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e-ISSN: 2250-3021, p-ISSN: 2278-8719

Vol. 3, Issue 9 (September. 2013), ||V2|| PP 25-35

**A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation
**

intensity in the Basrah province (south of Iraq)

Asaad Rehman Saeed Al-Hilphy

Food Sciences Dept., Agric. College, Basrah Univesity, Basrah, Iraq

**Abstract: - A theoretical and practical study was conducted to the incident solar radiation intensity on a
**

horizontal surface and another making an angle 30o with the horizontal at Basra province, Iraq, during the years

2006 and 2011. The results showed that the intensity of solar radiation increased significantly (p<0.05) as

daylight hours increasing reaching a maximum value of 740 `W/m2 at midday and then decreased after that. This

was found to be the trend throughout all months of the two years of our investigation. The intensity of solar

radiation varied from one month to another. In addition, the solar radiation falling on the inclined surface is

higher than that falling on a horizontal surface. The study also found that there was a significant difference in

the intensity of solar radiation between 2006 and 2011. Empirical equations of the fourth order were developed

to predict the incident solar radiation on a horizontal, as well as another inclined surface in the Basra province

(south of Iraq)

Keywords: solar radiation, Basrah, horizontal surface.

I. INTRODUCTION

The performance of any solar thermal system depends on the solar radiation available to it. Solar

radiation is characterized by it’s variability. Even when abundant, it varies during the day, reaching a maximum

at noon when the path length through the atmosphere is the shortest. Unless the collector is continuously turned

to face the sun, the sun changing altitude and azimuth will reduce the collected heat below the potential

maximum. The hours day light also vary seasonally, being the shortest in winter when the need for heat is the

greatest [1].

A know ledge of the local solar-radiation is essential for the proper design of building energy systems,

solar energy systems and a good evaluation of thermal environment within buildings [2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7]. In the

design and study of solar energy, information on solar radiation and its components at a give location is very

essential. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturist sand hydrologists for

many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings[8]. Predicted to

be the clean energy of tomorrow, solar energy has been in the forefront of energy development in many

developed countries and a potential source of energy to developing countries like Malaysia[9].

Madhi [10] Found in the city of Basrah, the measured and calculated solar radiation intensity that

incident on the inclined surface 20 deg. angle in September 1984 was increased with the increase in daylight

hours and up to the maximum value at midday and then down to the end of the day, when daylight hours 9, 10,

12, 14 and 16, the values of the measured solar radiation intensity were 965, 1070, 945, and 500 W/m 2 also, the

calculated were 770, 910, 990, 850 and 450 W/m2 respectively.

Sabbah [11] stated that the highest value of incident solar radiation intensity on the sloped surface by

angle of 35 deg. in Saudi Arabia in the midday is 1330 W and its lowest value is 805 W at four o'clock pm. As

mentioned Jensen [12] In Ghana in January 2000 that the incident solar radiation intensity on the sloped surface

of 30 deg., when daylight hours are 9, 10, 12, 14, 16 300, 600, 820, 670 and 500 W/m2 respectively. Sebaii [13]

in Egypt, are explained that the intensity of solar radiation on 4 August 2000 is reached to 1010 W/m 2 at

midday, then decreased to 300 W/m2 at four o'clock pm. [14 and 15] were confirmed that the incident solar

radiation intensity on inclined surfaces was increased with increasing daylight hours and up to a maximum at

midday then decreased thereafter.

The average of intensity of solar radiation in Australia is reached to 27.1 and 19.4 on 20 January and 18

March 2000 respectively [16]. Katiyar & Pandey [17] stated that the maximum of solar radiation intensity in

India was 700 W/m2 at midday in July. Because no detail studies about incidence solar radiation intensity in

Basrah province during different times, therefore the aim of present study to investigation the incidence

theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity on the Basrah province and study it’s changes during different

times.

www.iosrjen.org 25 | P a g e

type CM11. Solar time is the time used in all of the sun-angle relationship. mathematical equations have been resolved by the Excel program to extract the values of theoretical solar radiation intensity. Z is the local standard time (hour) and ST is the solar time. (6) Where is the latitude. Netherlands. N is the day number in the year .org 26 | P a g e . LSD test at 0. ( is the solar declination and is the solar collector angle. and the longitudes are in degree. In regard to the Basrah province taken negative sign. MATERIALS AND METHODS Solar radiation intensity was measured by pyranometer device which manufactured by Kipp and Zonen company.iosrjen. Theoretical solar radiation intensity calculation Theoretical solar radiation intensity has been calculated according to [1]. Taken positive signal when the city is located east longitude local authorized record in the local time and is negative when the city west of the standard meridian. Theoretical results were compared with practical also. can be obtained from [1 and 20].1980) (5) Incident angle ( Is the angle of the fall of solar radiation on the surface of the solar collector. The following empirical equation is recommended for calculation of declination angle: (1) Where is Declination angle. vertical effect for direct radiation falling on a horizontal surface is calculated from the following equation: (8) The incidence diffuse radiation falling on the horizontal surface is calculated from the following equation: www. it does not with local clock time [21]. The monthly average of solar radiation intensity was taken to three different days of each month. (2) Where are constants and is time of equation. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province II. solar hour angle)ω( Is displacement sun from noon [22].05 significantly level was used to compare among treatments means using SPSS software [18].78). (3) Where is the standard meridian for the local time zone (in Basrah province is 40). Direct normal irradiance is calculated from the equation (7): (7) Where (B) is the extinction Coefficient and (A) is apparent extraterrestrial solar intensity. A factorial experiment with completely randomized design was used. Equation of time is calculated according to [19]. is the longitude of the location (in Basrah province is 47. (4) The zenith angle and it’s complement the sun altitude are then given by: (Lunde.

