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Nume_tabela +^KSVR[ROTJOIÂUSUJGROZGZKJKGOTZKXYINOSHGT[SKRKGJU[ÂZGHKRKOGXK^KSVR[R XKGRO`KG`ÂS[ZGXKG[TKOZGHKRKJOTZXUHG`ÂJKJGZKÍTGRZG Exemplul 2.3 )USGTJG'2:+8:'(2+JOTK^KSVR[RJKSGOY[YGXKIGKLKIZOTYKXGXKG[T[OIÁSV TU[ÍTZGHKRG+2+<IÁSV[RYK^SUJOLOIGXKGIÁSV[XORUXT[SK™OVXKT[SKSÂXOXKG JOSKTYO[TOOGRUIGZKOTOÝOGR™OKROSOTGXKGIÁSV[R[OJGZGETGYZKXOO5XJOTKGÍTIGXKY[TZ YIXOYKGIÝO[TORKKLKIZ[GZKJK'2:+8:'(2+KYZKGXHOZXGXÂ CVUV_f^ZcVR eRSV]V]`c ­TIGJX[R[TKOGVROIGÝOOGVGXYOZ[GÝOOIÁTJGT[SOZKZGHKRKJOTHG`GJKJGZKZXKH[OK XKJKT[SOZK8KJKT[SOXKG[TKOZGHKRKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTOTZKXSKJO[RIUSKT`OO8+4'3+ :'(2+IGXKGXKYOTZG^G[XSÂZUGXK 6UZLOXKJKT[SOZKSGOS[RZKZGHKRKÍTGIKKG™OIUSGTJÂ8+4'3+:'(2+XKJKT[SOXORK XKGRO`ÁTJ[YKÍTUXJOTKGÍTIGXKGVGX4[SKRK[TKOZGHKRKVUGZKLOVXKLO^GZJKT[SKRK HG`KOJKJGZKJOTIGXKLGIKVGXZK Nume_BD.4 %) . [TJK GIZO[TKEgGIZO[TKE4JKYIXO[GIÝO[TORKIKVUZLOK^KI[ZGZKGY[VXGYZX[IZ[XOO ZGHKRKOYVKIOLOIGZKVXOTT[SKEZGHKRG )USGTJG '2:+8 :'(2+ VKXSOZK XKGRO`GXKG [T[O T[SÂX SGXK JK SUJOLOIÂXO GRK YZX[IZ[XOOZGHKRKOJOTZXKIGXKRKGSOTZOSVKIKRKSGOOSVUXZGTZK u GJÂ[MGXKG[T[OIÁSVTU[ ADD camp_nou tip_de_date [optiuni] u SUJOLOIGXKGVXUVXOKZÂÝORUX[T[OIÁSVK^OYZKTZ MODIFY camp tip_de_date [optiuni] u ™ZKXMKXKG[TKOIURUGTKJOTZGHKRÂKROSOTGXKG[T[OIÁSV DROP câmp +^KSVR[ROR[YZXKG`ÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGIUSKT`OO'2:+8:'(2+ Exemplul 2.

+^KSVR[R  OTZKXYINOSHÂ T[SKRK ZGHKRKRUX KRK\E ™O KRK\E LURUYOTJ U ZGHKR OTZKXSKJOGXÂI[T[SKRKZSV Exemplul 2.5 )USGTJG8+4'3+:'(2+JOTK^KSVR[RS[ZÂZGHKRGKRK\JOTHG`GJKJGZK2OIK[E ÍTHG`GJKJGZK2OIK[E =64È:2& =Z^SR[f]DB=:: 4`^V_kZaV_ecfRTefR]ZkRcVRUReV]`cUZ_eRSV]V 5VKXGÝOORKJKGIZ[GRO`GXKGJGZKRUXJOTZXUZGHKRÂL[XTO`GZKJKROSHGP[R972Y[TZ u OTYKXGXKG[TKOÍTXKMOYZXÂXOTUO/49+8:! u ™ZKXMKXKGÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUX*+2+:+! u SUJOLOIGXKG\GRUXORUXIÁSV[XORUX.6 (a) %* .6*':+ " :_decfTèZf_VR :?D6CE /TYZX[IÝO[TKG/49+8:KYZK[ZORO`GZÂVKTZX[GOTYKXGÍTXKMOYZXÂXOTUOÍTZXUZGHKRÂ YOTZG^GGIKYZKOGLOOTJ[XSÂZUGXKG [TJK u T[SKEZGHKRGYVKIOLOIÂZGHKRGÍTIGXKYKOTYKXKG`ÂÍTXKMOYZXGXKG! u IÁSVEIÁSVEIÁSVE4KYZKROYZGIÁSV[XORUXVKTZX[IGXKOTZXUJ[IKS \GRUXO! u \GRE\GRE\GRE4Y[TZ\GRUXORKGYUIOGZKÍTUXJOTKIÁSV[XORUXIÁSVE IÁSVEIÁSVE4 6KTZX[IGUVKXGÝOGJKOTYKXGXKYÂXK[™KGYIÂZXKH[OKYÂXKYVKIZGÝO[XSÂZUGXKRKXKM[RO u \GRUXORKGJÂ[MGZKZXKH[OKYÂGOHÂGIKRG™OZOVI[GXZOIURKRKIUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXK! u JOSKTYO[TORKJGZKRUXOTZXUJ[YKZXKH[OKYÂLOKSGOSOIOJKIÁZJOSKTYO[TKGSG^OS GIÁSV[R[OÍTIGXKYKOTYKXKG`Â! u UXJOTKG\GRUXORUXZXKH[OKYÂIUXKYV[TJÂUXJOTOOIÁSV[XORUXYVKIOLOIGZK! u ZUGZKIÁSV[XORKUHROMGZUXOOIGXKT[VUZG\KG\GRUGXKG4.22ZXKH[OKYÂVXOSKGYI UHROMGZUXO[U\GRUGXK )USGTJGJOTK^KSVR[ROTYKXKG`ÂUTU[ÂROTOKÍTZGHKRG+2+< Exemplul 2.

7 (a) +XUGXKGJOTK^KSVR[RJKSGOY[YGLUYZMKTKXGZÂJKÍTIKXIGXKGJKGOTYKXGUÍTXKMOYZXGXK IGXKGXK\GRUGXKGIÁSV[R[OITVKMGRÂI[\GRUGXKGGIKR[OG™OIÁSVJOTZXUÍTXKMOYZXGXK K^OYZKTZÂ8KGSOTZOSIÂGXZOIUR[RITVKYZKINKOKVXOSGXÂGZGHKRKO+2+<JKIO\GRUXORK J[VROIGZVKTZX[GIKYZIÁSVY[TZOTZKX`OYK Exemplul 2.6 (b) 5XOIKKXUGXKÍTIGJX[RYOTZG^KOOTYZX[IÝO[TOO/49+8:VXKI[S™OUXOIKTKVUZXO\OXKJK ZOV ÍTZXK \GRUXORK OTYKXGZK ™O IÁSV[XORK IUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXK JKZKXSOTÂ GHGTJUTGXKG K^KI[ZÂXOOIUSKT`OO™OGLO™GXKG[T[OSKYGPJKKXUGXK +^KSVR[ROR[YZXKG`ÂJU[ÂKXUXOVUYOHORK Exemplul 2.7 (b) +XUGXKGJOTK^KSVR[RHGLUYZMKTKXGZÂJKLUXSGZ[RMXK™OZGR\GRUXOOJKZOVJGZ IGXKYKJUXK™ZKOTYKXGZÂÍTIÁSV[RJGZGETG™ZKXOO # :_decfTèZf_VR 56=6E6 5VKXGÝOGJK™ZKXMKXKGÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOTZXUZGHKRÂYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R IUSKT`OO*+2+:+IGXKGXK[XSÂZUGXKGYOTZG^ÂSOTOSGR [TJK u T[SKEZGHKRGXKVXK`OTZÂJKT[SOXKGZGHKRKOÍTIGXKYK\GXKGRO`GUVKXGÝOGJK ™ZKXMKXK! &! . *GIÂZUGZKIÁSV[XORKJOTZGHKRÂY[TZUHROMGZUXOOGZ[TIOZXKH[OKYÂOTYKXÂSIÁZKU \GRUGXKVKTZX[LOKIGXKJOTZXKGIKYZKG­TGIKYZIG`KYZKOT[ZORYÂSGOVXKIO`ÂSROYZG IÁSV[XORUXIGXK\UXLOGLKIZGZKJKOTYKXGXK+^KSVR[RVUGZKLOXKYIXOYGYZLKR Exemplul 2.

+8+GZ[TIOYK\UX™ZKXMKZUGZKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKJOTZGHKRG YVKIOLOIGZ Exemplul 2.8 )USGTJG*+2+:+JOTK^KSVR[RJKZKXSOT™ZKXMKXKGZ[Z[XUXÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOT ZGHKRG+2+<VKTZX[IGXKIÁSV[RT[SKGXK\GRUGXKGq+SOTKYI[r 6KTZX[G™ZKXMKOTLUXSGÝOORKXKLKXOZUGXKRGKRK\OOIGXKG[\ÁXYZGÍTZXK™OGTOYG[ G[SGOS[RZJKGTOVXUIKJÂSGYZLKR Exemplul 2.9 ‰ZKXMKXKGVXOSORUXKRK\OJOTIRGYGGG(IUTYOJKXGÝOÍTUXJOTKGRLGHKZOIÂVUGZK LOXKGRO`GZÂÍT3_972VXOT[ZORO`GXKGIRG[`KRUX58*+8(?™O2/3/:G™GI[SGXGZ K^KSVR[R Exemplul 2. u K^V2KYZKUK^VXKYOKRUMOIÂÍTIGXKOTZKX\OT\GRUXORK[TUXIÁSV[XOGRKZGHKRKO! ZUGZKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKVKTZX[IGXKK^V2GXK\GRUGXKGGJK\ÂXGZ\UXLO™ZKXYK *GIÂYKUSOZKIRG[`G=.6*':+IGXKGXKYOTZG^G [TJK u T[SKEZGHKRGXKVXK`OTZÂJKT[SOXKGZGHKRKOÍTIGXKYK\GXKGRO`GUVKXGÝOGJK ™ZKXMKXK! u IÁSVEgIÁSVE4Y[TZIÁSV[XOGRKZGHKRKOYVKIOLOIGZK! u \GRE\GRE4Y[TZ\GRUXORKIUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKIÁSV[XORUXIÁSVEgIÁSVE4! u K^V2KYZKUK^VXKYOKRUMOIÂÍTIGXKOTZKX\OT\GRUXORK[TUXIÁSV[XOGRKZGHKRKO! ZUGZKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKVKTZX[IGXKK^V2GXK\GRUGXKGGJK\ÂXGZ\UXLOSUJOLOIGZK &" .10 )RG[`G58*+8(?VKXSOZKYZGHOROXKG[T[OIXOZKXO[JKYUXZGXKGJGZKRUXJOTZGHKRÂÍT L[TIÝOKJK\GRUXORK[T[OGYG[SGOS[RZUXIÁSV[XOÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKLOOTJ™ZKXYKÍTUXJOTKG YVKIOLOIGZÂJKGIKYZKG)RG[`G2/3/:VKXSOZKYZGHOROXKGT[SÂX[R[OJKÍTXKMOYZXÂXOIK\UX LO™ZKXYK'IKYZKIRG[`K\UXLOVXK`KTZGZKVKRGXMÍTRKIÝOORKJKJOIGZKOTYZX[IÝO[TOO9+2+): $ :_decfTèZf_VR FA52E6 3UJOLOIGXKG \GRUXORUX GT[SOZUX IÁSV[XO JOTZXU ÍTXKMOYZXGXK YK XKGRO`KG` VXOT OTZKXSKJO[ROTYZX[IÝO[TOO.

