal issues and their respective problems. The documentary explores the growing global water crisis and its staggering toll of some 14. The reader should be aware. 1 Some topics important to water quality and health were either not covered at the workshop. As the human population grows—tripling in the past century while. But usage is only part of the problem. Nearly one in four deaths among children under the age of 14 result from inadequate access to safe water. and it is being wasted. ice. Nearly one billion people currently lack access to an adequate water supply. 3 conflicts over water and the implications for global security. quadrupling its demand for water—Earth’s finite freshwater supplies are increasingly strained. 2005).. and insufficient hygiene account for an estimated 9. 8 Sections of the workshop summary not specifically attributed to an individual reflect the views of the rapporteurs and not those of the Forum on Microbial Threats. These proceedings merely summarize the statements of participants at the workshop and are not intended to be an exhaustive exploration of the subject matter nor a representation of a consensus evaluation. Focusing on China. . The effects of water shortages and water pollution have been felt in both industrialized and developing countries. 2006). sanitation. 2006).” urban population growth may overtake the ability of local communities and governments to meet their residents’ water needs through infrastructure creation and improvements. Only 2 percent is freshwater and two-thirds of that is unavailable for human use. While poverty has been a major barrier to gaining access to clean drinking water and sanitation in many parts of the developing world.1 percent of the global burden of disease and 6. 2008).. Africa. the film notes. Through invited presentations and discussions. 9 Another fifth of the world’s population—and approximately half of the world’s poor—live in India. access to and the availability of clean water is a prerequisite to the sustainable growth and development of communities around the world. producer. CD included on the inside front cover of report volume). it runs dry. 2005). it also reflects an important feature of the Forum’s philosophy.6 million people who die each year from inadequate access to safe water. sanitation.3 percent of all deaths. The workshop summary is organized into chapters as a topic-by-topic description of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. 2009). and the United States. In China and India. Rose George (2008) Worldwide. The contents of the unattributed sections are based on the presentations and discussions at the workshop. the spectrum of water-related disease transmission processes as they inform intervention design. lessons learned from water-related disease outbreaks. and to offer potential responses as discussed and described by the workshop participants. and this same water has to make ice creams in Pasadena and the morning frost in Paris. the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine held a two-day public workshop in Washington. animal. Its purpose is to present lessons from relevant experience.000 “quiet preventable deaths” per day. and permafrost. Areas without adequate supplies of freshwater and basic sanitation carry the highest burdens of disease which disproportionately impact children under five years of age. 2008). vulnerabilities in water and sanitation infrastructure in both industrialized and developing countries. 2008). Unsafe water. the Middle East. James Thebaut. These topics included desalination. and more than twice as many lack access to basic sanitation services (Prüss- Üstün et al. and industrial wastes (UNESCO.. Although this workshop summary provides an account of the individual presentations. and hygiene (Prüss-Üstün et al. This burden is disproportionately borne by children in developing countries. At any time in history. Most is salty.. and industrial wastes . It is projected that by 2025 water scarcity will affect nearly two-thirds of all people on the planet (Figure WO-1). DC. and opportunities to improve water and sanitation infrastructure so as to reduce the risk of water-related infectious disease. Today. and director. according to the World Health Organization (Prüss-Üstün et al. national and international organizations from both the public and private sectors have come together to tackle global issues in water and sanitation. and sanitation are fundamental issues underlying infectious disease emergence. The lack of access to and availability of clean water and sanitation has had devastating effects on many aspects of daily life. adding to the estimated 3. for poverty bars many in the developing world from obtaining the safe drinking water and sanitation needed to drive sustainable community growth and development. and agricultural and industrial waste pollutes the country’s major reservoirs. With the rise of “megacities. locked in snow. Nearly half of all people in developing countries have infections or diseases associated with inadequate water supply and sanitation (Bartram et al. over one billion people lack access to an adequate water supply. with water-related factors causing more than 20 percent of deaths of people under age 14. agricultural. 2 bioterrorism. inadequate sanitation. covered only in passing.. Industrial consumption of water drains the storied Yellow River to such an extent that in drought years. participants explored global and local connections between water. water quality. and hygiene. and equity of women. We are wasting our water mostly by putting waste into it. climate change. . where more than 100 cities release their untreated human. on September 23 and 24. It is limited. 2005. Running Dry presents compelling arguments for international cooperation on water issues and highlights some promising grassroots programs to improve access to safe water (see Chapter 1). more than twice as many lack basic sanitation (WHO/UNICEF. and chronic waste are placing the world’s water supplies in danger. safety.) The majority of these people live in rural areas without community infrastructure. introduced and followed by remarks from its writer.

even where clean water and flush toilets are available in Africa. 2005). [and] it was not primarily to prevent trachoma. possesses abundant water resources. to see how that can be applied more broadly. Although the continent. 2008). as of mid-2008 (Figure WO-3). transforming it into an open sewer. and with local Lions Clubs. . Trachoma is transmitted through multiple routes. leaving little room for corruption. Despite the existence of a bilateral treaty—the U. 2008). undoubtedly contributes to India’s heavy burden of death (Table WO-1) and disability (Table WO-2) from diarrheal disease.directly into the sacred river Ganges. 2001). Working with the Amhara Regional Health Bureau. Hopkins reported. 2006. Chairman of the Palestinian Water Authority. Ethiopia is thought to have the largest number of cases. As a result. with much of the momentum provided by women. which disproportionately affects females. 2005). and has continued to build a cumulative total of more than 600. 2008).” he recalled. TABLE WO-2 Data Used for Estimation of Burden Due to Diarrhea in India. is to get some proper anthropologists and others to go into that area and really understand. sanitation. Women’s demand for convenience provided “enormous energy” for the project. Hopkins. and fomites 14 such as dirty face cloths (Figure WO-2). Because this region’s geology and ecology favored the construction of latrines from abundant wood. Georgia. and economic conflicts arising over access to water. 2008.000 latrines. as both Shimon Peres. observed inRunning Dry.” Hopkins observed. Environment.” Sedimentary Rocks . but the change in the mindset. a natural resource more valuable than oil. including contaminated fingers. 2006).S. This is but one example among the growing number of social. Where political tensions already exist—as in the arid Middle East—competition for and access to clean water. accessible water for its rapidly growing population. in order to benefit from advances in sanitation. the Carter Center mobilized residents to build latrines. Hopkins et al. The behavioral foundations of this success should be studied so it can be replicated elsewhere. Even with subsequent declines due to political unrest and a focus on other diseases by the Carter Center. Extended to a global level. Existing latrines in Ethiopia. and environmental interventions such as improved sanitation to reduce populations of flies that spread the disease. Of the approximately 50 countries where trachoma is endemic. affecting the health and well-being of thousands of individuals. he said. and it was efficiently harnessed by organizing tightly knit kin groups to perform work that benefited their relatives. about one-third of these occur in the country’s impoverished Amhara region (Hopkins. antibiotics to fight infection in its early stages. the process of making policy to meet water needs may also offer adversaries an opening for resolving other conflicts. the demands of upstream users of the Colorado River—a primary source of water for seven states in the western United States—are now so great that its waters rarely reach the Sea of Cortez in Mexico (Cohen and Henges-Jeck. particularly in the Congo Basin. Clearly. Vice President of Health Programs at the Carter Center in Atlanta. 28 percent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa defecates in the open. FIGURE WO-2 The life cycle of trachoma. cofounder and president of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development.000 latrines in Ethiopia in 2004 by more than eightfold. Hopkins explained. political. coupled with widespread groundwater contamination.. “This feminist aspect of this problem did not become apparent until we began this intervention . “The most important thing that has happened [as a result of this initiative] has been. better than we do.” he concluded. with consequences that reach well beyond our borders. former Prime Minister of the State of Israel. 2008). and Security (Gleick. and health—a link that keynote speaker Donald Hopkins. not so much the physical act of building the latrine. according to Peter Gleick. Ten percent of the global population is considered to be at risk for developing this disease. what happened there. in who could build the better latrine or the faster latrine. educating people about the importance of proper face-washing to prevent the accumulation of discharge around the eyes. Ethiopia is well on its way to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG. people must appreciate the connection between water. TABLE WO-1 Estimation of Mortality Due to Diarrhea in India.. primarily as a consequence of poverty and armed conflicts (UNICEF. Trachoma in Ethiopia Trachoma. In sub-Saharan Africa. His description of two such programs with very different outcomes—one addressing trachoma in Ethiopia and the other targeting dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in Ghana—revealed the importance of social factors as both catalysts and barriers to efforts to improve health in under-resourced communities by improving sanitation. a chronic infection of the cornea 12 and conjunctiva 13 caused by the bacteriumChlamydia trachomatis. and also those constructed in a similar project in Niger. Water and Health in Africa Africa poses particular challenges to providing safe.Thebaut. and can’t really afford to do.Box WO-1) for providing latrines to at least half of the population by 2015 that did not have latrines in 2000. 2001. are being used and in some cases upgraded. water resources are scarce and water availability may be seasonal. This entirely preventable environmental catastrophe. “There came to be a competition between villages. On the other hand. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). The disease is currently managed through a multipronged strategy: surgery to prevent blindness in people with severe infections. SOURCE: Reprinted from Dugger (2006). and Nabil Sharif. Moreover. perhaps even beyond Ethiopia. Copyright 2006 New York Times Graphics. when they might be seen by a man. and which breed mainly in human feces (Emerson et al. the necessity for international cooperation on water issues may thus be viewed as an opportunity for regional conflict resolution. the program surpassed its initial goal to build 10. the majority of Africans lack accessto safe water. lack of hygiene awareness continues to result in outbreaks of water-related diseases (Thebaut. They welcomed the project because women without access to latrines were self-described “prisoners of the daylight” due to cultural taboos against women defecating in the open during daylight hours.. Outbreaks of cholera and other water-related diseases have been frequent occurrences. and his colleagues have tried to forge at the grassroots level in African communities (see Hopkins in Chapter 1). between families. . Rampant over-consumption and misuse of water occurs in the United States. he added: “What we haven’t done.-Mexico Water Treaty of 1944 10 —that stipulates that the two countries will share the Colorado River’s waters. Amhara provided a promising target for sanitation-based interventions to combat trachoma. flies. 11 may intensify them. he reported. and an additional 23 percent use “unimproved” sanitation facilities that “do not ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact” (JMP. is the world’s leading preventable cause of blindness (Hopkins et al.

All others (< 5%) III.Composed if the lithified remains of plants or animals. 3. 'Low energy' environments (example: slow moving river) can transport only small-sized particles.Tighter packing of sedimentary grains causing a decrease in porosity. ice. transportation .21). breccia.The chemical decomposition of rocks and minerals by exposure to air. or secreted by organisms. 3. (Fig 3. fossils . cementation . gypsum 4. 2. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks (Make sure you see an example of each type in lab!) 1. gravity or ice. The most common type of sedimentary structure.any remains or traces of a plant or animal preserved in rock (example: shells. shale. Contain important clues to the history of the continents and the Earth's climate history (global warming? global cooling?).20). mud cracks . gravity) Depositional Environment . The chemical and mineralogical composition of the cement is usually dependent upon the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sediment. bones. Sedimentary Structures sedimentary structure .15)example: The Grand Canyon 2. deposition . large clasts are deposited closer to their source rock than small and fine-grained clasts. II. 1.19).25B) 5. and Fe-oxide. water and other chemicals in the environment. ice. Indicate sediment deposition in a shallow water environment that periodically dried up (example: intertidal flat).18. wind. lithification . sediment .1. organic sedimentary rocks . limestone (10%). teeth) IV.The movement of sediment by flowing water. Can also be used to estimate the distance sediment has traveled from its source rock before being deposited. Most abundant sedimentary rocks: shale and siltstone (70%). Contain important clues to the history of life (fossils). bedding (stratification) . I. Are used to determine direction of current flow.Introduction: What is the importance of studying sedimentary rocks? 1. wind or gravity.24). nearly parallel ridges and troughs formed by unidirectional (example: stream bed) or oscillating (example: near-shore waters of oceans and lakes) water or wind currents. Other Important Sedimentary Rock Characteristics 1. 2. (Example: A stream emerging from a mountainous region into flat landscape will deposit large-sized particles near the base of the mountain as it loses much of its transporting energy. chert 3. Clast size . Processes Involved in the Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 1. ice.17.The decomposition and disintegration of rocks and minerals at the Earth's surface by mechanical and chemical processes. Smaller-sized particles will be carried by lower energy waters to greater distances from the mountain source.the laying down of rock-forming minerals by any natural agent (water. (Fig 3. 3. Example: coal (Fig 3. mechanical (physical) weathering . Contain much of the Earth's important and valuable natural resource deposits (oil. coquina (Fig 3. Example: fossiliferous limestone. precipitated by chemical reactions.16. 4. chemical weathering . Helps understanding of how the sediment was transported and deposited. natural gas).the conversion of loose sediment to solid rock by compaction and cementation. water. 3. siltstone. Important clues to depositional environment. (Fig 3. 3.polygonal cracks that form as mud shrinks and dries. or desert) in which sediments are deposited.25A) 3.The disintegration of rock into smaller pieces by physical processes (water. 'High energy' transporting agents (example: river with rapids) can transport large-sized particles.feature that develops during or shortly after deposition of the sediment. usually resulting from the weight of overlying sediment. beach.composed of broken shell fragments and similar remains of living organisms.The proportion of the volume of a material that consists of open spaces. chemical sedimentary rocks . silica.) .small. 2.solid rock or mineral fragments transported and deposited by wind.The process by which sediment is lithified by precipitation of a mineral cement among the grains of sediment.The physical environment (for example floodplain. Examples: rock salt (halite) (Fig 3.Composed of minerals precipitated from solution. Can be used to determine the type of transporting agent. biochemical sedimentary rocks . sandstone. compaction . heat). 3. weathering . sandstone (15%). ripple marks . porosity .23). (Fig 3.Composed of fragments of weathered rocks (clasts) Examples: conglomerate. detrital (clastic) sedimentary rocks . In general.chalk (Fig 3. The most common cements are calcite.22. wind.nearly horizontal layering that develops as sediment accumulates layer by layer.

In general. And while he may have written better novels than Fight Club (see Survivor). 9 Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk (1996) First Sentence: “Tyler gets me a job as a waiter.” Words to describe this novel: Dazzling. Homes (1999) First Sentence: ”It is after midnight on one of those Friday nights when the guests have all gone home and the host and hostess are left in their drunkenness to try and put things right again. Imagine twenty-two . heart-breaking. first appeared in a short story in The Safety of Objects. 3. having affairs. Married in suburbia. I won’t insult you by giving a summary of the plot. with two young boys. which they never seem to find. Danielewski made us question our own sanity. but that we know (for certain for certain) is the most terrifying thing in the world.Can be used to estimate the distance over which sediment has been transported before being deposited. mechanism of sediment transportation. fed-up generation to push back. and/or climate. quartz-rich rocks represent long periods of sediment transport during which minerals unstable at the Earth's surface (for example pyroxenes. this is the one that brought him to the show and inspired a new. to themselves. and then took on a life of their own. and lack of a fairy-tale ending.) 10 Music for Torching by A. who we’ve only ever felt. waiting for the monster. Clast shape . “authenticity” still remains the word most likely to stir a debate. intelligent prose keeps the attention of the worst ADHD-sufferers. rounded clasts have been transported for a greater distance than angular clasts. Torching is no exception. jaw- dropping. sentence to sentence. Palahniuk had to be on this list. The list goes on and on and on. mind-bending. wonderful. Homes deserves recognition for her amazing writing skills. addicting. Sounds simple and cliché right? Imagine if you will a book that you have to take over to your mirror to read passages written backwards. a secondary cast of interesting plots and characters. A. to their children. the first step to eternal life is you have to die. M. In general.” As the only woman on the list. of anti-consumerism are universal. 8 House of Leaves by Mark Danielewski (2000) First Sentence: ”While enthusiasts and detractors will continue to empty entire dictionaries attempting to describe or deride it. out-of-love or on the brink of out-of-love couples. after that Tyler’s pushing a gun in my mouth and saying. He led us through the 3-and-a-half-minute hallway and then left us there. her unique voice and her gloomy view of the world. No other novel has created its own world quite like Leaves. They’re stuck. of going back to zero. amphiboles) are destroyed by chemical weathering processes. and the themes in Fight Club of revolt. shivering and alone. trying to burn down their own house…nothing seems to change their boredom and disappointment. and will 'disappear' first as a result of weathering processes. His quick. original.Can be used to estimate time. (General rule: Silicate minerals which crystallize at highest temperatures on Bowen's Reaction Series are most unstable at the Earth's surface. The married couple. accessible and desperately needed in the world we live in today. Homes makes this common enough theme of suburban ennui feel real with her shining prose. Mineralogical composition . but I will say that nobody in the world writes better.” Of course. Paul and Elaine. than Palahniuk.2. Homes shines when writing about screwed-up. They’ve become strangers to each other. we follow them in their search for happiness. The main plot follows a family who moves into a new house that they quickly find out is haunted.M. genius. Smoking crack in the dining room. or some form of contentment.

or a townie. kids. minute detail (but not TOO much. Shows us that nobody ever has anything figured out.A. some violence thrown in there) of his other works. self-absorbed. Ellis is a deranged person (has to be). desperate and mesmerizing. a setting that’s not L. Affairs are had. and this was three or four years ago. Imagine endless footnotes dripping with blood and perfectly normal characters slowing getting drawn deeper and deeper into neurosis and insanity until they can’t find their way out. like allusions (Howard Roark!). Forget you ever read this. a film student. exist in real life. But what makes this one of the great books is the “realness” it elicits from the reader. in September. incomplete people. talented writer whose put his time in. trying to get laid and quit smoking in a fictional University in New England. Not only does “We Don’t Live Here” entertain us. though many have tried. of American Psycho fame. a Senior or a Junior and usually sometimes at her boyfriend’s place off-campus. Do NOT read this book. friendships tested. Without each other. trying to pretend like there was something in my eyes. and up in New Hampshire just for The Dressed To Get Screwed party. which is not an easy thing for a novel to be. 4 Strong Motion by Jonathan Franzen (1992) First Sentence: “Sometimes when people asked Eileen Holland if she had any brothers or sisters. she had to think for a moment. It’s a fast read. It’s about a father and a son walking south to Mexico. woven together and taken from earlier Dubus publications. There’s nothing redeeming about any of the characters in the entire book. really a Friday. because she was a Freshman and had a roommate and Lorna was. masculinity. she told me. The sun is gone behind clouds of black dust. all will be lost. so I won’t even try. and marriage. until you can’t tell the characters in the book from the people reading it. That what we do and feel morphs and shifts. she thinks. except that here it works throughout the whole book. like Blood Meridian) stream-of-consciousness. It’s the perfect combination of everything.The house is alive. and it puts us right there in the bedroom. Not to mention that. feelings crushed. Shows us what to do when everything we’ve held on to for so long goes away. and it was. but he’s also a prolific. Don’t go any further. and a semi-coherent plot. You will not be able to breathe until you finish it. whose journey is beset on all sides by cannibals.” This is the second novel from Ellis. or actually weekend. It doesn’t depart much from the style (run-on sentences. of the book itself. 80’s MTV music videos. attractive young people falling into the void. clearly exemplifies this claim. 7 We Don’t Live Here Anymore by Andre Dubus (2004) Dubus is considered by many the greatest short story writer of the 20th century. It’s full of McCarthy’s terse dialogue. in fact. and yet this book stings because nobody could write this well about people like this if they did not. It puts the reader in every character’s mind.Y. she remembers. epiphanies thwarted. and she got so drunk that she ended up in bed. When’s the last time you went to college? What do you think happens in Universities around America? What do you think most people are really like? This is a documentary of lost. and housewives. And here he shines. It’s about sex and drugs and horrible. and his newest book. and Camden. and betrayal.. because you have to see have to see have to see what happens next. with exact measurements dolled out like a recipe for brownies. It’s about paralyzing loneliness. but you don’t have to listen. and an excruciatingly intense violent plot (win!). Yes. drugs. to who she thought was a Sophomore Ceramics major but who was actually either some guy from N. and love. lost her virginity (late. different narrators. it gives us a rubric of how to live our own lives. You’ve been warned. her first year. to find warmth in a post-apocalyptic world. 5 Rules of Attraction by Brett Easton Ellis (1987-close enough) First Sentence: “And it’s a story that might bore you. It’s about desperation. The Road. Imagine. Let me just say that I was literally in tears in the middle of a crowded Barnes and Nobles. in addition to all of these things. or on the back porch. It’s about two middle-aged couples who can’t seem to keep their pants on. Here he gives us a little more to work with. and failed miserably. The things they do are despicable and immoral. His talent is endless and the sentences run on seamlessly until you’re almost disappointed when a sentence actually ends. and move down the list. more drugs. no hope. is indescribable. how to bear it. in the woods. It is also a wonderful movie starring the enigmatic Laura Dern and Naomi Watts. Nobody in the world can write like Ellis. and there is fairness in this claim.U. Go on with your life.” .page rants about the origins of the word echo. sex. and the freezing cold. and the only light comes from the father’s love of his son. and hunger. It breathes. not really. This book consists of three novellas. This book is heart-wrenching. she was eighteen) in Lorna Slavin’s room. because she always knew it was going to be like that. it’s also overwhelmingly sad. 6 The Road by Cormac McCarthy (2006) First Sentence: “When he woke in the woods in the dark and cold of the night he’d reach out to touch the child sleeping beside him. Ultimately it’s about what it’s like to live in a world where we get to make all the decisions.” Cormac McCarthy is one of the greatest novelists still alive today (a phantasm of Faulker). more sex. The intensity of their journey. And nobody cares and nobody cares and nobody cares. It does what a great book is supposed to do: it makes us feel. and have to bear the repercussions of what those decisions mean.

