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Lecture 07
Process Parameters and their measurements

• The most common process parameters for
industrial processes that should me monitored
or maintained during the process could be:
– Temperature
– Pressure
– Displacement
• Taranlational
• Rotational
– Frequency
Engr. M Hammad Munami 2

Temperature measurement
• Temperature measurement is very important in the process
• Instruments to measure temperature can be divided into
separate classes according
• to the physical principle on which they operate.
• The main principles used are:
– The thermoelectric effect
– Resistance change
– Radiative heat emission (Pyrometry)
– Thermography (self study)
– Thermal expansion (self study)
– Colour change (self study)
– Change of state of material (self study)

Engr. M Hammad Munami 3

–temperature relationship is approximately linear according to: • Wires of such pairs of materials are connected together at one end. which is a function of the temperature. nicrosil (Ni/Cr/Si) and nisil (Ni/Si/Mn).Thermoelectric effect sensors (Thermocouples) • Thermoelectric effect sensors rely on the physical principle that.f. the base-metal alloys of alumel (Ni/Mn/Al/Si). is generated at the junction between the metals • The e.m.. constantan (Cu/Ni). and the noble-metal alloys of platinum/rhodium and tungsten/rhenium. M Hammad Munami 4 . Engr. and in this formare known as thermocouples • Thermocouples are a very important class of device as they provide the most commonly used method of measuring temperatures in industry • Thermocouples are manufactured from various combinations of the base metals copper and iron. chromel (Ni/Cr).m.f. the noble metals platinum and tungsten. when any two different metals are connected together. an e.

) • Only certain combinations of these are used as thermocouples and each standard combination is known by an internationally recognized type letter. M Hammad Munami 5 .1: Engr. Thermocouples (Continued….m.–temperature characteristics for some of these standard thermocouples are shown in Figure 14.f. for instance type K is chromel–alumel • The e.

2(b) Engr. is shown in Figure 14. shown in Figure 14. it is useful to represent the thermocouple by its equivalent electrical circuit. Thermocouples (Continued…. made from one chromel wire and one constantan wire.2(a) • For analysis purposes. M Hammad Munami 6 .) • A typical thermocouple.

m. which is known as the reference junction • Thermocouples are typically only a few centimetres long so for practical use extension leads attached to it which modifies the equivalent circuit as: Engr. M Hammad Munami 7 . generated at the point where the different wires are connected together is represented by a voltage source. and the point is known as the hot junction • The temperature of the hot junction is customarily shown as Th on the diagram • The e.f.f.m. Thermocouples (Continued…. E1.) • The e. generated at the hot junction is measured at the open ends of the thermocouple.

- generating junctions into the system as shown in Figure: • The net output e.m.m. M Hammad Munami 8 .f.) • The measuring system is completed by connecting the extension leads to the voltage measuring instrument • As the connection leads will normally be of different materials to those of the thermocouple extension leads. Thermocouples (Continued….f measured (Em) is then given by: Engr. this introduces two further e.

M Hammad Munami 9 .Ice-Bath Compensation Engr.

419mV with the reference junction at 0°C. output measured from a chromel– constantan thermocouple is 13. M Hammad Munami 10 .m. Thermocouple tables • If the e. find the hot junction temperature from the table. Engr.f.

Tr is the e. with the junctions at temperatures Th and T0. • ETh.T0 is the e. with the junctions at temperatures Tr and T0.Non-zero reference junction temperature • For non-zero reference junction temperature • where: ETh.m.f.f. with the junctions at temperatures Th and Tr. and • ETr. • T0 is 0°C and • Tr is the non-zero reference junction temperature that is somewhere between T0 and Th Engr.T0 is the e.m.m. M Hammad Munami 11 .f. • Th is the hot junction measured temperature.

find the temperature using table.102mV when the hot junction is immersed in a fluid.m. Engr.f. Example • Suppose that the reference junction of a chromel–constantan thermocouple is maintained at a temperature of 80°C and the output e. M Hammad Munami 12 . measured is 40.

as shown in Figure • The effect of connecting n thermocouples together in series is to increase the measurement sensitivity by a factor of n. Engr. Thermopile • The thermopile is the name given to a temperature-measuring device that consists of several thermocouples connected together in series. such that all the reference junctions are at the same cold temperature and all the hot junctions are exposed to the temperature being measured. M Hammad Munami 13 .

M Hammad Munami 14 . Self Study • Thermocouple Types • Thermocouple colour code Engr.

Engr. rely on the principle that the resistance of a metal varies with temperature according to the relationship: • In the case of non-corrosive and non-conducting environments.4 seconds. Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) • Resistance thermometers. M Hammad Munami 15 . which are alternatively known as resistance temperature devices (or RTDs). resistance thermometers are used without protection. • A typical time constant for a sheathed platinum resistance thermometer is 0. • In all other applications. they are protected inside a sheath. • Such protection reduces the speed of response of the system to rapid changes in temperature.