6*':+GIKYZKGLÂIÁTJVGXZK JOTIGZKMUXOGOTYZX[IÝO[TORUXVKTZX[SGTOV[RGXKGJGZKRUX23* 2OSHGP[R972V[TKRGJOYVU`OÝOG[ZORO`GZUX[R[OUYOTM[XÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKVKTZX[GXKGRO`G OTZKXUMGXKGJGZKRUX OTYZX[IÝO[TKG9+2+): 5VKXGÝOGJKOTZKXUMGXKG[TKOHG`KJKJGZKVXKY[V[TKIUSV[TKXKG[T[OYKZJK XK`[RZGZKYKZJKÍTXKMOYZXÂXOVXOTIUSHOTGXKGJGZKRUXVXU\KTOZKJOTSGOS[RZKZGHKRK™O XKGRO`GXKGJKVXKR[IXÂXOGY[VXGGIKYZUXGYUXZGXKMX[VGXKJ[VÂJO\KXYKIXOZKXOOYKRKIZGXK KZI ­TGOTZKJKG\KJKGRGR[IX[OTYZX[IÝO[TKG9+2+):\USVXK`KTZGYZX[IZ[XGHG`KOJK JGZK2OIK[*(IGXKTK\GLURUYOVKTZX[K^KSVROLOIGXKGOTZKXUMÂXORUXVKVGXI[XY[RGIKYZ[O IGVOZUR(G`GJKJGZK2OIK[*(IUTÝOTKZXKOKTZOZÂÝOVKTZX[MKYZOUTGXKGYOZ[GÝOKO™IURGXK GKRK\ORUX 'ZXOH[Z[RZOVGRKTZOZÂÝOO3':+8//\GG\KG\GRUGXKGJGIÂSGZKXOGKYZKUJOYIOVROT UHROMGZUXOKXKYVKIZO\JGIÂJOYIOVROTGKYZKUVÝOUTGRÂ )XKGXKGYZX[IZ[XOOZGHKRKRUXIUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKIKRUXZXKOKTZOZÂÝOYKVUGZKXKGRO`GVXOT OTZKXSKJO[RIUSKT`ORUX)8+':+:'(2+JKSGOPUY &# .+8+ GZ[TIOYK\UXSUJOLOIGZUGZKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKJOTZGHKRÂ +^KSVR[ROR[YZXKG`ÂSUJ[RÍTIGXKV[ZKSSUJOLOIG\GRUXORKIÍSV[R[OIRGYGVKTZX[ LOKIGXKKRK\ÍTYIXOYÍTIRGYGGG( Exemplul 2.1 2. +LKIZ[RK^KI[ZÂXOOIUSKT`OOKYZKGIKRGJKGSUJOLOIG\GRUXORKIÁSV[XORUXYVKIOLOIGZK \GRUGXKGR[OIÁSVEJK\OTK\GREg\GRUGXKGR[OIÁSVE4JK\OTK\GRE4VKTZX[ZUGZK ÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKJOTZGHKRÂIGXKYGZOYLGIK^VXKYOGRUMOIÂK^V2*GIÂUSOZKSIRG[`G=.11 1 ­T3_972VUZLO[ZORO`GZKJKGYKSKTKGIRG[`KRK58*+8(?™O2/3/:VKTZX[GXKGRO`G GIZ[GRO`ÂXOIUSVRK^K =64È:2' =Z^SR[f]DB=::: :_eVc`XÍcZdZ^a]V *[VÂI[SGÝO\Â`[ZÍTRKIÝOORKVXKIKJKTZKGIZ[GRO`GXKGJGZKRUXYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOT OTZKXSKJO[RGZXKOOTYZX[IÝO[TO972/49+8:*+2+:+.

12 6XKY[V[TKSIÂZGHKRKRKIUTÝOT[XSÂZUGXKRKÍTXKMOYZXÂXO ERSV]R>2E6C::+ :GHKR[R ERSV]R6=6G:+ :GHKR[R ERSV]R?@E6 :GHKR[R &$ .Exemplul 2.

":_eVc`XÍcZdZ^a]VRdfacRf_VZdZ_XfcVeRSV]V )KGSGOYOSVRÂLUXSÂGOTYZX[IÝO[TOO9+2+):GXKYOTZG^G[XSÂZUGXK [TJK u ROYZGEIGSV[XOKYZKUY[IIKYO[TKJKIÁSV[XOYKVGXGZKVXOT\OXM[RÂGRKZGHKRKO T[SKEZGHKRGIGXK\UXGVÂXKGÍTIGJX[RYKZ[R[OJKXK`[RZGZK!JGIÂJUXOSY OTZXUJ[IKS ÍT YKZ[R I[ XK`[RZGZK ZUGZK IÁSV[XORK JOT ZGHKR GZ[TIO ROYZG IÁSV[XORUX\GLOÍTRUI[OZÂVXOTIGXGIZKX[RGYZKXOYI! u T[SKEZGHKRGYVKIOLOIÂZGHKRGLURUYOZÂRGIÂ[ZGXKGJGZKRUX! 'LO™GXKGZ[Z[XUXÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOTZGHKRGKRK\OYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTIUSGTJG Exemplul 2.14 8K`[RZGZ[RK^KI[ZÂXOOIUSKT`OOJOTK^KSVR[RÍTYOYZKS[RJKMKYZO[TK3_972 KYZKOR[YZXGZÍTLKXKGYZXG[XSÂZUGXK 6KTZX[GGLO™GJUGXÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKIGXKG[\GRUXOJOYZOTIZKVKTZX[[TGT[SOZIÁSV \US[ZORO`GIRG[`G*/9:/4):ÍTGOTZKGIÁSV[R[OJUXOZ/TZKXUMGXKG[XSÂZUGXKJKZKXSOT TUZKRKJOYZOTIZKUHÝOT[ZKJKKRK\OOROIK[R[O Exemplul 2.13 8K`[RZGZ[R\GLOIKRJOTZGHKR[RGJOIÂ\UXLOGLO™GZKZUGZKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKJOTZGHKRG +2+</ÍTUXJOTKGÍTIGXKGIKYZKGY[TZSKSUXGZKÍTUXJOTKGOTYKXÂXOORUX *GIÂJUXOSYÂGLO™ÂSJUGXIÁSV[XORKT[SK™OVXKT[SKGZ[TIO\USYVKIOLOIGT[SKRK IÁSV[XORUXYKVGXGZKVXOT\OXM[R Exemplul 2.15 &% .

URUYOXKGIRG[`KO*/9:/4):VKTZX[[TIÁSVGRZGHKRKOJKZKXSOTÂOTZXUJ[IKXKGÍT YKZ[RJKXK`[RZGZKJUGXGVXOSKOÍTXKMOYZXÂXOJOTZXKIKRKIGXKG[\GRUGXKGIÁSV[R[OOJKTZOIÂ XKYZ[RLOOTJOMTUXGZK /TYZX[IÝO[TKG9+2+):VKXSOZKOTZXUJ[IKXKGÍTYKZ[RJKXK`[RZGZKGROTZKXUMÂXOOG [TUXIÁSV[XOIGXKT[GVGXÍTZGHKRÂ\GRUGXKGRUXLOOTJIGRI[RGZÂÍTL[TIÝOKJK\GRUXORK [TUXIÁSV[XOJOTZGHKRÂ/TZKXUMGXKG[XSÂZUGXKGLO™KG`ÂT[SKRKZ[Z[XUXKRK\ORUXJOT ZGHKRG+2+<JGXYKZ[RJKXK`[RZGZK\GG\KGUYOTM[XÂIURUGTÂJKT[SOZÂ4[SK+RK\OGX \GRUGXKGGIKYZKOGKYZKIUSV[YÂJOT\GRUXORKT[SKR[O™OVXKT[SKR[OLOKIÂX[OKRK\ Exemplul 2.16 8K`[RZGZ[ROTZKXUMÂXOOKYZK 'S[ZORO`GZL[TIÝOGIUTIGZ™OX™OX™OX4IGXKÍTZUGXIK™OX[RJKIGXGIZKXKUHÝOT[Z VXOTIUTIGZKTGXKG™OX[XORUXJGZKIGGXM[SKTZK)RG[`G'9VKXSOZKXKJKT[SOXKG[TKO IURUGTKJOTIGJX[RYKZ[R[OJKXK`[RZGZKVKTZX[IÁSV[XORKIGRI[RGZKYG[GZ[TIOIÁTJT[SKRK [T[OIÁSVT[KYZKVXKGY[MKYZO\ # D`ceRcVRdVef]fZUVcVkf]eReV4]RfkR@C56C3J 9KZ[RJKXK`[RZGZKL[XTO`GZJKOTYZX[IÝO[TKG9+2+):VUGZKLOÍTVXKGRGHORYUXZGZ™O GVUOGLO™GZ5XJOTKGÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOTZGHKRÂT[KYZKGLKIZGZÂJKUVKXGÝOGJKYUXZGXK 9UXZGXKGYKZ[R[OJKXK`[RZGZKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTLURUYOXKGIRG[`KO58*+8(?VKTZX[ G YVKIOLOIG ROYZG IÁSV[XORUX ÍT L[TIÝOK JK IGXK YK XKGRO`KG`Â UXJUTGXKG IXOZKXOO JK UXJUTGXK)RG[`G58*+8(?GXKYOTZG^G && . 8K`[RZGZ[ROTZKXUMÂXOOKYZK .