If Palanuick is the very best writer. and God can the man write. uttered just as one world perished and another began. He personifies a raccoon for five pages. then Franzen is clearly the best living novelist. No girl wants anything to do with this sweaty. deciding where to put this book on the list was as involuntary as breathing. lost Louis Holland. This novel succeeds where The Twenty-seventh City fell a little short. and he tells us exactly why the world is bad. unshaven. 2 Tree of Smoke by Denis Johnson (2007) First Sentence: “Last night at 3:00 A. brothers from Arizona (who appeared in Johnson’s Angels). a mysterious narrator. and one of the most heart-breaking characters in existence to make this an instant classic. where friends and enemies are indistinguishable. RPG-playing guy in America. and a Harvard seismologist named Dr. Then you might just believe that there really are “fuku’s” (horrible unbreakable curses) and that this family’s got a BAD one. carried in the screams of the enslaved. and his talent is clear on every page. While it was very difficult indeed to rank the other nine books on this list. the most rewarding book on this list.I. We follow him in his constant struggle to find it. which is strangely one of the most poignant parts of the whole book. and where myths are created out of the land itself. that it was a demon drawn into Creation through the nightmare door that was cracked open in the Antilles. He makes us work for it. the most difficult. He goes all the way back to the colonization of America. he portrays the war from the perspective of both sides of Vietnam. As always Franzen’s scope is immense. and makes us wait for whatever’s going to happen. historical footnotes. but in a stronger. death. Franzen is a historian. the longest. from a widowed Canadian nurse who can’t stop reading Calvin. but not in a preachy or boring way. He employs current pop references. Spanish. the struggles they encounter in the Dominican Republic. more mature way than Palanuick. as we root for him to succeed. and it revolves around abortion activists. Castro. Who eventually falls for a gangster (Why Beli. and The Corrections overthrew. 3 The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz (2007) First Sentence: “They say it came first from Africa. It writes about the evil of corporations. you can imagine him standing behind a door somewhere laughing at all of his readers.Another second novel. screaming “You can do it Oscar. and bear witness to his countless rejections. It takes us everywhere in Southeast Asia. Diaz blends Dominican history and folklore. and have painful rubbing sex as the earth shakes underneath them. and even back to the United States. sentence to sentence. from a Sergeant who seems to be perpetually tripping on acid. from a priest in the Philippines who thinks he’s Judas. who desperately wants to find love. This story involves one Louis Holland. he builds and constructs. as well as the title of a film by auteur Jim Incandenza. He’s smarter than us. that circulates .” So here we are. Johnson depicts a war where nothing is clear.” This mammoth odyssey about the Vietnam War transcends all other attempts to write about Vietnam. from two G. The term Infinite Jest is an allusion to Hamlet. the most frustrating. humor. love. Reneé Seitchek. how it came to be that way. from a “civilian” war-hero Colonel who’s trying to implement his own unorthodox campaign against the Vietcong. This is Johnson’s masterpiece – a book you can imagine him writing under a succubus’s spell in a fallout shelter—hair long. who fall for each other but seemingly never at the same time. and the curses that follow them to America. The two main characters are what make the book. and makes them look like Hallmark greeting cards. that it was the death bane of the Tainos. This is by far the best. age-old plot devices. and strange sudden earthquakes appearing near Boston. With a cast of half-a-dozen supporting characters. and over 700 pages. It follows generations of a Dominican-American family. which every Harvard seismologist knows is very strange indeed. and at some point our pity turns to admiration. from a German hit-man. and dictators into one of the best freshman novels of all time. As with the #1 author on this list. a bad-ass original refreshing writing style. and broke guy’s hearts by just batting an eyelash. revolutions. authenticity and craftsmanship. and his larger than life uncle “Colonel Sands”. a blazing humor. sex. You can do it!” Now go back a few decades to when his mother was the hottest thing in all of Dominica. 1 Infinite Jest by David Foster Wallace (1996) First Sentence: “I am seated in an office surrounded by heads and bodies. why?) involved with the Trujillo (evil dictator) regime that raped and murdered and tortured like it was going out of style.M.” This book reverberates with originality. Franzen is a master and a genius. working for the psychological operations department of the CIA. it’s still a disappointment when you arrive at the last page. The medium-attractive Renee’ Seitchek and the lonely. Spanning thirty years. frenzied to get the words out. Then go back a little more to her father (Oscar’s grandfather) and see what happens to a respected surgeon who’s looked away from all the raping and torturing going on in his country until Trujillo himself sets his eyes on his beautiful daughter. the most entertaining. chain-smoking. He creates suspense. President Kennedy had been killed. obese nerd. It follows Skip Sands. The main protagonist Oscar is a 300-pound nerdy. big corporations.

which. a half-feral but good-hearted boy. his honor on the line. when totalitarianism cast a shadow over socialist ideals. Around the World in Eighty Days. which this book is a sequel to. 9. all of them) rather than suppress conflagrations. laced with contemporary caricatures and poking at problems of mathematical logic. 8. and last. To this day. devastated by the scientist’s and others’ rejection as it struggles to learn what it means to be human. hide the children’s eyes and make reality go away!) See also The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. is the greatest threat to humanity. 5. or not taking their insulin and going into epileptic shock. Like many great works of art. sports. Wallace hung himself in late 2008. even in the United States into the twentieth century — high praise. and. crack. With a cast of hundreds. alcohol. andPudd’nhead Wilson. These and other novels by Verne have. and on and on and on. 3. fingering the boob tube for libracide instead. by Aldous Huxley After an introduction to a horrifyingly regimented future “utopia. who get a thrill out of reading one of the most frequently banned books of all time. indeed. the antithesis of Stalinism — wrote the story in response to his disillusioning experiences during the Spanish Civil War. Diludiad. 10. This semiautobiographical novel. by Voltaire Everybody’s favorite scathingly funny French philosopher introduces a young man raised in indoctrinated. finished novel. Salinger’s other works include novellas and short stories. D. by George Orwell A modern fable by the author of Nineteen Eighty-Four relates what happens when communism comes to Manor Farm: “All animals are created equal. sex. It cannot be categorized. the critics have come around. The critical reception to Wharton’s work was mixed. 4. one member of the book-burning brigade. though poor early English translations led to them being long mischaracterized as juvenile pulp fiction. 6. This is not something you finish and then say. Salinger Reading this mid-20th-century anthem of adolescent angst remains a rite of passage for high school literature students.” Orwell (birth name Eric Blair). Wallace created his own world in Infinite Jest. but some are more equal than others. a warm wash of nostalgia. With resourceful French valet Passepartout by his side and a Scotland Yard detective — who mistakes him for a fugitive from justice — on his heels. (The n-word pervades it — quick. also serves as a requiem for a lost world the author could never find again. The narrator’s sour sensibilities and his frank assessment of the world’s crapitude captivate many young readers. and future to prompt his reevaluation of the wisdom of his skinflint ways in this Victorian fantasy that helped usher in the nostalgia-drenched Christmas tradition. does not match his expectations. Frankenstein. cannabis. 2. Percocet. Dickens’s Hard Times is another relatively quick read. 7. This book genuinely redefines the boundaries of what a novel can do. to want to do absolutely nothing else but watch it again and again and again.” and then move on with your life. this book is about addiction in every form you could possibly imagine: Heroin. “Well that was a really great book. it was a critical failure but a popular success — and. and almost 400 footnotes. but those who praised it recognized it as a compelling morality tale (though based on a real incident and thought to allude to the author’s own unhappy marriage). his freedom. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. by Lewis Carroll A young girl wanders into the woods and falls down a rabbit hole into a disconcertingly absurd hidden world in Oxford mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson’s satirical romp. 11. A Christmas Carol. Infinite Jest is his second. in the long term. and the twofer Raise High the Roofbeam Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction. present. and. Warning: Things don’t end well.throughout the book causing anyone who’s unlucky enough to watch it. by Ray Bradbury In a dystopian future where firefighters ignite inflammatory books (that is. is as colorful a character as any of the people who populate it in this sweet Depression-era story about a community of the world’s cast-offs. Anticipating the antipathy with which secular and religious authorities would condemn his work. but he later graciously realized he could have it both ways. takes up with a freed slave and a couple of con men. 12. shall we say. with the assistance of one Samuel Langhorne Clemens. California. Bradbury initially denied that the theme of the story is censorship. even if that means starving to death. or going to the bathroom on themselves. by John Steinbeck A run-down street in seaside Monterey. he sets out with his fortune. Jest focuses mainly on a halfway house in the Boston suburbs. See also the sequelThrough the Looking-Glass. is lured to the light side. cocaine. Huxley’s novel. Wallace spent hundreds of hours going to AA meetings. by Charles Dickens Spectral visitors take miserly businessman Ebenezer Scrooge on a tour of the past. although the author (who exacerbated the allure of the book through his notorious reclusiveness) intended the book for an adult audience. which. This is not just a big novel with big ideas. Nine Stories. Cannery Row. makes a library’s worth of observations about the human condition in one thin volume — a triumphant survivor of censorship and political correctness. British publishers concerned about the manuscript’s frank condemnation of the United Kingdom’s World War II ally the Soviet Union rejected it. Candide was widely banned. fired the imaginations of readers from all over the world. by Jules Verne Fastidious Victorian gentleman Phileas Fogg makes a foolhardy wager at his club: He will circumnavigate the planet in eighty days. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. including Franny and Zooey. The Pearl. Candide. from the beginning. cleaning. Of Mice and Men.” readers meet John. Animal Farm. not repression. 1. Brave New World. innumerable stage adaptations knock elbows with ballet productions of The Nutracker Suite and singing of Handel’s Messiah. by J. but everybody knew who had done the deed. by Mary Shelley A scientist conceives the idea of creating a man constructed from body parts and bringing him to life but is disgusted by his creation. flees the deadly embrace of civilization. . Fahrenheit 451. who has come to live with them and help around the house. Steinbeck often kept it short and bittersweet: Look also for The Moon Is Down. Voltaire published it under a pseudonym. one of the most celebrated in twentieth-century literature — and also impressively high on the lists of books targeted for censorship — depicts a future in which hedonism. The Red Pony. and this book is considered by many to be the most realistic account of drug addiction and the Alcoholics Anonymous program in either fiction or non-fiction. coming in at a whopping 3 lbs. This book deserves its own cannon. by Mark Twain The intrepid young hero. unenlightened community before being brought back to civilization. as the title character agonizes over his affection for his sickly wife’s cousin. a young man who has grown up in an isolated. isolated innocence who is repeatedly blindsided by reality when he becomes a citizen of the world. Ethan Frome. It’s not just a grand achievement by a writer with the greatest voice of his generation. by Edith Wharton This flashback novel immerses the reader in the tragedy of a romantic triangle. increasingly alienated in his decadent society. Ultimately. most importantly. The Catcher in the Rye. a proponent of democratic socialism — by definition. and the adjacent Enfield Tennis Academy. but you can’t suppress the truth down for long. and Tortilla Flat.

The play.exacts vengeance. He has become obsessed with books of chivalry. the antiwar epic Apocalypse Now. is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Written primarily in the form of a series of letters. though he had never experienced it himself. Its critical reception was complicated by various factors: It is a memoir that contains a great deal of fiction.” prompting a fad of overwrought young people lamenting the vicissitudes of unrequited love. The novel. 14. but its stature has steadily grown. who finished the novel when he was only twenty-four (he would die just five years later after a series of debilitating lung hemorrhages). But that form at least is widely acknowledged as great art. Conrad’s story. and young Elie rejects God and humanity — is full of raw. Rich with allusions to. looking forward to meeting Kurtz. but. Hamlet by William Shakespeare The Tragedy of Hamlet. The Great Gatsby. The Stranger. Heathcliff. not to mention its profound psychological resonance. especially that revolving around the enigmatic millionaire Jay Gatsby. and when he died in relative obscurity years later. and that the efforts of humans to find meaning are futile. Swann's passion for Odette. is also considered one of the most potent criticisms of colonialism in literature. who has murdered Hamlet's father. stark power. it has lived on as an expression of star-crossed ill fortune. while a portrait of him painted by an admirer marks his physical dissipation. Crane. 19. set in Denmark. The Sorrows of Young Werther. Night. Camus’s portrait of a man without a soul was a manifesto of his belief that life is bereft of meaning. During and after World War II. was published in 1913. The work is incomparable. but he discovers how superficial and hollow the American dream is after observing the petty passions of the rich. overshadowed by Francis Ford Coppola’s loose film adaptation. once incarcerated. among other works. recounts how Prince Hamlet exacts revenge on his uncle Claudius. In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust Swann's Way. renounces humanity. and it was published in quite different forms in Yiddish. Fitzgerald’s novel was well received but did not fare as well as his earlier works. by F. In it. which he has passively estranged himself from. the manager of an isolated upriver colonial station. by Oscar Wilde A beautiful young hedonist sells his soul for the price of agelessness. initially received mixed reviews. The Picture of Dorian Gray. lives in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and a housekeeper. by Emily Bronte This complex melodrama about the compounded consequences of acting on selfish and vengeful motives has been overshadowed by Hollywood’s treatment of the thwarted love between a young woman named Catherine and her untamed foster brother. 17. Although it made Goethe’s reputation at a young age. a retired country gentleman in his fifties. he believed himself a failure. Marcel Proust's seven-part cycle. it also precipitated “Werther Fever. by Elie Wiesel The author’s harrowing account of his early adolescence spent in Nazi concentration camps — during which his father. Though much praised for its psychological insight. 13. 20. and though critical response to its publication was mixed. despite the fact that he acts heroically in a later battle. The Red Badge of Courage. Wuthering Heights. Edmund Wilson said "[Proust] has supplied for the first time in literature an equivalent in the full scale for the new theory of modern physics. 16. It was also hailed as a triumph of both naturalism and impressionism. Quixano eventually appears to other people to have lost his mind from little sleep and food and because of so much reading. 18. Faust. and describes M. written by the daughter of philosophers who began working on it when she was still in her teens. Proust introduces the themes that run through the entire work. But the story boasts an unflinching honesty about its deeply flawed protagonists. Heart of Darkness. the King. Hamlet's . by Albert Camus This existentialist classic chronicles the nihilistic life of an apathetic man who aimlessly commits murder and. aided by the famous madeleine. aided by its wealth of classical allusions and Enlightenment inspirations. Scott Fitzgerald A young man gets caught up in the world of wealth during the Roaring Twenties. and believes their every word to be true. should be read on its own merits. Joseph Conrad A riverboat captain in the Belgian Congo. The Great Gatsby experienced a resurgence. however. The Picture of Dorian Gray stands on its own as a tragic morality tale. from which a further abridged English version was derived." Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Alonso Quixano. believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601. 15. gradually becomes helpless. with whom he was incarcerated. or more simply Hamlet. the first part of A la recherche de temps perdu. Wilde’s first novel was attacked for its homoeroticism and the scandalously frank depiction of debauchery but was received more favorably when the author toned down the former. and then taken the throne and married Gertrude. by Stephen Crane A young Civil War soldier overcomes his initial cowardice. Prince of Denmark. was celebrated for its authentic detail about the conduct of war. this semiautobiographical story relates the tragedy of a young man who falls in love with a woman already betrothed to another. is devastated when the man he meets turns out to be quite different from the imagined ideal. his humanity is diminished. and it is now accounted one of the great American novels. as it realistically portrays the ordeal of battle while achieving allegorical stature. and Goethe later disavowed it and decried the Romantic literary movement it epitomized. despite the fact that many of the events in them are clearly impossible. The narrator recalls his childhood. then a pared-down French translation.

youth and senility — the variety of life. The novel tells the story of the rise and fall of the mythical town of Macondo through the history of the Buendía family. Whether he is describing an affair of passion or the voracity of capitalism and the corruption of government. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. the Mnesteres or Proci. this stunning work is no less than an accounting of the history of the human race. and eminently readable. The Odyssey by Homer The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. and spiritual to bring a new consciousness to storytelling. The authorship of the poem is disputed. and the ultimate achievement in a Nobel Prize–winning career. just as in the history. and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors. that implicates even the most innocent reader in its enormities. playing out the contrasts of city and country life and all the variations on love and family happiness. The play vividly charts the course of real and feigned madness—from overwhelming grief to seething rage—and explores themes of treachery. also attributed to Homer. Indeed it is the second—the Iliad being the first—extant work of Western literature. riches and poverty. Alternately reverential and comical. While previous versions have softened the robust. It is a preternaturally acute investigation of the forces that impel a man toward sin. ease. Translated into dozens of languages. as seen through the eyes of five Russian aristocratic families. Pevear and Volokhonsky have produced a translation true to his powerful voice. the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature.700 lines. War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy Epic in scale. myths. war and revolution. Set in the Trojan War. the novel's seven major characters create a dynamic imbalance. and moral corruption. and tawdry story of the Buendía family. It is a rich and brilliant chronicle of life and death. Beautiful. vigorous. and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society.s point of view. competing for Penelope's hand in marriage. one sees all of humanity. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon. told from a murder. The Iliad contains approximately 15. Love and lust. the endlessness of death. it is assumed he has died. somewhere in Ionia. the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege. Set against a vast and richly textured canvas of nineteenth-century Russia. incest. the Greek-speaking coastal region of what is now Turkey. and grace. In his absence. It was probably composed near the end of the eighth century BC. Gabriel García Márquez always writes with the simplicity. One Hundred Years of Solitude is a widely beloved and acclaimed novel known throughout the world. Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky It is a murder story. The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus (or Ulysses. beautiful. Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy Anna Karenina tells of the doomed love affair between the sensuous and rebellious Anna and the dashing officer. in part. a sequel to the Iliad. and its written version is usually dated to around the eighth century BC. as he was known in Roman myths) and his long journey home following the fall of Troy. Ever since its . the search for peace and truth — these universal themes dominate the novel. and is written in a literary amalgam of several Greek dialects. It is a cat-and-mouse game between a tormented young killer and a cheerfully implacable detective. The Iliad by Homer The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters. Along with the Odyssey. quality of Tolstoy's writing. In the noble. this Anna Karenina will be the definitive text for generations to come. and decay of Macondo. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez One of the 20th century's enduring works. One Hundred Years of Solitude weaves the political. it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. andpurity that are the mark of a master. personal. Tragedy unfolds as Anna rejects her passionless marriage and must endure the hypocrisies of society. growth. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war. revenge. the ten-year siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states. War and Peace delineates in graphic detail events leading up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. ridiculous. and sometimes shocking. suffering. one sees all of Latin America. This award-winning team's authoritative edition also includes an illuminating introduction and explanatory notes. and the tragicomedy of humankind. It is.mother. Count Vronsky. the other work traditionally ascribed to Homer. traditionally attributed to Homer.

