You are on page 1of 40

Modul Tudingan Akhir

Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

KIMIA

KERTAS 2

BAHAGIAN ESEI
(SOALAN LAZIM SPM )

1 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 2 : Struktur atom

Diagram 8 shows an atom of element X. The letter used is not the actual symbol of the element.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan satu atom bagi unsur X. Huruf yang digunakan bukan symbol sebenar bagi unsur itu

e-

1p,
Nucleus
1n
Nukleus

Diagram 8

a) Describe the atom shown in Diagram 8


Huraikan atom yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 8

Suggested answer;

Nucleus contains 1 proton and 1 neutron


Proton number is 1 and nucleon number is 2
Has 1 electron in its shell
Neutral because the proton number is the same as the number of electron

b) Another atom of element X has 2 neutrons.


Satu atom lain bagi unsur X mempunyai 2 neutron.

i) compare this atom with the atom in Diagram 8.


Bandingkan atom ini dengan atom dalam Rajah 8.

Suggested answer;

Has 1 electron, 1 proton and 2 neutron


The same number of proton but different number of neutron
Hence, these two atoms are isotopes.
Isotope have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

ii) write the symbol for this atom in the form of ZAX
A
tulis symbol bagi atom ini dalam bentuk Z X

Suggested answer;
3
X
1 [4 marks]

K2/E/T5 : Bab 2 : Struktur atom


o o
Substance Melting Point ( C) Boiling Point ( C)
Bahan Takat lebur Takat didih
J 1535 3000
Q -78 -33
Y -79 68
Table 1

The melting points and boiling points of J, Q and Y are given in table 1 above.
Determine the physical states of J, Q and Y at room temperature, then compare the arrangement of
particles, forces between the particles and kinetic energy of the particles in J, Q and Y.

Takat lebur dan takat didih J, Q dan Y diberikan dalam jadual 1 di atas.
Tentukan keadaan fizikal J, Q dan Y pada keadaan bilik, kemudian bandingkan susunan zarah, daya
tarikan antara zarah dan tenaga kinetik zarah dalam J, Q dan Y
(10 marks)
2 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

Suggested answer;
1. Physical state : J solid Q gas Y liquid

Properties J Y Q
2. Particle Closely packed and Closely packed but not in At random and far
arrangement orderly an orderly arrangement apart
3. Forces between Held together by very Held together by strong Weak forces between
particles strong forces forces particles
4. Kinetic energy Very low High Very high

K2/E/T5 : Bab 3 : Formula dan Persamaan Kimia

1. (a) Diagram 7.1 shows an apparatus set-up to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirik magnesium oksida.

Magnesium ribbon
Pita magnesium

Heat
Dipanaskan

Diagram 7.1

i) During the experiment, we need to raise the lid a little at intervals. Why?
Ketika eksperimen dijalankan, kita perlu membuka penutup sekali sekala. Mengapa?
[2 marks]

Suggested answer ;
To allow the oxygen to enter the crucible
for the complete combustion of magnesium

ii) Table 7 shows the results for the experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
Jadual 7 menunjukkan keputusan bagi satu eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi magnesium
oksida.

Mass of crucible + lid 28.24 g


Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup
Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon 30.64 g
Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + pita magnesium
Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide 32.24 g
Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + magnesium oxide
Table 7
Based on the results in Table 7, determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
[ Relative atomic mass : Mg = 24 , O = 16 ]
Berdasarkan keputusan dalam Jadual 7, tentukan formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida.
[ Jisim atom relatif : Mg = 24 , O = 16 ]
[5 marks]

Suggested answer ;

Element Magnesium, Mg Oxygen, O


Mass(g) 30.64 28.24 32.24 30.64
= 2.4 = 1.6
Number of moles 2.4 = 0.1 1.6 = 0.1
of atoms 24 16
Simplest ratio of 1 1
moles

The empirical formula is MgO

3 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

b) Diagram 7.2 shows an apparatus set-up to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirik kuprum oksida.
Copper oxide
Hydrogen gas

Heat

Part B

Part A
Diagram 7.2

i) Compare the method used in experiment in Diagram 7.2 with Diagram 7.1.
Bandingkan kaedah melakukan eksperimen dalam Rajah 7.2 dengan kaedah dalam Rajah 7.1.
[4 marks]

Suggested answer ;
Diagram 7.1 Diagram 7.2
It involves heating It involves heating
Similarity The reaction is between a gas and a solid The reaction is between a gas and a solid
Metal oxide is formed Metal is formed
Difference Metal is reacted with oxygen gas Metal oxide is reacted with hydrogen gas
The mass of the solid increases The mass of the solid decreases

ii) State the reactants to produce hydrogen gas in Part A.


Nyatakan bahan-bahan untuk menghasilkan gas hidrogen di Bahagian A.
[2 marks]

Suggested answer ;
Dilute hydrochloric acid and zinc metal

iii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in Part A.


Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas di Bahagian A.
[1 mark]

Suggested answer ;
2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 + H2

iv) State three precautions that must be taken in Part B. Explain your answer.
Nyatakan tiga langkah berjaga-jaga yang mesti diambil dalam Bahagian B.Terangkan jawapan
anda.
[6 marks]

Suggested answer ;

Precaution Explanation
Dry hydrogen gas is passed through the A mixture of hydrogen and air can cause an
combustion tube for a few minutes / throughout explosion when lighted.
the experiment to remove all the air in the tube.
During cooling, the flow of hydrogen is To ensure the oxygen from the air does not
continued. oxidise the hot copper to copper (II) oxide.
The heating, cooling and weighing processes To ensure that all of the copper (II) oxide has been
are repeated until a constant mass is obtained. reduced into copper.
The combustion tube must be slanted slightly To prevent the water formed during the reaction
towards the tiny hole. from flowing towards the hot porcelain dish.

4 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 3 : Formula dan Persamaan Kimia

The information below is regarding substance X


Maklumat di bawah berkaitan dengan bahan X

Carbon 85.70%
Hydrogen 14.30%
Relative molecular mass = 56
Jisim molekul relatif

(i) Determine the empirical formula of substance X. [Given that the relative atomic mass of C = 12 , H = 1]
(Tentukan formula empirik bagi sebatian X [Diberi jisim atom relatif C = 12 , H = 1])

C H
No of 85.70 14.30
moles 12 1

Mole 7.14 14.30


Ratio 7.14 7.14
=1 =2

the empirical formula is CH2

(ii) Determine the molecular formula of substance X.


Tentukan formula molekul bagi bahan X.

( CH2 )n = 56

[ 12 + 2(1) ]n = 56

56 = 4 Molecular formula : (CH2) 2 = C 2 H4


14

The molecular formula is C 4H8

(iii) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii) , compare and contrast the empirical formula and the molecular formula.
(Berdasarkan jawapan dalam (a)(i) dan (a)(ii), banding dan bezakan formula empirik dan formula molekul .)
[ 8 marks]
Suggested answer ;

Empirical formula Molecular formula


The formula shows that carbon and hydrogen The formula shows that carbon and hydrogen are
are present present
The formula shows that the ratio of carbon to The formula shows that one molecule of X consists
hydrogen is 1:2 of 4 carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms

5 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 4 : Jadual Berkala Unsur


Bab 5 : Ikatan Kimia

Trial kedah 16
1 Diagram 9.1 shows the electron arrangement of a compound.
Rajah 9.1 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi satu sebatian.

R W R

Diagram 9.1

(a) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atom of element W. State the position of element W in the
periodic Table of Elements.
Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom unsur W. Nyatakan kedudukan unsur W dalam Jadual Berkala
Unsur.
[2 marks]
(ii) Explain how the bond in the compound formed.
Terangkan bagaimana ikatan dalam sebatian itu terbentuk.
[5 marks]
(b) Table 9.1 shows the melting point of tetrachloromethane and copper(II) chloride
Jadual 9.1 menunjukkan takat lebur bagi tetraklorometana dan kuprum(II) klorida.

Substance Melting point / oC


Bahan Takat lebur / oC

Tetrachloromethane, CCl4 -23


Tetraklorometana

Copper(II) chloride, CuCl2 630


Kuprum(II) klorida
Table 9.1

Compare the melting point of tetrachloromethane and copper(II) chloride.


Explain the difference in the melting point for both substances.
Bandingkan takat lebur tetraklorometana dan kuprum(II) klorida.
Terangkan perbezaan takat lebur bagi kedua-dua bahan itu.
[3 marks]
(c) Table 9.2 shows the result of an experiment to compare the electrical conductivity of ionic and covalent
compounds.
Jadual 9.2 menunjukkan keputusan daripada eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekonduksian elektrik
sebatian ion dan sebatian kovalen.

Compound State of substance Observation


sebatian Keadaan bahan Pemerhatian
Solid The bulb does not lights up
Pepejal Mentol tidak menyala
P
Molten The bulb lights up
Leburan Mentol menyala

Solid The bulb does not lights up


Pepejal Mentol tidak menyala
Q
Molten The bulb does not lights up
Leburan Mentol tidak menyala.