17 . [TJK u IGSVEgIGSVE4XKVXK`OTZÂIXOZKXOORKJKUXJUTGXKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKY[TZYUXZGZK ÍTL[TIÝOKJK\GRUGXKGR[OIGSVEOGXRG\GRUXOKMGRKVKTZX[GIKYZGYK\UXR[G ÍTIUTYOJKXGXK\GRUXORKR[OIGSVE™GSJ! u IRG[`G'9)OSVROIOZÂJKZKXSOTÂYUXZGXKGGYIKTJKTZÂIXKYIÂZUGXK! u IRG[`G*+9)JKZKXSOTÂYUXZGXKGJKYIKTJKTZÂJKYIXKYIÂZUGXK 'LO™GXKGÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOTZGHKRG+2+<UXJUTGZKÍTL[TIÝOKJKIÁSV[XORKT[SK™O VXKT[SKOT\KXYGRLGHKZOIYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTIUSGTJG Exemplul 2.18 &' .KXKGYZXG[XSÂZUGXKVXK`OTZÂXK`[RZGZ[ROTZKXUMÂXOOJOTK^KSVR[R =64È:2( =Z^SR[f]DB=:G :_eVc`XÍcZT`^a]ViV /TYZX[IÝO[TKG 9+2+): VKXSOZK ZXOKXKG ÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUX IK \UX IUSV[TK YKZ[R JK XK`[RZGZKVKHG`G[TKOK^VXKYOOI[\GRUGXKRUMOIÂ\UXLOIUTYOJKXGZKJUGXGIKRKÍTXKMOYZXÂXO VKTZX[IGXKK^VKXKYOGRUMOIÂGXK\GRUGXKGGJK\ÂXGZ8KGRO`GXKGGIKYZ[OR[IX[KYZK VUYOHORÂVXOT[ZORO`GXKGIRG[`KO=.+8+IGXKGXK[XSÂZUGXKGYOTZG^ +^VXKYOGRUMOIÂK^V2ZKYZKG`ÂJKUHOIKOGT[SOZKIUTJOÝOOOSV[YK[T[OGYG[SGO S[RZUXIÁSV[XOJOTZGHKRKRKHG`KOJKJGZK+^VXKYOGRUMOIÂVUGZKIUTÝOTKUSGXK\GXOKZGZK JKUVKXGZUXO™OL[TIÝOO +^KSVR[RGLO™KG`ÂKRK\OOIRGYKOGG)UXJUTGÝOGRLGHKZOI Exemplul 2.

9KZ[RJKXK`[RZGZKUHÝOT[ZVXOTK^KI[ZGXKGIUSKT`OOJOTK^KSVR[RKYZK @aVcRe`cZ DB= 6XK`KTZÂSÍTIUTZOT[GXKVKYI[XZIKRKSGO[ZORO`GZKIGZKMUXOOJKUVKXGZUXO972 [XSÁTJYÂK^KSVROLOIÂS[ZORO`GXKGGIKYZUXG u 5VKXGZUXOGXOZSKZOIO!ÍTROSHGP[R972UVKXGZUXOOGXOZSKZOIOY[TZIKO[ZORO`GÝOÍT SGPUXOZGZKGROSHGPKRUXJKVXUMXGSGXK™OGT[SK GJ[TGXKYIÂJKXKVXUJ[Y ÍSVÂXÝOXKXKYZ[RÍSVÂXÝOXOOÍTZXKMO  u 5VKXGZUXOXKRGÝOUTGRO!GIK™ZOGY[TZ SGOSOI"SGOSGXK$SGOSOIYG[KMGR "#SGOSGXKYG[KMGR$#JOLKXOZ"$YG[#KMGR# u 5VKXGZUXORUMOIO!ÍT972YKJKLOTKYI[XSÂZUXOOUVKXGZUXORUMOIO ‰/'4*9'. 58TKMGÝOK45: u 'RÝOUVKXGZUXO /4™O(+:=++4 +^KSVR[RGLO™KG`ÂKRK\OOJOTIRGYKRKGG'™OGG(UXJUTGÝOGRLGHKZOI Exemplul 2.19 5HYKX\GÝOIÂK^VXKYOGRUMOIÂGIRG[`KO=.20 &( .+8+T[IUTÝOTKVGXGTZK`KVKTZX[GYVKIOLOIG UXJOTKGK\GR[ÂXOOUVKXGZUXORUXUVKXGZUXOOXKRGÝOUTGROG[VXOUXOZGZKSGOSGXKJKIÁZUVKXGZUXOO RUMOIO 'IKRG™OKLKIZÍRV[ZKSUHÝOTKVXOTLURUYOXKGUVKXGZUX[R[O/4IGXKYZGHORK™ZKJGI \GRUGXKG[TKOK^VXKYOOGVGXÝOTK[TKOS[RÝOSO3[RÝOSKGKYZKYVKIOLOIGZÂVXOTKT[SKXGXKG KRKSKTZKRUX9OTZG^GUVKXGZUX[R[O/4KYZK [TJK u +^VXKYZKUK^VXKYOKT[SKXOIÂYG[™OXJKIGXGIZKXK! u \GRE\GREg\GRE4Y[TZ\GRUXOJKGIKRG™OZOVI[ZOV[RK^VXKYOKO+^VX +^KSVR[RVUGZKLOXKYIXOY[ZORO`ÁTJUVKXGZUX[R/4GYZLKR Exemplul 2.

21 (a) YG[ Exemplul 2.21 (b) 5VKXGZUXOO/4™O(+:=++4VKXSOZYIXOKXKGIUSVGIZ™ORO`OHORÂG[TUXK^VXKYOOSGO IUSVRK^KJGXVXUMXGSGZUX[RVUGZKGRKMKUVKXGZUXOOVKIGXKÍOIUTYOJKXÂVUZXO\OÝO :_eVc`XÍcZØ_TRcVdf_eZ^a]ZTReV^RZ^f]eVeRSV]V 9ÂVXKY[V[TKSIÂJUXOSYÂJKZKXSOTÂSZUGZKTUZKRKUHÝOT[ZKJKKRK\OOROIK[R[ORG JOYOVROTGSGZKSGZOIÂ9KZ[RJKXK`[RZGZK\GIUTÝOTKZUGZKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKJOTZGHKRG45:+ IUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKJOYIOVROTKOGRKYKGJOIÂGIKRKÍTXKMOYZXÂXOVKTZX[IGXK\GRUGXKGINKOO YZXÂOTKOJSGZKXOKJOTZGHKRG45:+KYZKKMGRÂI[\GRUGXKGINKOOVXOSGXKGZGHKRKO3':+8// OJSGZKXOK /TZKXUMGXKGIUXKV[T`ÂZUGXKKYZK Exemplul 2.853\GIUTÝOTKROYZGZGHKRKRUXOSVROIGZKYKVGXGZKVXOT\OXM[RÂ! u IRG[`G=.22 8K`[RZGZ[ROTZKXUMÂXOOKYZK 8KSGXIGÝOSUJOLOIÂXORKGVÂX[ZKLGÝÂJKOTZKXUMÂXORKIGXKOSVROIG[UYOTM[XÂZGHKR u IRG[`G.+8+\GZKYZGKMGROZGZKG\GRUXORUXIÁSV[XORUXJKRKMÂZ[XÂJOTZXKZGHKRK &) . 'LO™GXKGZ[Z[XUXTUZKRUXÍTZXK™OYKVUGZKXKGRO`GÍTJU[ÂSUJ[XOG™GI[SYK VUGZKUHYKX\GÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 2.

23 4UZKRKKRK\[R[O)UYZGINK/UTIGXKKYZKOJKTZOLOIGZVXOTKRK\OJKRK\#VUZLOOJKTZOLOIGZK ÍTZGHKRG45:+VKROTOORKI[GIKKG™O\GRUGXKGIÁSV[R[OTUZKOJKRK\JKGIKKGKYZK TKIKYGXÂIUTJOÝOGTUZKOJKRK\#KRK\OJKRK\6KTZX[OJKTZOLOIGXKGSGZKXOKORGIGXKGLUYZ UHÝOT[ZÂ LOKIGXK TUZÂ KYZK TKIKYGX YÂ GJÂ[MÂS IUTJOÝOG TUZKOJSGZKXOK# &* .idmaterie AND materii. :GHKR[R 9Â\KJKSIGXKKYZKXK`[RZGZ[ROTZKXUMÂXOOJOTK^KSVR[RJGIÂUSOZKSIRG[`G =.denumire=’matematica’ *KZKXSOTGXKGTUZKRUXUHÝOT[ZKJKKRK\[R)UYZGINK/UTTKIKYOZÂ[ZORO`GXKGZ[Z[XUXIKRUX ZXKOZGHKRK Exemplul 2.idmaterie=materii.+8+™OOTZXUJ[IKSÍTYKZ[RJKXK`[RZGZKZUGZKIÁSV[XORKIKRUXJU[ÂZGHKRKOSVROIGZK ZGHKR[R :GHKR[RIUTÝOTKJUGXUVGXZKJOTIKRKJKÍTXKMOYZXÂXOIKIUSV[TYKZ[RJK XK`[RZGZK+^VROIGÝOGIUTYZÂÍTLGVZ[RIÂTKK^OYZÁTJTOIOUIUTJOÝOKJKLORZXGXKVKTZX[ ÍTXKMOYZXÂXOYKZ[RJKXK`[RZGZK\GLOUHÝOT[ZVXOTIUSV[TKXKGLOKIÂXKOÍTXKMOYZXÂXOJOT ZGHKRG45:+I[LOKIGXKÍTXKMOYZXGXKJOTZGHKRG3':+8//^#ÍTXKMOYZXÂXO 'Z[TIOIÁTJK^OYZÂIÁSV[XOI[GIKRG™OT[SKÍTZGHKRKJOLKXOZKZXKH[OKYÂVXKLO^ÂS T[SKRKGIKYZUXGI[T[SKRKZGHKRKOJOTIGXKLGIKVGXZK WHERE note.