. Kafka's nightmare has resonated with chilling truth for generations of readers. glorified traditional Roman virtues and legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders. The Trial is one of the most important novels of the twentieth century: the terrifying tale of Josef K. Signs: Squirms . under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed..publication in 1866 Crime and Punishment has intrigued readers and sorely tested translators. They do not value schoolwork. Signs: resist veerbally with statements such as " You can't make me. This modern interest has resulted in a number of dramatic adaptations and a plethora of books developing Austen's memorable characters further. where he became the ancestor of the Romans. having been a character in the Iliad. Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas' wanderings. heroes and gods of Rome and Troy.the student express opposition and resistance to the teacher but indirectly. it remains a fascination of modern readership. but build on and accentuate their positive values. intense behavior. It is written in dactylic hexameter. deliberately does what the teacher says no to do. and their division to create a version that is as close as possible to the way the author left it. and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins. the best of whom seemed to capture one facet of Dostoevsky's masterpiece while missing the rest. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas' wanderings from Troy to Italy. tries to control. Be yourself. and touch everything. antagonized.the students resist authority and carry on a power struggle with the teacher. This new edition is based upon the work of an international team of experts who have restored the text. Be confident. since many of these students luck inner control and are restless and impulsive. Strategies for Managing Students With Problems Accept the students as they are. The Trial by Franz Kafka Written in 1914. Hyperactive. damages property. since these students phoniness and take offense as such deceit..disrupts surreptitiously.". and don't give up in front of the student Provide structure. . The Teacher: Key Factor in Classroom Situation Defiant. marriage.the students do the minimum to " get by". and fashioned this into a compelling founding myth or nationalist epic that at once tied Rome to the legends of Troy. The hero Aeneas was already known to Greco-Roman legend and myth..the students are unduly anxious about making mistakes. Whether read as an existential tale. Transcript of Copy of The Teacher: Key Factor in Classroom Situations Hostile Aggressive. Signs: easily frustrated. or a prophecy of the excesses of modern bureaucracy wedded to the madness of totalitarianism.the student hostility though direct. Breon Mitchell masterfully reproduces the distinctive poetics of Kafka's prose. a Trojan who traveled to Italy. Signs: subtly oppositional and stubborn. mars property rather than damages. Signs: often anxious. fearful or fraustrated about quality work. moral rightness and education in her aristocratic society. gives up easily. Passive Aggressive. Perfectionist. drags feet. and receiving considerable attention from literary critics. continuing to remain at the top of lists titled "most loved books of all time". take charge of the situation. Though the book's setting is uniquely turn of the 19th century. says " I can't do it.The students show excessive and almost constant movement. giggles. In his brilliant translation. his vague association with the foundation of Rome and a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous piety. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen The book is narrated in free indirect speech following the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with matters of upbringing.. a parable. Signs: intimidates and threatens. the sequence of chapters.the students are convinced that they cannot do the work. revealing a novel that is as full of energy and power as it was when it was first written. Under Achiever. even when sitting. The Aeneid by Virgil The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem written by Virgil in the late 1st century BC (29–19 BC) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas. jiggles. Students problem types based on teachers description Failure Syndrome. a respectable bank officer who is suddenly and inexplicably arrested and must defend himself against a charge about which he can get no information. Explain your rules and routines that students will understand them.

which warned about the agricultural use of synthetic chemical pesticides. the UN. Be a firm friend.” “Many of us live beyond the world's ecological means. to establish and chair a World Commission on Environment and Development. In 1969. its highest ideals and visions began to be translated into practical form. Through ignorance or indifference we can do massive and irreversible harm to the earthly environment on which our life and well being depend. … Sustainable development requires that societies meet human needs both by increasing productive potential and by ensuring equitable opportunities for all. especially when conditions become tense or upsetting. an interesting lesson can keep students on task. the General Assembly. for instance in our patterns of energy use. it laid the groundwork for the new environmental agenda of the United Nations system.the students have difficulty. As a Facilitator.” “In essence. As universal concern about the healthy and sustainable use of the planet and its resources continued to grow. 1972).responsible for setting up physical environment most conducive to the expected to understand use and valid instruments of evaluating the outcome of the learning and diagnostic learning difficulties of the students. the Brundtland Commission. Rely on motivation. The environmental movement gained new momentum in 1962 with the publication of Rachel Carson’s book “The Silent Spring”. Gro Harlem Brundtland. as it came to be known. Carson stressed the need to respect the ecosystem in which we live. sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources. environmental governance. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. A scientist and writer.” “A world in which poverty and inequity are endemic will always be prone to ecological and other crises. in December 1972. and the living beings. Conversely. sustainable development must not endanger the natural systems that support life on Earth: the atmosphere. And our responsibility to protect the health and well-being of that ecosystem began to dawn on the collective consciousness of the world. Signs: difficulty in following direction. Signs: Indifferent to schoolwork. the Secretary-General of the United Nations invited Dr. the British Romantic Poets extolled the beauties of nature. In 1983. we can achieve for ourselves and our posterity a better life in an environment more in keeping with human needs and hopes …" “To defend and improve the human environment for present and future generations has become an imperative goal for mankind. and its final Declaration contains 19 principles that represent an environmental manifesto for our times. With the ending of the tumultuous decade of the 1960s. but also in handling students of different types. convened the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. which leads the efforts of the United Nations family on behalf of the global environment. and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. It was a dichotomy that continued well into the twentieth century. since these students are sizing you up and are known manipulator of their environment. Ms. established the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). … At a minimum. Low Achiever. and climate change. In addressing the need “to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment”. In the aftermath of the Second World War. Environment  Overview  Related Links The environmental movement might be said to have begun centuries ago as a response to industrialization. As a Evaluator. Seeing for the first time this “big blue marble” in an immense galaxy brought home to many that we live on One Earth — a fragile. the rise of the nuclear age introduced fears of a new kind of pollution from deadly radiation. Dr. Teacher. harmful substances.” . published its groundbreaking report. iconic photos of the Earth from outer space touched the hearts of humanity with Its simplicity and beauty. Teacher in order to be effective should be knowledgeable not just in the subject matter they teach. ecosystem management. quite literally. a globalphenomenon. poor retention. a medical doctor.must be knowledgeable of alternative approaches to teaching. “Our Common Future” — which brought the concept of sustainable development into the public discourse. Keep calm. resource efficiency. In April 1987. 6 Picking up on the energy generated by the Conference. the soils. Size up the situations and be aware of undercurrents of behavior. In the nineteenth century. Among these was the environmental vision — now. maintain a psychological and physical distance so your students know you are still the teacher. minimum work output. even though they may be willing to work. as her vision of health had long extended beyond the confines of the medical world into environmental issues and human development. master of public health and former Prime Minister of Norway. and keep your students calm. difficulty in completing work. in Stockholm. para. Brundtland was a natural choice for this timely role. the direction of investments. guided by the values implicit in nature. It was a landmark event. while American writer Henry David Thoreau praised the return to a simpler life. in 1972.” from the Declaration of the UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm. through fuller knowledge and wiser action. progress slowly. Its current priorities are environmental aspects of disasters and conflicts. in order to protect human health as well as the environment. the orientation of technological development. the waters. “A point has been reached in history when we must shape our actions throughout the world with a more prudent care for their environmental consequences. Communicate positive expectations that you expectations that you expect the students to learn and require academic work. the first. and not on your prowess to maintain order. interdependent ecosystem.

2000) and its Millennium Development Goals (Goal 7 seeks to “Ensure Environmental Sustainability”). Member states agreed to the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and a Plan of Implementation detailing the priorities for action. combat land degradation and drought. In 2002. designed to turn the goals. it was agreed that most financing for Agenda 21 would come from within each country’s public and private sectors. the General Assemblyalso declared the period 2005-2014 as the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. skills and knowledge to make informed decisions for the benefit of themselves and others. transportation and communication. In Agenda 21. governments outlined a detailed blueprint for action that could move the world away from its present unsustainable model of economic growth towards activities that will protect and renew the environmental resources on which growth and development depend. “Our Common Future” The wide-ranging recommendations made by the Commission led directly to the holding of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. moving more forcefully towards sustainable patterns of energy production. and reduce and eliminate the production and use of certain persistent organic pollutants. reverse the degradation of international waters. 1996). To ensure full support for the goals of Agenda 21. management of wastes. the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was created. coastal. in 1992. globalization and trade liberalization. However. GEF projects — principally carried out by UNDP. address global climate change. a blueprint for the protection of our planet and its sustainable development. and education for sustainable development. halting the depletion of fish stocks. for which the United Nations Educational. held in Barbados. and the structure of the international economy. science and technology. as a functional commission of the Economic and Social Council. Agenda 21. tangible actions. culture. the General Assembly held a special session in 1997 to review and appraise the implementation of Agenda 21. approving a wide-ranging set of specific recommendations for its further implementation. It was an “implementation” Summit. a World Bank-UNDP-UNEP initiative.000 small grants directly to nongovernmental and community organizations. To help advance the cause of sustainable development in a continuous fashion. the Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established in 1991 to help developing countries fund projects that protect the global environment and promote sustainable livelihoods in local communities. Areas for action included: protecting the atmosphere. South Africa. and promoting the safe management of toxic wastes. Addressing this need. The Decade. Particularly in Africa (1994). and the2005 World Summit. demographic stress. and focusing on poverty eradication as a prerequisite for sustainable development. and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). At the Earth Summit. was adopted in 1997. The list of UN bodies active in support of the environment and sustainable development includes the World Bank. private industry and NGOs. 1999). which placed the issue squarely on the public agenda in a way it had never been before. The session’s final document recommended the adoption of legally binding targets to reduce emission of greenhouse gases leading to climate change. land. which began with the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). capacity development. sustainable production and consumption. energy. international development agencies. indigenous peoples. which has become the pre-eminent global source for scientific information relating to climate change. held at Stockholm in 1972.400 projects in more than 165 developing countries and economies in transition. natural and environmental disasters. The Division for Sustainable Development of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs – which provides the secretariat for the Commission on Sustainable Development. The UN Global Compact engages the international business community in the observance of environmental principles. the Millennium Summit (New York. farmers. freshwater. the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). These included: poverty and external debt in developing countries. The Mauritius Strategy addresses such issues as climate change and rising sea levels. challenges and new issues arising since the 1992 Earth Summit. from 26 August to 4 September 2002. the scientific community. And itsKyoto Protocol. In 1988. The principles of sustainable development have been implicit in many UN conferences. combating deforestation. and was already engaging in monitoring implementation of Agenda 21 and the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States – began doing the same with regard to the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. local authorities. including: the Second UN Conference on Human Settlements (Istanbul. Meeting in Rio de Janeiro. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In 1994. helps to fund it all. the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The main international instrument on this subject. — from the Brundtland Report. health. to become the world’s leading environmental agency. the international community met at Mauritius to conduct a 10-year United Nations review of the Barbados Programme. adopted a Programme of Action that set forth policies. the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. represented the culmination of two decades of focused attention. the World Summit on Sustainable Development was held in Johannesburg. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is the lead agency. and to act upon those decisions. . and the imperative need for sustainable development was seen and recognized worldwide. as it came to be known. to support more than 2. children and young people. trade unions. actions and measures at all levels to promote sustainable development for these states. knowledge management and information for decision-making. soil loss and desertification. But Agenda 21 went beyond these purely environmental issues to address patterns of development which cause stress to the environment. – It has also made more than 10. promises and commitments of Agenda 21 into concrete. marine. business. The action programme also recommended ways to strengthen the part played by major groups — women. which sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. the Special Session of the General Assembly on Small Island Developing States (New York. It has provided $8. a Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.8 billion in grants and generated over $38. UNEP and the World Bank — conserve and make sustainable use of biological diversity. The Earth Summit also led to the adoption of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) and the UNConvention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification. tourism and biodiversity resources. now and in the future. the United Nations Educational. adopted its “Agenda 21”. UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) came together to create theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). aims to help people to develop the attitudes. the link between environment and development. phase out substances that deplete the ozone layer. and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). the “Earth Summit”. Based on its conclusions.7 billion in cofinancing from recipient governments. In what was called the “Earth Summit + 5”. industry and NGOs — in achieving sustainable development. to take stock of achievements. In January 2005. and make recommendations for its further fulfillment. new and additional external funds were deemed necessary to support developing countries’ efforts to implement sustainable development practices and protect the global environment. theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992. preventing air and water pollution. distribution and use. By 1992. the General Assembly in 1992 established theCommission on Sustainable Development.

tsunami-related. flood-related. Natural or manmade disasters resulting in massive structural collapse or dust clouds can cause the release of chemical or biologic contaminants (such as asbestos or the arthrospores that lead to coccidioidomycosis). Therefore. sanitation and hygiene may be compromised by population displacement and overcrowding. When water and sewage systems have been disrupted. Health risks associated with these environmental occurrences have not been fully studied. if someone who has the disease travels to the country. natural disasters have seldom led to epidemic levels of disease. Various vaccine-preventable diseases have been eliminated or are near elimination in some developing countries. Travelers with chronic pulmonary disease or who are immunocompromised may be more susceptible to adverse effects from these types of exposures. uncontrolled forest fires have caused widespread pollution over vast expanses. World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought (17 June). but people with preexisting . or earthquakes. Miller. or particle pollution. crush-related injuries. evacuation routes. Floods have been known to prompt outbreaks of leptospirosis and cholera in areas where the organism is found in water sources (see theLeptospirosis and Cholera sections in Chapter 3). deaths are rarely due to infectious diseases. or saliva. Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards Josephine Malilay. International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict (6 November). During natural disasters. Environmental Risks Natural disasters often lead to wide-ranging air pollution in large cities.5 Interim Target-1 (35 µg/m3 annual average) in eastern and central Asia and North Africa. tsunamis. landslide-related. water-affected electrical outlets. as well as travel health information specific to those needing to travel to the affected area.In view of the crucial importance of the environmental perspective and the principle of sustainability. it is very important that people traveling to offer relief or other services in countries affected by natural disasters be protected against such diseases or not be sick when entering a country. and shelters in areas of high risk. the International Day for Biological Diversity (22 May). Any risk to healthy short-term travelers to such areas is probably small. may enter the lungs and cause serious health problems.cdc. In floods. water should be boiled or disinfected (see the Water Disinfection for Travelers section earlier in this chapter). which began on 22 March 2005. interrupted gas lines. people should avoid driving through swiftly moving water. Clive M. the International Year of Biodiversity in 2010. Event-Specific Information Typically. because transmission cannot take place unless the causative agent is present. and International Mountain Day (11 December).5 µm or smaller in diameter. Among those currently in effect are the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development(2015-2014). Dahna Batts. When arriving at a destination. Travelers who are injured during a natural disaster should have a medical evaluation to determine what additional care may be required for wounds potentially contaminated with feces. is provided on the CDC website (www. particularly when encountering downed power lines. Tetanus booster status should always be kept current. Travelers should be aware that global long-term average PM2. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS Air Air pollution may be found in large cities throughout the world. leading to an outbreak. In addition. International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer (16 September). or that have been exposed to fresh or sea water that may contain parasites or bacteria. Annual environment-related observances declared by the Assembly also include World Water Day (22 March). particulate matter (PM). Although typhoid can be endemic in developing countries. Disease Risks The risk for infectious diseases among travelers to affected areas is minimal unless a disease is endemic in an area before the disaster. Recommendations may include specific immunizations or cautions about unique hazards in the affected area. the world community will observe the International Year of Natural Fibres in 2009. the disease could be reintroduced. If contamination is suspected. or drowning. and stray or frightened animals. technological malfunctions may release hazardous materials (such as release of toxic chemicals from a point source displaced by strong winds. safe water and food supplies are of great importance in preventing enteric disease transmission. travelers should be familiar with local risks for seismic. and other hazards. soil. Although the harmful effects of air pollution are difficult to avoid when visiting some cities. Charles W. as well as warning systems. especially since water supplies and sewage systems may be disrupted. World Environment Day (5 June). or rapidly moving water).gov/travel).5 concentrations have been estimated to exceed the World Health Organization’s Air Quality PM2. Specifically. consisting of fine particles 2. However. tornadoes. and the International Year of Forests in 2011. Natural disasters can contribute to the transmission of some diseases. Therefore. limiting strenuous activity and not smoking can help. its sources are often attributed to automobile exhaust and industrial emissions and may be aggravated by climate and geography. Brown NATURAL DISASTERS Travelers should be aware of the potential for natural phenomena such as hurricanes. seismic motion. For example. Rather they are most often due to blunt trauma. after natural disasters of a magnitude that may affect travelers. floods. Travelers should exercise caution during clean-up. the General Assembly has declared a number of observances to catalyze positive action worldwide. Injuries After a natural disaster. current information about the disaster. Armin Ansari. and normal public health services may be interrupted. travelers should be aware of the risks for injury during and after a natural disaster. and the International Decade for Action. “Water for Life”.

which provides recommendations for dealing with mold in these settings. Mold is a more serious hazard for people with conditions such as impaired host defenses or mold conditions (such as asthma. and Russia—with the highest radioactive ground contamination within 30 km (19 miles) of Chernobyl. Avoiding dust clouds and areas of heavy dust or haze is wise. skin. In all circumstances.” One zone covers an area within a 10-mile radius of the plant.htm). usually up to a 50-mile radius from the plant. Radiation Natural background radiation levels can vary substantially from region to region.cdc. Nuclear power plants operate in most states in the country and produce about 20 percent of the nation’s power. In most countries. Available drinking water may also be but these natural variations are not a health concern for either the traveler or resident population. lakes. Although the construction and operation of these facilities are closely monitored and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). US travelers should immediately seek advice from the nearest US embassy. Belarus. as these may be scarce in the countries visited. If such information is not forthcoming. Travelers should be aware of regions known to have been contaminated with radioactive materials. Travelers may visit flooded areas overseas as part of emergency.000 travelers to the United States originate from Japan each month. This 1986 accident contaminated regions in 3 republics—Ukraine. Radiation emergencies are rare events. such as the areas surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. or heart disease) could be more susceptible. pregnant women. Travelers who encounter a questionable object should notify authorities. This incident occurred in 2011. The plans define two “emergency planning zones. food crops and livestock. Nearly 3 million Americans live within 10 miles of an operating nuclear power plant. There are no travel advisories for Tokyo or any city or region south of Tokyo. and oceans may be contaminated with organic or inorganic chemical compounds (such as heavy metals or other toxins). These areas should not be trespassed. In addition. or humanitarian missions. see the Water Disinfection for Travelers section earlier in this chapter for guidance on ensuring water is safe to drink. children. medical. especially if they bear the radioactive symbol. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Nuclear power plants use the heat generated from nuclear fission in a contained environment to convert water to steam. The second zone covers a broader area. goggles. Natural disasters (such as floods) may also displace industrial or clinical radioactive sources. where radioactive materials could contaminate water supplies. and vegetables from local farmers. To prevent exposure that could result in adverse health effects from disturbed mold. Water Rivers. US travelers are advised to check the website of the US embassy in Tokyo for up- to-date information. The Fukushima Daiichi plant is located 240 km (150 miles) north of Tokyo. there was some concern about those travelers bringing contamination into the United States with them. people should adhere to the following recommendations:  Avoid areas where mold contamination is obvious. travelers should follow instructions provided by local emergency and public health authorities. such as gloves. Travelers should take sufficient PPE with them. which powers generators to produce electricity. The Chernobyl plant is located 100 km (62 miles) northwest of Kiev. where it is possible that people could be harmed by direct radiation exposure. Local and state governments. federal agencies. Such hazards may not be immediately apparent in a body of water. usually characterized by a plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive gases and . Travelers who choose to reside for >1 year within 80 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant should consult with local authorities to receive guidance on expected levels of radiation and recommendations for reducing exposure to radiation. and as Japanese authorities continue to clean the affected areas and monitor the situation. An accident could result in dangerous levels of radiation that could affect the health and safety of the public living near the nuclear power plant. More than 450. however. In case of such an emergency. Any traveler seeking long-term (more than a few months) residence near a known or suspected contaminated area should consult with staff of the nearest US embassy and inquire about any applicable advisories in that area regarding drinking water quality or purchase of meat. This exposure could come from the release of radioactive material from the plant into the environment. Based on radiologic contamination screening at points of entry into the United States. travel advisories may change. and Japanese authorities also advised evacuation from locations farther away to the northwest of the plant. and a tight-fitting approved N-95 respirator. During the height of the Fukushima releases. travelers should exercise caution when they encounter unknown objects or equipment. Mold Prevention Strategies and Possible Health Effects in the Aftermath of Hurricanes and Major Floods (www. and the elderly should avoid residing within 30 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. 3 travelers arriving from Japan after the incident had low levels of contamination and were not considered to pose a health hazard to themselves or others.  Use personal protective equipment (PPE). and the electric utilities have emergency response plans in the event of a nuclear power plant incident.  Review the CDC guidance. and pathogens from human and animal waste that may cause disease in swimmers. known areas of radioactive contamination are fenced or marked with signs. The area within a 20-km (32-mile) radius of the plant is restricted.  Keep hands. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. harmful algal blooms (cyanobacteria) that can be toxic both to fish and to people who eat the fish. The potential danger from an accident at a nuclear power plant is exposure to radiation. and clothing clean and free from mold-contaminated dust. fruit. Extensive water damage after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold contamination in buildings. accidents are possible. or who swim or bathe in the water.

if possible. You may want to prepare a portable kit and keep it in your car in case you are told to evacuate. your family and your property from the effects of a nuclear power plant emergency:  Build an Emergency Supply Kit. keep car windows and vents closed. water. particles. o Make plans for your pets  Obtain public emergency information materials from the power company that operates your local nuclear power plant or your local emergency services office.  Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary. a battery-powered or hand-crank radio. duct tape and scissors to the kit in order be better prepared for a nuclear power plant incident. Each of us is exposed to radiation daily from natural sources. The energy emitted is radiation. After a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency The following are guidelines for the period following a nuclear power plant emergency:  Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home.  Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities. seal it and place it out of the way. daycare and school. The longer a person is exposed to radiation. Before a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency The following are things you can do to protect yourself. etc. You should add plastic sheeting.  Change your clothes and shoes. including the Sun and the Earth. wills. such as nausea. use re-circulating air. consider volunteering to help create one.  Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information. so it is important to know how you will contact one another.  Follow the EAS instructions carefully. . extra flashlights and batteries.  Stay out of the incident zone.  Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms. If you live within 10 miles of the power plant. ventilation fans. dense material between you and the radiation source. Social Security card. Radiation has a cumulative effect. as soon as possible. o Knowing your community's warning systems and disaster plans. birth and marriage certificates. Most radiation loses its strength fairly quickly. If no plans exist. o You may also want to inquire about emergency plans at places where your family spends time: work. both within and outside of your immediate neighborhood. deeds. the greater the effect. Radioactive materials are composed of atoms that are unstable. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345). put exposed clothing in a plastic bag. o Notify caregivers and babysitters about your plan. A high exposure to radiation can cause serious illness or death. Go to a basement or other underground area. This kit should include: o Copies of prescription medications and medical supplies. inhalation of radioactive materials and ingestion of radioactive materials. local authorities would activate warning sirens or another approved alert method. including evacuation routes.  Shield yourself by placing heavy. The major hazards to people in the vicinity of the plume are radiation exposure to the body from the cloud and particles deposited on the ground. o It may be easier to make a long-distance phone call than to call across town. During a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency If an accident at a nuclear power plant were to release radiation in your area. including sleeping bags and pillows. furnace and other air intakes.  If you are told to evacuate. how you will get back together and what you will do in case of an emergency. Radiation also is released from man-made sources such as X-ray machines. proof of residence. An unstable atom gives off its excess energy until it becomes stable.  Minimize your exposure by increasing the distance between you and the source of the radiation. Your family may not be together when disaster strikes. o Copies of important documents: driver’s license. you should receive the materials yearly from the power company or your state or local government.  Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to hazardous radiation.  Make a Family Emergency Plan. You may be advised to take a thorough shower. o Bedding and clothing. tax records. Small traces of radiation are present in food and water. This could be evacuation or remaining indoors to minimize exposure. They also would instruct you through the Emergency Alert System (EAS) on local television and radio stations on how to protect yourself. television sets and microwave ovens. turn off the air conditioner. o Plan places where your family will meet. which includes items like non-perishable food. so an out-of-town contact may be in a better position to communicate among separated family members. insurance policies.  If you are advised to remain indoors.