Table 9.2
6 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

By naming an example of compound P and Q, describe an experiment to verify the above


observation.Your answer should includes labeled diagram and procedure .
Dengan menamakan satu contoh bagi sebatian P dan Q, huraikan suatu eksperimen untuk mengesahkan
pemerhatian di atas .Jawapan anda mesti mengandungi gambar rajah berlabel dan prosedur.
[10 marks]

(a) (i) 1. 2.4 1


2. Period 2 and group 14 1
Kala 2 Kumpulan 14

(ii) 1. Electron arrangement of atom R is 2.6 1


Susunan elektron bagi atom R ialah 2.6
2. An atom W contribute four electrons and each atom R contribute 1
two electrons for sharing
Satu atom W menyumbangkan empat elektron dan setiap atom R
menyumbangkan dua electron untuk dikongsi.
3. One atom W shares 4 pairs of electron with two atom R. 1
Satu atom W berkongsi 4 pasang electron dengan dua atom R.
4.Both atom achieved octet electron arrangement 1
Kedua-dua atom mencapai oktet
5. Two double covalent bond form covalent compound with the 1
molecular formula is WR2
Dua ikatan kovalen ganda dua membentuk sebatian kovalen dengan
formula molekul WR 2.

(b) 1. Melting point of copper(II) chloride is higher than tetrachloromethane. // 1


Melting point of tetrachloromethane is lower than copper(II) chloride.
Takat lebur kuprum(II) klorida lebih tinggi daripada tetraklorometana.// Takat
lebur tetraklorometana lebih rendah berbanding kuprum(II) klorida.

2. Electrostatic force between the ion in copper(II) chloride is stronger.// 1


Force attraction between molecule in tetrachloromethane is weaker.
Daya elektrostatik antara ion-ion di dalam kuprum(II) klorida adalah lebih kuat.//
Daya tarikan antara molekul dalam tetraklorometana lebih lemah.

3. More heat energy needed to overcome the force.// Less heat is needed to 1
overcome the force.
Lebih banyak tenaga haba diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya tarikan.// Tenaga
haba yang lebih rendah diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya tarikan tersebut.

(c) 1.P = lead(II) bromide 1


Plumbum(II) bromide
2.Q= naphthalene 1
Naftalena

carbon

compound
crucible sebatian
mangkuk pijar

Heat
panaskan 1

3.Functional diagram and shading 1


Rajah berfungsi dan lorekan
4.Label as diagram
Label seperti rajah 1

7 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

5. A crucible is half filled with solid lead(II) bromide.


Sebuah mangkuk pijar diisi separuh penuh dengan pepejal plumbum(II) bromida.
1
6. Two carbon electrodes are immersed into solid lead(II) bromide
Dua elektrod karbon dicelupkan ke dalam pepejal plumbum(II) bromide
1
7.The carbon electrodes are connected to the bulb and to battery using
connecting wire. 1
Elektrod karbon disambungkan ke mentol dan ke bateri dengan menggunakan
wayar penyambung.

8.The observation are recorded. 1


Pemerhatian dicatat.

9.Lead(II) bromide is heated strongly until melt and the observation is


recorded again.
Plumbum(II) bromida dipanaskan dengan kuat sehingga melebur dan
pemerhatian dicatat sekali lagi

10.The above steps are repeated by using naphthalene


Langkah di atas diulang dengan menggunakan Naftalena

K2/E/T5 : Bab 6 : Elektrokimia

[Trial Kedah16]
(a) Salman intends to electroplate an iron spoon with nickel.
Salman ingin menyadur satu sudu besi dengan nikel.

Nickel ,Ni is a transition element with oxidation number of +2 and +3.


Nikel ,Ni adalah unsur peralihan dengan nombor pengoksidaan +2 dan +3

Draw a labeled diagram to show how he can set up the apparatus.


Write the half equations at anode and cathode.
Lukiskan rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan bagaimana dia dapat menyediakan susunan radas tersebut.
Tuliskan persamaan setengah pada anod dan katod.
[4 marks]

(b) Two sets of experiment are carried out to investigate the factors affecting the discharged of ions at the anode.
Dua set ekperimen dijalankan untuk mengkaji faktor yang mempengaruhi nyahcas ion -ion pada anod.
Table 9.1 shows information about both experiment.
Jadual 9.1 menunjukkan maklumat tentang kedua-dua eksperimen.

Type of
Experiment Electrolyte Observation at anode
anode
Eksperimen Elektrolit Pemerhatian pada anod
Jenis anod
0.0001 mol dm-3
MI solution Bubble of gas produced light up a glowing
Larutan MI Carbon splinter.
I
0.0001 mol dm-3 karbon Gelembung gas terhasil dan menyalakan
kayu uji berbara.

The solution turns brown and turns dark blue


1.0 mol dm-3
Carbon when starch solution is added.
MI solution
karbon Larutan bertukar perang dan bertukar ke biru
II Larutan MI
gelap apabila larutan kanji ditambah.
1.0 mol dm-3

Table 9.1
Jadual 9.1

8 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

Name the product formed at the anode in set I and set II.Explain how the products are formed.
Namakan hasil yang terbentuk di anod dalam setI dan setII.Terangkan bagaimana hasil-hasil tersebut
terbentuk.
[6 marks]
(c)
Chemical cell produces electrical energy through chemical reaction.
Sel kimia menghasilkan tenaga elektrik melalui tindak balas kimia.

By using two suitable metal electrodes and an electrolyte, describe an experiment to verify the above
statement.
Dengan menggunakan dua elektrod logam yang sesuai dan satu elektrolit ,huraikan suatu eksperimen untuk
mengesahkan pernyataan di atas.
[10 marks]

(a)

Nickel
Nikel
Spoon
sudu

Nickel (III) nitrate


Nikel (III) nitrat 1

1.functional diagram : anode and cathode correct,solution shaded,whole spoon 1


immersed

2.label : nickel,spoon,nickel(III) nitrate solution

1.gambarajah berfungsi : anod dan katod betul,larutan dilorek,sudu direndam 1


sepenuhnya 1
2.label : Nikel,sudu ,larutan nikel(III) nitrat

[a:any solution with nickel(II) /nickel(III) ion]


2+ 3+
3.anode : Ni Ni +2e // Ni Ni +3e [refer solution]
4.cathode : Ni 2+ +2e Ni // Ni 3+ +3e Ni [rujuk larutan]

(b) Experiment I
1.product = oxygen
1
Hasil =oksigen
2.hydroxide ion is discharged
1
Ion hidroksida dinyahcaskan
3.hydroxide ion is lower than iodide ion in the electrochemical series
1
Ion hidroksida di bawah ion iodida dalam siri elektrokimia.

Experiment II
4. product = iodine
Hasil =iodin
1
2.iodide ion is discharged
Ion iodida dinyahcaskan
1
3.iodide ion is more concentrated
Ion iodide lebih pekat.
1

9 | @Team RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(c) 1.Zn 1
2.Cu 1
3.CuSO4 solution 1

Procedure :
4. Zinc strip and copper strip are cleaned with sand paper 1
jalur zink dan jalur kuprum digosok dengan kertas pasir
1
5.A beaker is filled with 0.1 mol dm-3 of copper(II) sulphate solution until half full
Sebuah bikar diisi dengan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0.1 mol dm -3 sehinggaseparuh bikar

6.Zinc strip and copper strip are dipped into the solution 1
jalur zink dan kuprum dicelup ke dalam larutan
1
7.both strips are connected to voltmeter via connecting wire
kedua-dua jalur disambungkan ke voltmeter melalui wayar penyambung
1
8.Zinc release electron to form zinc ion
zink menderma elektron dan membentuk ion zink 1

9. copper(II) ion receive electron to form copper 1


ion kuprum(II) menerima elektron dan membentuk kuprum

10.when electron move from zinc to copper pointer of voltmeter deflect


apabila elektron bergerak dari zink ke kuprum jarum voltmeter terpesong

K2/E/T4 : Bab 7 : Asid dan Bes


Acid and bes

Table 7.2 shows three substances W, X, Y and their information.


Jadual 7.2 menunjukkan tiga bahan W, X, Y dan maklumatnya.

Substance Information
Bahan Maklumat
Produced by Contact Process
Dihasilkan oleh Proses Sentuh.
W Used as an electrolyte in car batteries.
Digunakan sebagai elektrolit dalam bateri kereta.

Produced by Haber Process


Dihasilkan oleh Proses Haber
X
Pungent smell
Berbau sengit.
Found in vinegar
Terdapat dalam cuka
Y
pH value is 3
nilai pH ialah 3

Table / Jadual 7.2

a) State the name of substance W, X and Y.


Nyatakan nama bagi bahan W, X dan Y.
[3 marks]
1. W : Sulphuric acid
2. X : Ammonia
3. Y : Ethanoic acid

b) When W reacts with X, a substance Z is produced.


State the name of the substance Z and use in agriculture.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction involved.
Apabila W bertindak balas dengan X, suatu bahan Z terhasil.
Nyatakan nama bahan Z itu dan kegunaan dalam bidang pertanian.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang terlibat.
[4 markah]

10 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

1. Ammonium sulfat / Ammonium sulphate


2. Baja / Fertiliser
3. Persamaan kimia : H2SO4 + 2NH3 (NH4)2SO4

c) Compare substance W and substance Y in terms of basicity and the strength of acid.
Bandingkan bahan W dan bahan Y dari segi kebesan dan kekuatan asid.
[2 markah]
Bahan W Bahan Y
Substance W Substance Y
Kebesan Diprotik Monoprotik
Basicity Diprotic Monoprotic
Kekuatan asid
Asid kuat Asid lemah
Strength of
Strong acid Weak acid
acid

K2/E/T4 : Bab 9 : Bahan Buatan dalam Industri

(a) Sulphur dioxide, SO2, is one of the by-products of the Contact process. It can cause environmental pollution
like acid rain. Sulphur dioxide gas dissolves in rain water to produce sulphurous acid.
Sulfur dioksida, SO2, ialah satu daripada hasil sampingan proses Sentuh. Ia dapat menyebabkan
pencemaran alam sekitar seperti membentuk hujan asid.Gas sulfur dioksida larut dalam air hujan untuk
menghasilkan asid sulfurus
.
(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between sulphur dioxide gas and rain water.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara sulfur dioksida dengan air hujan.