4:vXKZ[XTKG`ÂT[SÂX[RROTOORUXIGXKYGZOYLGIK^VXKYOGRUMOIÂGIRG[`KO =.+8+! u 9.24 '! .SGZKXOOOJSGZKXOK)ÁSV[XORKT[SKVXKT[SKTUZG™OJGZGEUHZT[G[LUYZVXKLO^GZK VXOTT[SKRKZGHKRKOJOTIGXKLGIVGXZKJKUGXKIKT[K^OYZÂVKXOIUR[R\XK[TKOIUTL[`OO FeZ]ZkRcVRf_`cWf_TèZZe`eR]ZkRe`RcV 2OSHGP[R 972 VKXSOZK XKGRO`GXKG JK IGRI[RK YZGZOYZOIK GY[VXG JGZKRUX JOTZXU HG`ÂJKJGZKVXOTLURUYOXKG[TUXL[TIÝOOVXKJKLOTOZKÍTIGJX[RIUSKT`ORUX9+2+): *OTZXK GIKYZKG GSOTZOS L[TIÝOORK u )5.XSÂZUGXKRK K^KSVRK [ZORO`KG` GIKYZK L[TIÝOO VKTZX[ G JKZKXSOTG JO\KXYK OTLUXSGÝOO YZGZOYZOIK Exemplul 2.3 v JKZKXSOTÂ Y[SG \GRUXORUX [T[O IÁSV VKTZX[ LOKIGXK ROTOK JOT YKZ[R JK XK`[RZGZK Y[SG \GRUXORUX JK VK U IURUGTÂ! u '<- v JKZKXSOTÂ SKJOG GXOZSKZOIÂ G \GRUXORUX JOTZXU IURUGTÂ! u 3'> v JKZKXSOTÂ \GRUGXKG SG^OSÂ G \GRUXORUX [TKO IURUGTK! u 3/4 v JKZKXSOTÂ \GRUGXKG SOTOSÂ G \GRUXORUX [TKO IURUGTK! 'XM[SKTZ[R L[TIÝOORUX 9.3 '<- 3/4 ™O 3'> \G LO U K^VXKYOK T[SKXOIÂ IK IUTÝOTK [T IÁSV YG[ U IUSHOTGÝOK JK IÁSV[XO .

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Primul navigator ce permitea afiºarea elementelor grafice a fost NCSA Mosaic. Existã ºi astãzi … þi cã navigatoare „text-only”._VKX:K^Z:XGTYLKX6XUZUIUR 9VGÝO[R===GLUYZIUTIKV[ZRG)KTZX[R+[XUVKGTJK)KXIKZÂXO4[IRKGXK)+84ÍT GT[RJKIÂZXKKINOVGIUTJ[YÂJK:OS(KXTKXY2KK™O8UHKXZ)GORRG[I[YIUV[RJK GLGIOROZGGIIKY[RSKSHXORUXKINOVKRUXJKIKXIKZGXKGLRGÝOJKS[RZKUXOÍTJO\KXYK`UTK GRK+[XUVKORGOTLUXSGÝOORKGZG™GZKVXUOKIZKRUX YKVZKSHXOKKYZKIUTYOJKXGZÂ`O[GULOIOGRÂJKTG™ZKXKGYVGÝO[R[O=== UJGZÂI[GVGXOÝOGVXOSKOGVROIGÝOOMXGLOIKIGVGHORKYÂGIIKYK`KJUI[SKTZKRKNOVKXZK^Z Primele aplicaþii software ce permiteau navigarea în spaþiul WWW – navigator Web sau browser – nu puteau afiºa decât informaþie textualã. urmat la scurtã vreme de celebrul Netscape Navigator. =64È:2" DaRèZf]HHH¤ZT`_TVaef]UVYZaVceVie +\UR[ÝOGYUIOKZÂÝOO[SGTKKYZKSGXIGZÂVKXOUJOIJKXKGRO`GXKG[TUXSGXOJKYIUVKXOXO ™ZOOTÝOLOIKZKNTOIKYG[GXZOYZOIKIGXKJKZKXSOTÂYINOSHÂXOVXUL[TJKÍTZUGZKJUSKTOORK \OKÝOOYUIOGRK4[MXK™OSJGIÂYUIUZOSIÂGVGXOÝOGXKÝKRKO/TZKXTKZKYZKUJKYIUVKXOXK IKRV[ÝOTKMGRÂIGÍTYKSTÂZGZKI[OT\KTZGXKGZKRKLUT[R[OG[ZUSUHOR[R[OYG[I[JK`\URZGXKG ZKNTURUMOORUXT[IRKGXK /TZKXIUTKIZGXKGXKÝKRKRUXJKIUS[TOIGÝOKRGTO\KR[RÍTZXKM[R[OMRUHT[GXKVXK`KTZGZ T[SGOUXKGRO`GXKZKNTOIÂJKUYKHOZÂIGXKGOSV[RYOUTGZJK`\URZGXKGV[ZKXTOIÂGOTJ[YZXOKO /: ™O G OTJ[YZXOKO ZKRKIUS[TOIGÝOORUX IO ™O XKJKLOTOXKG IUTIKVZ[R[O JK IUS[TOIGXK OTZKX[SGTÂ'YZÂ`OsXÂYLUOSt`OGXKRKLGIKSI[SVÂXÂZ[XOYG[[XSÂS[TI[XYJKOTYZX[OXK YZÁTJIUSUJÍTLGÝGIGRI[RGZUX[R[OJKGIGYG™OTG[ZXKI[ZJKIÁZJKGTOJKIÁTJ GIKYZKR[IX[XOK^OYZG[JUGXÍTROZKXGZ[XG™ZOOTÝOLOIULGTZGYZOI )KRSGOVUV[RGXYKX\OIO[ULKXOZJKXKÝKG[G/TZKXTKZKYZKLÂXÂÍTJUOGRÂYVGÝO[R=UXRJ =OJK =KH === YG[ = U [XOG™Â XKÝKG JK OTLUXSGÝOO IGXK VKXSOZK YZUIGXKG ™O GIIKYGXKGJUI[SKTZKRUXNOVKXZK^Z[ZORO`ÁTJVXUZUIUR[RJKZXGTYLKXGRLO™OKXKRUXNOVKXZK^Z . În momentul de faþã. cele mai utilizate navigatoare sunt: Internet Explorer. au fost dezvoltate numeroase navigatoare. Odatã cu mãrirea exponenþialã a numãrului de servere din spaþiul WWW ºi cu orientarea software-ului cãtre aplicaþiile cu interfaþã graficã.:6! u VU™ZGKRKIZXUTOIÂKSGOR! (' . care poate fi ªtia utilizatã în sistemul de operare Linux. =KH[RT[ZXKH[OKIUTL[TJGZI[/TZKXTKZ[R=KH[RKYZKJUGXUIURKIÝOK[XOG™ÂJK OTLUXSGÝOKOTZKXJKVKTJKTZÂJOYZXOH[OZÂÍTIGRI[RGZUGXKMG`JÂJOTÍTZXKGMGR[SKIGXK LUXSKG` [T YOYZKS YZGTJGXJO`GZ MRUHGR JK JOYZXOH[ÝOK G OTLUXSGÝOORUX NOVKXSKJOG =KH[RHKTKLOIOG`ÂJKOTLXGYZX[IZ[XGXKÝKRKO/TZKXTKZJKIUTIKVZKRK™OVXUZUIUGRKRKJK ZXGTYSOZKXKGJGZKRUXIGXKLGI/TZKXTKZ[RYÂL[TIÝOUTK`K SUJKR[RIROKTZYKX\KX™OLGSOROG JKVXUZUIUGRK:)6/6 )NOGXJGIÂKYZKIKRSGOJOTGSOI™OSGOYVKIZGI[RUYYKX\OIO[=KH[RKYZKJUGX[T[R JOTZXKYKX\OIOORKULKXOZKJKXKÝKG[G/TZKXTKZGRÂZ[XOJK u YKX\OIO[RJKZXGTYLKXJKLO™OKXK. Mozilla FireFox ºi Opera. un bun exemplu fiind aplicaþia lynx.

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aºa cum spune însuºi autorul.1 Structura unui document hipertext Preocupãrile în privinþa sistemelor informaþionale neliniare sunt mai vechi.Figura 1. dar idei novatoare asemãnãtoare apar ºi în proiectul Augment. interfaþã graficã bazatã pe ferestre. prezentat de Douglas Engelbart la Fall Joint Computer Conference 1968: mouse. 6XOTIOVGRKRKG\GTZGPKGRK[T[OYOYZKSNOVKXZK^ZY[TZ[XSÂZUGXKRK u . cu titlul „As We May Think” (cum ar þi cã ªtia trebui sã gândim). prima referinþã fiind fãcutã de profesorul Vannebar Bush de la Universitatea … MIT într-un articol publicat în anul 1945. un dispozitiv “ce poate stoca toate cãrþile.O™OKXKZK^ZIKIUTÝOTOTLUXSGÝOGJKZOVZK^ZGJUI[SKTZ[R[OVXKI[S™OOTLUXSGÝOORK VXO\OTJ YZX[IZ[XG YIUV[R JUI[SKTZ[R[O ™O OTLUXSGÝOO JK RKMÂZ[XÂ I[ LO™OKXKRK () .UXSGTKROTOGXÂGNOVKXZK^Z[R[OVKXSOZKVGXI[XMKXKGKLOIOKTZÂGIUTÝOT[Z[R[O u )GVGIOZGZKGOSKTYÂJKYZUIGXKGOTLUXSGÝOORUXLURUYOTJYOYZKSKRKNOVKXSKJOG u 9OYZKSKRKNOVKXZK^ZULKXÂVUYOHOROZGZKGIGOTZKXUMÂXORKLORZXÂXORKJO\KXYKVXKLKXOTÝK ™OGJTUZÂXOGRK[ZORO`GZUXORUXYÂLOKLURUYOZKUXOJKIÁZKUXOKYZKTKIKYGXV[ZÁTJLO YZUIGZKÍTIGJX[RYZX[IZ[XOONOVKXZK^ZGJUI[SKTZKRUX[ZORO`GZK u /TJKVKTJKTÝGJKVRGZLUXSGNGXJ]GXK™OYULZ]GXKVKXSOZKLURUYOXKGVKYIGXÂRGXM GJUI[SKTZKRUXNOVKXZK^Z *OTV[TIZJK\KJKXKVXGIZOIJUI[SKTZ[RNOVKXSKJOGKYZK[TGTYGSHR[IUSV[YJOT  . MEMEX nu a putut fi construitã datoritã limitãrilor tehnologice ale momentului. MEMEX se dorea. înregistrãrile ºi comunicaþiile ºi care este mecanizat în aºa fel încât consultarea informaþiilor se face flexibil ºi rapid”. procesare de text si hipertext. Articolul descrie o maºinã – MEMEX (MEMory EXtended) – destinatã ajutãrii procesului de memorare pe baza asocierilor dintre conþinut ºi formã.