M Hammad Munami 16 . a) Compute the resistance at 450°C.• Moisture build-up with in the sheath can also impair measurement accuracy.6Ω. • Nominal resistance of standard RTDs=100Ω at 0°C.00392Ω\Ω\°C has a nominal resistance of 100Ω at 0°C. Although special RTDs with resistance from 50Ω to 200Ω are available. Engr. Problem • A platinum RTD with a resistance temperature coefficient of 0. b) At which temperature the resistance is 142.

Thermistor • Thermally sensitive resistor that usually has a negative temperature coefficient • As the temperature increases. therefore they are capable to detect minute change in temperature • The major advantages of thermistors are their relatively low cost and their small size Engr. M Hammad Munami 17 . the thermistor resistance decreases and versa • Thermistors are very sensitive as much as 5% resistance change/°C.

Thermistor Rt=Ro eβ/T Engr. M Hammad Munami 18 .

Radiative Heat Emission (Pyrometry) • Waves can be characterized by their intensities and wavelengths – The hotter the object: • the shorter the wavelength • the more emitted light  Blackbody : A body that surface absorbs all the thermal radiation incident on them  Contact less measurement can be possible by knowing the temperature of that black body Engr. M Hammad Munami 19 .

696 psi=760 mmHg) Pgage : Gage pressure Engr.3 Pascal) Pabs  Patm  Pgage • Where Pabs : Absolute pressure Patm : Atmospheric pressure (standard is: 101.3 kPa =14. mmHg (or Torr= 133. bar (=105 Pa=100 kPa). Pressure Measurement • Pressure measurement is a very common requirement for most industrial process control systems and many different types of pressure-sensing and pressure-measurement systems are available • Pressure (P ) expresses the magnitude of normal force (F-N) per unit area (A-m2) applied on a surface F F P  or P  A A • Units: Pa(= N/m2). M Hammad Munami 20 . psi(=lbf/in2).

M Hammad Munami 21 . A is the area of the plates and d is the distance between them. C = εoεr A/d Where: εo is the absolute permittivity. Engr. Capacitive Pressure Sensor • In capacitive pressure sensor. • The movable plate is connected to a diaphragm which senses the pressure and then expands or compresses accordingly. • The movement of the diaphragm would affect the attached metal plate’s position and capacitance would vary. εr is the relative permittivity of the dielectric medium between the plates. one of these metal plates is permitted to move in and out so that the capacitance between them changes due to varying distance between the plates.

M Hammad Munami 22 .Fibre-optic pressure sensors Engr.

M Hammad Munami 23 . Resonant-wire devices • A typical resonant-wire device is shown schematically: Engr.

M Hammad Munami 24 .2% full-scale reading Engr. with a typical inaccuracy of ±0. Resonant-wire devices • Wire is stretched across a chamber containing fluid at unknown pressure subjected to a magnetic field • The wire resonates at its natural frequency according to its tension. which varies with pressure • Thus pressure is calculated by measuring the frequency of vibration of the wire • Such frequency measurement is normally carried out by electronics integrated into the cell • These devices are highly accurate.

i. 350 and 1000 are very common • The typical maximum change of resistance in a120Ω device would be 5Ω at maximum deflection • The input–output relationship of a strain gauge is expressed by the gauge factor. which is defined as the change in resistance (R) for a given value of strain (S). of which 120. Strain Gauge • Strain gauges are devices that experience a change in resistance when they are stretched or strained • Manufactured to various nominal values of resistance.e. Engr. M Hammad Munami 25 .

As strain is applied to the gauge. as shown in Figure(a) • The wire is nominally of circular cross-section. As the resistance of the wire per unit length is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. M Hammad Munami 26 . Engr. there is a consequential change in resistance. changing the cross-sectional area. Strain Gauge • Two traditional types: a. Wire type: • Consists of a length of metal resistance wire formed into a zigzag pattern and mounted onto a flexible backing sheet. the shape of the cross-section of the resistance wire distorts.

• Cutting a foil into the required shape is much easier than forming a piece of resistance wire into the required shape. Strain Gauge • Two traditional types: b. M Hammad Munami 27 . Engr. Foil type: • Similar to metal-wire types except the active element consists of a piece of metal foil cut into a zigzag pattern. and this makes the devices cheaper to manufacture.

Thus. as the resistance change in a strain gauge is typically small. the bridge output voltage is also small and amplification has to be carried out • This adds to the cost of using strain gauges Engr.C bridge circuit and the displacement is inferred from the bridge output measured • The maximum current that can be allowed to flow in a strain gauge is in the region of 5 to 50 mA depending on the type. Strain Gauge • The resistance of the gauge is usually measured by a D. M Hammad Munami 28 . the maximum voltage that can be applied is limited and consequently.