prenatal. premature labor. and economic indicators. Help a neighbor who may require special assistance .  Return home only when authorities say it is safe. anemia. ranging from 1% to 40%. NY. If a mother is infected with the HIV/AIDS virus. Benefits and effects[edit] . nutrition. prolonged/complicated labor. [1] Preconception care can include education. Food not previously covered should be washed before being put in to containers. there is a 98% chance that her baby will not become infected. and infections are prevalent in cases of maternal obesity and can have detrimental effects on pregnancy outcomes. women and adolescents ranked inadequate finances and lack of transportation as the most common barriers to receiving proper prenatal care. Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy. sleep.[13] Having HIV/AIDS while pregnant can also cause heightened health risks for the mother. [18] The oral cavity serves as both a site of and a gateway entry of disease for microbial infections. on the other hand. lack of understanding or maintenance of good oral health for pregnant women may have adverse effects on them and their children.[20] In 2007. or breastfeeding. [5] Although there are a variety of reasons women choose not to engage in proper prenatal care. nutrition. childbirth. Furthermore. [17] Oral health[edit] Maternal oral health has been shown to effect the well-being of both the mother and her unborn fetus. preconception. concerns about newborn care. Poverty. breastfeeding. Determinants[edit] Poverty/access to healthcare[edit] The risk for maternal death (during pregnancy or childbirth) in sub-Saharan Africa is 175 times higher than in developed countries. elderly people and people with access and functional needs may require additional assistance. maternal health. The 2000 Surgeon’s General Report stresses the interdependence of oral health on the overall health and well-being of an individual. Postnatal care issues include recovery from childbirth. whereas mothers who gain weight actually increase their risk. hypertension.infants. especially among family practitioners and obstetricians. respiratory complications. Sustainable Development: A form of development that allows current needs to be met without endangering future generations. cost and infrastructure are two central problems that international organizations and health agencies find when trying to implement solutions to the problem of mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing countries. [12] Although several preventative measures do exist.[18] Oral health is especially essential during perinatal period and the future development of the child. screening and other interventions among women of reproductive age to reduce risk factors that might affect future pregnancies. Poor oral health can affect diet.[11] especially in countries where poverty is high and education levels are low. Adolescents are least likely to receive any prenatal care at all.  Keep food in covered containers or in the refrigerator. researchers found an even stronger relationship between lack of transportation and prenatal and delivery care. health promotion. [6] Sometimes. to prevent them if possible. The Surgeon General’s Report lists that various systemic diseases and conditions have oral manifestations. Neonatal deaths in developing countries account for 98% of worldwide yearly neonatal deaths. including functional. Hence. and work. [5]Additionally. the last decade has seen a large increase in death among young children due to HIV/AIDS contracted from their parents. which can affect general health status. and adverse pregnancy outcomes.[9] Maternal weight[edit] Gestational weight gain should typically fall between 11-20 pounds in order to improve outcomes for both mother and child. far away from healthcare facilities were less likely to receive prenatal care than those who lived in urban areas. stroke. the Maternal Oral Health Project was developed to provide routine oral care to low-income pregnant women in Nassau County. A large concern for HIV-positive pregnant women is the risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB) and/or malaria. social interaction. are less likely to engage in or even have access to legitimate prenatal care. is essential in addressing the concerns for maternal oral health. many of whom had significant gum and/or tooth problems. placenta retention. childbirth. social. diabetes. school. with African and Asian countries having the highest rates. proximity to healthcare facilities and access to transportation have significant effects on whether or not women have access to prenatal care. and outcomes for the child are all interconnected. and family planning. and nutritional services during pregnancy. In other words. and the postpartum period. poverty is detrimental to the health of both mother and child. there is a 25% chance that she will pass on the virus to her offspring if she does not receive proper treatment during pregnancy. People who care for them or who have large families may need additional assistance in emergency situations. It encompasses the health care dimensions of family planning. [6] Income is strongly correlated with quality of prenatal care. nor human beings into a threat to nature. Furthermore. [2] That being said. cardiovascular disease. that does not turn nature into a hazard for human beings.[10] According to UNICEF. Throughout several studies. the report establishes a relationship between oral health and quality of life.000 pregnant women.[14] Increased rates of hypertension. in developing countries. if a mother is treated during her pregnancy. and pre-eclampsia. adequate prenatal care encompasses medical care and educational. Since its inception.[4] Generally. and postnatal care in order to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. the program has treated more than 2. malaria. collaboration and support among physicians across various fields.[21] Oral health has numerous implications on overall general health and the quality of life of an individual. where level of education is also an indicator (since education and race are correlated). some studies have demonstrated a relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes. and risk for pregnancy-related illnesses and negative consequences after birth is even higher. In addition. psychosocial.[8] HIV/AIDS[edit] Maternal HIV rates vary around the world. Women living in poverty-stricken areas are more likely to be obese and engage in unhealthy behaviors such as cigarette smoking and drug use. immigrants and Hispanic women are at higher risk than white or black women for receiving little to no prenatal care.[19] Proper management of oral health has benefits to both mother and child.[7] In addition to proximity being a predictor of prenatal care access. psychological status. [16] Research has found that obese mothers who lose weight (at least 10 pounds) in-between pregnancies reduce the risk of gestational diabetes during their next pregnancy.[9] HIV/AIDS can be transmitted to the offspring during the prenatal period. it is imperative to educate mothers regarding the significance of oral health.[15] Obesity is an extremely strong risk factor for gestational diabetes. and are at a significantly higher risk for adverse outcomes for both the mother and child. 71% of low-income women in a US national study had difficulties getting access to prenatal care when they sought it out. Moreover.[3] A study conducted in Kenya observed that common maternal health problems in poverty-stricken areas include hemorrhaging. Furthermore. The goal of prenatal care is to detect any potential complications of pregnancy early. An analysis conducted on maternal healthcare services in Mali found that women who lived in rural areas. and to direct the woman to appropriate specialist medical services as appropriate. Materia and colleagues found similar results for proximity and antenatal care in rural Ethiopa.

[20]Poor maintenance of oral health has profound implications on the development of children.[22]There are several factors at play regarding pregnant women not seeking dental care. the embryo/fetus can contract the virus through the placenta. it might result in poor weight gain or growth. can pose a financial burden of a family. and total caloric intake. cavities although easily preventable. poor diabetes control. during. [23] During pregnancy.[22] Also. and treatment of oral diseases are highly beneficial and can be performed on pregnant women having no added fetal or maternal risk when compared to the risk of providing no oral care. fetal and neonatal deaths. however. respiratory problems. First. and overall emotional well-being of an individual. This might cause a child to miss school or have poor concentration. and heart. hence they might delay or withhold treatment during pregnancy. some prenatal providers are not aware of the importance of oral health on overall general health. which include tooth loss.[28][29] as well as over-the-counter drugs such as diet pills. it is imperative to educate and train health providers of the significance of oral health. The environment in which the mother provides for the embryo/fetus is critical to its wellbeing well after gestation and birth.[44] Mothers who have gestational diabetes have a high chance of giving birth to very large infants (10 pounds or more).[18]Thus. especially because of the interdependence of the two fields. with other dental providers. it has the potential to decrease the transmission of pathogenic bacteria that occurs from mother to child. [20] It also causes indirect damage through bacterial induction of both inflammatory and immune responses of the host. high dosages of aspirin are known to lead to maternal and fetal bleeding. come physiological changes for a woman. synthetic estrogen. it is painful. stroke. The changes. can result in teratogenic outcomes for the developing embryo/fetus. many women do not receive dental services before. especially children. A major factor is the lack of insurance and or access to dental services. take for example the consequences a simple cavity can have on a child. and adverse birth outcomes. and behavioral problems across childhood. defective limbs.[23] Some of these factors include the lack of knowledge a mother possesses concerning oral health. low birth weights. When a mother . malnutrition. [43] Additionally. with respect to functional. maternal stress can affect the fetus both directly and indirectly. below average intelligence. Furthermore.[22] Equally important is establishing collaboration among clinicians. diagnosis. including fluctuating hormones.[18] To demonstrate the adverse effects of poor oral health. thus failing to refer their patients to dental providers. Maternal oral flora can ultimately foretell oral flora in offspring. providers can illustrate to mothers how to reduce cavities by wiping down the gums of their children with a soft cloth after breastfeeding or bottle-feeding. and intellectual disability (ID). genetic susceptibility. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other behavioral problems. behavioral. and biological factors can predispose a child’s experience with tooth-decay.[27] Because the embryo or fetus's nutrition is based on maternal protein. and the development of what is commonly known as cavities. A teratogen is "any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes.[10] During the perinatal period. and substance abuse may contribute to impaired cognitive. other maternal factors such as social. more data needs to be collected and analyzed so that programs are set up to effectively to reach all segments of the population. [41][42] Although HIV/AIDS can be transmitted to offspring at different times. Poor oral health permeates into other aspects of life.[30][31] Newborns whose mothers use heroin during the gestational period often exhibit withdrawal symptoms at birth and are more likely to have attention problems and health issues as they grow up. Additionally. children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy experienced a 22% risk increase for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Finally. oral health affects the quality of life. learning problems.[26] In other words. even with obvious signs of oral disease. [27] Gestational diabetes is directly linked with obesity in offspring through adolescence. which can influence the development of caries among her children. Compared to children whose mothers have good oral health. There are still other factors in play when analyzing the low use of dental services by pregnant women. [27] Prescription drugs taken during pregnancy such as streptomycin. [19] Along with pregnancy. children whose mothers have bad oral health are five times as likely to have poor oral health. colonization of cariogenic bacteria primarily occurs from mother to child through saliva-sharing activities. There have been an increased number of studies establishing associations between. the most common time that mothers pass on the virus is during pregnancy. which commonly consist of physical and cognitive abnormalities in the child such as facial deformities. infants born to malnourished mothers are more likely to exhibit malformations. including the role of the health care system and disposition of the woman herself. face. designing methods to incorporate in their respective practices. psychological. Many prenatal and oral health providers have limited knowledge about the impact and safety of delivering dental services. [22] First and foremost. increase the woman’s susceptibility to oral infections such as periodontal disease. This disease impairs the body’s ability to repair and maintain soft tissues. posing threats to overall well-being. in a study published in the International Journal of Cancer. [40] Excessive alcohol use during pregnancy can cause FASD. and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). and after pregnancy. It may also result in unwarranted visits to emergency department.[27] as well as increased risk for cognitive impairment. children whose mothers had diabetes are more likely to develop Type II diabetes.[24] Other studies have also found an association between periodontal disease and development of pre-eclampsia and pre-term births. and time of exposure are all factors for the extent of the effect of a teratogen on an embryo or fetus. [37] Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can have a multitude of detrimental effects on the health and development of the offspring. cardiovascular disease.[38] Also. the US Surgeon General advises against the consumption of alcohol at all during pregnancy. vitamin. some antidepressants. For example.[19] Moreover.[33][34][35][36] The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry found that 6 year- olds whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy scored lower on an intelligence test than children whose mothers had not. especially maternal health providers. Also. Effects on child health and development[edit] Prenatal health[edit] Poverty. “pregnancy gingivitis”. or death. children may exhibit reduced self-esteem because of cosmetic issues. due to the pain.[39] Although alcohol use in careful moderation (one to two servings a few days a week) during pregnancy are not generally known to cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). periodontal disease and negative health outcomes. the misconception regarding the impact of dental services while a woman is pregnant needs to be purged. as well as behavioral problems across childhood. Impaired speech development can also result in low self-esteem.[19] Bestowing knowledge and practical applications of good oral health maintenance measures to mothers can help improve overall health of the mother and child. the child is more likely to experience health or developmental difficulties. Dental caries is the process of tooth decay. Public dental services are scarce and costly to individuals who lack dental insurance.[25] In addition. [23] Dental carries are transmitted from mother to child vertically. one such study found that moderate or severe periodontal disease early in pregnancy was associated with delivery of small-for-gestational-age infant. eventually compromising school performance. mild inflammation of the gums. economic. There is a consensus that prevention. motor. particularly prevalent among ethnic and racial minorities. is quite common and if left untreated can lead to periodontal disease. it can affect language and impair speech. if not handled timely and effectively Collaboration and education[edit] The significance of oral health is apparent. In addition. Additionally. because these women ultimately control the fate of themselves and their offspring. and Accutane. if a mother is not in optimal health during the prenatal period (the time while she is pregnant) and/or the fetus is exposed to teratogen(s). For example. progestin. mineral. Providers most provide education to pregnant women addressing the importance of oral health.[23] Another notable oral disease pertinent to maternal child health is dental caries. As mentioned in the Surgeon’s General Report. [32] Use of stimulants like methamphetamine and cocaine during pregnancy are linked to a number of problems for the child such as low birth weight and small head circumference and motor and cognitive developmental delays. tetracycline.Protection and control of oral health and diseases safeguards a woman’s health and quality of life before and during pregnancy. [18]For this reason. There is a common misconception that it is not safe to obtain dental services while pregnant. although low-dose aspirin is usually not harmful. Common results of smoking during pregnancy include pre-term births." Dose. There should be coordination among general health and oral health providers.

lipid metabolism. and saw successes in reducing maternal mortality. rotavirus. Maternal mortality data is said to be an important indicator of overall health system quality because pregnant women survive in sanitary. and tuberculosis. problems likely exist.[48] Infants who are breastfed by healthy mothers (not infected with HIV/AIDS) are less prone to infections such as Haemophilus influenza. such as tobacco smoking. complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age. In recognition of their role. which causes 34% of maternal deaths in thedeveloping world but only 13% of maternal deaths in developed countries. [27] Childbirth[edit] Genital herpes is passed to the offspring through the birth canal during delivery. [52] Although a high number. when 526. where only 1% of maternal deaths occur. such as South Africa and Kenya. [56] The U.[50] Most maternal deaths and injuries are caused by biological processes. safe.[47] However.300 women died from the same causes. Escherichia coli. group B streptococci. after HIV/AIDS. In India. and alcohol abuse. Staphylococcus epidermidis. and blood pressure. which helped to drive down the overall death rates. respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus-1.[49] In 2008 342. well-staffed and stocked facilities. For every woman that dies during childbirth. and that quality emergency obstetric care is available. In countries where HIV/AIDS rates are high.injury. [45][46] In pregnancies where the mother is infected with the virus. Transmission of HIV/AIDS through breastfeeding is a huge issue in developing countries. This improvement was caused by lower pregnancy rates in some countries. excluding accidental or incidental causes. ovarian cancer. or disability[54] Almost 50% of the births in developing countries still take place without a medically skilled attendant to aid the mother. higher income. approximately 20 suffer from infection. Vibrio cholerae. mothers have no choice but to breastfeed their infants regardless of their knowledge of the harmful effects. asthma. and childhood cancers are also seen in children who are breastfed.[47] In cases like this. the government started paying for prenatal and delivery care to ensure access. and 1/3 die. and lose pregnancy weight faster than those who do not. but this option is not always available in developing countries. Additionally. the mother is more likely to engage in behaviors that could negatively affect the fetus.[49] According to the World Health Organization. atopic dermatitis. more education for women. the virus is a leading cause of maternal mortality.[48] Long-term effects for the mother[edit] See also: Maternal death Maternal health clinic in Afghanistan (source: Merlin) In many developing countries.[57] . [13] A complication is that many HIV-infected mothers cannot afford formula. some countries and non-governmental organizations are making efforts to train TBAs in maternal health topics. whereas the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that mothers do so for at least the first six months. so much so that India is cited as the major reason for the decreasing global rates of maternal mortality. and the increasing availability of “skilled birth attendants” — people with training in basic and emergency obstetric care — to help women give birth. drug under stress.000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management. which improves nutrition and access to health care. namely in African countries. in healthy mothers. as well as gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections and otitis media. these complications can often be fatal in the developing world because single most important intervention for safe motherhood is to make sure that a trained provider with midwifery skills is present at every birth. physiological changes occur in the body that could harm the developing fetus. [27] Mothers in developed countries may often elect to undergo a caesarean section to reduce the risk of transmitting the virus through the birth canal. there are many benefits for infants who are breastfed. [27] HIV/AIDS can also be transmitted during childbirth through contact with the mother's body fluids. and the ratio is even higher in South Asia. The situation was especially led by improvements in large countries like India and China.900 women died while pregnant or from childbirth worldwide. A woman dies from complications from childbirth approximately every minute. Women who breastfeed experience better glucose levels. If not. Decreases in obesity and diseases such as childhood metabolic disease. malaria. not from disease. If new mothers are thriving. Lower rates of infant mortality are observed in breastfed babies in addition to lower rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Global Situation[edit] Maternal Mortality Rate worldwide. many mothers breastfeed their infants.[13] The majority of infants who contract HIV through breast milk do so within the first six weeks of life.S. Giardia lamblia. [48] However. and thus have no way of preventing transmission to the child through breast milk or avoiding health risks for themselves. it is important to keep in mind that breastfeeding provides substantial benefits to women who are not infected with HIV. and uses it to assess the quality of a health care system. it indicates that the health care system is doing its job. accessible health care has made maternal death a rare event in developed countries. Additionally.[53] Maternal health problems also include complications from childbirth that do not result in death. in its World Health Report 2005. [13] Postpartum period[edit] During the postpartum period. who have little or no formal health care training. [55] Breastfeeding provides women with several long-term benefits. that transport is available to referral services. women who breastfeed experience lower rates of breast cancer. as defined by the number of maternal deaths per 100. especially in mothers who breastfeed. in order to improve the chances for better health outcomes among mothers and babies. Streptococcus pneunoniae.[51] Although high-quality. The World Health Organization recommends that mothers breastfeed their children for the first two years of life. this was a significant drop from 1980. and continue as long as is mutually desired. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations calls maternal mortality a "sentinel event". poor maternal conditions account for the fourth leading cause of death for women worldwide. Type I diabetes.[49] Women in Sub-Saharan Africa mainly rely on traditional birth attendants (TBAs). which can be prevented and have been largely eradicated in the developed world — such as postpartum hemorrhaging. and type 2 diabetes. 25% of babies delivered through an infected birth canal become brain damaged.

[61] Improving maternal health is the 5th of the 8 United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). meaning they now think about the way something looks instead of rational thinking.[65] Increasing contraceptive usage and family planning also improves maternal health through reduction in numbers of higher risk pregnancies. at about at 7 thought processes of children are no longer egocentric and are more intuitive. children begin developing cognitive operations and begin applying this new thinking to different events they may encounter. they sometimes use different props to make this pretend play more real. An example of this would be hiding the child’s favorite toy under a blanket.[7] An imaginary audience is when an adolescent feels that the world is just as concerned and judgmental of anything the adolescent does as they are.1% in 1992 to 29% in 2008. disease-specific improvements are also better able to positively impact populations. he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the zone of proximal development) could help children learn new tasks.[7] Unlike the preoperational stage. According to Tamar Manuelyan Atinc.[9][10] Vygotsky was strongly focused on the role of culture in determining the child's pattern of development.[59] Proposed solutions[edit] The World Bank estimated that a total of 3. such as mental math. children can now change and rearrange mental images and symbols to form a logical thought. In Nepal a strong emphasis was placed on providing family planning to rural regions and it was shown to be effective. and in several regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa the maternal mortality rate is actually increasing. which has it appears reduced its maternal mortality by more than 50% since the early 1990s. Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7) During this stage of development. The United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA) recently began its Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA). During the 19th century Sweden had high levels of maternal mortality. children start to engage in pretend play in which they pretend to be people they are not (teachers. In addition to symbolism. [7] Vygotsky[edit] Main articles: Lev Vygotsky and Cultural-historical psychology Vygotsky was a Russian theorist. There are no regions that are on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015.[7] He posited that children learn through hands-on experience. However. between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child . one country that may meet their MDG 5 is Nepal. they feel as if every other person is experiencing the same events and feelings that they are experiencing. young children begin analyzing their environment using mental symbols.[8] An example of this might be when a parent "helps" an infant clap or roll her hands to the pat-a-cake rhyme." because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn. who proposed the sociocultural theory. notably by increasing the usage of skilled birth attendants. there are also some negative aspects which include the child or adolescent developing some egocentric thoughts which include the imaginary audience and the personal fable. the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has decreased. [66] Madagascar saw a dramatic increase in contraceptive use after instituting a nationwide family planning program.000 live births. on the individual level. an adolescent may feel as is they are “on stage” and everyone is a critique and they are the ones being critiqued." Developed countries had rates of maternal mortality similar to those of developing countries until the early 20th century.[62] The current decline of maternal deaths is only half of what is necessary to achieve this goal. this means the child now has the ability to understand that objects keep existing even when they cannot be seen.[7] Formal operations: (about early adolescence to mid/late adolescence) The final stage of Piaget’s cognitive development defines a child as now having the ability to “think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events”. with South-East Asia seeing the most dramatic decrease of 59% and Africa seeing a decline of 27%. and situations. [63] Decreasing the rates of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries is important because poor maternal health is both an indicator and a cause of extreme poverty. They feel as if they are the only ones that have ever experienced what they are experiencing and that they are invincible and nothing bad will happen to them it will only happen to others. Vygotsky was an active scholar and at that time his theory was said to be “recent” because it was translated out of Russian language and began influencing Western thinking. This initiative has widespread support from African leaders and was started in conjunction with the African Union Health Ministers. bringing with it even more financial hardship.[67] Piaget stages[edit] Sensorimotor: (birth to about age 2) According to Piaget. on the social level.[58] Worldwide. events. Piaget’s main focus on this stage and the reason why he named it “preoperational” is because children at this point are not able to apply specific cognitive operations.00 US dollars per person a year can provide basic family planning. is an important goal for the world health community. [7] Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence) During this stage. However. If these areas improve. This technique is called "scaffolding. as Piaget suggested. and there was a strong support within the country to reduce mortality rate to fewer than 300 per 100. Denmark. contraception and family planning. and the Netherlands who also experienced similar successes. [7] A personal fable is when the adolescent feels that he or she is unique person and everything they do is unique. an example of this is reversibility in which the child now has the ability to reverse an action just by doing the opposite. first. In addition. increasing maternal survival. Vice President for Human Development at the World Bank:[64] "Maternal deaths are both caused by poverty and are a cause of it. This approach was also later used by Norway. therefore several lessons can be learned from the west. which means the child is not able to see someone else’s point of view.[60] Many non-profit organizations have programs educating the public and gaining access to emergency obstetric care for mothers in developing countries. targeting a reduction in the number of women dying during pregnancy and childbirth by three quarters by 2015. along with life expectancy. although the child cannot physically see it they still know to look under the blanket. unlike Piaget. superheroes).[7] Some positive aspects during this time is that child or adolescent begins forming their identity and begin understanding why people behave the way they behave. and later.[7] Some deficiencies in this stage of development are that children who are about 3–4 years old often display what is called egocentrism. These symbols often include words and images and the child will begin to apply these various symbols in their everyday lives as they come across different objects.According to Garret. focusing on providing quality healthcare to mothers. One of the programs within CARMMA is Sierra Leone providing free healthcare to mothers and children. until she can clap and roll her hands herself. During the 1920s–1930s while Piaget was developing his own theory. maternal and neonatal health care to women in developing countries. However. [8] He argued that "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first. when an infant reaches about 7–9 months of age they begin to develop what he called object permanence. However. as they show that other health issues are also improving. The costs of childbirth can quickly exhaust a family’s income.[7] However. the rate of contraceptive use increased from 5. The Swedish government began public health initiatives to train enough midwives to attend all births.