dar standardul a fost publicat abia în 1980. Conceptele preluate de SGML au apãrut încã de la sfârºitul anilor ’60. >RcTR[V9E>=DecfTefcRf_fZU`Tf^V_e9E>= .O™OKXKIKIUTÝOTOSGMOTOYZGZOIKY[TKZ\OJKUGVROIGÝOO3KSUXGXKGJGZKRUXKYZK XKGRO`GZÂÍTL[TIÝOKJKZOV[RSKJO[R[OLURUYOZK^OYZÁTJJO\KXYKLUXSGZKJKYZUIGXK MXGZ[OZKYG[VXUVXOKZGXK*KK^KSVR[LUXSGZKRKIKRKSGOVUV[RGXKVKTZX[SKSUXGXKG MXGLOIOOY[TZ06+--/. XHTML 1.:32v.0.1 în august 2002. standardul fiind publicat în anul 1997.01.:32YKHG`KG`ÂVKSOIOKZOINKZK SGXIGPKYG[ZGM[XOJKROSOZGZKVXOTIGXGIZKXKRK"™O$ 3GXIGPKRKY[TZJKJU[ÂZOV[XO SGXIGPKIUTZGOTKXIUTZGOTKXZGMY SGXIGPK\OJKKSVZ_ZGMY 3GXIGPKRKIUTZGOTKXY[TZJKLUXSG (* . Astfel a apãrut standardul XHTML 1._VKXZK^Z3GXQ[V2GTM[GMKROSHGPIK\GLO JKYIXOYVKRGXMÍTGIKYZIGVOZUR  . þi cã ª tia independente de sistemul de calcul. astãzi fiind în lucru standardul XHTML 2. iar textul final a fost aprobat ºi publicat în anul 1986. Ultimele tendinþe în dezvoltarea limbajului HTML sunt cele de rescriere a acestuia în termenii limbajului XML – Extensible Markup Language – un limbaj derivat tot din standardul SGML. Limbajul SGML reprezintã un standard internaþional pentru … definirea unor metode de reprezentare a textelor în format electronic. în ianuarie 2000.™O64-OGXVKTZX[Y[TKZ='<36<3'3/*/ =64È:2# AcVkV_eRcVRXV_VcR]ÍR]Z^SR[f]fZ9E>= DecfTefcRf_fZU`Tf^V_e9E>= 2OSHGPKRK JK SGXIGXK T[ Y[TZ ROSHGPK JK VXUMXGSGXK ÍT YKTY[R [`[GR JKIO T[ [ZORO`KG`ÂLUXS[RÂXOOSVKXGZO\KvOTYZX[IÝO[TOÍTYZUIGXKG™OGIIKYGXKGOTLUXSGÝOKO 2OSHGPKRKJKSGXIGXK[ZORO`KG`ÂKZOINKZKRGHKRYYG[SGXIGPKZGMYIGXKJKLOTKYI u YZX[IZ[XG[T[OJUI[SKTZVXOTJKROSOZGXKGYKIÝO[TORUXJUI[SKTZ[R[O™OGXKRGÝOORUX JOTZXKGIKYZKG! u SUJ[RJKVXK`KTZGXKGYKIÝO[TORUXJUI[SKTZ[R[O 3GXIGPKRKJG[OTJOIGÝOOTG\OMGZUGXKRUXÍTIKKGIKVXO\K™ZK u OKXGXNO`GXKGOTLUXSGÝOKOYKIÝO[TOY[HYKIÝO[TOXKRGÝOORKJOTZXKYKIÝO[TO! u SUJ[RJKGLO™GXKGOTLUXSGÝOKOLUTZJOSKTYO[TKI[RUGXKGYVKIZVU`OÝOUTGXKÍT JUI[SKTZ! u YIUV[ROTLUXSGÝOKOvGIIKTZ[RYKV[TKT[VKSUJ[RJKGLO™GXKG[TKOYKIÝO[TOIO GY[VXGTGZ[XOOGIKYZKOGJÁTJOTLUXSGÝOOJKYVXKIKKGIKXKVXK`OTZÂGIKGYKIÝO[TK Limbajul HTML este un subset al limbajului SGML-Standard Generalized Markup Language. iar în 1999 este publicatã versiunea revizuitã sub denumirea de HTML 4.0. ca o primã prezentare. S[RZOSKJOG9K[ZORO`KG`Â[TYOYZKSJKSGXIGXKGYKSÂTÂZUXYOYZKS[R[OLURUYOZ ÍTZOVUMXGLOOT[SOZROSHGP[R.UXSGZGXKG[T[OJUI[SKTZ[ZORO`ÁTJROSHGP[R. Limbajul HTML a ajuns la versiunea 4.

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2 Este recomandat ca eliminarea sublinierii link-urilor sã fie compensatã de alte E formatãri (modificarea consistenþei. "#% .T GRZ K^KSVR[ JK VYK[JUIRGYK ÍR IUTYZOZ[OK IRGYKRK LOXYZROTK ™O LOXYZRKZZKX IGXK GYUIOG`ÂLUXSGZÂXOYVKIOLOIKVXOS[R[OXÁTJXKYVKIZO\VXOSKOROZKXKJOTZX[TVGXGMXGL YG[JOTZXUJO\O`O[TK+^KSVR[ROTJKTZKG`ÂVXOSGROTOKGUXOIÂX[OVGXGMXGLI[IS ™OYZGHORK™ZKVKTZX[VXOSGROZKXÂLUXSGZÂXOJOLKXOZKJKIKRKGVROIGZKZK^Z[R[OUHO™T[OZ Exemplul 2.16.ZORO`GXKGJKLOTOÝOORUXJOTK^KSVR[RGXKIGKLKIZGLO™GXKGNOVKXRKMÂZ[XORUXTK\O`OZGZK LURUYOTJ[TLUTZJKJOSKTYO[TKVZJKI[RUGXKXU™OK2GGVGXOÝOGK\KTOSKTZ[R[OJKZXKIKXK GI[XYUX[R[OSU[YK[R[OVKJKGY[VXGRKMÂZ[XOOYKGIZO\KG`ÂJKLOTOÝOORKIUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXK IRGYKO' NU\KXIKKGIKJKZKXSOTÂGLO™GXKGZK^Z[R[ONOVKXRKMÂZ[XOOI[I[RUGXKGXU™[ÍTINOY G\ÁTJ[TLUTZI[ SGOSGXKJKIÁZIKROTOÝOGR™OLOOTJY[HROTOGZ™OY[VXGROTOGZ/K™OXKG I[XYUX[R[OJOT`UTGJKGLO™GXKGNOVKXRKMÂZ[XOOJKZKXSOTÂXK\KTOXKGRGYKZÂXORKOTOÝOGRK 2KMÂZ[XORK\O`OZGZKYK\UXGLO™GI[LUTZÍTMXU™GZGRHGYZX[LÂXÂKRKSKTZ[RJKIUXGZO\YVKIOLOI ROTQ[XORUXY[HROTOKXKG  Eliminarea proprietãþii de subliniere a unei hiperlegãturi poate duce la confuzii. 3GXIGP[R[O'ÍOY[TZGYUIOGZK[XSÂZUGXKRKVYK[JUIRGYK u ROTQvVYK[JUIRGYÂGYUIOGZÂNOVKXRKMÂZ[XORUXTK\O`OZGZK! u \OYOZKJvVYK[JUIRGYÂGYUIOGZÂNOVKXRKMÂZ[XORUX\O`OZGZK! u GIZO\KvVYK[JUIRGYÂGYUIOGZÂNOVKXRKMÂZ[XORUXGIZO\K! u NU\KXvVYK[JUIRGYÂGYUIOGZÂK\KTOSKTZ[R[OJKZXG\KXYGXKGNOVKXRKMÂZ[XOOJK IÂZXKI[XYUX[RSU[YK[R[O .ZORO`GXKGVYK[JUIRGYKRUXVKTZX[KZOINKZG'VKXSOZKXKGRO`GXKG[™UGXÂG[TUXSKTO[XO JKUYKHOZKIGGYVKIZ™OIUSVUXZGSKTZ /GZÂ[TK^KSVR[JKJKLOTOXKGVXUVXOKZÂÝORUXVYK[JUIRGYKRUXGYUIOGZKNOVKXRKMÂZ[XORUX Exemplul 2. . de exemplu). mãrimii ºi culorii fontului. D vizitatorul fiind uneori în imposibilitatea de a distinge textul de activare al 7 hiperlegãturii de textul obiºnuit.15 .

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20 +LKIZ[RVUGZKLOUHYKX\GZÍTLOM[XG Figura 2.:32JU[Â ZOZR[XOJKTO\KRVXOS[RTKG\ÁTJTOIOULUXSGZGXKOGXGRJUORKGLOOTJVU`OÝOUTGZI[V^ YVXKYZÁTMGLGÝÂJKVU`OÝOGYGTUXSGRÂXKRGZO\ÂRGVXOS[RZOZR[ Exemplul 2.Exemplul 2.19 A`kZèZ`_RcVR cV]ReZgÍ 6KTZX[K^KSVROLOIGXKGVU`OÝOUTÂXOOXKRGZO\K\USOTYKXGÍTZX[TJUI[SKTZ.8 "#( .

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Exemplul 2.23

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Figura 2.11
2.11

 Definirea ºi manipularea straturilor se poate realiza ºi prin utilizarea etichetei LAYER,
D introdusã de firma Netscape, dar aceasta nu este o etichetã cuprinsã în standardul
7 HTML 4.0 ºi nu este implementatã de toate navigatoarele.
2
E Este recomandabil ca straturile sã fie definite ºi formatate prin utilizarea etichetelor
DIV ºi SPAN împreunã cu proprietãþile furnizate de foile de stiluri în cascadã.