(ii) State three effects of acid rain to the environment.


Nyatakan tiga kesan hujan asid terhadap alam sekitar.

[4 marks]

(b) Diagram 8 shows an industry preparation of sulphuric acid by the Contact process. Rajah 8 menunjukkan
penyediaan asid sulfurik melalui proses Sentuh.

Diagram 8/ Rajah 8

(i) Name the compound X.


Namakan sebatian X.
(ii) Write the chemical equation of the reaction at stage II.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di peringkat II.
(iii) The chemical equation below shows the reaction between sulphur and oxygen gas at stage I.
Persamaan kimia di bawa menunjukkan tindak balas antara sulfur dan gas oksigen di peringkat I.
S + O2SO2
Given that the relative atomic mass of S = 32, O = 16 and the molar volume of any gas is 24 dm 3mol-1
at room temperature and pressure. Calculate the maximum volume of sulphur dioxide gas produced if
48 g of sulphur is burnt completely in oxygen gas.
3 -1
Diberikan jisim atom relatif S = 32, O = 16 dan isi padu molar sebarang gas ialah 24 dm mol pada
suhu dan tekanan bilik. Hitungkan isi padu maksimum gas sulfur dioksida yang terhasil jika 48g sulfur
terbakar dengan lengkap dalam gas oksigen.

[6 marks]

11 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(b) Table 8.1 shows the pH values of hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid of the same concentration.
Jadual 8.1 menunjukkan nilai pH bagi asid hidroklorik dan asid etanoik dengan kepekatan yang
sama.

Acid Concentration pH value


-3
Asid (mol dm ) Nilai pH
-3
Kepekatan (mol dm )
hydrochloric acid 0.1 1
asid hidroklorik
ethanoic acid 0.1 5
asid etanoik
Table 8.1 / Jadual 8.1

Explain why the pH value of the two acids are different.


Terangkan mengapa nilai pH bagi kedua-dua asid itu berbeza.

[4 marks]

(c) Table 8.2 shows the results of titration between 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid and 25.0 cm3 of potassium
hydroxide solution.
-3 3
Jadual 8.2 menunjukkan keputusan pentitratan antara asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm dengan 25.0 cm larutan
kalium hidroksida.

Titration I II III
Titratan
Final reading of 9.90 19.90 30.00
burette (cm3)
Bacaan akhir buret
(cm3)
Initial reading of 0.00 9.90 19.90
3
burette (cm )
Bacaan awal buret
(cm3)
Table 8.2 / Jadual 8.2

(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara kalium hidroksida dengan asid sulfurik.
[2 marks]
(ii) Based on table 8.2, determine the average volume of sulphuric acid used and hence calculate the
molarity of potassium hydroxide solution.
Berdasarkan Jadual 8.2, tentukan isipadu purata asid sulfurik yang digunakan dan seterusnya hitung
kemolaran larutan kalium hidroksida.
[4 marks]

(a) (i) SO2 + H2O H2SO3 1

(ii)
Corrodes buildings 1
Corrodes metal structures 1
pH of the soil decreases 1
Lakes and rivers become acidic

[Able to state any three items correctly]


(b) (i) Oleum 1
(ii) 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 1
. 1
(iii) Moles of sulphur = 48 / 32 =1.5 1
Moles of SO2 = moles of sulphur = 1.5 1
Volume of SO2 = 1.5 x 24 dm3= 36 dm3 1
(c) Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. 1
It dissociates completely in water to produce a high concentration of hydrogen ions. Hence, 1
its pH is low.
Ethanoic acid is a weak acid. 1
It ionizes partially in water to produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions. He nce, its pH is 1
high.
Asid hidroklorik ialah satu asid kuat.
Asid itu terurai sepenuhnya dalam air untuk menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidrogen yang
12 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

tinggi. Oleh itu, nilai pH rendah.


Asid etanoik ialah satu asid lemah.
Asid itu terurai separa dalam air dan kepekatan ion hidrogen adalah rendah. Oleh itu, nilai
pH tinggi.

(d) (i) 2K0H + H2S04 - K2S04 + 2H20 1


1
(ii) (i) Average volume of sulphuric acid Isi padu purata asid stdfurik
= 9.90+ 10.00+ 10.10 cm3 1
3
3
= 10.00 cm
MaVa = a
MbVb b 1
(1.0)(10) = 1 1
Mb (25) 2
Mb = 0.8 mol dm-3 1

K2/E/T5 : Bab 10 : Kadar Tindak balas

Soalan Lazim Esei 3 :


Jadual 1 menunjukkan tiga eksperimen yang telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan ke atas kadar tindak
balas.
Table 1 shows three experiments that were carried out to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of
reaction.

Experiment Bahan tindak balas


Reactants
3 -3
I Serbuk kalsium karbonat berlebihan + 40 cm 0.5 mol dm asid hidroklorik
3 -3
Excess of calcium carbonate powder + 40 cm of 0.5 mol dm hydrochloric acid.
3 -3
II Serbuk kalsium karbonat berlebihan + 20 cm 1.0 mol dm asid hidroklorik
Excess of calcium carbonate powder + 20 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.

III Serbuk kalsium karbonat berlebihan + 20 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 asid sulfurik Excess of
3 -3
calcium carbonate powder + 20 cm of 1.0 mol dm sulphuric acid.
Table 1
a) Lakarkan satu graf untuk menunjukkan isi padu gas karbon dioksida melawan masa yang diambil untuk
ketiga-tiga eksperimen itu pada paksi yang sama.
Sketch a graph to show the volume of carbon dioxide gas released against time taken for the three
experiments on the same axis.
[3 marks]
Volume of carbon dioxide (cm3)
Experiment III Experiment II

Experiment I

Time (s)

b) Bandingkan isi padu gas yang terbebas antara Eksperimen I dan II dan antara Eksperimen II dan III .
Terangkan mengapa.
Compare the volume of gas released between Experiment I and II and between Experiment II and III. Explain
why.
[3 marks]
Cadangan jawapan:
Experiment I and II :
The volume of carbon dioxide gas in Experiment I is the same as in Experiment II.
+
Because the concentration of H ions in Experiment I and Experiment II is the same.
The volume of carbon dioxide gas in Experiment III is double/ twice than in Experiment II.
Because sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid whereas hydrochloric acid is a monoprotic acid
+
The concentration of H ions in Experiment III is double than in Experiment II

13 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 10 : Kadar Tindak balas

a) Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan eksperimen (eksperimen I) untuk menentukan kadar tindak balas antara
kepingan batu marmar berlebihan dan 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-3 pada suhu bilik. Tindak balas
lengkap dalam masa 300 saat.
A group of students carried out an experiment (experiment I) to determine the rate of reaction between excess
marble chips and 50 cm 3 0.1 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid at room temperature.
The reaction was completed within 300 seconds.

(i) Lukiskan rajah berlabel bagi alat radas yang digunakan untuk eksperimen.
Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up of apparatus for the experiment.
[2 marks]
Cadangan jawapan;

Correct apparatus set up


Correct labeling

(ii) Lakarkan graf isipadu gas melawan masa yang anda jangkakan diperolehi daripada eksperimen.
Sketch a graph of volume of gas against time that you expect to obtain from the experiment.
[2 marks]
Cadangan jawapan;
3
Volume of gas (cm )
Curve
labelling axes
with units

Time (min)
(b) (i) Kirakan isipadu maksimum karbon dioksida yang dijangka dibebaskan.
Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide expected to be released.
3
[Jisim atom relatif: H=1, C=12, O=16, Ca= 40 dan 1 mol bagi sebarang gas menempati ruang 24 dm
pada suhu dan tekanan bilik ]
[Relative atomic mass: H=1, C=12, O=16, Ca= 40 and 1 mole of any gas occupies 24 dm 3 at room
temperature and pressure]
[4 marks]
Cadangan jawapan;
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2 O

1. No. of moles acid = (0.1)(50) = 5 x 10-3


1000

2. 2 mol of HCl reacted to produces 1 mol of CO2


0.005 mol of HCl reacted to produces 0.005 mol of CO2
2
= 0.0025 mol CO2
3. Volume of CO2 = 0.0025 x 24
= 0.06 dm3
3
4. = 60 cm (answer with correct unit)

(ii) Kirakan kadar tindak balas keseluruhan.


Calculate the overall rate of reaction.
[2 marks]
Cadangan jawapan;
Overall average rate of reaction = Total volume of CO2 = 60
Total time 300
3 -1
= 0.2 cm s (answer with correct unit)

14 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 10 : Kadar Tindak balas

a) Kadar tindak balas adalah penting dalam industri dan kehidupan harian.
Nyatakan empat faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.
The rate of reaction is important in industries and in our everyday lives.
State the four factors that affect the rate of reaction.
[4 markah]
Cadangan jawapan:
Size of the reactant (or the total exposed surface area) of the reactant
Concentration of the solution.
Temperature of the solution.
Present of catalyst

b) Apakah keadaan-keadaan yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan ammonia dalam Proses Haber.
What are the conditions required for the production of ammonia in Haber Process?
[3 marks]
Cadangan jawapan:
Catalyst : iron
Temperature : 450oC
Pressure : 200 atm

K2/E/T5 : Bab 10 : Kadar Tindak balas

[Trial Kedah16]
(a) A group of students carried out two sets of experiment to investigate the factor affecting the rate of reaction
between zinc and ahydrochloric acid.
Sekumpulan pelajar telah menjalankan dua set eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan faktor yang mempengaruhi
kadar tindak balas antara zink dan asid hidroklorik.
3
Table 8 shows the information about the reactants and the time taken to collect 50cm of hydrogen gas.
Jadual8 menunjukkan maklumat tentang bahan tindak balas dan masa diambil untuk mengumpulkan 50 cm3
gas hidrogen.