and to the formation of concepts. numerical. emotional. like growth in stature. linguistic.[23] A second type of plasticity. and cognitive experiences. this theorist suggests that a lifetime is spent in reworking issues that were originally characteristic of a childhood stage. described situations in which children could solve one type of problem using mature thinking skills. including some emotional reactions. Furthermore. to logical memory. transition into a stage may not mean that the previous stage is completely finished. as well as social.[citation needed]Watson also helped bring a natural science perspective to child psychology by introducing objective research methods based on observable and measurable behavior.[19] Continuous developmental changes.[16] Dynamic systems theory stresses nonlinear connections (e.[citation needed] Continuity and discontinuity in development[edit] Although the identification of developmental milestones is of interest to researchers and to children's caregivers. but also a predictable sequence of developmental events. Skinner further extended this model to cover operant conditioning and verbal behavior. For example. [citation needed]Following Watson’s lead. producing developmental change in both over time. many aspects of developmental change are continuous and do not display noticeable milestones of change.[23] Some aspects of child development are notable for their plasticity. they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development. Watson was instrumental in the modification of William James’ stream of consciousness approach to construct a stream of behavior theory. [22] Rather than acting as independent mechanisms. Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure. Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior. psychological. When an age period is referred to as a stage. which simultaneously prepare us to develop key aspects of early cognition.[15] The use of dynamical systems theory as a framework for the consideration of development began in the early 1990s and has continued into the present century. researchers may identify not only milestones of development. involves the strong effect of specific experiences during limited sensitive periods of development. Genetic-environmental correlations are circumstances in which genetic factors make . [17] a mutually interactive process in which children and parents simultaneously influence each other.[citation needed] Dynamic systems theory has been applied extensively to the study of motor development. often associated with a known chronological age range.[21] Similarly. it is said to show a high degree of plasticity.[22] Mechanisms of development[edit] Girl playing in a play ground See also: Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age. the theorist of cognitive development. they are: physical. between earlier and later social assertiveness) and the capacity of a system to reorganize as a phase shift that is stage-like in nature. [23] For example. or Skinner box. This applies equally to voluntary attention. Even within a particular developmental area. involve fairly gradual and predictable progress toward adult characteristics. special-purpose knowledge systems referred to as core domains of thought" [18] There are five core domains of thought. examination of environmental factors also shows that young human beings can survive within a fairly broad range of environmental experiences. the theory also has strong associations with some of Bowlby's views about attachment systems. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. divided into five stages.[11] Behavioral theories[edit] Main article: Behavior analysis of child development John B. [23] Child playing with bubbles One kind of environmental guidance of development has been described as experience-dependent plasticity. such that each stage is both preceded and followed by specific other periods associated with characteristic behavioral or physical qualities. changes in proportion of body and brain parts.[14] He wrote extensively on child development and conducted research (seeLittle Albert experiment).[citation needed] He also argued that as humans develop. but related age periods often called stages..[23] However.[citation needed] The "core knowledge perspective" is an evolutionary theory in child development that proposes "infants begin life with innate.[27][28] In addition to the existence of plasticity in some aspects of development. but could not accomplish this for less familiar problems. however.[26] Plasticity may involve guidance by endogenous factors like hormones as well as by exogenous factors like infection. depend on experiences with vision during the second half of the first year of life. [23] age itself cannot cause development." [8] Vygotsky felt that development was a process and saw periods of crisis in child development during which there was a qualitative transformation in the child's mental functioning. such as speech or movement. to observe the behavior of small organisms in a controlled situation and proved that organisms' behaviors are impacted on the environment. [citation needed] Sigmund Freud developed a psychosexual theory of human development from infancy onward. genetic and environmental factors often interact to cause developmental change. he used reinforcement and punishment to shape in desired behavior. A stage is a period of time. a phenomenon he called horizontal decalage. Watson’s behaviorism theory forms the foundation of the behavioral model of development 1925. Other theories[edit] In accordance with his view that the sexual drive is a basic human motivation. genetic-environmental correlations may function in several ways to determine the mature characteristics of the individual. plasticity is said to be low. of the body. during which a behavior or physical characteristic is qualitatively different from what it is at other ages. and biological. giving rise to further developmental change. [citation needed] Each stage contains conflict which requires resolution to enable the child to develop. [20] Stages of development may overlap or be associated with specific other aspects of development. When developmental change is discontinuous.[23]Because genes can be "turned off" and "turned on".[23] When an aspect of development is strongly affected by early experience. a condition (such as teething or stranger anxiety) that helps to determine apparently unrelated behaviors as well as related ones.[24] Genetic factors are responsible for cellular changes like overall growth.[23] The basic mechanisms or causes of developmental change are genetic factors and environmental factors. and the experience of a single three-dimensional image rather than the two-dimensional images created by light in each eye. experience-expectant plasticity. [25] and the maturation of aspects of function such as vision and dietary needs. in which behavior is altered as a result of learning from the environment. in Erikson's discussion of stages of personality.[citation needed] Each stage centered around the gratification of the libido within a particular area.(intrapsychological). B. or erogenous zone. Piaget. when the genetic make-up is the primary cause of development. Dynamic systems theory also relates to the concept of the transactional process.[23] the individual's initial genotype may change in function over time.[23] Experience-expectant plasticity works to fine-tune aspects of development that cannot proceed to optimum outcomes as a result of genetic factors working alone. the coordinated use of the two eyes.F. the term implies not only this qualitative difference.g. or the extent to which the direction of development is guided by environmental factors as well as initiated by genetic factors.[citation needed] Skinner used the operant chamber. Another useful concept for developmentalists is the attractor state. each of which is crucial for survival.

but at some points in development they may be strongly influenced by individual differences in reproductive maturation. or cephalocaudal. when a period of rapid growth occurs. receptive speech indicators do not show much variation among children with typical hearing. Studies of the accomplishment of many developmental tasks have established typical chronological ages associated with developmental milestones. In all of these cases.or cross-sectional studies. tripled by age 12 months.[30] Individual variation versus disease[edit] Individual differences in height and weight during childhood are considerable. but the lower parts of the body are much smaller than adult size. providing a different environment than might occur for a genetically-different child. Some of these differences are due to family genetic factors. Are there typical individual differences in the relevant developmental changes? 5. collecting information about chronological age and some type of development such as vocabulary growth. the head grows relatively little. [30] The child’s pattern of growth is in a head-to-toe direction. At birth. such as changes in reflex reactions in the first year. However. the child's genetically-caused characteristics cause other people to respond in certain ways. the individual's proportions also change. Some child development studies examine the effects of experience or heredity by comparing characteristics of different groups of children in a necessarily non-randomized design. active child may choose after-school sports experiences that create increased athletic skills. and torso and limbs undergo a great deal of growth. correlational statistics can be used to state change. differences in the development of boys and of girls)? Empirical research that attempts to answer these questions may follow a number of patterns. a muscular. An example of a milestone would be eye-hand coordination. What develops? What relevant aspects of the individual change over a period of time? 2.[citation needed] These methods may involve longitudinal studies.[citation needed] Aspects[edit] Child development is not a matter of a single topic. Initially. Poor nutrition and frequent injury and disease can reduce the individual's adult stature. from the relatively large head and small torso and limbs of the neonate. milestones indicate a stage transition. [23] In evocative genetic-environmental correlation. Here are descriptions of the development of a number of physical and mental characteristics. As stature and weight increase.[29] Research issues and methods[edit] 1.[citation needed] Other studies can use randomized designs to compare outcomes for groups of children who receive different interventions or educational treatments. for example. which corresponds to the shortest 2. even between children with developmental trajectories within the typical range.[23] For example. [citation needed] A common concern in child development is developmental delay involving a delay in an age-specific ability for important developmental milestones. Speed and pattern of development[edit] The speed of physical growth is rapid in the months after birth. In the course of development. or by a low rate of increase in the weight. but expressive speech milestones can be quite variable. [citation needed] Physical growth[edit] Physical growth in stature and weight occurs over the 15–20 years following birth. so birth weight is doubled in the first four months. but progresses somewhat differently for different aspects of the individual. stunted growth. generally refers to reduced growth rate as a manifestation of malnutrition in early childhood. a child with Down syndrome may be treated more protectively and less challengingly than a non-Down child.[30] The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists defines short stature as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender. it becomes difficult to know whether child characteristics were shaped by genetic factors. genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate. there is considerable variation in the achievement of milestones. Motor development[edit] . a child is likely to experience a particular environment because his or her parents' genetic make-up makes them likely to choose or create such an environment. then.[22] Developmental milestones[edit] Main article: Child development stages Milestones are changes in specific physical and mental abilities (such as walking and understanding language) that mark the end of one developmental period and the beginning of another. [citation needed]Growth is not uniform in rate and timing across all body parts. but the best environment cannot cause growth to a greater stature than is determined by heredity. in which groups of children of different ages are tested once and compared with each other. and can be evaluated either by a low weight for the child's age. Some milestones are more variable than others. [citation needed] For stage theories.3% of individuals. as the individual changes from the average weight of 3.[32] A similar term. an active genetic-environmental correlation is one in which the child chooses experiences that in turn have their effect.[23] Finally. to the adult's relatively small head and long torso and limbs. head size is already relatively near to that of an adult. but not quadrupled until 24 months. Are there population differences in this aspect of development (for example. What are the mechanisms of development – what aspects of experience and heredity cause developmental change? 4. not with respect to average age at achievement. and in an inward to outward pattern (center of the body to the peripheral) called proximodistal. [30] Mechanisms of developmental change[edit] Genetic factors play a major role in determining the growth rate. However.[31] In contrast. Such studies examine the characteristics of children at different ages. What are the rate and speed of development? 3. failure to thrive is usually defined in terms of weight. but perhaps preclude music lessons.5 kg and length of 50 cm at full term birth to full adult size.[23] for instance.[citation needed] Growth then proceeds at a slow rate until shortly before puberty (between about 9 and 15 years of age). in which a group of children are re-examined on a number of occasions as they get older.certain experiences more likely to occur. and particularly the changes in proportion characteristic of early human development.[citation needed] Developmental delays should be diagnosed by comparison with characteristic variability of a milestone. in passive genetic-environmental correlation.[23] for instance. others to environmental factors. Prevention of and early intervention in developmental delay are significant topics in the study of child development. by experiences. then slows. or there may be a combination of these approaches. which includes a child's increasing ability to manipulate objects in a coordinated manner.[citation needed] This type of work may be followed by correlational studies. Increased knowledge of age-specific milestones allows parents and others to keep track of appropriate development. observational research in naturalistic conditions may be needed to develop a narrative describing and defining an aspect of developmental change. or by a combination of the two.

as many of the reflexes of the newborn alter or disappear within the first year. skipping with one foot and walking with the other. walking while holding an adult's hand. There are some population differences in motor development. which depend to a considerable extent on formal education.[citation needed] Developmental advances in cognition are also related to experience and learning.[19] Individual differences[edit] There are typical individual differences in the ages at which specific cognitive abilities are achieved.[citation needed] Atypical delays in cognitive development are problematic for children in cultures that demand advanced cognitive skills for work and for independent living. and symbol use and the capacity for abstraction develop until a near-adult level is reached by adolescence. [33] Motor skills can be divided into two categories: first as basic skills necessary for everyday life and secondly. Skilled voluntary movements such as passing objects from hand to hand develop as a result of practice and learning. observe. physical activity and love can influence early brain development of children. hypotonia. Children with disabilities[edit] Children with Down syndrome or Developmental coordination disorder are late to reach major motor skills milestones. This form of development is known as "Portional Development" and explains why motor functions develop relatively quickly during typical childhood development.[citation needed] Environmental factors including food and nutrition.[citation needed] for example. as well as aspects of muscle and bone strength. or down syndrome .[35] Opportunities to carry out movements help establish the abilities to flex (move toward the trunk) and extend body parts. critiques the order of Executive Functioning leads to Motor Skills. frequent ear infections. and be instructed on specific movements. they are born with a few core domains of knowledge. Speed and pattern of development[edit] The speed of motor development is rapid in early life. hopping. and this is particularly the case for higher-level abilities like abstraction. which according to Piaget's theory of cognitive development is extremely important in early childhood rule. sitting up and walking.[citation needed] The main areas of the brain involved in motor skills are the frontal cortex. or undeveloped muscle mass. [citation needed] During childhood. responsiveness of parents. which is controlled by the middle and front portions of the frontal lobe. Nutrition and exercise also determine strength and therefore the ease and accuracy with which a body part can be moved. Atypical motor development such as persistent primitive reflexes beyond 4–6 months or delayed walking may be an indication of developmental delays or conditions such as autism.[36] However. and use internal mental capabilities such as problem solving. However. motor development shows predictable patterns of cephalocaudal (head to foot) and proximodistal (torso to extremities) development. parietal cortex and basal ganglia. both capacities are necessary for good motor ability. and finally skipping. rolling. [19] Mastery Climate is a suggested successful learning environment for children to promote motor skills by their own motivation. Like physical growth. "cruising" while holding on to an object. grasping. memory andlanguage. daily experiences. producing a population difference.[citation needed] but schooling for children in industrialized countries is based on the assumption that these differences are not large. learning and information-processing increase in speed. typical individual differences are strongly affected by opportunities to practice. locomotion at 6–8 months involves creeping on all fours. A few examples of these milestones are sucking. and symbolise information. and to solve problems. remember. who can perform cognitive tasks such as discriminating animate and inanimate beings or recognizing small numbers of objects. Children with Down syndrome sometimes have heart problems. as is seen in the many genetic causes of intellectual disability. Thissyndrome is caused by atypical chromosomal development. usually will not develop until late childhood and early adolescence. with movements at the head and in the more central areas coming under control before those of the lower part of the body or the hands and feet. This is significant in motor development because the hind portion of the frontal lobe is known to control motor functions. new motor skills are acquired by instruction or observation rather than in a predictable sequence. Population differences[edit] Regardless of the culture a baby is born into. galloping. including articulation of sounds with lips and tongue. timing measure of inhibition and switching) which are important to motor skills. [19] . while logic.A child while learning to walk Abilities for physical movement change through childhood from the largely reflexive (unlearned. memory becomes increasingly longer. What develops?[edit] The capacity to learn. Definition[edit] "Motor learning refers to the increasing spatial and temporal accuracy of movements with practice".[19] Mechanisms of cognitive development[edit] Cognitive development has genetic and other biological mechanisms.[19] Lower motor coordination results in difficulties with speed accuracy and trade-off in complex tasks. then proceeds to pulling to stand. develop. The parietal cortex is important in controlling perceptual-motor integration and the basal ganglia and supplementary motor cortex are responsible for motor sequences. Types of movement develop in stage-like sequences.(June 2008) Cognitive development is primarily concerned with ways in which infants and children acquire. suggesting Motor Skills can support Executive Functioning in the brain.[citation needed] By middle childhood and adolescence. [citation needed] Cultural factors are also seen at work in practiced voluntary movements such as the use of the foot to dribble a soccer ball or the hand to dribble a basketball.[citation needed] Cultural differences may encourage learning of motor skills like using the left hand only for sanitary purposes and the right hand for all other uses.[citation needed] Ethnic differences in reflex movements of newborn infants have been reported. with girls showing some advantages in small muscle usage. This promotes participation and active learning in children. suggesting that some biological factor is at work. These principals allow him or her to make sense of their environment and learn upon previous experience by using motor skills such as grasping or crawling. as recreational skills such as skills for employment or certain specialties based on interest. after the infant period. cerebral palsy. talking. exists at a simple level in young infants.[19] Flexibility is also impacted by nutrition and exercise as well. The dorsolateral frontal cortex is responsible for strategic processing. it has not been possible to measure specific brain changes and show that they cause cognitive change. [citation needed] Mechanisms of motor development[edit] The mechanisms involved in motor development involve some genetic components that determine the physical size of body parts at a given age. [34] It has also been shown that the frontal lobe develops posterio- anteriorally (from back to front). Individual differences[edit] Typical individual differences in motor ability are common and depend in part on the child's weight and build. and slows later. although it is assumed thatbrain functions cause cognitive events. involuntary) movement patterns of the young infant to the highly skilled voluntary movements characteristic of later childhood and adolescence.[citation needed] Older children continue the sequence by walking sideways or backward. and finally walking independently.[19] There are Executive Functions of the brain (working memory. [19] Cognitive/intellectual development[edit] This section requires expansion.

[39] Individual differences[edit] Typical individual differences in motor ability are common and depend in part on the child's weight and build. and how anger is expressed. if. they also begin to prefer familiar people and show anxiety and distress when separated from them or approached by strangers.[19] Language[edit] Main article: Language development Mechanisms of child language development[edit] Language serves the purpose of communication to express oneself though a systematic and traditional use of sounds. Experience plays a role in determining which people are familiar. [41] These subcomponents of language development are combined to form the components of language. the types of activities that they develop when they are together. The objective is to study the time mothers and children spent together in joint activity. Depending on the level of intensity. after the infant period.[44]  Lexicon is a complex dictionary of words that enables language speakers to use these words in speech production and comprehension. Children ages 6–13 and young adults performed a serial response time task in which a response and a timing sequence were presented repeatedly in a phase-matched manner. the component "cat" makes sense as does "at". and social cooperation.[45] Lexicon is the inventory of a language's morphemes. and throwing temper tantrums are perfectly typical symptoms for separation anxiety.[citation needed] seem to involve a rather sudden reorganization of the child's experience of emotion. The degree of integrative learning was measured as the slowing in performance that resulted when phase-shifting the sequences.[40] Currently.[citation needed] or if customs learned by children of one ethnic group are different from those learned in another. in the word "cat". and the relation that those activities have with the children's trait emotional intelligence. such as fearfulness. Correlations between time variables and trait emotional intelligence dimensions were computed using Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient.[citation needed] like empathy. and adolescence by emotions connected with sexuality and the beginnings of romantic love. reinforcement. Phonological acquisition in children can be measured by accuracy and frequency of production of various vowels and consonants. Atypical motor development may be an indication of developmental delays or problems such as autism or cerebral palsy. [citation needed] Differences in cognitive achievement of different ethnic groups appears to result from cultural or other environmental factors. For example.[40] There are four subcomponents in which the child must attain in order to acquire language competence. This is when a child constantly refuses to separate from the parent. but others.[citation needed] Social and emotional differences between boys and girls of a given age may also be associated with differences in the timing of puberty characteristic of the two sexes. or written symbols. Taken together. [19] Population differences[edit] Population differences may occur in older children. which are sociolinguistics and literacy. Learning was similar for the children and adults on average but increased with age for the children. "ca" does not mean anything. WCST performance and response speed predicted temporal learning.[43] Phonology considers what the sounds of language are and what the rules are for combining sounds. and anger. They include phonology. or by viewing development in regular stages in their own speech sound systems and to characterize systematic strategies they adopt.[citation needed] Separation anxiety is a typical stage of development to an extent. they go through a fairly rapid change and become fearful of perceived threats. lexicon. Finally.[42] It is the function.[citation needed] A baby’s first smile usually occurs between 6 and 10 weeks. there is no single accepted theory of language acquisition but various explanations of language development have been accumulated. [19] Social-emotional development[edit] What develops?[edit] Newborn infants do not seem to experience fear or have preferences for contact with any specific people. which social rules are obeyed. It is called a ‘social smile’ because it usually occurs during social interactions. but "at" does not mean the same thing as "cat". In this example.[citation needed] Anger seems most intense during the toddler and early preschool period and during adolescence. and be instructed on specific movements. for example they have learned that it is appropriate for boys to express emotion or behave differently from girls. typical individual differences are strongly affected by opportunities to practice. allowing for integrative learning.[citation needed] develop gradually. Morphemes act as minimal meaning-bearing elements or building blocks of something in language that makes sense. Data was collected for both mothers and children (N = 159) using self-report questionnaires. like fearfulness. Temporal learning depends upon a process of integrating timing patterns with action sequences. the acquisition of phonemic contrasts and distinctive features. In the first few months they only experience happiness. sadness.Population differences[edit] There are few population differences in cognitive development. Executive function measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance as well as a measure of response speed also improved with age. not only because those times of joint activity reflect a more positive parenting. screaming. This can be given special treatment but the parent usually cannot do anything about the situation. [19] Speed and pattern of development[edit] Some aspects of social-emotional development. shared attention. [citation needed] Boys and girls show some differences in their skills and preferences.[citation needed] By about 8–12 months. The amount of time mothers spent with their children and the quality of their interactions are important in terms of children's trait emotional intelligence. However. [38] Mechanisms of social and emotional development[edit] Genetic factors appear to regulate some social-emotional developments that occur at predictable ages. Kicking. morphology and syntax. and attachment to familiar people. Components of child language development[edit] The four components of language development include:  Phonology is concerned with the sounds of language. signs. behavior. [citation needed] Sexual and romantic emotions develop in connection with physical maturation. but in an intense manner. one may determine whether or not a child has separation anxiety disorder. but there is a great deal of overlap between the groups. and organization of sounds as linguistic items. the results indicate that temporal learning continues to develop in pre- adolescents and that maturing executive function or processing speed may play an important role in acquiring temporal patterns in sequenced actions and the development of this ability.[19] The ability to learn temporal patterns in sequenced actions was investigated in elementary-school age children. and pragmatics. .[19] Parenting practices have been shown to predict children's emotional intelligence. [citation needed] Middle childhood is characterized by friendships with age-mates. observe. but because they are likely to promote modeling. [37] The capacity for empathy and the understanding of social rules begin in the preschool period and continue to develop into adulthood. Partial correlations between the same variables controlling for responsive parenting were also computed.