9. and 24] Who confirmed that the intensity of solar radiation increases with increasing daylight hours and up to a maximum value at midday then reduced after that.05) with increasing daylight hours and reached a maximum value at 12:00 noon then decreased thereafter to reach the lowest value at four o'clock pm for all months of the year 2006 and 2011. which include zenith angle and altitude angle and azimuth angle and reaches the value of the last to zero at midday and to great value at sunrise and sunst as well as changing the angle at hour angle with the daylight hours. 23. which show the incidence theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity on horizontal surfaces and another making an angle 30o with the horizontal during the daytime hours for all the months of the years 2006 and 2011. (13) Angle factor is calculated from equation (14): = (14) To calculate the incident direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface will compensate equations (8. 13 and 14) in the equation (12): (15) So that the total radiation falling on the inclined surface be: (16) When compensation equations (11) and (15) in equation (16) which can calculate the solar radiation intensity falling on the inclined surface: (17) III.13. and the circumstances of those cities are different from the conditions city of www. The theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity falling on horizontal surfaces and inclined surfaces with angle of 30 degrees has increased significantly (P<0. This is due to the Earth's rotation on its axis and as a result change solar angles with daylight hours. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Observed from Tables 1 to 4. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province (9) Where c is a constant.iosrjen. 13. The total incidence solar radiation falling on the horizontal surface is: (10) The direct solar radiation falling on the inclined surface is calculated from the following equation: (11) The diffuse solar radiation falling on the inclined surface is calculated from the following equation: (12) Shape Factor is used to rectangular surfaces and calculated according to Farber (1977).14.org 27 | P a g e . These results are agreed with [10. The reason for the emergence of the differences between the theoretical and practical intensity of solar radiation because the theoretical values based on the intensity of solar radiation outside the atmosphere and the extinction Coefficient and coefficient of solar radiation scattered calculated the cities of the United States by the meteorological stations in which.

all the relationships are linear equations for all months of the year 2006. which led to the occurrence of these differences.05).7 W/m2.org 28 | P a g e .99469 As shown in Table 5. www. Figures from 1 to 4 show the relationship between the theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity. the average intensity of solar radiation falling on a horizontal surface in January 2006 was 530. The results also showed that the correlation between the theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity was significantly (p<0. In the summer months the northern end of the axis of rotation of the Earth is tilted toward the sun and be a day longer than the night at each position of the northern hemisphere and the sun is closer to be perpendicular to the surface of the earth.752255 - 0.09 W/m2 and in the July was 620. This is due to the different sun inclination in different seasons. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province Basra. as well as the coefficient of determination R2 ranged from 0. As the escalation of light dust in the air reduces the total solar radiation energy hands-on despite the survival of the sky is clear this is the inherent advantage of the summer climate of the southern city of Basra where dust billowing in the afternoon most days. The results showed that the incident solar radiation intensity on a horizontal surface and another making an angle 30o with the horizontal was vary from one month to another in 2006 and 2011.iosrjen. Also noted Lunde [1] that the energy of solar radiation outside the atmosphere changing with the seasons of the year as a result of changing the distance between the sun and the earth. For example.

A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province www.org 29 | P a g e .iosrjen.

iosrjen.A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province www.org 30 | P a g e .

org 31 | P a g e .96. as shown in Tables 6 and 7 are show that constants of the equation which governing the relationship between the daylight hours and the intensity of solar radiation.the coefficient of determination between them more than 0. www.iosrjen. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province The relationship between the daylight hours and the intensity of solar radiation falling on the surface of the horizontal and another making an angle 30o with the horizontal is the equation of the fourth order IT =a+b0t+b1t2+b2t3+b3t4 .

The equations constants which used for prediction of practical solar radiation intensity on inclined surfaces with angle of 30 deg. www.A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province Table 7.org 32 | P a g e .iosrjen. in 2006 and 2011.

www.05) higher than those falling on the horizontal surface. which shows the average of the theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity falling on a horizontal surface and another making an angle 30o with the horizontal. Theoretical and practical solar radiation intensity falling on the surface of the inclined angle of 30 degrees was significantly (p<0.org 33 | P a g e . and also rate the incidence practical solar radiation intensity falling on a horizontal surface and another on the surface of the inclined angle of 30 degrees in 2011 was highest significantly (p<0. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province Seen from Figure 5.iosrjen.05) of those fallen in 2006.