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Figura 2.12

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Exemplul 2.24 (a)

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Exemplul 2.24 (b)
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6Y[TZ™OX[XOJKIGXGIZKXKIUTYZX[OZKIUTLUXS [XSÂZUGXKOXKM[RO u VXOS[RIGXGIZKXKYZKIGXGIZKX[R ! u GRJUORKGIGXGIZKXKYZKUHROMGZUXO[ROZKXÂYG[[TJKXYIUXK! u [XSKG`Â[TT[SÂXGXHOZXGXVUYOHOR`KXUJKIGXGIZKXKROZKXÂYG[IOLX +^KSVRKJKOJKTZOLOIGZUXOGYUIOGÝO\GXOGHORKRUXV[ZKÝO\KJKGÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4. unde acestea ar fi fost considerate identice. $SuMa ºi $SUMA desemneazã variabile diferite. adicã majusculele ºi minusculele sunt tratate diferit. este un limbaj case-sensitive.6U\GXOGHORÂYKIUTYOJKXÂJKLOTOZÂÍTSUSKTZ[RÍTIGXKLGIKUHOKIZ[R [TKOGZXOH[OXOZOV[RGYUIOGZ\GXOGHORKOLOOTJZOV[RK^VXKYOKOJOTVGXZKGJXKGVZÂGGZXOH[OXOO 9Â[XSÂXOSK^KSVR[R[XSÂZUX Exemplul 4.6™O[TKRKXKY[XYKK^ZKXTKI[SGXLOHG`KRKJKJGZKYG[LO™OKXKRK ­TIKRKIK[XSKG`Â\USOTYOYZGGY[VXGZOV[XORUXJKJGZKYOSVRKZOV[XORKYZX[IZ[XGZK ™OZOV[RXKY[XYÂLOOTJVXK`KTZGZKJKZGROGZÍTIGVOZURKRK[XSÂZUGXK 5VWZ_ZcVR¤ZfeZ]ZkRcVRgRcZRSZ]V]`cØ_A9A /JKTZOLOIGZUXOOGYUIOGÝO\GXOGHORKRUX6.5 <GXOGHORG G\GG\KGOTOÝOGRZOV[RÍTZXKMOGX\GXOGHORG H\GLOJKZOVXKGR*[VÂGLO™GXKG \GRUXORUX IKRUX JU[ \GXOGHORK \GXOGHORKO G O YK GZXOH[OK IUTYZGTZG ™OX JK IGXGIZKXK sIGRI[RGZUXtGYZLKRI™OZOV[R\GXOGHORKO GYKYINOSH "&) . $Suma. asemeni limbajului C/C++. De exemplu. Este de preferat sã nu utilizaþi nume de variabile cu prefixul $_. ­TROSHGP[R6. Astfel. variabila $_GET permite preluarea datelor trimise unui script pentru prelucrare. identificatorii $suma. KYZK[T[RJOTZXKYIUV[XORKSGT[GR[R[OJKLGÝÂJKIOT[\USR[IXGI[KRKSKTZKRK GIKYZ[OZOVJKJGZK $ EZaf]cVdfcdÍ<GXOGHORKRKJKGIKYZZOVY[TZLURUYOZKVKTZX[XKGRO`GXKGIUTK^O[TORUX JOTZXKYIXOVZ[R6. Limbajul PHP. spre deosebire de limbaje precum Pascal. pentru a evita conflictele cu variabilele de sistem.4 Limbajul PHP utilizeazã variabile predefinite pentru a permite preluarea unor valori ale unor variabile de sistem ºi utilizeazã identificatori de forma $_NumeVariabila.

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7 2WZ¤RcVRUReV]`c 'LO™GXKGJGZKRUXÍTLKXKGYZXGTG\OMGZUX[R[OYKVUGZKXKGRO`GVXOTOTZKXSKJO[RGJU[ IUTYZX[IÝOOI[KLKIZKYOSROGXK KINU™OVXOTZ 9OTZG^GMKTKXGRÂVKTZX[KINUVUGZKLOJKLOTOZÂGYZLKR [TJK K^VXEgK^VXETY[TZK^VXKYOOJKZOV™OXJKIGXGIZKXK >`UUVViVTfeRcV 9KGLO™KG`ÂVKXÁTJJKRGYZÁTMGRGJXKGVZG\GRUXORKK^VXKYOORUX K^VXEgK^VXET +^KSVR[RVXK`OTZÂVGZX[SUJGROZÂÝOIUXKIZKJKGGLO™GÍTLKXKGYZXGTG\OMGZUX[R[O SKYGP[Rf6.6KYZKSOT[TGZt Exemplul 4.6YIXO[T[SKRKIUTYZGTZKRUXI[SGP[YI[RK VKTZX[GLO[™UXJKOJKTZOLOIGZÍTIGJX[RYIXOVZ[R[O +^KSVRKJKIUTYZGTZKYOSHUROIKV[ZKÝO\KJKGÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4.[TIÝOGJKLOTKJKLOTK™ZKU\GXOGHORÂI[T[SKRKOUV_eZWZTRe`cG\ÁTJ\GRUGXKG\R]`RcV /JKTZOLOIGZUX[RT[ZXKH[OKVXKIKJGZJKIGXGIZKX[RJURGX™OVUGZKLOIUSV[YJOTROZKXKIOLXK ™OIGXGIZKX[R[TJKXYIUXK6XOS[RIGXGIZKXZXKH[OKYÂLOKUROZKXÂYG[[TJKXYIUXK 'RZXKORKGVGXGSKZX[KYZKUVÝOUTGR™OGXKU\GRUGXKRUMOI JGIÂ\GRUGXKGKYZKZX[K GZ[TIOYKIUTYOJKXÂIÂT[SKRKIUTYZGTZKOKYZKIGYKYKTYOZO\KGIKGYZGLOOTJ™O\GRUGXKG OSVROIOZÂGZ[TIOIÁTJGRZXKORKGVGXGSKZX[ROVYK™ZK )KOSGOS[RÝOJOTZXKVXUMXGSGZUXOO6.8 (utilizarea construcþiei echo) :UGZKIKRKVGZX[LUXSKJKGLO™GXKJOTK^KSVR[RVXKIKJKTZYKIUTLUXSKG`ÂJKLOTOÝOKO JKYOTZG^ÂGIUTYZX[IÝOKOKINU'ZXKOGLUXSÂ[ZORO`KG`ÂUVKXGZUX[RJKIUTIGZKTGXKG JU[™OX[XOJKIGXGIZKXKUVKXGZUX[RV[TIZ "'! .6VKXSOZKJKLOTOXKGIUTYZGTZKRUXYOSHUROIKVXOT[ZORO`GXKGL[TIÝOKOJKLOTK IGXKGXKYOTZG^G .5VWZ_ZcVR T`_deR_eV]`c dZ^S`]ZTV 2OSHGP[R6.

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:32IKIUTÝOT GZXOH[ZKYÂTKGSOTZOSIÂ\GRUGXKG[T[OGZXOH[Z.GVZ[RIÂ6.VKTZX[JKROSOZGXKG™OX[R[O )GXGIZKXKRKKYIGVKG[YOTZG^GBIGXGIZKXIKRKSGOOSVUXZGTZKLOOTJ[XSÂZUGXKRK u BTvIGXGIZKX[RJKYGRZRGROTOKTU[Â! u BZvIGXGIZKX[RZGH! u BBvIGXGIZKX[RHGIQYRGYN! u BtvIGXGIZKX[RMNOROSKRK )GXGIZKXKRKKYIGVKT[G[KLKIZGY[VXGJUI[SKTZ[R[OGLO™GZÍTLKXKGYZXGTG\OMGZUX[R[O IOGY[VXGY[XYKOGIKYZ[OGG™GI[SGXGZÂK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4.:32YKXKIUSGTJÂGLOJKROSOZGZÂVXOT MNOROSKRKSGOGRKYGZ[TIOIÁTJ\GRUGXKGKYZKIUSV[YÂJOTSGOS[RZKI[\OTZK =64È:2# @aVcRe`cZ¤ZViacVdZZ .6Y[TZMX[VGÝOÍT[XSÂZUGXKRKIGZKMUXOO u UVKXGZUXOGXOZSKZOIO! u UVKXGZUXOJKGZXOH[OXK! u UVKXGZUXOJKOTIXKSKTZGXKJKIXKSKTZGXK! u UVKXGZUXOXKRGÝOUTGRO! u UVKXGZUXORUMOIO! u UVKXGZUXOVKHOÝO! u UVKXGZUXOVK™OX[XOJKIGXGIZKXK! u GRÝOUVKXGZUXOIGXKT[VUZLOOTIR[™OÍTIGZKMUXOORKJKSGOY[Y ­TIKRKIK[XSKG`Â\USVXK`KTZGUVKXGZUXOOJOTLOKIGXKIGZKMUXOKK^KSVROLOIÁTJ SUJ[RRUXJK[ZORO`GXK "'# .10 9KI\KTÝGBtVKXSOZKOTYKXGXKGMNOROSKRKRUXÍTOTZKXOUX[R[T[O™OXJKIGXGIZKXKJKROSOZGZ VXOTMNOROSKRKLOOTJJKUYKHOZJK[ZORGZ[TIOIÁTJY[TZGLO™GZKKZOINKZK.6KYZK[TROSHGP)ROQKROSHGPGYKSÂTÂZUXIGYOTZG^™OYZORJKVXUMXGSGXK OKYKRGO\KGR™OÍTIKKGIKVXO\K™ZKUVKXGZUXOOJKLOTOÝOÍTIGJX[RROSHGP[R[O5VKXGZUXOO JOT6.

@aVcRe`cZ RcZe^VeZTZ :UÝOUVKXGZUXOOGXOZSKZOIOY[TZUVKXGZUXOHOTGXO3UJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGRGIKYZUXGYK VUGZK\KJKGÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4.11 @aVcRe`cZUVRecZSfZcV ­TROSHGP[R6.12 "'$ .6UVKXGÝOGJKGZXOH[OXKKYZKXKGRO`GZÂVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R[T[OUVKXGZUX# 9OTZG^G[ZORO`GZÂVKTZX[GZXOH[OXKKYZK [TJK \GXKYZK[TOJKTZOLOIGZUXJK\GXOGHORÂ >`UUVVgR]fRcV+ u YKK\GR[KG`ÂK^VXKYOGJOTJXKGVZGGZXOH[OXOO! u XK`[RZGZ[RUHÝOT[ZRGVGY[RGTZKXOUXYKYZUINKG`ÂÍT`UTGJKSKSUXOKGRUIGZ \GXOGHORKOJOTVGXZKGYZÁTMÂGGZXOH[OXOO! u \GRUGXKGXK`[RZGZÂÍT[XSGGZXOH[OXOOKYZK\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOJOTVGXZKGJXKGVZÂ /SVRKSKTZGXKGGZXOH[OXOOIGUVKXGZUXYVXKJKUYKHOXKJKROSHGPKVXKI[S6GYIGR [TJKGZXOH[OXKGKYZKOTYZX[IÝO[TKVKXSOZK[ZORO`GXKGGZXOH[OXOOÍTIGJX[RGRZUXK^VXKYOO G™GI[SYKVUGZKUHYKX\GÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4.11 4.