Table 8
Set Reactants Time taken / s Jadual8
Set Bahan-bahan tindak balas Masa diambil / s

Powdered zinc + 20 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm 3 hydrochloric


I acid 20
Serbuk zink + 20 cm3 asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm3

Powdered zinc + 50 cm3 of 0.4 mol dm-3hydrochloric acid


II 50
Serbuk zink + 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.4 mol dm-3

(i) Refering to experiment in Set I and II, state:


the meaning of rate of reaction
one factor that affects rate of reaction.
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in Set I.
Merujuk kepada ekperimen di Set I dan II, nyatakan :
maksud kadar tindak balas
satu faktor yang mempengaruhi kadr tindak balas.
Tulis persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas dalam Set I.

[4 marks]
(ii) Calculate the average rate of reaction of Set I and Set II.
Based on your answer, compare the rate of reaction for both set by using collision theory.
Hitung kadar tindak balas purata bagi Set I danSet II.
Berdasarkan jawapan anda, bandingkan kadar tindak balas antara kedua-dua set dengan
menggunakan teori perlanggaran.
[6 marks]

15 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(b) Another experiment is carried out to study the factors of catalyst in the reaction of decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide, H2O2. The results of this experiment is shown in Diagram 8.
Satu eksperimen lain dijalankan untuk mengkaji faktor mangkin dalam tindak balas penguraian hidrogen
peroksida, H2O2. Keputusan eksperimen ini ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 8.

Volume of oxygen gas (cm3)


Isipadu gas oksigen(cm3)

BB

Time(s)
Masa (s)
Diagram 8
Rajah 8

(i) Which set of experiment used catalyst? State the catalyst used.
Set eksperimen yang manakah menggunakan mangkin? Nyatakan mangkin yang digunakan.
[2 marks]
(ii) The decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 release heat.
Draw an energy profile diagram for both reactions in A and B. Label E a for the activation energy with
catalyst and E a for the activation energy without a catalyst.

Based on collision theory, explain why rate of reaction increase with time?
Tindak balas penguraian hidrogen peroksida, H2O2 membebaskan haba.Lukiskan satu gambar rajah
profil tenaga bagi kedua-dua tindak balas dalam Adan B. Labelkan Ea bagi tenaga pengaktian dengan
mangkin dan Ea bagi tenaga pengaktifan tanpa mangkin.

Berdasarkan teori perlanggaran, terangkan mengapa kadar tindak balas bertambah dengan masa?

Jawapan ;
(a) (i) Rate of reaction is the change in the volume of hydrogen gas released per unit time taken 1
Concentration
1
1.Correct formula of reactants and products
2.Balanced chemical equation 1
1
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

(ii) Experiment I = 50 // 2.5 cm3s-1 1


20

Experiment II = 50 // 1.0 cm3s-1 1


50
-Rate of reaction in experiment I is higher than higher Experiment II 1
-The concentration of acid in Experiment I higher than in Experiment II // Number of hydrogen ions
per unit volume in Experiment I bigger than in Experiment II. 1
-Frequency of collision between hydrogen ions and zinc atoms in Experiment I is higher
-Frequency of effective collision between particles in Experiment I is higher than in Experiment II. 1

-kadar tindak balas dalam eksperimen 1 lebih tinggi daripada eksperimen II 1


-kepekatan asid dalam eksperimen I lebih tinggi daripada eksperimen II// bilangan ion hidrogen
per unit isipadu dalam eksperimen I lebih tinggi daripada eksperimen II
-frekuensi perlanggaran di antara ion hidrogen dengan atom logam zink dalam eksperimen I lebih
tinggi daripada eksperimen II
-frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan di antara zarah dalam eksperimen I lebih tinggi daripada
eksperimen II
16 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(b) (i) A 1
Manganese (IV) oxide/lead (II) oxide/lead (IV) oxide
Mangan (IV)oksida/ plumbum (II) oksida/ plumbum (IV)oksida 1

(ii) 1.Label of energy on vertical axis 1


2.The position of the energy level of the reactants is higher than the energy level of the product. 1
3.Correct position for E a
4.Correct position for E a 1
1.label Tenaga pada paksi menegak
2.kedudukan aras tenaga bagi bahan lebih tinggi daripada aras tenaga hasil
3.kedudukan yang betul bagi E a 1
4.kedudukan yang betul bagi Ea

Energy

Ea
Ea
Zn + 2HCl

ZnCl2 + H2

Reaction path

1. the presence of catalyst provide an alternative pathway 1


2. with a lower activation energy in created 1
3. number of colliding particles which are able to overcome the lower activation energy increases 1
4. frequency of effective collision increase
1
1. dengan kehadiran mangkin, satu laluan alternatif
2. dengan tenaga pengaktifan lebih rendah terbentuk
3. maka, bilangan zarah berlanggar yang dapat mengatasi tenaga pengaktifan yang lebih
rendah ini bertambah
4. kadar tindak balas bertambah.

17 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 11 : Sebatian Karbon

(a) Rajah 8 menunjukkan maklumat berkenaan hidrokarbon P


Diagram 8 shows information about a hydrocarbon P.

Karbon : 85.7%
Carbon
Hydrogen : 14.3 %
Hydrogen
Jisim molekul relatif/Relative molecular mass : 42
Jisim atom relatif /Relative atomic mass : C; 12 ; H ; 1

Diagram 8

Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan


Based on the information given,
tentukan formula molekul bagi P
determine the molecular formula of P.
lukiskan formula struktur P
draw the structural formula of P.
namakan P
name P
tuliskan formula am bagi P
write the general formula of P.
[10 marks]
Suggested answer;
Empirical formula

Elements Carbon Hydrogen


Mass (g) 85.7 100- 85.7 = 14.3
Number of mole 85.7 / 12 = 7.14 14.3 / 1 = 14.3
Mole ratio 7.14 / 7.14 14.3 / 7.14
= 1 =2
Empirical formula is CH2

Molecular formula;
Molecular formula = (CH2 )n
Relative molecular mass = (12 + 2) n = 42
n = 3
Molecular formula of P = C 3 H6

Structural formula:

H H H
I I I
H-C = C -C- H
I
H

Name P : propena /propene


General formula P : CnH2n

b) Hidrokarbon P boleh ditukarkan kepada hidrokarbon Q melalui tindak balas penghidrogenan.


Hydrocarbon P can be converted into hydrocarbon Q by hydrogenation reaction.
i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini.
Write a chemical reaction for this reaction.
[1 mark]
Suggested answer;
1. C3 H6 + H2 C 3 H8

18 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

ii) Hidrokarbon P dan Q terbakar dengan lengkap dalam udara.


Bandingkan kejelagaan nyalaan yang terhasil semasa tindak balas ini. Terangkan jawapan anda.
Hydrocarbon P and Q are burnt completely in air.
Compare the sootiness of the flame produced during the reaction. Explain your answer.
[6 marks]
Suggested answer;
P ( or C 3 H6) Q (or C3 H8)
12 x 3 x 100 % 12 x 3 x 100 %
42 44
= 85.71 % = 81.82 %
% of carbon in molecule P is higher than molecule Q.
P produce more soot than Q .

c) Huraikan secara ringkas bagaimana P boleh ditukarkan kepada satu alkohol.


Describe briefly how to convert P into an alcohol.
[3 marks]
Suggested answer;
1. React P with steam at
2. Temperature 300 oC and pressure 60 atm
3. With present of concentrated phosphoric acid (catalyst)

K2/E/T5 : Bab 11 : Sebatian Karbon

(a) Table 8 shows the molecular formula of hydrocarbon X and hydrocarbon Y.


Jadual 8 menunjukkan formula molekul bagi hidrokarbon X dan hidrokarbon Y.

Hydrocarbon Molecular formula


Hidrokarbon Formula molekul
X C 4H10

Y C 4H8

Table / Jadual 8

(i) Identify the saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon.


Explain why.
Kenal pasti hidrokarbon tepu dan hidrokarbon tak tepu.
Terangkan mengapa.
[4 marks]

(ii) Hydrocarbon Y produced more soot than Hydrocarbon Y when it is burnt in oxygen. Explain your
answer.
Hidrokarbon Y menghasilkan jelaga yang lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan Hidrokarbon X
apabila dibakar dalam oksigen. Terangkan jawapan anda.

[Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : C = 12 ; O = 16]


[2 marks]

(iii) Draw the structural formula of any one of the isomer of hydrocarbon Y and state the name of the
structural formula.
Lukiskan formula struktur bagi mana-mana satu isomer bagi hidrokarbon Y dan nyatakan nama
bagi formula struktur tersebut.
[2 marks]

(iv) Hydrocarbon Y can be converted hydrocarbon X.


State the name of the process and the condition needed.
Write the chemical equation involved

Hidrokarbon Y boleh ditukarkan kepada hidrokarbon X.


Nyatakan nama proses dan keadaan yang diperlukan.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang terlibat.
[4 marks]

19 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(b) Diagram 8 shows a series of chemical reactions.


Rajah 8 menunjukkan satu siri tindak balas kimia.

Process I
Proses I
A C4H9OH
+ H2O
300 oC
60 atm
Process II Butyl ethanoate
Proses II Butil etanoat

Diagram / Rajah 8

(i) State the name of A, B and Process II.