if not strictly correct.[53] Following this there is a rapid appearance of grammatical rules and ordering of sentences. have a vocabulary of about 1.[52] During 2 and 3 years of age. gurgle. [50] First.[52] Children between the ages of 4 and 5 years old are able to use past tense. This happens in three stages. and they understand the word "no". lead to a response from their caregiver. [52] By age 4. babbling increases to include repetition of sounds. [52] Between 1–2 years old.[53] By three years the child begins to use complex sentences. between two and three years old. moves rapidly after its beginning at about a year of age.[52] By age 6. responds to its name. each word means an entire sentence. around age seven or eight. is able to say 2-word sentences and is able to express their wishes by saying words like "more" or "up". the production of words.600 words. their internal structure and how they are formed. has a gradual development beginning at about 6 months. or non-verbal communication. much of the child’s communication is open to interpretation. [52] At around 8 months of age.[53] Typically the adult expands it to clarify meaning. use short sentences. For example. children make changes on basic sentence structure that enables them to communicate more complex relationships. a young child may say “mama” but the child may mean “Here is Mama”.[53] Grammatical rules and word combinations appear at about age two. Finally.[53] However.[53] Adolescents still have smaller vocabularies than adults and experience more difficulty with constructions such as the passive voice. from the perspectives of the author. [53] There is often an interest in rhyme. Second. “Where is Mama?”. has a vocabulary of about 450 words. Children's recorded monologues give insight into the development of the process of organizing information into meaningful units. [47] It also incorporates the use of utterance to serve different functions and can be defined as the ability to communicate one's feelings and desires to others. For this the child needs to learn to combine his perspective with that of others and with outside events and learn to use linguistic indicators to show he is doing this. [53] The ability to engage in extended discourse emerges over time from regular conversation with adults and peers. and ask questions like "why?" and "who?". [52] Vocabulary typically grows from about 20 words at 18 months to around 200 words at 21 months. produce coherent personal stories and fictional narrative with beginnings and endings. use some simple plurals and is able to answer "where" questions. For example. children are able to use sentences of 4-5 words and has a vocabulary of about 1000 words. or “I see Mama.[53] Between 20 and 28 months. Eventually. The fifth stage of categorization involves children aged three and a half to seven years refining their sentences with more purposeful word choice that reflects their complex system of categorizing word types. the child has a vocabulary of 2.[51] Mastery of vocabulary and grammar continue gradually through the preschool and school years. words have meaning but do not have complete definitions. is the use of sentence-like words in which the child communicates using one word with additional vocal and bodily cues. one might not be able to figure out what the child was trying to say.500 words. with a "vocabulary explosion" of rapid word acquisition occurring in the middle of the second year. syntax. imitates familiar sounds and can follow simple instructions. [53] Sequential skill development in learning to talk[edit] Child Age in Months Language Skill 0-3 Vocal play: cry.[49] A child learns the syntax of his or her language when he or she is able to join words together into sentences and understand multiple-word sentences said by other people. However. “not now” and “why”. between 18 months to two years. Shortly after birth. words have adult-like definitions and their meanings are more complete. Morphology is the study of form or forms. The third stage. the understanding of others' speech. they are able to add pronouns to words and combine them to form short sentences. with infants first babbling consonant and vowel sounds together that may sound like "ma" or "da". the child is able to refer to itself as "me". There appear to be six major stages in which a child’s acquisition of syntax develops. [53] By age 1. and imaginative play frequently includes conversations. coo. [52] By the age of 5 or 6 years old. [53] From around 18 months the child starts to combine words into two word sentences. the child is able to say 1-2 words. hot and cold and begin to change “no” to “wait a minute”. the characters in the story and their own views.[46]  Pragmatics is the study of relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. the child uses 5-20 words.[52] At this stage. is able to form sentences of 5-6 words and use a variety of different types of sentences. including relative clauses. [53] From the age of about three children can indicate fantasy or make-believe linguistics. [48] Children’s development of language also includes semantics which is the attachment of meaning to words. It is the mental system involved in word formation or to the branch of linguistics that deals with words. [53] The theory is that children apply a basic set of rules such as adding 's' for plurals or inventing simpler words out of words too complicated to repeat like "choskit" for chocolate biscuit. This stage occurs between the ages of two and a half years to four years. although still perfecting various linguistic systems.[51] A child's receptive language. Babble: undifferentiated sounds 6-10 Babble: canonical/reduplicated syllables 9. this system is developed as the infants begin to understand that their noises. grunt 3. children use structures of language that involve more complicate syntactic relationships between the ages of five years old to ten years old. Third. combine nouns and verbs.[53] By 24–27 months the child is producing three or four word sentences using a logical.” In the second stage. [53] It is argued that children devise narrative as a way of understanding their own experience and as a medium for communicating their meaning to others. [53] Typically by the age of about 9 a child can recount other narratives in addition to their own experiences. if a child says “bah” when they’re in a toy room with their guardian.[53] By five years of age the child's use of language is very similar to that of an adult. Fourth. the majority of children have mastered the basics of their native language. such as "da-da" and infants learn the forms for words and which sounds are more likely to follow other sounds. [51] This will then progress into babbling around 5 months of age. Imitation . it is likely to be interpreted as “ball” because the toy in is sight.[50] Milestones of Language Development[edit] Infants begin with cooing and soft vowel sounds. if you were to listen to the same ‘word’ on a recorded tape without knowing the context. This stage usually occurs between 12 and 18 months of age. there is the modification stage where children communicate relationships by modifying a topic word. children move from understanding the difference between high and low. They also learn to adjust their language depending on to whom they are speaking. expressive language. involves the child using complete subject-predicate structures to communicate relationships. This stage occurs around age two or three. First.

rules of word sentence formation. [40] Before 9–12 months. body movements take on a different role and begin to complement the verbal message. four components must be met. and the production and comprehension processes of communication. [59] According to First International Congress for the Study of Child Language. but they do not interact with people about objects. theories of cognition.[58] Language and its relation to communication[edit] Communication can be defined as the exchange and negotiation of information between two or more individuals through verbal and nonverbal symbols. [40] Another gesture of communication is presented around the age of 10 and 11 months where infants start gaze-following. [50] These nonverbal bodily movements allow children to express their emotions before they can express them verbally. All questions in a conversation should be answered. two-to-three-word combinations. Findings about the initial mapping of new words. and the communicative function of language in-turn provides the motive for language development. babies interact with objects and interact with people. children view themselves as joining the communicative world. these conversations are expected to be basic or redundant. This theory states that children acquire language because they want to communicate with others. -‘s 23-26 Third-person singular: -s.[40] Children’s use of non-verbal communicative gestures foretells future language development. usage-based theory (Tomasello). oral and written (or visual) modes. social interactionist theory. [50] Between 9–12 months of age. discourse competence (knowledge required to combine forms and meanings). connectionist theory. there is considerable disagreement among theorists about the extent to which children's early meanings and expressive words arise. [55] Another is the multi- route model in which it is argued that context-bound words and referential words follow different routes. 93-265 utterances per hour 25-27 Regular past: -ed.[58] Social interactionist theories define language as a social phenomenon. The use of . or to point to provide information. etc. and to achieve communication competence. This gesture includes communicative pointing where an infant points to request something.[50] Younger children depend on gestures for a direct statement of their message. They include the generativist theory. naturalistic research on language development has indicated that preschoolers' vocabularies are strongly associated with the number of words addressed to them by adults. jerky movements of the body to show excitement or distress. 896 to 1 507-word vocabulary.[58] Usage-based theories define language as a set of formulas that emerge from the child’s learning abilities in correspondence with its social cognitive interpretation and understanding of the speakers’ intended meanings. sociolinguistic competence (appropriateness of meanings and grammatical forms in different social contexts).as well as teaching them to recognize the other speaker’s emotions. Jean Piaget uses the term “acted conversations” to explain a child’s style of communication that rely more heavily on gestures and body movements. Auxiliary “be”: -‘m. “the general hypothesis [is that] access to social interaction is a prerequisite to normal language acquisition”. in theory. which changes the infant from an unsociable to socially engaging creature. Articles: a/the.[58] Connectionist theories is a pattern-learning procedure and defines language as a system composed of smaller subsystems or patterns of sound or meaning.[60] Communicative language is nonverbal and/or verbal. and behaviorist theory (Skinner). modal and verb: can/will. be followed. [57] There is no single accepted theory of language acquisition. the first being mapped onto event representations and the latter onto mental representations.8-18 First words 13-15 Expressive jargon.[60] Principles of conversation include two or more people focusing on one topic.[59] The attainment of communicative competence is an essential part of actual communication. and strategic competence (knowledge of verbal and nonverbal communication strategies).[40] This joint attention result in changes to their social cognitive skills between the ages of 9 and 15 months as their time is spent increasingly with others. This developmental change is the change from primary intersubjectivity(capacity to share oneself with others) to secondary intersubjectivity (capacity to share one’s experience). parental input has a critical role but the children ultimately rely on cognitive processing to establish subsequent use of words. [50] This develops to more rhythmic movements of the entire body at 3 to 5 months to demonstrate the child’s anger or delight. they look where another person is looking. [56] However. Plural: -s 23-24 Irregular past: went. [40] Around 12 months of age a communicative use of gesture is used. the ability to decontextualize words.[58] Behaviorist theories define language as the establishment of positive reinforcement. Instead. using grammatical information from the structure of sentences. In this model. rather than words. Generativist theories refer to Universal Grammar being innate where language experience activates innate knowledge. [6] One hypothesis is known as the syntactic bootstrapping hypothesis which refers to the child's ability to infer meaning from cues. this theory is heavily based on social-cognitive abilities that drive the language acquisition process. In the case of young. and theories of development. As they begin to acquire more language. but is now regarded a theory of historical interest. [61] Language development is viewed as a motive to communication. 1 500 to 1 700 words per hour [54] Theories of language development[edit] Although the role of adult discourse is important in facilitating the child's learning. comments should be understood or acknowledged and any form of direction should. undeveloped children.). intonational sentences 13-19 10-word vocabulary 14-24 50-word vocabulary 13-27 Single-word stage and a few sentences. 28 to 436-word vocabulary. and refine meaning of words are diverse. The role of a guardians during developing stages is to convey that conversation is meant to have a purpose. there are current theories that help to explain theories of language. The child’s nonverbal communication of how they’re feeling is seen in babies 0 to 3 months who use wild. These four components of communication competence include: grammatical competence (vocabulary knowledge.

Mechanics of verbal interaction include taking turns.[63] They can be broadly grouped under two headings. the correlation is not flawless. symptoms of dyslexia may include. [40] Language acquisition and development contribute to the verbal form of communication. Most cases are solved on their own or with a little extra attribution from the family. Autism is recognized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders. When using an alphabet writing system this involves in having the ability to separate out the sounds in words and be able to match them with letter and groups of letters. being limited to no verbal speech. communication and social skills that present in early childhood. Earlyreading skills rely heavily on word recognition. Even the most minimum hearing impairment or auditory processing deficit can considerably affect language development. the development of communicative competence and the development of language are positively correlated with one another. echolalia or repeating words out of context. the more the severe the impairment. deaf children that are born to families who use sign language develop infant babble and use a fully expressive sign language at the same pace as hearing children. such as the mechanics of verbal interaction. the competence of verbal communication through language is achieved through the attainability of syntax or grammar.[58] Ordinarily. malnutrition. Language delay is usually more rigorous than other developmental delays in intellectually disabled children. Another function of communication through language is pragmatic development. Developmental Dyslexia is a developmental reading disorder that occurs when the brain does not properly recognize and process the graphic symbols chosen by society to represent the sounds of speech. Neurological causes[edit] Language delay can be caused by a substantial amount of underlying disorders. Another circumstance could be a child that is in a daycare that provides few adults to be able to administer individual attention. and to build upon the child’s contributions. developmental delay in other areas. and may not be receiving the parent’s full attention. poor housing. [58] Hence. a child’s language ability progresses and conversational skills. or emotional stress. hearing loss. speech. Intellectual disability takes part for more than 50 percent of language delays. [58] Within the first two years of life.developmental verbal dyspraxia. and that words are used to connect the understanding of communicative intentions of the speaker who speaks a new word. Perhaps the most obvious component would be a child that suffers from psychosocial deprivation such as poverty. Essentially. children also gain knowledge about the participation in conversations and relating to past experiences/events (discourse knowledge). neglect. or even an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). the child is having their full attention on other skills. including delayed auditory comprehension and use of gestures. children view words as a means of social construction. Pre-natal environment Factors related to mothers during pregnancy  Nutritional deficiencies  Diabetic mother  Exposure to radiation  Infection with German measles  Smoking  Use of drugs . repairing miscommunication. Early diagnosis and treatment of autism can significantly help the child improve their speech skills. Risk factors[edit] Child development can be negatively influenced by a number of risk factors. According to this.Speech/language delay is three to four times more common in boys than in girls.[58] however. A child who can not hear or process speech in a clear and consistent manner will have a language delay.[58] When children acquire language and learn to use language for communicative functions (pragmatics). Simple speech delays are usually temporary. asymmetrical conversation between adult and child modulate to an equal temperament of conversation.[62] Pragmatic development includes the child’s intentions of communication before he/she knows how to express these intentions. and how to use language appropriately in congruence with their social situation or social group (sociolinguistic knowledge). reading to. this may result difficulty in understanding sentences. the more serious the language delay. such as a speech therapist. and difficulty in rhyming. initiating topics. Intellectual disability accounts to global language delay. Autism and speech delay are usually correlated.  Hereditary  Environmental factors 1. Children with dyslexia may encounter problems in rhyming and separating sounds that compose words. and it is usually the first obvious symptom of intellectual disability. Nevertheless. distinguished by problems with language. and responding to lengthen or sustain dialogue. For the most part. problems responding to verbal instruction and may ignore others who speak directly.non-verbal communication in the form of gestures indicate the child’s interest in communication development. inadequate linguistic stimulation. They have confusion in mistaking letters such as "b" and "d". In accordance to the child’s developing conversational skills. and throughout the first few years of life both language and communicative functions develop. These abilities are essential in learning to read. such as intellectual disability. Individual differences[edit] Delays in language is the most frequent type of developmental delay. and the meanings they choose to convey that are soon revealed through the verbalization of language. and communicating with their baby. Some children will also display behavioral problems due to their frustration of not being able to express what they want or need. develop. Problems with verbal language are the most common signs seen in autism. Some common autistic syndromes are the following. many of which have been studied in developing countries. The child may have a twin or a sibling in which their age are relatively close. rather than on language. parents will have to seek professional help. such as walking perfectly. difficulty in determining the meaning of a simple sentence. are the words used for functional meaning. [58] This instigation of speech has been termed pragmatic bootstrapping. This shift in balance of conversation suggests a narrative discourse development in communication. It is important to take into considerations that sometimes delays can be a warning sign of more serious conditions that could include auditory processing disorders. [58] Conversation is asymmetrical when a child interacts with an adult because the adult is the one to create structure in the conversation. Impaired hearing is one of the most common causes of language delay. learning to recognize written words. Children originate with a linguistic system where words they learn. In certain circumstances. According to demographics 1 out of 5 children will learn to talk or use words later than other children their age. Because they have trouble in connecting sounds of language to the letter of words. It’s the parent’s duty to encourage their baby to talk to them with gestures or sounds and for them to spend a great amount of time playing with. Environmental causes[edit] There are many environmental causes that are linked to language delays and they include situations such as.

with girls having a higher score.[96][97] . along with iodine and zinc. Post-Natal Environment  External environment  Socio-economic status of the family  Child’s nutrition  Climate and season  Child’s ordinal position in the family  Number of siblings in the family  Family structure (single parent or extended family etc. there are also studies showing no effect of cocaine use on motor development.5 points compared to healthy individual. depressed mothers fail to make changes to their vocal behaviour.[85][86] As is the case for cognitive and physical development. for example. the study indicates that maternal depression combined with a poor home environment is more likely to have an effect on cognitive development. has been associated with subsequent dysregulation of emotion and aggression by ages 4-7 years. with exposed children achieving lower scores on measures of psychomotor and mental development. and has an important impact on young children’s weight and height.[95] Zinc deficiency has also been shown to have a negative impact on childhood growth and development.[76] Maternal cocaine abuse[edit] Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure Research has provided conflicting evidence regarding the impact of maternal substance abuse during and after pregnancy on children’s development.4 points lower on an Intelligence Quotient IQ test than those with healthy mothers.[64][65][66] Postnatal depression[edit] Main article: Postpartum depression Although there are a large number of studies contemplating the effect of maternal depression and postnatal depression of various areas of infant development.[89] Nutrients[edit] The impact of low iron levels on cognitive development and IQ is a subject still to reach consensus. [83][84] Motor development can be negatively impacted by maternal cocaine abuse. compared to those interacting with healthy mothers. Children suffering malnutrition in Columbia weighed less than those living in upper class conditions at the age of 36 months (11. maternal depression and maternal substance abuse are three of these factors which have received particular attention by researchers. however it found a gender difference in that boys are more susceptible to cognitive developmental issues when their mothers suffer depression. There are numerous studies indicating a negative impact on development.[77][78] On the other hand.[72] When communicating with their child. they are yet to come to consensus regarding the true effects. 94 cm in well-nourished children [64] Malnutrition has been indicated as a negative influence on childhood Intelligence Quotient IQ. which covers a range of developmental areas including cognitive. Infants with chronically depressed mothers showed significantly lower scores on the motor and mental scales within the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. [93] Iodine is required for the generation of thyroid hormones necessary for brain development.[74] Recent studies have begun to identify that other forms of psychopathology that may or may not be co-morbidly occurring with maternal depression can independently influence infants' and toddlers' subsequent social-emotional development through effects on regulatory processes within the child-parent attachment. motor and social development.[67] Furthermore.[68] The study reveals a significant difference on cognitive development between genders. and a number of studies indicate no effect of maternal cocaine use on their child’s cognitive development.[75] Maternal interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[79][80] Maternal cocaine use may also affect the child’s cognitive development. A further longitudinal study spanning 7 years again indicate no effect of maternal depression on cognitive development as a whole. A study of 18 month olds whose mothers suffered depressive symptoms while they were 6 weeks and/or 6 months old indicated that maternal depression had no effect on the child’s cognitive development at 18 months.[87][88] Although it is now suggested that this effect is nullified when parental IQ is considered. when infants interact with depressed mothers they show signs of stress.[70] It has been suggested that interactions between depressed mothers and their children may have an impact on social and cognitive abilities in later life. [81][82] However. many more factors have been considered.[66] Children exposed to cocaine weigh less than those not exposed at numerous ages ranging from 6 to 30 months. two more recent studies found no significant differences between those exposed to cocaine and those who were not in either measure. again at 36 months (85. and tend use unstructured vocal behaviours. however. [90] Some evidence suggests that well- nourished children with lower levels of iron and folate (although not at such a level to be considered deficient) have a lower IQ than those with higher levels of iron and folate.)  Internal environment  Child’s intelligence  Hormonal influences  Emotions Malnutrition. again there is conflicting evidence. although this difference is much lower in girls. for example looking away.[77] Furthermore studies indicate that the head circumference of children exposed to cocaine is lower than those unexposed. similarly. anaemic children perform worse on cognitive measures than non-anaemic children. However.[92] These nutrients have been strongly implicated in brain development. and make more use of avoidance behaviours. [71] Maternal depression has been shown to influence the mothers’ interaction with her child. where as long term depression could cause more serious problems.88 kg compared to 14 kg).[73] Furthermore. however this pattern is found regardless of the child’s mother’s history of depression. such as increased pulse and raised cortisol levels. the authors conclude that it may be that short term depression has no effect.[65][67] A similar effect has been found at 11 years: male children of depressed mothers score an average of 19. [68] contrasting with many older studies.[91] Furthermore.  Factors related to fetus  Mal-position in uterus  Faulty placental implantation 2. [69] 3 month olds with depressed mothers show significantly lower scores on the Griffiths Mental Development Scale.[77][80] Malnutrition[edit] Malnutrition is a large problem in developing nations. malnourished children were shorter than well-nourished children. and equally there are many proclaiming no effect of depression on development. [65] This thread is continued in a study of children up to 2 years old. implying that this difference is genetic.[71] The impact of mother-infant interaction at 2 months has been shown to affect the child’s cognitive performance at 5 years.[94] Iodine deficiency may reduce IQ by an average of 13.3 cm in malnourished children.