9IXOVZ[RJOTK^KSVR[R\GGLO™GJKZXKOUXO\GRUGXKGJKUGXKIKK^VXKYOGJOT ROTOGYK\GK\GR[GJKRGJXKGVZGRGYZÁTMGGYZLKR u YKK\GR[KG`ÂGZXOH[OXKG ^#IGXKSKSUXKG`ÂÍT\GXOGHORG ^\GRUGXKGOGX \GRUGXKGGVROIÂXOOUVKXGZUX[R[OJKGZXOH[OXKKYZK! u \GXOGHORKO _OYK\GGZXOH[O\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOK\GR[GZKRGVGY[RVXKIKJKTZJKIO _#! u \GXOGHORKO `OYK\GGZXOH[O\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOK\GR[GZKRGVGY[RVXKIKJKTZJKIO `# 5GYZLKRJKGZXOH[OXKVUGXZÂT[SKRKJKRecZSfZcV^f]eZa]ÍJKUGXKIKVKXSOZKGZXOH[OXKG \GRUXOO[TKOK^VXKYOOSGOS[RZUX\GXOGHORK ­TROSHGP[R6.13 @aVcRe`cZ UV Z_TcV^V_eRcV UVTcV^V_eRcV 5VKXGZUXOOJKOTIXKSKTZGXKJKIXKSKTZGXKXKYVKIZO\vvY[TZYVKIOLOIOROSHGP[R[O ))™OVKXSOZSÂXOXKGXKYVKIZO\SOI™UXGXKG\GRUXOO[TKO\GXOGHORKI[U[TOZGZK­T L[TIÝOKJKSUSKTZ[RÍTIGXKYKLGIKSUJOLOIGXKG\GRUXOO\GXOGHORKOG\KSUVKXGZUXOJK u VXKOTIXKSKTZGXK! u VXKJKIXKSKTZGXK! u VUYZOTIXKSKTZGXK! u VUYZJKIXKSKTZGXK "'% .6UVKXGZUX[RJKGZXOH[OXKYKVUGZKIUSHOTGI[[TGRZUVKXGZUXHOTGX UVKXGZUXOOXK`[RZGÝOLOOTJIUTYOJKXGÝOUVKXGZUXOJKGZXOH[OXKIUSV[YÂ 9OTZG^GUVKXGZUXORUXJKGZXOH[OXKIUSV[YÂKYZK [TJK`aUVKXGZUX[R[ZORO`GZVKTZX[IUSHOTGXKVUGZKLOUXOIKUVKXGZUXGXOZSKZOIRUMOI YG[VKHOÝO 5VKXGZUXOOJKGZXOH[OXKIUSV[YÂY[TZJKUHOIKO[ZORO`GÝOVKTZX[GYIXOKÍTZXULUXS IUSVGIZÂUGZXOH[OXKJKLUXSG ­TK^KSVR[RV[ZKÝOUHYKX\GRGR[IX[IÁÝO\GUVKXGZUXOJKGZXOH[OXKIUSV[Y Exemplul 4.

.15.14 'ZXOH[OXKG `# ^ _vvYKK\GR[KG`ÂGYZLKR u YKOTIXKSKTZKG`Â\GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKO ^I[U[TOZGZKJKIO ^JK\OTK! u YKLGIKYIÂJKXKG ^ _IGXK\GG\KGXK`[RZGZ[R! u YKGZXOH[OK\GXOGHORKO `\GRUGXKG! u YKJKIXKSKTZKG`Â\GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKO _ 9KI\KTÝGJOTK^KSVR[RJKSGOY[YVUGZKLOXKYIXOYÂÍTSUJKINO\GRKTZGYZLKR Exemplul 4. @aVcRe`cZ cV]RèZ`_R]Z 5VKXGZUXOO XKRGÝOUTGRO Y[TZ ÍT SGXKG RUX SGPUXOZGZK I[TUYI[ÝO JOT ROSHGP[R JK VXUMXGSGXKYZ[JOGZÍTIRGYKRKGTZKXOUGXK 5HYKX\GÝOK^OYZKTÝGGJUOUVKXGZUXOVKTZX[G\KXOLOIGJGIÂJU[ÂK^VXKYOOY[TZJOLKXOZK #™O"$VXOS[RLOOTJsSU™ZKTOZtJOTROSHGP[R)OGXGRJUORKGJOTROSHGP[R6GYIGR5VKXGZUX[R ###XKZ[XTKG`ÂZX[KJGIÂJU[ÂK^VXKYOOY[TZOJKTZOIKIG\GRUGXK™OJKGIKRG™OZOVOGX UVKXGZUX[R##JKZKXSOTÂJGIÂJU[ÂK^VXKYOOY[TZJOLKXOZKIG\GRUGXK™OZOV "'& .ZORO`GXKGUVKXGZUXORUXJKOTIXKSKTZGXKJKIXKSKTZGXKKYZKK^KSVROLOIGZÂÍTYIXOVZ[R JKSGOPUY Exemplul 4.

6JKLOTK™ZKIÁZKJUOUVKXGZUXO*[HRGXKGUVKXGZUXORUXRUMOIOVKXSOZKVXUMXGSGZUX[R[O YÂ[ZORO`K`K\GXOGTZGIGXKOKYZKLGSOROGXÂJOTGRZKROSHGPK 6KVGXI[XY[RGIKYZ[OSGT[GRÍTZUGZKK^KSVRKRKVXK`KTZGZK\US[ZORO`GUVKXGZUXOO RUMOIO.@aVcRe`cZ ]`XZTZ 6KTZX[UVKXGÝOORKRUMOIK[`[GRKIUTP[TIÝOKJOYP[TIÝOK™OTKMGÝOKRUMOIÂROSHGP[R 6.

.

în mod obligatoriu.16 5VKXGZUX[R^UXYG[K^IR[YO\XKZ[XTKG`ÂZX[KJGIÂ[TG™OT[SGO[TGJOTZXKK^VXKYOORK IÂXUXGROYKGVROIÂKYZKGJK\ÂXGZÂÍTZOSVIKUVKXGZUX[RbbXKZ[XTKG`ÂZX[KJGIÂIKRV[ÝOT [TGJOTZXKK^VXKYOOKYZKGJK\ÂXGZÂ Programatorii familiarizaþi cu limbajul Pascal au observat lipsa parantezelor care.bb™O^UX . @aVcRe`cZ]R_ZgV]UVSZe 5VKXGZUXOORGTO\KRJKHOZGIÝOUTKG`ÂGY[VXG[TUXUVKXGT`OJKZOVÍTZXKMJKLGVZ GY[VXGXKVXK`KTZÂXOOHOTGXKGGIKYZUXG)[K^IKVÝOGUVKXGZUX[R[OJKTKMGÝOKHOZI[HOZ ZUÝOIKORGRÝOY[TZUVKXGZUXOHOTGXOIGXKGIÝOUTKG`ÂGY[VXGVKXKINORUXJKHOÝOJKVKGIKKG™O VU`OÝOKJOTIKOJUOUVKXGT`O 5VKXGZUX[RoOT\KXYKG`Â\GRUXORKLOKIÂX[OHOZJOTXKVXK`KTZGXKGHOTGXÂGUVKXGTJ[R[O HOÝOOJK\GRUGXKJK\OT™OOT\KXY "'' . Explicaþia este cã operatorii relaþionali au prioritate mai mare decât cei logici. delimiteazã o expresie Pascal ce conþine operatori logici ºi relaþionali.ZORO`GXKGUVKXGZUXORUXRUMOIOVUGZKLO[XSÂXOZÂÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4.

18 "'( .17 9ÂR[ÂSIGK^KSVR[GVROIGXKGUVKXGZUX[R[O‰/VKHOÝOGY[VXGT[SKXKRUX™O  21 = 10101(2) 13 = 01101(2) 21 & 13= 00101(2)= 5 6KTZX[LOKIGXKVKXKINKJKHOÝOGLRGÝOVKGIKKG™OVU`OÝOKÍTXKVXK`KTZGXKGHOTGXÂG IKRUXJUOUVKXGT`OYKGVROIÂUVKXGZUX[R‰/RUMOI 'VROIGXKGUVKXGZUX[R[OJKJKVRGYGXKYVXKJXKGVZG$$GY[VXG\GRUXOOXKGRO`KG` JKVRGYGXKGÍTZXKMOOXKVXK`KTZÂXOHOTGXKIÂZXKJXKGVZGI[VU`OÝOO $$#$$ ##*KVRGYGXKGYVXKJXKGVZGI[TVU`OÝOOG[TKO\GRUXOÍTZXKMOKINO\GRKG` I[ÍSVÂXÝOXKGÍTZXKGMÂGGIKYZKOGI[TÍTZOSVIKJKVRGYGXKGYVXKYZÁTMGKINO\GRKG` I[ÍTS[RÝOXKG\GRUXOOI[T @aVcRe`cZaV¤ZcfcZUVTRcRTeVcV 2OSHGP[R6.6IUTÝOTKUVKXGZUX[RV[TIZIGXKIUTIGZKTKG`ÂJU[™OX[XOJKIGXGIZKXK 'IKYZGVUGZKLO[ZORO`GZ™OVXOTIUSHOTGXKGYGI[UVKXGZUX[RJKGZXOH[OXK\K`OK^KSVR[R  Exemplul 4. n 5VKXGZUXOOJKJKVRGYGXKVKHOÝOXKGRO`KG`ÂJKVRGYGXKGHOÝORUX[T[OT[SÂXÍTZXKMI[[T T[SÂXJKVU`OÝOOIÂZXKYZÁTMGYG[JXKGVZG +^KSVR[RVXK`OTZÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGUVKXGZUXORUXRUMOIORGTO\KRJKHOZ Exemplul 4.