The bridge output is measured by an instrument whose input impedance can be assumed infinite. The strain gauge has a nominal resistance of 120Ω and forms one arm of a Wheatstone bridge circuit. consists of a diaphragm with a strain gauge cemented to it to detect diaphragm deflections. Example (ii) • A certain type of pressure transducer. • Home Task: calculate the bridge output voltage when measuring a pressure of 3bar Engr. calculate the bridge output voltage when measuring a pressure of 10 bar. If the sensitivity of the strain gauge is 338mΩ/bar and the maximum bridge excitation voltage is used. If. Hammad Munami 29 . calculate the maximum permissible bridge excitation voltage. with the other three arms each having a resistance of 120Ω. the maximum permissible gauge current is 30mA. in order to limit heating effects. designed to measure pressures in the range 0–10 bar.

1% Engr. where it produces a significantly higher gauge factor than that given by metal wire or foil gauges • Also. M Hammad Munami 30 . measurement uncertainty can be reduced to ±0. Piezo-resistive Sensors • A Piezo-resistive sensor is made from semiconductor material in which a p-type region has been diffused into an n-type base • The resistance of this varies greatly when the sensor is compressed or stretched • Frequently used as a strain gauge.

Crystal Deformation changes the Resistance of Material (Resistivity) Engr. M Hammad Munami 31 .

Piezoelectric transducers • Piezoelectric transducers produce an output voltage when a force is applied to them • Piezoelectric transducers are made from piezoelectric materials • These have an asymmetrical lattice of molecules that distorts when a mechanical force is applied to it • This distortion causes a reorientation of electric charges within the material. resulting in a relative displacement of positive and negative charges • The charge displacement induces surface charges on the material of opposite polarity between the two sides • By implanting electrodes into the surface of the material. M Hammad Munami 32 . these surface charges can be measured as an output voltage Engr.

A is the area of the material in mm. M Hammad Munami 33 . Piezoelectric transducers • For a rectangular block of material. d is the thickness of the material and k is the piezoelectric constant Engr. the induced voltage is given by: • where F is the applied force in g.

M Hammad Munami 34 . Displacement Measurement • Movement (displacement) is an integral part of many systems and therefore sensors to measure motion are an important tool for engineers • Displacement can take place in a straight line which is Translational displacement • Or angular motion about an axis which is Rotational displacement Engr.

M Hammad Munami 35 . Engr.Translational Displacement Measurement • Translational displacement transducers are instruments that measure the motion of a body in a straight line between two points • Many different types of Translational displacement transducer exist all of them cannot be describe but the most common translational displacement transducers would be describe in next slides.

M Hammad Munami 36 . Resistive Potentiometer • The resistive potentiometer is perhaps the best known displacement measuring device • It consists of a resistance element with a movable contact as shown in Figure: VO=(RCB\RAC)*Vs Engr.

so that translational motion of the body causes a motion of equal magnitude of the slider along the resistance element and a corresponding change in the output voltage VO • Three different types of potentiometer exist. M Hammad Munami 37 . Resistive Potentiometer • The body whose motion is being measured is connected to the sliding element of the potentiometer. carbon-film and plastic-film. wire- wound. so named according to the material used to construct the resistance element Engr.

or in the worst case causes a total loss of output • High-speed motion of the slider can also cause the contact to bounce. M Hammad Munami 38 .Resistive Potentiometer Operational Problems • Operational problems of potentiometers all occur at the point of contact between the sliding element and the resistance track • The most common problem is dirt under the slider. giving an intermittent output • Friction between the slider and the track can also be a problem in some measurement systems where the body whose motion is being measured is moved by only a small force of a similar magnitude to these friction forces Engr. which increases the resistance and there by gives a false output voltage reading.

consists of a transformer with a single primary winding and two secondary windings connected in the series opposing manner shown in Figure: Engr.Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) • The linear variable differential transformer. which is commonly known by the abbreviation LVDT. M Hammad Munami 39 .

M Hammad Munami 40 .Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) Engr.

Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) • The object whose translational displacement is to be measured is physically attached to the central iron core of the transformer. M Hammad Munami 41 . so that all motions of the body are transferred to the core • For an excitation voltage Vs given by: • The EMFs induced in the secondary windings Va and Vb are given by: Engr.

• The parameters Ka and Kb depend on the amount of coupling between the respective secondary and primary windings and hence on the position of the iron core • With the core in the central position. • Hence with the core in the central position 0. Ka = Kb. • If the core is displaced then we have: Engr. and we have: • Because of the series opposition mode of connection of the secondary windings. M Hammad Munami 42 .

Variable Capacitance Transducers Engr. M Hammad Munami 43 .