Nyatakan nama bagi A, B dan Proses II.
[3 marks]
(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in Process I.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas dalam Proses I.
[2 marks]

(iii) C4H9OH can be converted to A.


C4H9OH boleh ditukarkan semula kepada A.

Draw the set-up of diagram to carry out the experiment in school laboratory
Lukiskan gambar rajah susunan radas untuk menjalankan eksperimen tersebut di
dalam makmal sekolah

Write the chemical equation for the reaction


Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas tersebut
[3 marks]

Skema

(a) (i) Saturated hydrocarbon : X 1


1. Contains only single covalent bond between carbon atoms // C - C single covalent bond
2. 1
Unsaturated hydrocarbon : Y
Contains at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms // C = C double 1
covalent bond
1
(iii) Percentage of carbon by mass per molecule of hydrocarbon Y is higher.
1
Calculation :
1
% of C in Y = 4(12) x 100
4(12) + 8(1)

= 85.71 %

% of C in X = 4(12) x 100
4(12) + 10(1)

= 82.76 %

20 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(iii) [Any one structural formula of the isomers]


[Correct structural formula] 1
[Correct name] 1

Answer :

H H H H H H H H
H C C C C H H C C C C H
H H H H
But-1-ene But-2-ene
H H
H C C C H Methylpropene
H
H C H
H

(iv) Hydrogenation // Addition of hydrogen 1

Temperature : 180 oC 1
Catalyst : Nickel // Platinum 1

C4H8 + H2 C 4H10 1

K2/E/T5 : Bab 11 : Sebatian Karbon

Trial Kedah16
Diagram 7 shows the structural formulae of two hydrocarbons.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi dua hidrokarbon.

H H H H H H

HCCCH HC = CCH

H H H H
Hydrocarbon A Hydrocarbon B
Hidrokarbon A Hidrokarbon B
Diagram 7.1
Rajah 7.1
(a) State the differences between hydrocarbon A and hydrocarbon B.
Nyatakan perbezaan antara hidrokarbon A dan hidrokarbon B.
[4 marks]

(b) The information below is about hydrocarbon Q.


Maklumat di bawah adalah tentang hidrokarbon Q.

o The empirical formula is CH 2


o Formula empirik ialah CH2
o Mass of 1 mole of Q is 28 g
o Jisim bagi 1 mol Q ialah 28 g
o Dehydration process is used to produce hydrocarbon Q.
o Proses pendehidratan digunakan untuk menghasilkan Q

21 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

Diagram 7.2
Rajah 7.2

Determine the molecular formula for hydrocarbon Q.


State the name of homologous series for Q and explain your answer.
Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of hydrocarbon Q with steam and name the
product formed.
[Relative atomic mass of C = 12 ; H = 1]
Tentukan formula molekul bagi hidrokarbon Q.
Nyatakan nama siri homolog bagi Q dan terangkan jawapan anda.
Tulis persamaan kimia seimbang untuk tindak balas hidrokarbon Q dengan stim dan namakan hasil
yang terbentuk.
[Jisim atom relatif bagi C = 12 ; H = 1]
[6 marks]

(c) Table 7shows the observations of the reaction between compound L with magnesium, ethanol and
calcium carbonate respectively. Compound L consists of two carbon atoms.
Jadual 7 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi tindak balas antara sebatian L dengan magnesium, etanol dan
kalsium karbonat masing-masing.Sebatian L terdiri daripada dua atom karbon.

Experiment Reactants Observation


Eksperimen Bahan tindak balas Pemerhatian
Effervescence occurs.
Compound Land magnesium Gas X produced, a pop sound produced
Sebatian L dan magnesium when gas tested with a burning splinter.
Pembuakan berlaku.
I Gas X dihasilkan. Bunyi pop terhasil
apabila gas diuji dengan kayu uji menyala.

Compound L and ethanol with a


Produced compound K with fruity smell.
II catalyst
Menghasilkansebatian K yang berbau
Sebatian Ldan etanol dengan
wangi.
sejenis mangkin
Effervescence occurs.
Compound L and calcium Gas Y produced, turns lime water chalky.
III carbonate Pembuakan berlaku.
Sebatian Ldan kalsium karbonat. Gas Y dihasilkan, menukarkan air kapur
menjadi keruh.

Table 7
Jadual 7
Based on Table 7,
Berdasarkan Jadual 7,

State the molecular formula for compound L and its functional group.
Name compound L then identify gas X, compound K and gas Y
Based on experiment II, State type of reaction occurred, write the chemical equation and name the
catalyst used.
Nyatakan formula molekul bagi sebatian L dan kumpulan berfungsinya.
Namakan sebatian L kemudian kenalpasti gas X, sebatian K dan gas Y.
Dari eksperimen II, nyatakan jenis tindak balas berlaku, tuliskan persamaan kimia dan namakan
mangkin yang digunakan.
[10 marks]

22 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

Cadangan jawapan ;
(a) Hydrocarbon A Hydrocarbon B
Hidrokarbon A Hidrokarbon B
Functional group Single bond Double bond
Kumpulan befungsi Ikatan tunggal Ikatan ganda dua 1
Chemical formula C 3H8 C 3H6
Formula kimia
Homologous series Alkane Alkene 1
Siri homolog Alkana Alkena
General formula C nH2n C nH2n+2 1
Formula am
1 4

(b) Molecular formula / formula molekul

C nH2n = 28
12n + 1(2n) = 28
14 n = 28
n=2 1

Q = C 2H4 1

Homologous series = alkene / alkene 1


Because it contains double bond / mengandungi ikatan ganda dua 1

C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH


Ethanol / etanol
1
1 6

(c) CH3COOH 1
-COOH, carboxyl group 1

L= ethanoic acid / asid etanoik 1


X= hydrogen gas / gas hidrogen 1
K= ethyl ethanoate / etil etanoat 1
Y= carbon dioxide gas / gas karbon dioksida 1

Esterification / pengesteran 1

1. Correct formula of reactant and product 1


2. Balance equation 1
CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

Catalyst / mangkin : concentrated sulphuric acid / asid sulfurik pekat


1 10
Total 20

23 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 12 : Pengoksidaan dan penurunan

Table 7shows the observations of the reaction between compound L with magnesium, ethanol and calcium
carbonate respectively. Compound L consists of two carbon atoms.
Jadual 7 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi tindak balas antara sebatian L dengan magnesium, etanol dan
kalsium karbonat masing-masing.Sebatian L terdiri daripada dua atom karbon.

Experiment Reactants Observation


Eksperimen Bahan tindak balas Pemerhatian
Effervescence occurs.
Compound Land magnesium Gas X produced, a pop sound produced when gas
Sebatian L dan magnesium tested with a burning splinter.
Pembuakan berlaku.
I Gas X dihasilkan. Bunyi pop terhasil apabila gas
diuji dengan kayu uji menyala.

Compound L and ethanol with a


II catalyst Produced compound K with fruity smell.
Sebatian Ldan etanol dengan Menghasilkansebatian K yang berbau wangi.
sejenis mangkin
Effervescence occurs.
Compound L and calcium Gas Y produced, turns lime water chalky.
III carbonate Pembuakan berlaku.
Sebatian Ldan kalsium karbonat. Gas Y dihasilkan, menukarkan air kapur menjadi
keruh.

Table 7
Jadual 7
Based on Table 7,
Berdasarkan Jadual 7,

State the molecular formula for compound L and its functional group.
Name compound L then identify gas X, compound K and gas Y
Based on experiment II, State type of reaction occurred, write the chemical equation and name the catalyst
used.
Nyatakan formula molekul bagi sebatian L dan kumpulan berfungsinya.
Namakan sebatian L kemudian kenalpasti gas X, sebatian K dan gas Y.
Dari eksperimen II, nyatakan jenis tindak balas berlaku, tuliskan persamaan kimia dan namakan mangkin
yang digunakan.
[10 marks]

Cadangan jawapan ;
CH3COOH 1
-COOH, carboxyl group 1

L= ethanoic acid / asid etanoik 1


X= hydrogen gas / gas hidrogen 1
K= ethyl ethanoate / etil etanoat 1
Y= carbon dioxide gas / gas karbon dioksida 1

Esterification / pengesteran 1

3. Correct formula of reactant and product 1


4. Balance equation 1
CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

Catalyst / mangkin : concentrated sulphuric acid / asid sulfurik pekat


1 10
Total 20

24 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 12 : Pengoksidaan dan penurunan

(a) Diagram 10 shows the apparatus set-up to investigate the redox reaction between substance P and copper(II)
oxide powder
Rajah 10 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks antara bahan P dan sebuk
kuprum(II) oksida.

Rajah 10 /Diagram 10
Suggest substance P.
Based on your answer, explain why the reaction in diagram 10 is a redox reaction in terms of the change in
oxidation number.
Cadangkan bahan P .
Berdasarkan jawapan anda , terangkan mengapa tindak balas dalam Rajah 10 merupakan tindak balas
redoks dari segi perubahan nombor pengoksidaan.
[4 marks]
(b) Table 10 shows the result of two experiments to study the effects of metal X dan Y on the rusting of iron.
Jadual 10 menunjukkan keputusan bagi dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan logam X dan Y terhadap

Experiment / Observation
Eksperimen Pemerhatian
I Blue spots formed

Tompok biru
terbentuk

II Pink spot formed.

Tompok merah
jambu terbentuk

pengaratan besi.
Table 10 / Jadual 10

Explain the observation in experiment I and experiment II.


Terangkan pemerhatian dalam eksperimen I dan eksperiment II.
[ 6 marks ]

(c) The transfer of electrons takes place in many redox reactions.