reduction of disparities. and protection against global threats that disregard national borders. Harboring of this parasite could adverse several health implications in children affecting childhood development and morbidity.000 lives in Egypt in 1947 and 1948 helped spur the international community to action. and treatment. A cholera epidemic that took 20. Childhood obesity is caused by a variety of factors. intestinal parasitism being one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the developed world.[100] Parental educational attainment is the most significant socioeconomic factor in predicting the child’s cognitive abilities. global health is about worldwide health improvement.[101]Child blood levels of lead increase as income decreases. Children in families who experience persistent financial hardships and poverty have significantly impaired cognitive abilities compared to those in families who do not face this issue. [5] The predominant agency associated with global health (and international health) is the World Health Organization (WHO). maternal occupation is associated with better cognitive achievement.[111] Manganese poisoning due to levels in drinking water is also associated with a reduced IQ of 6.[6] International health employs several perspectives that focus on the determinants and distribution of health in international contexts:  Medicine describes the pathology of diseases and promotes prevention.[113] and chlorpyrifos[114] has also been linked to reduced IQ score.[3] Thus.[109] In particular.[106] A further factor in a child’s educational attainment involves the school environment. Important steps were taken towards global cooperation in health with the formation of the United Nations (UN) and the World Bank Group in 1945. [112] Prenatal exposure to variouspesticides including organophosphates. with the last naturally occurring case recorded in 1977.[110] Poisoning[edit] High levels of lead in the blood is associated with attention deficits.[98] Current investigations into the role of socioeconomic factors on child development repeatedly show that continual poverty is more harmful on Intelligence Quotient IQ. and law can help understand the determinants of health in societies. more specifically teacher expectations and attitudes. the member states of the newly formed United Nations gathered to create the World Health Organization.  Economics emphasizes the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches for the optimal allocation of health resources. The microorganisms responsible for malaria and tuberculosis were identified in 1880 and 1882.2 points between the highest and lowest level of poisoning.[116][117] Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with learning deficits in childhood. is related to lower IQ. Reducing the prevalence of the parasite can be a benefit in child growth. and the World Bank.[105] Poverty-stricken children are subjected to fewer stimulating recreational activities. diagnosis. children coming from households featuring continual or temporary poverty still perform lower than children in middle-class families.[99] and cognitive abilities[100] than short-lived poverty. The 20th century saw the development of preventive and curative treatments for many diseases. research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide". and as such. [113] Childhood obesity[edit] A major problem in childhood is obesity. perceptual reasoning and processing speed. educational attainment and occupation.[2] Problems that transcend national borders or have a global political and economic impact are often emphasized. anthropology.[1] it has been defined as "the area of study.  Other social sciences such as sociology.  Demography provides data for policy decisions. [8] The WHO published its Model List of Essential Medicines. verbal comprehension.[100] Low income poverty can cause a number of further issues shown to effect child development. In America. including spousal abuse between the parents and sexual abuse. cultural studies.[7] The Broad Street cholera outbreak of 1854 was central to the development of modern epidemiology.[99] That being said."[115] Other factors[edit] Cognitive development is related to childhood exposure to violence and trauma. which reflected the major challenges facing human development globally. and are unable to access a tutor to help with problematic academic areas.[107] Parasites[edit] Diarrhea caused by the parasitic disease Giardiasis is associated with lower IQ. after World War II. Those whose mothers’ job entails problem-solving are more likely to be given stimulating tasks and games. and are likely to achieve more advanced verbal competency. Both individuals and organizations working in the domain of global health often face many questions regarding ethical and human rights. such as malnutrition and lead poisoning due to lead paint found on the walls of some houses. the number of obese children is rapidly increasing.[89][104] Similarly.[9] At a United Nations Summit in 2000.[107] It has been argued that teachers perceive low-SES children as being less academically able and as such provide them with less attention and reinforcement. Socioeconomic status[edit] Socioeconomic status is measured primarily based on the factors of income. Other important agencies impacting global health include UNICEF. and the 1978 Alma Ata declaration underlined the importance of primary health care. World Food Programme. [103] those with a mother with high IQ are likely to have higher IQs themselves.[111] while arsenic poisoning has a negative effect on verbal and full Intelligence Quotient IQ. The eradication of smallpox.  Epidemiology helps identify risk factors and causes of health problems. History[edit] The 19th century held major discoveries in medicine and public health. development studies. raised hope that other diseases could be eradicated as well.  Public health emphasizes the health of populations. including the BCG vaccine (for tuberculosis) and penicillin in the 1920s. which is defined as the branch of public health focusing on developing nations and foreign aid efforts by industrialized countries. [102] Income poverty is associated with a 6– 13 point reduction in IQ for those earning half of the poverty threshold compared to those earning twice the poverty threshold. Organophosphates have been specifically linked to poorer working memory. [118] Global health is the health of populations in a global context. often missing out on trips to libraries or museums. respectively. [108] Parasitic worms (helminths) are associated with nutritional deficiencies that are known to be a risk to child development. member nations declared eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). to be achieved by 2015. development and educational outcome. The main causes of childhood obesity are "lifestyle issues-too little activity and too many calories.[10] The declaration has been matched by unprecedented global . The United Nations has also played a part with declaration of the Millennium Development Goals. In 1948.[4] Global health is not to be confused with international health. Critical examination of the various causes and justifications of health inequities is necessary for the success of proposed solutions.

[14] Some respiratory infections of global significance include tuberculosis.[13] Morbidity[edit] Main article: Morbidity Morbidity measures include incidence rate.[23] Targets for improving maternal health include increasing the number of deliveries accompanied by skilled birth attendants. The spread of respiratory infections is exacerbated by crowded conditions. Measurements can be made in several ways: by techniques that simulate gambles about preferences for alternative states of health.[19] it can be prevented by a safe and potentially cost-effective vaccine. and flies.[24] 68 low-income countries tracked by the WHO. Dehydration due to diarrhea can be effectively treated through oral rehydration therapy with dramatic reductions in mortality. While hygienic measures alone may be insufficient for the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. morbidity is better expressed as a proportion or a rate.[15] Diarrheal diseases[edit] Diarrhea is the second most common cause of child mortality worldwide. influenza. with surveys or analyses that infer willingness to pay for alternative states of health. Respiratory infections[edit] Infections of the respiratory tract and middle ear are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. prevalence.[20] Maternal health[edit] Maternal health clinic in Afghanistan (source: Merlin) Main articles: Maternal health and Reproductive health Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age in many developing countries: a woman dies from complications from childbirth approximately every minute. malaria. and cumulative incidence. poor maternal conditions are the fourth leading cause of death for women worldwide. with incidence rate referring to the risk of developing a new health condition within a specified period of time. Quality-adjusted life years[edit] Main article: Quality-adjusted life year QALYs combine expected survival with expected quality of life into a single number: if an additional year of healthy life is worth a value of one (year). or through instruments that are based on trading off some or all likely survival time that a medical intervention might provide in order to gain less survival time of higher quality.[12] Infant and child mortality[edit] Main articles: Infant mortality and Child mortality Infant mortality and child mortality for children under age 5 are more specific than DALYs or QALYs in representing the health in the poorest sections of a population. after HIV/AIDS. The DALY for a disease is the sum of the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years lost due to disability for incident cases of the health condition. responsible for 17% of deaths of children under age 5. [21] According to the World Health Organization's 2005 World Health Report. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during a time period. The UN report released on July 2. QALY calculations are based on measurements of the value that individuals place on expected years of survival. disability. though progress on some goals are severely lagging. and are thus especially useful when focusing on health equity.measles. utensils.[17][18] Important nutritional measures include the promotion of breastfeeding and zinc supplementation. although the impact of globalization is increasingly blurring the lines between the two. and poverty is associated with more than a 20-fold increase in the relative burden of lung infections. then a year of less healthy life is worth less than one (year). One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of "healthy" life.and UNICEF-led collaboration Countdown to 2015 are estimated to hold for 97% of worldwide maternal and child deaths. food.[25] HIV/AIDS[edit] Main articles: HIV and AIDS . and mortality by measuring the time lived with disability and the time lost due to premature mortality.investment by donor and recipient countries. Health conditions[edit] The diseases and health conditions targeted by global health initiatives are sometimes grouped under "diseases of poverty" versus "diseases of affluence". hands. and pneumonias caused by pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae.[16] Poor sanitation can increase transmission of bacteria and viruses through water.[22] Most maternal deaths and injuries can be prevented. and tuberculosis. [11] The DALY is a summary measure that combines the impact of illness. and such deaths have been largely eradicated in the developed world. 2012 revealed that several MDG targets have been met ahead of the 2015 timeline.

vitamin A fortification.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted through unprotected sex. harmful use of alcohol. dietary diversification. and depression". dowry-related violence. including chronic pain. and undernutrition contributes to about one third of child deaths around the world. are common worldwide and can compromise intellectual potential. [43] Obesity. the Programa de Accessibilidad a los Medicamentos ("Program for Access to Medicines"). and treatments of severe acute malnutrition. About 16% of the global burden of disease.[42] Noting that non-communicable diseases are the cause of some 35 million deaths each year. rape. vaccinations.[29] Deficiencies of micronutrient. which refers to poor proportion of food intake and can thus refer to obesity. and adult productivity. and diarrhea). the rate of type 2 diabetes.[46] Many populations face an "outcome gap". Violence against women[edit] Main article: Domestic violence Violence against women has been defined as: "physical. [41] In September 2011. while having access to medicines at a lower price than international reference prices. including cardiovascular conditions. has led to a growing number of people diagnosed with chronic noncommunicable diseases. and respiratory disease.and lowest-priced medicines were 22. salt iodization. it is estimated that one in every five women faces some form of violence during her lifetime. Treatments were generally unaffordable. Antiretroviral drugs prolong life and delay the onset of AIDS by minimizing the amount of HIV in the body. violence may increase "women’s long-term risk of a number of other health problems. sexual abuse of children. blood transfusions. a subset of the public sector. in some cases leading to serious injury or even death. drug and alcohol abuse. growth. associated with obesity. had the lowest average availability (25%) compared to the private sector (35%).[30][31][32][33][34][35] Interventions to prevent malnutrition include micronutrient supplementation. female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women. and from mother to child during birth or lactation. such as vitamin A. hygienic measures to reduce spread of infections. which refers to the gap between members of a population who have access to medical treatment versus those who do not. development."[36] In addition to causing injury. as is prompt artemisin-based combination therapy. Malaria[edit] Main article: Malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the parasites of the genus Plasmodium.[48] The public sector in Pakistan. chills. In the private sector. the international community is being increasingly called to take measures for the prevention and control of chronic diseases and mitigate their impacts on the world population. there are approximately 500 million cases of malaria worldwide.[39] Equality of women has been addressed in the Millennium development goals. has a chronic shortage of and lack of access to basic medicines. including battering. in educational institutions and elsewhere. stroke. In low- income countries. and the promotion ofbreastfeeding. supported by intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy. iodine. who are usually the primary caregivers.[40] Increases in refugee urbanization. physical disability. severity.)[28] Undernutrition impairs the immune system.[47] In Guatemala. Chronic disease[edit] Main article: Non-communicable disease Approximately 80% of deaths linked to non-communicable diseases occur in developing countries. For example. is associated with numerous chronic diseases. Nutrition[edit] In 2010. and zinc. especially on women. about 104 million children were underweight.[37] Although statistics can be difficult to obtain as many cases go unreported. leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and eventually. fortification of basic grocery foods. highest. the United Nations is hosting its first General Assembly Special Summit on the issue of non-communicable diseases. sexual harassment and intimidation at work. The infection damages the immune system. Countries facing outcome gaps lack sustainable infrastructure.[24][44][45] The Global Health Council suggests a list of 32 treatments and health interventions that could potentially save several million lives each year. iron. unclean needles. the number of individuals with diabetes is expected to increase from 84 million to 228 million by 2030.7 and 10. [43] Health interventions[edit] See also: Health human resources Global interventions for improved child health and survival include the promotion of breastfeeding.[49] . has been on the rise in countries previously plagued by hunger. HIV is primarily spread through sexual intercourse.7 times more expensive than international reference prices respectively. past exposure to child maltreatment or witnessing violence between parents. Each year. headaches. death. zinc supplementation. Symptoms may include fever.[26] The use of insecticide-treated bednets is a cost-effective way to reduce deaths from malaria. increasing the frequency. Infection can further contribute to malnutrition. has been accounted for by obesity. and duration of infections (including measles. and nausea. Globally.[27] (Undernutrition is not to be confused withmalnutrition. most commonly among children and pregnant women in developing countries. certain cancers. attitudes accepting of violence and gender inequality. a preventable condition. sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family and in the general community. pneumonia. costing as much as 15 days wages for a course of the antibioticceftriaxone. non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation. [38] Risk factors for being a perpetrator include low education. measured as DALYs. hygiene interventions such as hand-washing. forced prostitution and violence perpetrated or condoned by the state. trafficking in women.

Follow these Four Golden Rules. midwives. But you have to make sure your child is getting the RIGHT TYPES and RIGHT AMOUNT at the RIGHT TIME. Too much ‘fast’ sugar means a blood sugar high and hyperactivity. and prevent highs and lows. irritatable and find it hard to concentrate. as they are often disproportionately allocated to alleviating a single disease. especially in sub-Saharan Africa.[50] In its 2006 World Health Report. The problem lies in the way these funds are allocated. mackerel ENSURE ESSENTIAL FATS Why is a fat head a smart head? .g. Balanced blood sugar Ensure essential fats Vitamins and minerals Avoid anti-nutrients and eliminate allergies BALANCED BLOOD SUGAR Why is balance so important? Sugar is your brain's super fuel. Too much sugar and your child may be hyperactive and find it hard to concentrate. Too little and they may feel tired. Oats Brown rice Rye bread How to balance blood sugar? Whole wheat pasta Brown bread Go for foods with slow releasing sugars Vegetables (Excluding potatoes and parsnips) Eat 3 meals and 2 snacks a day This will help to maintain your blood sugar levels. but that more funds do not always translate into positive outcomes. nurses.Journalist Laurie Garrett argues that the field of global health is not plagued by a lack of funds. Toast with egg Toast with fish e. Eating little and often helps keep your child’s energy and concentration even. The excess sugar in the blood gets dumped into storage as abdominal fat. How to build a healthy brain? Here we will look at how to grow healthy brains vital for a smart and happy kid. the WHO estimated a shortage of almost 4. Combine protein with carbohydrate Cereal with seeds/yoghurt/milk Fruit with yoghurt/seeds Protein slows down the absorption of sugars found in carbohydrates. and support workers worldwide.3 million doctors.

How do I avoid anti-nutrients? Avoid or minimise:  Refined sugar: These are essentially carbohydrates robbed of essential nutrients. Some children develop an allergy or intolerance against particular foods. and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) which is less than 1000 g (2 pounds 3 ounces). Mackerel Flaxseeds Sunflower seeds Herring Pumpkin seeds Sesame seeds Source of essential fats: Sardines Chia seeds Walnuts Anchovies Omega 3 rich eggs Tuna steak Salmon Eat cold-water carnivorous fish 2 or 3 times a week This includes sardines.yorktest. vegetables and wholefoods and can be supplemented for optimum brain performance. They are key to building and rebuilding the brain.500 g (5 pounds 8 ounces) regardless of gestational age.9 pounds 4 ounces). not refined foods Give them a chewable multi-vitamin and mineral supplements.lternatively you could try eliminating a food group you think your child is allergic to. Food intolerances can be detected by a pin prick blood test (see www.[1] Subcategories include very low birth weight (VLBW) which is less than 1500 g (3 pounds 5 ounces). They mainly come from fruit.4200 g (5 pounds 8 ounces . How do I give my child all the essential fats they need? Eat plenty of seeds and nuts You can grind and sprinkle them on cereal. If your child is having 3 portions of oily fish and a daily portion of seeds they should be getting a good level to help their brains develop and boost IQ. How do I ensure that my child is having enough? Make sure that they eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day Choose wholefoods.  Chemical food additives: Especially colourings. Choose fish oil and starflower or evening primrose oil to supplement fats Avoid deep fried. ALow birth weight (LBW) is defined as a birth weight of a liveborn infant of less than 2. herring. kipper or wild/organic salmon. it is no wonder deficiencies in specific kinds of fats can have huge repercussions on intelligence and behaviour. mackerel.  Damaged fats: These come from fried foods and hydrogenated or speak to your GP.[2] Normal Weight at term delivery is 2500 g . Studies giving children supplements show improved IQ. browned and processed foods VITAMINS AND MINERALS Why does your child need vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are the intelligent nutrients that keep the brain in tune. soups and salads. AVOID ANTI-NUTRIENTS & ELIMINATE FOOD ALLERGENS Which foods rob your child's brain of nutrients? Anti-nutrients are substances that knock out essential brain-friendly nutrients. Click here to find out why. and re assessing they're mood and behaviour weekly. 60% of a dried brain weight is fat. .

and intrauterine inflammation/infection. also called environmental tobacco exposure (ETS). and other types of air pollutions. Problems with the placenta can prevent it from providing adequate oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. Environmental factors[edit] While active maternal tobacco smoking has well established adverse perinatal outcomes such as LBW.[1] . elevated blood lead levels in pregnant women. In general. toxoplasmosis. an association does not establish causality.Causes[edit] LBW is either caused by preterm birth (that is. commonly defined as younger than 37 weeks of gestation) or the infant being small for gestational age(that is. maternal sickness during pregnancy. and chronic diseases later in life. reduced brain volume in children is also tied to low birth-weight. ill health. and an unhygienic home environment. risk factors in the mother that may contribute to low birth weight include young ages. without an underlying pathological cause. that mothers who smoke during pregnancy are twice as likely to give birth to low-birth weight infants. Approximately 49. approximately 6.300 newborns (1.500 g).[8] A correlation between maternal exposure to CO and low birth weight has been reported that the effect on birth weight of increased ambient CO was as large as the effect of the mother smoking a pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy.1% (231. Aircraft noise exposure caused adverse effects on fetal growth leading to low birth weight and preterm infants. can be secondary to many possible factors.500 grams (VLBW). poor maternal nutritional status. multiple pregnancies. decidual bleeding. reporting to the UN. funded by state and private donors. With 10 ug/dL as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's “level of concern”. however. lack of prenatal care. drug addiction. risk for LBW) were correlated with maternal exposure to air pollution combustion emissions in Eastern Europe and North America. such as rubella. premature birth. previous LBW infants.[5][6] Regarding environmental toxins in pregnancy. this cut-off value really needs to arise more attentions and implementations in the future. uterine overdistension. a low gestational age at birth. or it can be secondary to intrauterine growth restriction.g.[17][18] Epidemiology[edit] A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that of the 3. which.[3] The implementation of the program will be led by the World Health Organisation.[19] The Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health is a program of the United Nations (UN) directed at improving women's and children's health in the developing world. exposure of pregnant women to airplane noise was found to be associated with low birth weight. Because a majority of pregnant women in developing countries.[15][16] According to an analysis by University of Oregon. cytomegalovirus. demonstrated that increased risks of infants with LBW were more likely to be expected in ETS- exposed mothers. the program was valued at $US40 billion over a five-year period. [12][13] Effects[edit] LBW is closely associated with fetal and Perinatal mortality and Morbidity.. [14] Low birth weight constitutes as sixty to eighty percent of the infant mortality rate in developing countries. babies with congenital anomalies or chromosomal abnormalities are often associated with LBW.[2] The object of the program is to save the lives of 16 million people during the period of the program. For example. Environmental risk factors include smoking.8 million births that occurred in the United States in 2011. hard work and poor health care in pregnancy.[4] From a practical point a number of factors have been identified that are associated with preterm birth. a slow prenatal growth rate). and LBW in the offspring.[3] Preterm birth[edit] Further information: Preterm birth Four different pathways have been identified that can result in preterm birth and have considerable evidence: precocious fetal endocrine activation. Being small for gestational age[edit] Further information: Small for gestational age Being small for gestational age can be constitutional.[10] Mercury is a known toxic heavy metal that can harm fetal growth and health.3%) weighed less than 1. The program was announced by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in September 2010. Review on the effects of passive maternal smoking. may also affect the baby's weight. and there has been evidence showing that exposure to mercury (via consumption of large oily fish) during pregnancy may be related to higher risks of LBW in the offspring. At the population level. On an individual basis. Infections during pregnancy that affect the fetus. even those well below 10 ug/dL can cause miscarriage. where rate of LBW is high. At the time of the announcement. and syphilis. that is.[9] It has been revealed that adverse reproductive effects (e. are heavily exposed to indoor air pollution. poor nutrition. and insufficient prenatal care.[11] It was revealed that. lead exposure. stemming from other medical complications such as preterm birth. alcohol abuse. heart disease orhypertension. in turn.[1] with the UN hoping for more pledges to follow. increased relative risk translates into substantial population attributable risk of 21% of LBW. inhibited growth and cognitive development. or a combination of both. the proportion of babies with a LBW is an indicator of a multifaceted public-health problem that includes long-term maternal malnutrition.[7] The combustion products of solid fuel in developing countries can cause many adverse health issues in people.900) were diagnosed with low birth weight (<2. LBW is an important predictor of newborn health and survival and is associated with higher risk of infant and childhood mortality. Infant mortality due to low birth weight is usually directly causal.

eggs. vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin dietary and food supplements and additives. vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part ofprosthetic groups: For example. tree (doses > nuts 2g/day)[11] and .methylcobalamin anemia[15] conclusively established]. They may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes. mushrooms. For example. For example. stomatitis asparagus Meat. brown rice. such as "vitamin A".[3] Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present. fish. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title. but not for most other animal organisms. orange.g. [6] Vitamin generic Vitamerchemical name(s) Overdose Solubility Deficiency disease Food sources descriptor (list not complete) disease name Night Liver. such as vitamin D. In this role. spinach. and four known carotenoids.[4]According to the UN. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body. retinal. muscle Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water vegetables. including beta carotene andKeratomalacia[8] soya milk. such as dietary minerals. potatoes. the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. Korsakoff syndrome relaxation with eggs large doses. ripe yellow fruits. vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). including the extent to which its funding was genuinely new. since the middle of the 20th century. around $8. therefore. and changes in diet (which. oatmeal.[4] The largest number of vitamins. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by otherwise healthy people. detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. and are required less often to maintain the health of the organism. for example. bananas. formyl. retinol.[1] An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannotsynthesize the compound in sufficient quantities.[2] International aid group Oxfam expressed doubts about the program. essential fatty acids.[10] Acne-like rash [causality is Cyanocobalamin. niacinamide Water Pellagra Liver damage vegetables. Ariboflavinosis.[5] Until the mid-1930s. Wernicke. biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. folic acid may carry methyl. Beriberi. which includes the compounds retinal. each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin.Angular popcorn. Vitamin A four carotenoids Fat tosis. green beans. Retinol. List of vitamins[edit] Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions.[2] By convention.hydroxycobala Megaloblastic Vitamin B12 Water not Meat and other animal products min. squash.. the term vitamin includes neither other essential nutrients. sis A pumpkin. function as precursors for enzyme cofactors. most have multiple functions. oressential amino acids (which are needed in greater amounts than vitamins) nor the great number of other nutrients that promote health. thus. However. fish. or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). liver.The aid-based program was accompanied by pledges from some developing nations (including Tanzania and Rwanda) to increase their own domestic spending on health care. Glos Dairy products. the B complexvitamins. Others function as antioxidants (e. Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water sitis. Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity. Some. milk Drowsiness or Pork. and blindness. as well. have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism. when the first commercial yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold. and methylene groups in the cell. and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another.[1] A vitamin (US /ˈvaɪtəmɪn/ and UK /ˈvɪtəmɪn/) is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts.Hyperkera Hypervitamino leafy vegetables. could occur during a particular growing season) usually greatly altered the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. vitamins were obtained solely through food intake. and. and must be obtained through the diet. Thus. not their structure. that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. carrots.6 million of the program's funding came from what it described as "low- income countries". Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function. ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans. the other vitamin functions are equally important. many Vitamin B3 Niacin.