Abaul-Enein . Vol. Empirical equations were concluded of the fourth order strongly to predict solar radiation in the southern city of Basra.7756 – 583 – 5 . coll. [9] S. Un investigation into solar assisted desiccant-evaporative air conditioning system. Sebaii . ―Review on Malaysia’s national energy developments: Key policies. Iqbal M. CONCLUSION We can conclude from the current study that the intensity of theoretical and practical solar radiation is change with daylight hours and up to highest value at midday. [11] M. Ramadan & H. Forman . Renew. (1986). Machler. Willey . Sabbah . REFERENCES [1] P. Spain. Solar radiation models – review. [10] S. J.C. p. (1985). Solar heat gain factors and the implications for building designs in subtropical regions. Handbook: HVAC applications. 121–44. As the intensity of theoretical and practical solar radiation is vary from one month to another. Kristensen & T. Here comes the Sun: solar energy from a flat-plate collector. Trujillo. 32(1):47–55.. pp. (1980). E. . 2916-2925. [7] . Solar performance and shadow behaviour in buildings — case study with computer modelling of a building in Loranca.Design and performance of a solar drying system in Riyadh area . [5] J. Agric. Transactions of the ASAE. F. first edition .J. International Journal of Energy and Enviromental. Madhi. www. Thesis. H. Tiwari.N. New York . . (2000). Engineering college. 49-76 . 3.Test of a solar crop dryer . Sust.A. 1 . Lam. 8 No. 14.agencies. In: Modeling the worldin a spreadsheet-environmental simulation on a microcomputer. p. CDS Generation of daily and hourly solar radiation values for modeling water quality in aquaculture ponds.R. Intensity of solar radiation in 2011 was higher than in 2006. Ener. Energy and Buildingsz. [2] Z. Cartwright. Li. Energy convection and management. 1. C. [8] M. Ahmad & G. MSc. Basrah univ. (1993). [12] S.(1985). H. [4] TJ. Vol. (2010). 2010. London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. (1998). S. [13] A. (1998). [6] ASHRAE. Lu. (2002). Lunde. pp. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province IV.513-532. A modification of the ASHRAE clear-sky irradiation model. J. Solar thermal engineering . Neto. 43 .iosrjen. Vol.King Saud Unv.H. Denmark. Experimental investigation of an indirect type natural convection solar dryer . Iraq. We recommend conducting subsequent studies in the coming years to identify strongly increase solar radiation in the southern city of Basrah. Atlanta (GA): ASHRAE. ISBN : 87. Transactions. Jensen .A. 41(6):1853–9. 91(1a):106–15. EL – Gohary. programmes and international involvements‖.(2001). J. [3] MA.org 34 | P a g e . Chua and T. 33(2-3):117–30. Rev. pp. Piedrahita RH. ASHRAE .W. 2251- 2266 . (1999).M. M. Oh. 96 . Building and Environment.

[17] A.S.C. Vol.O. Dhaliwal . pp. (2011). Dincer. A. Farber & A. & Liu . Solar Energy . Estimation of monthly solar radiation distribution for solar energy system analysis. . AL-Hilphy . Willey – Interscience .(2010). GRP 170 . [21] J. pp.191-198. Processes . 46 . Katiyar.C. Solar Engineering of thermal . Renewable energy 29 . Drying of macerated lucerne hay in Australia . of Candian Biosystems Engineering Vol. Gupta & F. J. for heating and cooling of buildings . Ochs . B. & S. Morrison . R. Design and manufacturing of a vacuum solar dryer for fish and study its efficiency. Al-Shatty and A. Singh . Oktay. George . A new expression for the equation of time. (1980).A. (2013). Energy.1319 – 1323. Inc. [22] E. I. R10 02 – world climate & energy events . [15] C. Al-Hilphy. Pandey . M. New York . Food Engineering in Solar Energy. (1980). (2009). Duffie & W.p 400. www. 2. & F. ASHRAE . Correlation for estimation of hourly solar radiation.L. 26: 465 . Z. edited by Jordan .S. M. O. Multi-shelf portable solar dryer . Lamm . Al-Zahra press. 753- 765 . [24] A. A theoretical and practical study for the incident solar radiation intensity in the Basrah province [14] S. Clear – Dry design values. .H. P. Krauter .. Spss statistical package for window ver. Chicago : Spss.L. [16] D. Basrah Reseach J.A. Iraq. K.1 (39). R. Beckman .Singh . S. 17. January 6 – 11 . [20] A. Issue 1. pp: 40-59. [18] SPSS. Basrah. An All – in – one solar home system . (2011). (1977) . K. [19] L. (2002) . H.Y.Gahffr. [23] S.iosrjen. I. Sinon .A. (2004).P. 36 .org 35 | P a g e . & C. (2004) . Coskun . In applications of solar energy . International Journal of Energy and Enviromental.

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