With the help of a labeled diagram, describe an experiment that you can
carry out to study the redox reaction through the transfer of electrons at a
distance.
Predict the observation and write the equation for the oxidation andreduction.

25 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

Pemindahan elektron terlibat banyak dalam tindak balas redoks. Dengan bantuan gambar rajah
berlabel,huraikan satu eksperimen yang dapat dijalankan untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks melalui
pemindahan electron pada satu jarak.
Ramalkan pemerhatian dan tuliskan persamaan bagi pengoksidaan dan penurunan.
[10 marks]

Cadangan jawapan

(a)
1. Mg/Al/Fe/Pb/Zn 1
2. Magnesium undergoes oxidation as oxidation number of magnesium increases from 0 to +2 and 1
3. Copper (II) oxide undergoes reduction as oxidation number of copper in copper(II) oxide decreases
from +2 to 0 1
4. Oxidation and reduction occur at the same time. 1

(b) Experiment I
1. Fe2+ion present 1
2. Metal X lower than iron in the Electrochemical Series //
Metal X is less electropositive than iron 1
3. Iron atoms releases electrons to form iron(II) ions 1

Experiment II
1. OH-ion present 1
2. Metal Y higher than iron in the Electrochemical Series // 1
Metal Y is more electropositive than iron 1
n+
3. Atom Y releases electrons to form Y ions 1
4. Water and oxygen gain electron to form OH-ion //
2H2O + O2 + 4e 4OH-
(c) [Material : Any suitable oxidizing agent
(example : acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution,
acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution, chlorine water, bromine
water),
any suitable reducing agent
(example : potassium iodide solution, iron(II) sulphate solution)
and any suitable electrolyte] 1

[ Apparatus : U-tube , carbon electrodes , connecting wires and galvanometer] 1

Diagram
Functional 1
Labelled 1

1
1
Procedure
1 Sulphuric acid is added into a U-tube until 1/3 full 1
2 Bromine water is added into one end of the U-tube
3 potassium iodide solution is added into the other end of the U- 1
tube carefully
4 Two carbon electrodes connected by connecting wires to a
galvanometer are dipped into the two solution at the two ends
of the U-tube.

Observation 1
The colour of bromine water change from brown to colourless// 1
The colour of potassium iodide solution change from colourless to
yellow/brown// 1
The needle of the galvanometer is deflected 1

Oxidation reaction : Br2+ 2e 2Br -


Reduction reaction: 2I- I2+ 2e

26 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 12 : Pengoksidaan dan penurunan

Diagram 7.1 shows a conversation between Sarah and her mother while preparing a dinner.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan perbualan antara Sarah dan ibunya ketika menyediakan makan malam.
2
1
Just sprinkle a pinch of What should i add
salt in the bowl. next, mom?
Hanya taburkan secubit Ibu, apa yang perlu
garam ke dalam saya tambah
mangkuk. seterusnya?

3
I see. Mom, why does the
ice cubes melt when I place
it on the table but not salt?
Oh! Begitu. Ibu,mengapa
kiub ais mencair apabila
saya letakkannya di atas
meja tetapi garam tidak?

Diagram 7.1
Rajah 7.1

(a) Based on the conversation in Diagram 7.1, explain the differences of the physical properties of ice cubes
and salt.
Berdasarkan perbualan dalam Rajah 7.1, jelaskan perbezaan sifat fizikal kiub ais dan garam.
[4 marks]
(b) Name the type of bond for the compounds mentioned in Diagram 7.1.
Explain the formation of the compounds.
Namakan jenis ikatan bagi sebatian-sebatian yang dinyatakan dalam Rajah 7.1.
Terangkan pembentukan sebatian-sebatian tersebut.
[10 marks]
(c) Diagram 7.2 shows an observation when table salt is added in two different solvents, solvent W and
solvent X. The property of the salt in the solvents is shown by ammeter reading when electrolysis process
is conducted.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan pemerhatian apabila garam ditambah ke dalam dua pelarut yang berbeza, pelarut
W dan pelarut X. Sifat garam dalam pelarut-pelarut itu ditunjukkan oleh bacaan ammeter apabila proses
elektrolisis dijalankan.
Table salt
Garam

Table salt in solvent W Table salt in solvent X


Garam di dalam pelarut W Garam di dalam pelarut X

Diagram
7.2

27 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(i) Based on Diagram 7.2, suggest solvent W and solvent X.


Berdasarkan Rajah 7.2, cadangkan pelarut W dan pelarut X.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

(ii) Explain the differences in the properties between table salt in solvent W and in solvent X.
Terangkan perbezaan di antara sifat garam di dalam pelarut W dan di dalam pelarut X.
[4 marks]
[4 markah]

Skema jawapan

(a) P1: Ice cube has low melting and point// molecules in ice cube are held by weak
intermolecular force of attraction.
P2: Less heat energy needed to overcome the weak force of attraction.
P3: Salts has high melting point// ions in salt are attracted by a strong electrostatic force of
attraction. 1
P4: Lots of heat energy needed to overcome the strong force of attraction. 1

1
1
(b) [able to name the type of bond for the compounds in Diagram 7 and explain the
formation of the compound correctly]

Sample answer;
1
P1: Ice cube: covalent bond
1
P2: Salt: ionic bond 1
1
P3: Electron arrangement of hydrogen atom is 1,
P4: Electron arrangement of oxygen atom is 2.6 1
1
P5: Two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electron with one oxygen atom// one oxygen atom
1
shares two pairs of electron with two hydrogen atoms 1
1
P6: to achieve stable duplet// octet electron arrangement
1
P7: Sodium atom has the electron arrangement of 2.8.1. 1
P8: Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is 2.8.7
1
P9: Sodium atom releases one electron to form sodium ion/ Na +.
P10: Chlorine atom receives one electron to form chloride ion/ Cl -.
P11: to achieve stable octet electron arrangement
P12: Sodium ion/ Na+ and chloride ion/ Cl- are attracted by a strong electrostatic force of
attraction.

(c) i. [able to suggest solvent W and solvent X correctly]

Sample answer;
Solvent W: water 1
Solvent X: tetrachloromethane/ methylbenzene/ diethyl eter/ cyclohexane
[a: suitable organic solvent] 1

ii. [able to explain the differences in the properties of the salt in solvent W and
solvent X]

Sample answer;
1
PI: Table salt/ sodium chloride can conduct electricity in solvent W
1
P2: Table salt/ sodium chloride in solvent W exists as free moving ions 1
P3: Table salt/ sodium chloride in solvent X cannot conduct electric.
1
P4: Table salt/ sodium chloride in solvent X has no free moving ions/ ions in a fix
position/Table salt cannot dissolve in solvent X

28 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 12 : Pengoksidaan dan penurunan

(a) The following equations represent two chemical reactions,


Berikut adalah persamaan-persamaan bagi dua tindak balas kimia.

I. AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3 (aq)

II. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)

Based on the above equations , determine whether it is a redox reaction or not.


Explain your answer based on oxidation number.
Berdasarkan kepada persamaan kimia di atas, tentukan sama ada tindak balas redoks atau bukan.
Terangkan jawapan anda berdasarkan nombor pengoksidaan.
[4 marks]
(b) Diagram 10 shows a cross section of two iron bars, P and Q which are plated by zinc and tin layers
respectively.
Rajah 10 menunjukkan keratan rentas bagi dua batang besi, P dan Q yang masing -masing disadur dengan
lapisan zink dan stanum.
Iron rod
Batang besi

P Q

Zinc layer Tin layer


Lapisan zink Lapisan stanum

Diagram 10
Explain how zinc and tin layers in P and Q protect the iron bars from corrosion. Determine which iron bar
is more protected from corrosion.
Terangkan bagaimana lapisan zink dan stanum dalam P dan Q melindungi besi dari kakisan.
Tentukan batang besi yang manakah lebih dilindungi dari kakisan.

[6 marks]
(c) Fe2+ ion can be oxidized to Fe3+ ion while Fe3+ ion can be reduced to Fe 2+ ion as shown in the following
half-equations .
2+ 3+ 3+ 2+
Ion Fe boleh dioksidakan kepada ion Fe manakala ion Fe boleh diturunkan kepada ion Fe seperti
ditunjukkan dalam setengah persamaan berikut.

Fe2+ Fe3+ + e
Fe3+ + e Fe2+

Describe an experiment to show how these two changes can be carried out. Your answer should includes
the chemicals required ,procedure ,observations and overall equations.
Huraikan satu eksperimen bagi menunjukkan bagaimana dua perubahan ini dapat dijalankan. Jawapan
anda harus mengandungi bahan kimia yang diperlukan,prosedur,pemerhatian dan persamaan keseluruhan.
[10 marks]

29 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

Skema jawapan

(a) 1. Reaction I is not a redox reaction 1


Tindak balas I bukan redoks
2. reasons: no changes in oxidation number in any elements 1
alasan : nombor pengoksidaan setiap unsur tidak berubah
3. Reaction II is a redox reaction 1
Tindak balas II adalah redoks
4. reason: oxidation number of Zn increases from 0 to +2 and Cu reduced from +2 to 0 1
alasan : nombor pengoksidaan Zn bertambah dari 0 ke +2 dan Cu berkurang dari +2 ke 0

(b) 1.zinc is more electropositive than iron 1


Zink lebih elektropositif daripada besi
2.zinc is oxidize 1
Zink dioksidakan
3.zinc protect iron from rusting 1
Zink melindungi besi daripada kakisan
4.iron is more electropositive than tin 1
besi lebih elektropositif daripada stanum
5. iron is oxidize 1
besi dioksidakan
6.tin speed up iron rusting 1
Stanum mempercepatkan kakisan besi

(c) 1. Chemical: iron (II) sulphate, bromine water , iron (III) sulphate, zinc powder 1
Bahan :ferum(II) sulfat ,air bromine ,ferum(III) sulfat,zink

[Change iron (II) to iron (III)]


3
2. 2cm iron (II) sulphate solution is poured into a test tube.
2cm 3 larutan ferum(II) sulfat dimasukkan ke dalam tabung uji 1
3. 2 drops Bromine water is added to the solution
2 titik air bromine ditambahkan ke dalam larutan 1
4. the test tube is warmed gently
tabung uji dipanaskan 1
5. Overall equation : 2Fe 2+ + Br2 2Fe3+ + 2Br-
Persamaan keseluruhan 1
6.Observation : The colour changes from green to brown
Pemerhatian :larutan hijau berubah perang 1

[Change iron (III) to iron (II)]

7. 2 cm3 iron (III) sulphate solution is poured into a test tube.