[18] Increases coagulation in Leafy green vegetables such as Vitamin K phylloquinone. Vitamin generic Vitamerchemical name(s) Overdose Solubility Deficiency disease Food sources descriptor (list not complete) disease name other problems Diarrhea. Vitamin B7 Biotin Water Dermatitis.Ergocalcifer Rickets andOsteoma Hypervitamino Vitamin D Fat Fish. mushrooms ol (D2) lacia sis D Deficiency is very Increased rare. Teaching a child to distinguish right from wrong and to behave accordingly is a goal of parenting. eggs.[17] study. bread. theologians. . liver B12 deficiency. liver.menaquinones Fat Bleeding diathesis patients spinach. as neural tube defects Vitamin C Many fruits and vegetables. Moral development is a complex issue that—since the beginning of human civilization—has been a topic of discussion among some of the world's most distinguished psychologists. peanuts. seen in one nuts and seeds mild hemolytic large anemia in newborn randomized infants. rules. such other effects. broccoli. damage bananas (doses > 100 mg/day) Raw egg yolk. liver. nerve Meat. enteritis leafy green vegetables Megaloblastic anemiaand May mask Deficiency during symptoms of pregnancy is Leafy vegetables. Vitamin B6 Water al neuropathy. possibly Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water Paresthesia Meat. pasta.tocotrienols Fat females. and culture theorists.[13] Impairment of propriocepti Pyridoxine. vegetables. avocados nausea and heartburn.pyridoxamine.[19] Definition Moral development is the process throught which children develop proper attitudes and behaviors toward other people in society. folinic acid Water vitamin associated with birth cereal. liver taking warfarin . Vitamin E Tocopherols. tree nuts. Description Moral development is a concern for every parent. defects.pyridox Anemia[14] peripheral on. and laws. Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water Scurvy megadosage liver Cholecalciferol (D3). egg yolks. based on social and cultural norms. It was not studied scientifically until the late 1950s. Vitamin B9 Folic acid.sterility in males congestive andabortions in heart failure Many fruits and vegetables.

determining whether they are fair or not. or behave in accordance with their concept of self. drafted in 1958. or Eastern moral understandings. Interpersonal Conformity. Kohlberg believed that individuals made progress by mastering each stage. for example. have been criticized for elevating Western. They understand the concepts of trust. Kohlberg's six stages of moral development. They are just beginning to understand that others have their own needs and drives. the payoff is in the knowledge that behaving correctly is in the child's own best interest. This is considered equitable justice. "I'll do this. not majority rule. Stage two is the Individual. POST-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Some teenagers and adults move beyond conventional morality and enter morality based on reason. This is still moral behavior based on authority. Piaget called this "moral realism with objective responsibility. intellectual (upper class) understandings of morality. Consensus democracy was rule by agreement of the group. the preconventional level. if one child hits another. Children and adults feel compelled to do their duty and show respect for authority. Children in this level are concerned about being accepted by others and living up to their expectations. Because women's experiences in the world differ from men's in every culture. mirrors Piaget's early model. In other words. Instrumentation. He also felt that the only way to encourage growth through these stages was by discussion of moral dilemmas and by participation in consensus democracy within small groups. Kohlberg recognized this last stage but found so few people who lived by this concept of moral behavior that he could not study it in detail. The child will follow rules if there is a known benefit to him or her. For example. the injured child will hit back. This stage begins around age 10 but lasts well into adulthood. He reasoned that there was a process by which children conform to society's norms of what is right and wrong. They obey laws and social rules that fall in line with these universal principles. the individual enters into a contract with fellow human beings to treat them fairly and kindly and to respect authority when it is equally moral and deserved. one at a time.Piaget's theory of moral reasoning Jean Piaget. perhaps in significant ways. A person could not skip stages. extended Piaget's work in cognitive reasoning into adolescence and adulthood. Children will also make deals with each other and even adults. avoid blame. they understand that they cannot make up new rules to a game. loyalty. and apply these rules and their modifications to situations requiring negotiation. but reflects a shift from the social group to society at large. but not others they deem as aberrant. Here. This varies from culture to culture and subgroup to subgroup. and they fear punishment if they do not follow rules. Children and adults at this stage abide by the rules of the society in which they live. This level has two stages and applies to children up to 10 years of age. CONVENTIONAL LEVEL This level broadens the scope of human wants and needs. PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL The child at the first and most basic level. children do the right thing because it is good for the family . They also agree to obey laws and social rules of conduct that promote respect for individuals and value the few universal moral values that they recognize. and Exchange stage. and is the stage most adults remain at throughout their lives. the Social Contract and Individual Rights stage. He also believed that children developed moral reasoning quickly and at an early age. while discrediting rural. Stage six is the Principled Conscience or the Universal/Ethical Principles stage. Feminists have pointed out potential sexist elements in moral development theories devised by male researchers using male subjects only (such as Kohlberg's early work). assuring that everyone affected by the rules is treated fairly. They also recognize the sanctity of rules. With that in mind. Older children look at motives behind actions rather than consequences of actions. his six stages of moral development. usually involving equal rights and respect. Kohlberg's theory of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg. Stage one is the Punishment-Obedience stage." Sometimes." It explains why young children are concerned with outcomes rather than intentions. Still. and gratitude. Children obey rules because they are told to do so by an authority figure (parent or teacher). school. peer group. the behavior is governed by moral reciprocity. explored how children developed moral reasoning. individuals examine the validity of society's laws and govern themselves by what they consider to be universal moral principles. He rejected the idea that children learn and internalize the rules and morals of society by being given the rules and forced to adhere to them. They abide by the Golden Rule as it applies to people around them every day. is concerned with avoiding punishment and getting needs met. allowing them to progress from one stage to another. He felt that moral development was a slow process and evolved over time. This would stimulate and broaden the thinking of children and adults. religious. an American psychologist. Morality is acting in accordance to what the social group says is right and moral. Children in this stage are very concerned with what is fair. Piaget found two main differences in how children thought about moral behavior. Correct behavior is governed by the sixth stage. Very young children's thinking is based on how actions affected them or what the results of an action were. Few adults reach this stage. a Swiss psychologist. They are also able to examine rules. or church. Here. and that the process was active rather than passive. Through his research on how children formed their judgments about moral behavior. or Social System and Conscience stage. urban. if you will do that. tribal. Adults here are motivated by individual conscience that transcends cultural. they have to play by what the rule book says or what is commonly known to be the rules. breaking 10 cups is worse than breaking one. Moral behavior and moral decisions are based on the greatest good for the greatest number. team. or social convention rules. young children will say that when trying to reach a forbidden cookie jar. For example. it would stand to reason that women's moral development might differ from men's. Stage four is the Law and Order. he recognized that children learn morality best by having to deal with others in groups. working class. examining the relative values and opinions of the groups with which they interact. These laws and rules become the backbone for all right and wrong actions. Here. Stage three. They receive approval from authority figures or admiration from peers. Individuals in this stage understand that codes of conduct are relative to their social group. is often called the "good boy/good girl" stage. . Carol Gilligan and the morality of care Kohlberg's and Piaget's theories have come under fire. They will agree to behave in a certain way for a payoff. Children at this stage are not able to see someone else's side. Piaget felt that the best moral learning came from these cooperative decision-making and problem-solving events. Children at this stage also mete out justice in an eye-for-an-eye manner or according to Golden Rule logic.

abortion. religious. are taught to students along with the regular academic subjects. these rules transcend individual moral perspectives and become entities in themselves. Self-oriented morality coincided with Kohlberg's pre-conventional morality. are unattractive to many and require precise. popular in the 1920s and 1930s. with their complete denial of free will in moral decision-making. Parents and teachers want to know how to raise moral children. and women base it on turning away someone in need. Like Kohlberg's last stage. sexism. his model is based on a concept of morality based on equity and justice. Here. choices. Psychoanalytic theoryproposes instead that morality develops through humans' conflict between their instinctual drives and the demands of society. among others. Because of this. The differences between these approaches rest on two questions: How moral are infants at birth? and How is moral maturity defined? The contrasting philosophies at the heart of the answers to these questions determine the essential perspective of each moral development theory. making women appear to be inferior morally to men. teen parenthood. however. What constitutes mature morality is a subject of great controversy. Here a larger group's rule supercedes individual rights and interests. and they turn to moral development theorists to find answers. and human rights issues. drug and alcohol abuse. or reasoning. because all morality must therefore be learned from the external environment. This stage was found in all children and some adults in all cultures. which are categorized in a variety of ways. Gilligan's work. prenatal testing techniques that determine birth defects in the womb force parents to make new moral choices about whether to give birth to a child. behavior modification techniques. Briefly. Unfortunately. It was very evident in Middle Eastern cultures where religious authority is the law. Peer-authority morality is moral conformity based on the conventions and rules of a social group. regardless of culture. Movement from the first stage to any of the others was dependent on participation in the family and other social institutions within each culture. pornography. and suicide in Western society has also caused a rise in concern over morality and moral development. Authority-oriented morality again is similar to Kohlberg's Law and Order stage. Movement to the last stage involved exposure to a different moral system that might be in conflict with one's own. Each society develops its own set of norms and standards for acceptable behavior. His research found five moral orientations. leading many to say that morality is entirely culturally conditioned. religious leaders. Those who believe infants are born with no moral sense tend toward social learning or behaviorist theories. Determining the limits of moral behavior becomes increasingly difficult as human capabilities. fairness. however. genetic research and manipulation. drug use. This debate fuels the critiques of many moral development theories. Bronfenbrenner also noted that individuals could slide back into a previous moral orientation when they experienced the breakdown of their familiar social order as in war. or large scale natural disasters that destroy social infrastructures. This moral pluralism forces individuals to examine their own moral reasoning and beliefs. Nevertheless. This moral orientation was culturally defined. racism. doesn't solve the gender question. Gilligan found that women. which places most men in stage five or six. Cognitive development theories did little to change things. Behavior is based on self-interest and motivated by who can help children get what they want or who is hindering that process. Behaviorist theories. the social learning theory approach claims that humans develop morality by learning the rules of acceptable behavior from their external environment. because newer research has found that both males and females often base their moral judgments and behaviors on both justice and care. and responsibilities proliferate with advances in technology and scientific knowledge. Schools are returning to character education programs. and social groups often have their own rules for moral behavior. Many parents and teachers were therefore afraid to discipline their children. People narrow their attention to their own pressing needs and ignore the welfare of the larger society. Cognitive development theories view morality as an outgrowth of cognition. There is debate over whether or not this means that there are no universal truths. base their moral decisions on a culture of caring for other human beings. This often occurs when people work in other countries or cultures and come face to face with different sets of moral conventions. . This applies not only to parents' rules but to teachers.Carol Gilligan deemed Kohlberg's research biased because he only used male subjects to reach his findings. as they focus on reasoning and disregard behavior. euthanasia. famine. Other theories There are several other approaches to the study of moral development. there is little or no agreement as to which virtues are important and what exactly each virtue entails. Definitions of what is or is not moral are in a state of upheaval within individual societies. Controversies rage over the morality of warfare (especially nuclear). whereas personality theories are holistic in their approach. sexuality. gang violence. Men determine immorality based on treating others unfairly. Objectively-oriented morality is akin to Kohlberg's universal principles stage. Others who believe humans are innately aggressive and completely self-oriented are more likely to accept psychoanalytic theories where morality is the learned management of socially destructive internal drives. This would place them at stage three. Duty is the law. social group. regime changes. alternative fertility and childbearing methods. This is evident among teenagers in Western cultures and even among some adults. And those who view humans as holistic beings born with a full range of potentialities will most likely be drawn to personality theories. Those who believe it is the reasoning abilities that separate humans from the rest of creation will find cognitive development theories the most attractive. where certain virtues such as honesty. For example. ecological conservation. and loyalty. who value social interaction more than men. The rise in crime. Bronfenbrenner Urie Bronfenbrenner studied children and schools in different cultures since many ethnic. This moral orientation was found in Asian cultures. Freudian personality theories became more widely known to the Western public in the 1960s and were understood to imply that repression of a child's natural drives would lead to neuroses. an essentially behaviorist approach. or developmental stage. this moral orientation was found in relatively few people in any culture. dedicated. Collective-oriented morality is an extension of the peer-authority stage. and no cross-cultural standards for human behavior. taking into account all the factors that contribute to human development. genocide. the morality of care theory opened up explorations of moral reasoning in many groups and cultures. and government officials. and permissiveness became the rule.

The last stage in adolescence focuses on personalizing religious rituals and drawing closer to a divine being. democratic family and school systems are much more likely to promote the development of internal self-controls and moral growth than are authoritarian or permissive systems. there is some flexibility in moral decision-making. In the Intermediate Stage during pre-adolescence. In the next stage (from two to 10 years). most people will develop a balanced morality to guide their day-to-day interactions with their world. while stealing money from an open. and who is ultimately responsible for the world's woes are shaped by the family and by the religious social group to which each child belongs. Just Community programs have been established in schools. Their concepts also mirror cognitive and moral developmental stages. God is physically powerful and often is portrayed as a superhero. The advantages of this approach are that it promotes self-investigation and awareness and the development of internal moral motivations. Students are also taught that others may have different values systems. right and wrong. In a different context. any one of which may be true in a given situation:  weakness of will (the person is overwhelmed by desire)  weakness of conscience (guilt feelings are not strong enough to overcome temptation)  limited/flexible morality (some latitude allowed in moral behavior while still maintaining a "moral" identity) The Moral Balance model proposes that most humans operate out of a limited or flexible morality. In general. The concept of a divine being is vague. The four major internal motivations for moral behavior as presented by personal (social) goal theorists are: 1) empathy. The purpose of these programs is to guide students to establish or discern their own system of values on which to base their moral decisions. Rather than expecting moral perfection from ourselves or others. even though someone may suffer because of it.Another approach to moral education that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s is known as values clarification or values modification. Exposure to moral questions and the opportunity to practice moral behavior in a supportive community appear to foster deeper moral reasoning and more constructive behavior. God is also thought of as doing supernatural things: having a halo. exempt from social or moral rules). and 3) personal (pure self-interest. Lawrence Kohlberg devised a moral education program in the 1960s based on his cognitive development theory. 2) the belief that people are valuable in and of themselves and therefore should be helped. Overall.. children begin to orient religion concepts to themselves as in the catechism litany. and other institutions with a fair amount of success. and prevents fanaticism. unattended cash register is not. and some of which are other-oriented (altruistic). or performing miracles. This discrepancy between moral judgment (perceiving an act as morally right or wrong) and moral choice (deciding whether to act in the morally right way) can be explained in a number of ways. and 4) self-interest. floating over the world. and moral coercion. welfare. authoritarianism. which are more reliable than external motivations. children perceive God to look like a human being only bigger or living in the sky." Values clarification is generally seen as a valuable component of moral education. In social domain theory. while authoritarian systems instill only fear of punishment. 3) the desire to fulfill moral rules. people set certain limits beyond which they cannot go. Parental concerns When to call the doctor . moral behavior is motivated by the desire to satisfy a variety of personal and social goals. Some adults who are considered highly religious consider God to be an anthropomorphized divine being or may reject the supernatural or mystical religious experience. Teenagers begin to think of God in abstract terms and look at the mystical side of the religious experience. and creation of opportunities for the child to practice moral reasoning and actions. Children embrace religious holidays and rituals during this stage. and that they must be tolerant of those differences. In one context. Children's concepts of divinity. the belief that "anything goes. Actions such as taking coins left in the change-box of a public telephone may be deemed acceptable (though not perfectly moral). This just means that the variation among these stages is great and is determined by the particular religious community in which the individual is involved. which is not an effective deterrent unless there is a real chance of being caught or punishment becomes a reward because it brings attention to the offender. in the earliest stage (up to age two years). God may also be the wish-granter and can fix anything. a person may respond out of empathy and place care for an individual over concern for social rules. Christian children will distinguish between God and Jesus and the disciples or saints. People also show a lack of consistent morality by sometimes choosing to act in a way that they know is not moral. prisons." The concept of a divine being is usually described in anthropomorphic ways for children around six years old. Called the Just Community program. it utilizes age-appropriate or stage-appropriate discussions of moral dilemmas. and the limits on moral behavior are often slippery. If given proper encouragement and the opportunity to practice a coherent inner sense of morality. modeling of moral behavior by adults. while continuing to consider themselves moral people. however. some of which are self-oriented (selfish). According to personal (social) goal theory. The disadvantage is that it encourages moral relativism. True moral behavior involves a number of internal processes that are best developed through warm. justice. Within those limits. the child knows that religious objects and books are to be respected. but incomplete on its own. but the child enjoys the regularity of the religious rituals such as prayer.g. This does not mean that these adults have somehow been arrested in their religious development. caring parenting with clear and consistent expectations. democratic consensus rule-making. that same person might instead insist on following social rules for the good of society. Permissive systems fail to instill any controls. however. They may also rebel against organized religion as they begin to question the world and the rules around them. The anthropomorphized divinity is pictured as being very old and wise. children are considered to be in the pre-religious stage. emphasis on the reinforcement of positive behaviors rather than the punishment of negative ones. rights). In other words. Children in this stage understand the panoply of religious or divine beings within the religious belief system. Many factors are involved in the determination of moral acceptability from situation to situation. At this stage. 2) social- conventional (social rules for the orderly function of society). "Who made you? God made me. moral reasoning is said to develop within particular social domains: 1) moral (e. Common problems Religious development often goes hand in hand with moral development. and the creation of a community context where students and teachers could act on their moral decisions. Most people have more than one moral voice and shift among them depending on the situation. For example.

drinking. coupled with lack of acceptance of wrongdoing that continues into older childhood and adolescence. smoking . Risky behaviors such as speeding. After each incident. This is usually signaled by early violent outbursts. that parents may need to seek professional help. impulses cannot be controlled. Moral judgment —Perceiving an act as morally right or wrong. Anthropomorphic —Taking on human characteristics or looking like humans. or by acts of cruelty to pets or other children. These behaviors. Cognition —The act or process of knowing or perceiving. Moral choice —Deciding whether to act in the morally right way. These children need intervention immediately. Behaviors such as these may be indicators of sociopathic disorders. may also be symptoms of deeper psychological troubles. and appears to have to conscience. or engaging in sexual behavior may be related to peer pressure and wanting to conform to the group or may be a way to defy authority. may be a problem that requires family or individual counseling. Of extreme concern is the rare child who acts with no remorse. KEY TERMS Altruistic —Thinking of others. though deemed morally wrong by most societies. the child has a flat affect (no emotion) or fails to admit that there was anything wrong with the his or her actions. or authority defiance becomes troublesome. It is when these acts increase. doing drugs.Every child misbehaves and will sometimes act selfishly and hurtfully. destructive behavior. Self-centered behavior. Flat affect —Showing no emotion. Lack of impulse control and authority defiance can be symptoms of medical conditions and psychological disorders. .