Variable Capacitance Transducers • Inaccuracies as low as 0. there is no friction or wear in operation and the life expectancy quoted is 200 years • Used where the high accuracy and measurement resolution of the instrument are required Engr. M Hammad Munami 44 . with measurement resolutions of 1 micron • Individual devices can be selected from manufacturers’ ranges that measure displacements as small as 10^-11 m or as large as 1m • The fact that such instruments consist only of two simple conducting plates means that it is possible to fabricate devices • As there are no contacting moving parts.01% are possible with these instruments.

Range sensors Engr. M Hammad Munami 45 .

Rotational Displacement • Rotational displacement transducers measure the angular motion of a body about some rotation axis • They are important not only for measuring the rotation of bodies such as shafts. M Hammad Munami 46 . but also as part of systems that measure translational displacement by converting the translational motion to a rotary form • The various devices available for measuring rotational displacements are presented in next slides Engr.

Circular and Helical Potentiometers • The circular potentiometer is the cheapest device available for measuring rotational displacements • It works on almost exactly the same principles as the translational motion potentiometer. with some devices being able to measure up to 60 full turns Engr. M Hammad Munami 47 . a helical potentiometer is used. except that the track is bent round into a circular shape • The measurement range of individual devices varies from 0–10° to 0–360° depending on whether the track forms a full circle or only part of a circle • Where greater measurement range than 0–360° is required.

M Hammad Munami 48 .Circular and Helical Potentiometers Engr.

as with linear track potentiometers.002% of full scale for the best helical potentiometers Engr. M Hammad Munami 49 . all rotational potentiometers can give performance problems due to dirt on the track causing loss of contact • They also have a limited life because of wear (friction) between the sliding surfaces • The typical inaccuracy of this class of devices varies from ±1% of full scale for circular potentiometers down to ±0.Circular and Helical Potentiometers • Both kinds of device give a linear relationship between the measured quantity and the output reading because the output voltage measured at the sliding contact is proportional to the angular displacement of the slider from its starting position • However.

Rotational Differential Transformer
• This is a special form of differential transformer that measures rotational
rather than translational motion
• The method of construction and connection of the windings is exactly the
same as for the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), except
that a specially shaped core is used that varies the mutual inductance
between the windings as it rotates, as shown in Figure

Engr. M Hammad Munami 50

Rotational Differential Transformer
• Like its linear equivalent, the instrument suffers no
wear in operation and therefore has a very long life
with almost no maintenance requirements
• It can also be modified for operation in harsh
environments by enclosing the windings inside a
protective enclosure

Engr. M Hammad Munami 51

Incremental Shaft Encoders

Engr. M Hammad Munami 52

Incremental Shaft Encoders Engr. M Hammad Munami 53 .

M Hammad Munami 54 .How to find Direction of Rotation Engr.

rad/s. degrees. etc. M Hammad Munami 55 . and it measures velocity as a pulse frequency • A digital processor is able to express these readings in engineering units (radians. Displacement Measurement • An incremental encoder measures displacement as a pulse count.) • Suppose that the maximum count possible is M pulses and the range of the encoder is ±θmax • The angular position θ corresponding to a count of n pulses is computed as: Engr.

M Hammad Munami 56 . Encoder Resolution • Digital Resolution: The resolution of an encoder represents the smallest change in measurement that can be measured realistically • Suppose that the encoder count is stored as digital data of r bits then M=2^r -1 • Now Engr.

e. no direction sensing).e. and if only the rising edges of the pulses are detected (i.. the physical resolution is given by • But if quadrature signals (i. M Hammad Munami 57 . four counts can be made per encoder cycle. full cycles of the encoder signal are counted). thereby improving the resolution by a factor of 4 Engr. one out of phase with the other by 90°) are available and the capability to detect both rising and falling edges of a pulse is also present. Encoder Resolution • The physical resolution of an encoder is governed by the number of windows N in the code disk • If only one pulse signal is used (i. two pulse signals.e...

M Hammad Munami 58 .Engr.

obtain an equation relating the parameters d. and r. where: d=diameter of encoder disk w=number of windows per unit diameter of disk r=word size (bits) of the angle measurement Assume that quadrature signals are available. Example • For an ideal design of an incremental encoder. If r=12 and w=500/cm. determine a suitable disk diameter. Engr. M Hammad Munami 59 . w.

M Hammad Munami 60 .Engr.

M Hammad Munami 61 .Coded-Disc Shaft Encoders Engr.

Coded-Disc Shaft Encoders Engr. M Hammad Munami 62 .

Frequency Measurement Engr. M Hammad Munami 63 .

Frequency Ratio Measurement Engr. M Hammad Munami 64 .

Errors in Frequency Measurement • Gating error • Time base error • Trigger level error Engr. M Hammad Munami 65 .