3
2 cm larutan ferum(III) sulfat dimasukkan ke dalam tabung uji 1

8. Half a spatula of zinc powder is added to the solution 1


Separuh spatula serbuk zink dimasukkan dalam larutan
1
9.Heat the mixture then, filtered
Campuran dipanas dan dituras 1

10.Overall ionic equation : 2Fe2+ + Zn 2Fe3+ + Zn2+ 1


Persamaan keseluruhan Max:10

11.Observation : The colour changes from brown to green


Pemerhatian :larutan perang berubah hijau

30 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 13 : Thermochemistry

The thermochemical equation below shows the formation of lead(II) sulphate.


Persamaan termokimia dibawah menunjukkan pembentukan plumbum (II) sulfat.
2+ 2- -1
Pb (aq) + SO4 (aq) PbSO4, H = - 50 kJmol

(a) Draw an energy level diagram for the above equation.


Explain the differences in energy content of the reactants compared to the product.
Lukiskan gambarajah aras tenaga bagi persamaan di atas.
Terangkan perbezaan kandungan tenaga dalam bahan tindak balas berbanding dengan hasil tindak balas.
[4 marks]

(b) Table 10 shows the thermochemical equations of neutralization reactions of three experiments.
Jadual 10 menunjukkan persamaan termokimia bagi tindak balas peneutralan bagi tiga eksperimen.

Experiment I : NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O H = - 57 kJmol-1


Eksperimen I:

Experiment II NaOH + CH3COOH CH3COONa + H2O H = -54 kJmol-


Eksperimen II:
1
-1
Experiment III NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O H = - 57 kJmol
Eksperimen III:

Table 10
Jadual 10

Compare heat of neutralisation between;


Bandingkan haba peneutralan antara;

(i) Experiment I and Experiment II


Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II

(ii) Experiment I and Experiment III


Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen III
[6marks]

Skema Jawapan

(a) (i)

energy

Pb 2+ (aq) + SO42-
(aq)

1
-1 1
H = -50 kJmol

PbSO4
1. Y-axes : energy
2. Two different level of energy
1. Paksi Y : tenaga
2. Dua aras tenaga berbeza

31 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(ii) 1.energy content of reactants is higher // products have less energy content 1
Bahan mempunyai tenaga yang lebih banyak//hasil mempunyai tenaga yang sedikit
1
2.heat is released during the experiment // this is exothermic reaction
haba dibebaskan semasa eksperimen// ini ialah tindak balas eksotermik

(b) (i) 1. heat of neutralization of exp. I is higher than exp. II 1


Haba peneutralan eks.I lebih tinggi daripada eks. II
1
2.HCl is strong acid and CH3COOH is weak acid
HCl ialah asid kuat dan CH3COOHialah asid lemah
1
3.strong acid / HCl ionized completely and weak acid/CH3COOH ionized partially in water
Asid kuat/HCl mengion dengan lengkap dalam air dan asid lemah/CH 3COOHmengion
separa dalam air

4. some of the heat released are absorbed to ionizes ethanoic acid inthe molecules
completely
sebahagian haba dibebaskan akan diserap untuk mengion molekul asid etanoik dengan
lengkap

(ii) 1. Value of Heat of neutralization is same 1


2. both experiments contain same number of hydrogen ion
1
1. Nilai Haba peneutralan adalah sama 1
2. Ini kerana kedua-dua eksperimen mengandungi kepekatan ion hidrogen yang sama
banyak

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2


COO Na +
CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

Bahagian X Part Y
Part X Bahagian Y
Rajah 1
Diagram 1
a) Namakan bahagian X dan bahagian Y. Nyatakan keterlarutan setiap bahagian di dalam air dan gris
Name part X and part Y. State the solubility of each parts in water and grease.
. [4 markah]
Cadangan jawapan;
Bahagian X /Part X
1. Bahagian hidrofobik/ Hydrophobic part
2. Larut dalam gris / dissolves in grease
Bahagian Y / Part Y
3. Bahagian hidrofilik /Hydrophilic part
4. Larut dalam air /dissolves in water

32 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

b) Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan susunan radas apabila seorang pelajar menjalankan dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji
kesan pembersihan bahan pencuci oleh sabun dan detergen keatas kotoran berminyak dalam air liat.
Diagram 2 shows a set-up of apparatus when a student carried out two experiments to investigate the cleansing effect of soap
and detergent on oily stained cloth in hard water.

Eksperimen
Experiment
Eksperimen I /Experiment I Eksperimen II /Experiment II
Sabun + air liat Sabun + air liat
Susunan Soap + hard water Detergent + hard water
radas
Arrangement
of apparatus

Kain kotor yang berminyak Kain kotor yang berminyak


Cloth with oily stain Cloth with oily stain
Pemerhatian Kotoran berminyak kekal Kotoran berminyak hilang
Observation Oily stain remained Oily stain disappeared
Rajah 2/ Diagram 2

Bandingkan kesan pembersihan antara Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II.


Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian tersebut.
Nyatakan bahan yang lebih sesuai sebagai bahan pencuci kotoran berminyak dalam air liat.
Compare the cleansing effect between Experiment I and Experiment II.
Explain why there are differences in the observations. State the substance which is more suitable as a cleansing agent to
remove stain in hard water.
[ 6 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
1. Pakaian dalam eksperimen II bersih manakala pakaian dalam eksperimen I kekal kotor.
The cloth in experiment II is clean whereas the cloth in Experiment I is still dirty.

2. Air liat mengandungi kepekatan ion magnesium yang tinggi.


Hard water contains high concentration of magnesium ion.

3. Dalam eksperimen I, sabun bertindak balas dengan ion magnesium dalam air liat menghasilkan
garam tak larut (skum)
In experiment I, soap react with magnesium ions in hard water to form scum (insoluble salt)

4. Dalam eksperimen II, detergen bertindak balas dengan ion magnesium dalam air liat membentuk
garam terlarutkan.
In experiment II, detergent reacts with magnesium ions in hard water to form soluble salt.

5. Detergen tidak membentuk skum/ Detergent does not form scum.

6. Detergen lebih sesuai agen pencuci daripada sabun.


Detergent is more suitable cleansing agent then soap.

33 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

Soalan :
a) Pesakit X,Y dan Z mengalami sakit gigi , pneumonia dan depresan. Apakah ubatan yang boleh digunakan untuk
merawat pesakit X, Y dan Z.
Patient X, Y and Z are suffering from dental pain, pneumonia and depression respectively.
What are the medicines that can be used to treat patients X, Y and Z ?
[3 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
1. Pesakit X : Analgesik /aspirin
Patient X : Analgesics/aspirin
2. Pesakit Y : Antibiotik/penisilin/streptomisin
Patient Y : Antibiotic/ penicillin/ streptomycin)
3. Pesakit Z : Psikioteraupeutik/ antidepres
Patient Z : Psychotherapeutic/antidepressant

b) Berdasarkan jawapan anda di (b),


Based on your answer in (b),
i) Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu diikuti oleh pesakit X apabila mengambil ubat. Jelaskan
mengapa.State one precaution that should be followed by patient X while taking the medicine. Explain why.
[2 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
Precaution:
1. Take after food.
2. Swallowed with plenty of water
Explain:
Acidic properties. So can cause irritation of the stomach.
To avoid internal bleeding (or ulceration)

ii) Jelaskan mengapa pesakit Y mesti menghabiskan kesemua ubat yang disyorkan walaupun beliau telah
sihat.
Explain why patient Y must complete the whole course of the medicine prescribes to him even if he feels better.
[3 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
To make sure all the bacteria are killed (becomes ill again)
bacteria become more resistant.
Need stronger antibiotic to fight the same infection

iii) Nyatakan dua kesan sampingan terhadap ubat yang diambil oleh pesakit Z.
State two side effects of the medicine taken by patient Z.
[2 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
Sedation
Loss of appetite.

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

b) i) Pesakit A menghidap batuk kering yang disebabkan oleh bakteria tertentu.


Apakah jenis ubat yang boleh digunakan untuk merawat pesakit A?
Patients A suffered from tuberculosis that caused by a certain bacteria.
What type of medicine that can be used to treat patient A?
Suggested answer ;
Streptomycin

ii) Explain why patient A must complete the whole course of the medicine that his doctor prescribes to
him even if he feels better.
Terangkan mengapa pesakit A mesti menghabiskan semua ubat yang dipreskripsikan oleh doktor
walaupun jika dia berasa sihat.
[5 marks]
Suggested answer ;

To make sure that all the bacteria are killed.


Otherwise, patient B may become ill again
bacteria may become more resistant to the antibiotic.
antibiotic become not effective again.

34 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

c) Pernyataan di bawah adalah tentang sabun dan detergen.


The statement below is about soap and detergent.

The cleaning action of detergent is more effective than soap in hard water.
Tindakan pencucian detergen lebih berkesan daripada pencucian sabun dalam air liat.

Anda diberi sehelai kain yang terkena gris.


You are given a piece of cloth stained with grease.

i) Describe briefly the experimental procedure, observation and conclusion to prove the above statement.
Huraikan dengan ringkas prosedur experiment, pemerhatian dan kesimpulan untuk membuktikan
pernyataan di atas.
[5 marks]
Suggested answer ;

Procedure:
1. Two beakers are filled with hard water.
2. Soap is added to one beaker and detergent is added to another beaker.
3. A piece of dirty cloth is placed into each beaker and agitated.

Observations:
Soap in hard water Detergent in hard water
1. cloth not clean 1. cloth clean
2. scum forms 2. no scum
3 water less dirty 3. water turns dirty

Conclusion: detergent cleans stains more effectively than soap.

ii) Explain how soap works in removing grease from a piece of cloth.
Terangkan bagaimana sabun bertindak dalam menanggalkan gris daripada sehelai kain.
[6 marks]
Suggested answer ;

soap particles dissolve in water to produces soap anion.


the hydrophilic part dissolve in water while the hydrophobic part dissolves in grease
during scrubbing, grease is lifted off the surface.
hydrophobic part surrounded the grease
grease is broken up into small droplets and forming an emulsion.
when rinsed, the grease droplet will be removed

35 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

b) Jadual 10 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan pencucian sabun dan detergen
ke atas kotoran berminyak dalam air liat
Table 10 shows the observations for two experiments to investigate cleansing effect of soap and detergent on oily stain in ha rd
water.

Eksperimen /Experiment Pemerhatian / Observation


I
Kotoran berminyak kekal
Oily stains remained
Sabun + air liat
Soap + hard water
Pakaian
Cloth Kotoran berminyak
Oily stains

II

Detergen + air liat


Detergent +hard water Kotoran berminyak hilang
Pakaian Oily stains disappeared
Cloth Kotoran berminyak
Oily stains

Berdasarkan Jadual 10, terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian dengan membandingkan
kesan pencucian sabun dan detergen dalam air liat.
Based on Table 10, explain why there are differences in observation by comparing the cleansing effect of soap and detergent
in hard water .
[6 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
2+
1. Air liat mengandungi ion magnesium,Mg .
2+
Hard water contains magnesium ion, Mg .

Dalam eksperimen 1/ In Experiment 1,


2. sabun bertindak balas dengan ion magnesium,Mg 2+ membentuk garam tak larut/skum
2+
soap react with magnesium ion, Mg to form insoluble salt/scum

3. Tiada buih terbentuk


No foam formed.

Dalam eksperimen II/ In Eksperiment 2,


2+
4. detergen bertindak balas dengan ion magnesium/Mg membentuk garam terlarutkan. Tiada skum
2+
detergent react with magnesium ion, Mg form soluble salt. No scum

5. buih terbentuk
foam is formed.

6. Detergen lebih berkesan daripada sabun.


detergent is more effective than soap.

36 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

Seorang pesakit mengalami batuk kering dalam suatu tempoh masa yang lama.
Cadangkan jenis ubat yang patut digunakan dan aturan yang perlu dipatuhi oleh pesakit itu.
A patient is suffering from tuberculosis for a period of time.
Suggest a type of medicine that should be taken and the prescription should be followed by the patient.
[4 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;
Ubat-ubatan /Medicine
1. Antibiotik/ Antibiotic
Aturan penggunaan/ Prescription:
2. Pesakit mesti menghabiskan semua ubat.
the patient must complete the whole course
3. Ikut arahan tentang dos dan kaedah pengambilan
follow the instructions concerning the dosage and method of taking
4. Jangan memberikan ubat kepada orang lain.
do not prescribe medicines for another people.
5. Jangan menggunakan ubat selepas tarikh lupus
do not take the medicine after the expiry date.

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

Diagram 7.2 menunjukan struktur bagi bahagian anion bagi satu sabun dan satu detergen. Anion-anion ini terdiri
daripada bahagian A dan bahagian B seperti ditunjukan dalam diagram 7.2
Diagram 7.2 shows the structure of anion parts of soap and a detergent. These anions consist of part A and
part B as shown in the diagram 7.2

Anion sabun
Anion of a soap

Anion detergen
Anion of a
detergent
Bahagian A Bahagian B
PartA Part B

Rajah 7.2
Diagram 7.2

a) Namakan bahagian A dan bahagian B dalam anion itu.


Nyatakan keterlarutan bahagian A dan bahagian B dalam tindakan pembersihan.
Name part A and part B of the anions. State the solubility of part A and part B in the cleansing action.
[4 markah]
Cadangan jawapan ;

Bahagian A /Part A:

1. Bahagian hidrofobik/ Hydrophobic part

2. Bahagian A melarut dalam minyak/gris


Part A is dissolved in oil/grease

Bahagian B / Part B ;

3. Bahagian hidrofilik/ Hydrophilic part


4. Bahagian B melarut dalam air.
Part B is dissolved in water.

37 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

b) Bandingkan keberkesanan bagi tindakan pembersihan dua anion yang ditunjukkan dalam diagram 7.2 dalam air
liat. Terangkan jawapan anda.
Tulis satu persamaan ion bagi tindak balas anion bagi sabun dalam air liat.
Compare the effectiveness of the cleansing action of the two anions shows in the diagram 7.2 in hard
water. Explain your answer. Write an ionic equation to show the reaction of anion of soap in hard water.
[6 markah]
Cadangan jawapan :
1. Anion detergen lebih berkesan daripada anion sabun dalam air liat.
Anions of detergent are more effective than anions of soap in hard water.

Penerangan /Explanation;
2. Anion sabun bertindak balas dengan ion magnesium,Mg 2+ dalam air liat untuk menghasilkan garam tak
larut/skum.
Anions of soap react with magnesium ions, Mg 2+ in hard water to form scum.

3. Kuantiti anion sabun berkurang


Amount of anions of soap is reduced.

4. Anion detergen membentuk garam terlarutkan. Tiada skum.


Anions of detergent forms the soluble salt. do not form scum.

5. Buih terhasil. /Foam are formed.

6. Persamaan ion/Ionic equation: 2 CH3(CH2)14COO- + Ca2+ [CH3(CH2)14COO]2Ca

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

A student discoverd that his socks have oily stains. He washed them with soap

(a) Explain the cleansing action of soap on the oily stains.


Terangkan tindakan pencucian sabun terhadap kekotoran berminyak
[8 mark]

Suggested answer ;

Soap dissolves in water to form soap ions which consists of hydrophobic part and hydrophilic part
The hydrophilic part dissolves in the water.
Soap reduces the surface tension of water. This enables water to wet the surface to be cleansed more
During the washing process, hydrophobic part dissolves in oily dirt and the hydrophilic part dissolves
in water.
When rinse, soap molecules together with dirt will be removed by water.
Soap emulsifies grease and during rinsing, oil will be removed together with soap and water

38 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

(b) A student carried out four experiments to investigate the cleansing effects of soap and detergents on oily
stains in soft water and hard water.
Table 2 shows the set-up of apparatus, types of water used and the observations for experiments I, II, III and
IV.

Experiment I II III IV
Set-up of
apparatus

observation Oily stains Oily stains remained Oily stains Oily stains
disappeared disappeared disappeared
Table 2
Compare the cleansing effects between
(i) Experiments I and II
(ii) Experiments II and IV
Explain why there are differences in the observations. State the substance which is more suitable as a cleansing
agent to remove oily stains.
[8 marks]
Suggested answer ;

(i) Experimens I and II.


The cleansing of cloth with oily stains in experiment I is more effective than in experiment II.
The cloth in experiment I is clean whereas the cloth in experiment II is still dirty
For experiment II, cleansing cannot be done because hard water contains calcium and magnesium
ion.
These ions will react with soap ions to form scum and a lot of soap will be wasted.

(ii) Experimens II and IV


Cleansing can be done in experiment IV compared to the experiment II.
The cloth in experiment II remains dirty whereas the cloth in experiment IV is clean.
In experiment IV, detergent does not form scum and highly soluble in water compared to soap.
Detergents are better cleansing agent to remove oily stains because it can be applied in both hard
and soft water

39 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16
Modul Tudingan Akhir
Skor A+ Kimia S PM_2016

K2/E/T5 : Bab 14 : Chemical for Consumer

Diagram 7.3

(i) Based on the given information in Diagram 7.3, compare and explain the effectiveness of the cleaning
action between
Experiments I and III
Experiments II and IV
(ii) Identify the cleaning agents, A and B. State which cleaning agent is more effective.

Suggested answer ;

Experiments I and III


Soft water does not contain calcium ion and magnesium ion
Cleaning agents A and B both dissolve in soft water
Cleaning action in Experiment I is as effective as cleaning action in Experiment III
Experiments II and IV
Hard water contains calcium ions and magnesium ions
Cleaning agent A reacts with calcium ion and magnesium ion to form insoluble salt or scum.
Cleaning agent B does not form scum/precipitate/insoluble salt.

Cleaning action in Experiment IV is more effective than cleaning action in Experiment II


Cleaning agent A : Soap
Cleaning agent B : Detergent
Cleaning agent B is more effective than cleaning agent A. [10 marks]

TAMAT MODUL

40 | @Te am RajaBio/chemistryspm16