O™OKXOTK^OYZKTZt Exemplul 4.19 (B) 5VKXGZUX[RJKK^KI[ÝOKKYZK[ZORO`GZVKTZX[GK^KI[ZGIUSKT`OGRKYOYZKS[R[OJK UVKXGXKY[HIGXKX[RKG`ÂYKX\KX[R=KH )USGTJGK^KI[ZGZÂKYZKJKROSOZGZÂVXOTIGXGIZKX[R|HGIQZNOIQvGVUYZXULÍTIROTGZ 5VKXGZUX[RJKK^KI[ÝOKJOTK^KSVR[R\GK^KI[ZGIUSGTJGOVIUTLOMJOT=OTJU]Y IGXKVKXSOZKGLO™GXKGIGXGIZKXOYZOIORUXVRÂIORUXJKXKÝKGOTYZGRGZKÍTYOYZKS™OGGJXKYKRUX /6[ZORO`GZKVKTZX[IUTK^O[TORKRGXKÝKG8K`[RZGZ[RUHÝOT[ZVXOTK\GR[GXKGUVKXGZUX[R[O KYZKXK`[RZGZ[RK^KI[ZÂXOOIUSKT`OOOVIUTLOMIGXKYKGZXOH[OK\GXOGHORKO K^KI "') .19 (A) 5VKXGZUX[R&GLUYZVRGYGZÍTLGÝGL[TIÝOKOLUVKTVKTZX[GOTNOHGGLO™GXKGSKYGP[R[O YZGTJGXJJKKXUGXKGLO™GZÍTIG`[RÍTIGXKLO™OKX[RJGZKOTT[VUGZKLOJKYINOY<GXOGHORG GYUIOGZÂLO™OKX[R[OJGZKOT\GXOGHORÂJKZOVXKY[XYÂ\GVXOSO\GRUGXKGLGRYKÍTIG`[R GVGXOÝOKO[TKOKXUXO­TL[TIÝOKJK\GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKO LOYYK\GGLO™G[TSKYGPJKKXUGXK YG[YK\GVKXSOZKIUTZOT[GXKGK^KI[ÝOKOYIXOVZ[R[O +^KI[ZGÝOYIXOVZ[RJOTK^KSVR[RJ[VÂIKGÝOKROSOTGZUVKXGZUX[R&JOTY[XYG YIXOVZ[R[O­TGIKYZIG`YK\GGLO™GGZÁZSKYGP[RJKKXUGXKYZGTJGXJIÁZ™OSKYGP[R VXUMXGSGZUX[R[O Exemplul 4.TKUXOSKYGPKRKYZGTJGXJJKKXUGXKY[TZJKX[ZGTZK VKTZX[\O`OZGZUX +^KSVR[RIUTÝOTKUÍTIKXIGXKJKGJKYINOJK[TLO™OKXZK^ZOTK^OYZKTZGLO™GXKGKXUXOO YZGTJGXJKYZKOTNOHGZÂOGX[ZORO`GZUX[R\GVXOSOSKYGP[Rs+XUGXK.6IGXKJKZKXSOT ÍTIKZGXKGK^KI[ÝOKOYIXOVZ[R[O.2]èZ`aVcRe`cZ ­TGIKGYZÂIGZKMUXOKGSOTIR[YUVKXGZUXOOVKTZX[IUTZXUR[RGLO™ÂXOOKXUXORUX5VKXGZUX[R VKTZX[IUTZXUR[RGLO™ÂXOOKXUXORUX1GXKXUR[RJKGOTNOHGGLO™GXKGSKYGPKRUXJKKXUGXK IGXKGXV[ZKGLOMKTKXGZKJKOTYZX[IÝO[TKGÍTGOTZKGIÂXKOGKYZKVRGYGZ5VKXGZUX[RVUGZK LOVRGYGZÍTGOTZKGUXOIÂXKO\GXOGHORKIUTYZGTZKK^VXKYOOYG[GVKRJKL[TIÝOKJGXT[ VUGZKYÂGVGXÂÍTGOTZKGOTYZX[IÝO[TORUXJKIUTZXURGK^KI[ÝOKO™OÍTGOTZKGJKLOTOÝOORUXJK L[TIÝOO 5VKXGZUX[R & KYZK [ZOR GZ[TIO IÁTJ VXUMXGSGZUX[R JUXK™ZK Y GLO™K`K VXUVXOORK SKYGPKJKKXUGXK™OT[SKYGPKRKYZGTJGXJGRKOTZKXVXKZUX[R[O6.

3UJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGRUVKXGZUX[R[OJKK^KI[ÝOKKYZKK^KSVROLOIGZÍTYIXOVZ[R[XSÂZUX

Exemplul 4.20
5VKXGZUX[RJKK^KI[ÝOKYKVUGZKJU\KJOLUGXZK[ZORGZ[TIOIÁTJYOYZKS[RJKUVKXGXKGR
YKX\KX[R[OMG`JÂKYZKJOTLGSOROG;TO^2OT[^GVKR[RGT[SOZUXIUSKT`OGRKYNKRR[R[O
YOYZKS[R[OJ[IÁTJRGXKGRO`GXKGSGOXGVOJ™OSGOYOSVRÂGGT[SOZUXUVKXGÝOOJKK^KSVR[
XKGRO`GXKGUVKXGÝOORUXJKYGR\GXKVKXOUJOIÂGHG`KRUXJKJGZK[ZORO`GZK
5VKXGZUX[RIUTJOÝOUTGR0+KYZKYOTM[X[RUVKXGZUXIGXKTKIKYOZÂZXKOUVKXGT`OUVKXGZUX
ZKXTGX™OVUGZKLO[ZORVKTZX[YIXOKXKG[TUXK^VXKYOOIUTJOÝOUTGRKYOSVRK
9OTZG^GUVKXGZUX[R[OKYZK

[TJK K^VXKYZKUK^VXKYOKRUMOIÂOGXK^VX™OK^VXY[TZUXOIKK^VXKYOO6.6

>`UUVVgR]fRcV
u YKK\GR[KG`ÂK^VX!
u JGIÂK^VXGXK\GRUGXKGZX[KGZ[TIOXK`[RZGZ[RXKZ[XTGZJKUVKXGZUX[RIUTJOÝOUTGR
KYZK\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOK^VXGRZLKRXK`[RZGZ[RKYZK\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOK^VX
5VKXGZUX[RIUTJOÝOUTGRVKXSOZKYIXOKXKGÍTZXULUXSÂIUSVGIZÂG[TUXOTYZX[IÝO[TO
IUTJOÝOUTGRKXKRGZO\YOSVRKI[SGXLOJKZKXSOTGXKGSOTOS[R[O™OSG^OS[R[OGJU[ÂYG[
ZXKO\GRUXO\K`OK^KSVR[R

Exemplul 4.21
+^VXKYOG
G"
H%
SOT#
G 
SOT#
H"
I%
SOT 
IYKK\GR[KG`ÂGYZLKR
u YKK\GR[KG`ÂK^VXKYOG
G"
H%
SOT#
G 
SOT#
HKLKIZ[RLOOTJGZXOH[OXKG\GRUXOO
SOTOSKJOTZXK
G™O
H\GXOGHORKO
SOT!

"'*

u YKIUSVGXÂ\GRUGXKGUHÝOT[ZÂRGVGY[RGTZKXOUXI[\GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKO
I™OYK
XKZ[XTKG`ÂSOTOS[RJOTZXKGIKYZKG
Nu se recomandã utilizarea excesivã a operatorului condiþional, deoarece
expresiile rezultate sunt greu de urmãrit ºi depanat.

AcVTVUV_èR `aVcRe`cZ]`c
'VROIGXKGUVKXGZUXORUXÍTZXUK^VXKYOKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂÍTL[TIÝOKJKVXOUXOZGZKGLOKIÂX[OG
:GHKR[R[XSÂZUXVXK`OTZÂIGZKMUXOORKJKUVKXGZUXOÍTUXJOTKGIXKYIÂZUGXKGVXOUXOZÂÝOOGIKYZUXG

­TK^KSVR[RYKJUXK™ZKIGRI[RGXKGVXUJ[Y[R[OIOLXKRUX[T[OT[SÂXTGZ[XGRÍTYÂ
XK`[RZGZ[RT[KYZKIKRG™ZKVZGZ

Exemplul 4.22
"(!

9IXOVZ[R\GGLO™G\GRUGXKGÍTRUIJKJKUGXKIKK^VXKYOG
VXUJ[Y
TX IGXK
IUTÝOTKJUOUVKXGZUXOI[GIKKG™OVXOUXOZGZKYK\GK\GR[GJKRGYZÁTMGRGJXKGVZGIGRI[RÁTJ
XKYZ[R ÍSVÂXÝOXOO RG  G VXUJ[Y[R[O
VXUJ[Y
TX /TZXUJ[IKXKG JK VGXGTZK`K VKTZX[
SUJOLOIGXKG UXJOTOO KLKIZ[ÂXOO UVKXGÝOORUX XK`UR\Â VXUHRKSG K^VXKYOG IUXKIZÂ LOOTJ

VXUJ[Y
TX 

4`_gVcdZZRfe`^ReV¤ZT`_gVcdZZVia]ZTZeVUVeZa
2OSHGP[R6.6XKGRO`KG`ÂIUT\KXYOOG[ZUSGZKJKZOVVKTZX[\GXOGHORKRKYG[IUTYZGTZKRK
JOTZXUK^VXKYOKGZ[TIOIÁTJKYZKTK\UOK*OTV[TIZ[RJK\KJKXKGRIUT\KXYOORUXG[ZUSGZK
ROSHGP[R6.6KYZKS[RZSGOVKXSOYO\JKIÁZGRZKROSHGPK
)UT\KXYOORKG[ZUSGZKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂJ[VÂ[XSÂZUGXKRKXKM[RO
u *GIÂZUÝOUVKXGT`OOJOTK^VXKYOKY[TZJKZOVÍTZXKMGZ[TIOXK`[RZGZ[RK^VXKYOKO
KYZKÍTZXKM™OT[SGOKYZKTK\UOKJKIUT\KXYOOJKZOV
u *GIÂ[TYOTM[XUVKXGTJKYZKJKZOVXKGRGZ[TIO\GRUXORKIKRUXRGRÝOUVKXGT`OYK
IUT\KXZKYIRGZOV[RXKGROGXXK`[RZGZ[RLOTGRKYZKJKGIKRG™OZOV
u *GIÂ[TUVKXGTJKYZKJKZOV™OXJKIGXGIZKXKGVGXJU[ÂIG`[XO
v JGI™OX[RJKIGXGIZKXKÍTIKVKI[U\GRUGXKT[SKXOIÂGZ[TIO\GRUGXKGGIKYZKOG
\GJG\GRUGXKG™OX[R[O!
v JGI™OX[RT[ÍTIKVKI[U\GRUGXKT[SKXOIÂGZ[TIO™OX[RKYZKIUTYOJKXGZIG
G\ÁTJ\GRUGXKG`KXU
9IXOVZ[R[XSÂZUXK^KSVROLOIÂSUJ[RÍTIGXKY[TZXKGRO`GZKIUT\KXYOORKOSVROIOZKJK
ZOVÍTROSHGP[R6.6

Exemplul 4.23

,[TIÝOG MKZZ_VK XKZ[XTKG`Â [T ™OX JK IGXGIZKXK XKVXK`KTZÁTJ ZOV[R K^VXKYOKO
YVKIOLOIGZKIGGXM[SKTZ
'Z[TIOIÁTJJUXOSIG\GRUGXKG[TKOK^VXKYOOYÂGOHÂ[TGT[SKZOV\GZXKH[OYÂ
[ZORO`ÂSUVKXGZUX[RJKIUT\KXYOKK^VROIOZÂJKZOV5VKXGZUX[RJKIUT\KXYOKK^VROIOZÂGXK
YOTZG^G

[TJKZOVEJKEJGZKVUGZKLO
u OTZYG[OTZKMKXvZOV[RÍTZXKM!
u JU[HRKXKGRYG[LRUGZvZOV[RXKGR!
u YZXOTMvZOV[R™OXJKIGXGIZKXK

"("

Exemplul 4.24

)UT\KXYOORKJKZOVLOKIÂY[TZG[ZUSGZKYG[K^VROIOZKT[SUJOLOIÂZOV[R\GXOGHORKRUX
OSVROIGZKÍTIUT\KXYOK3UJOLOIGXKGZOV[R[O[TKO\GXOGHORKYKVUGZKXKGRO`GVXOTGVKR[R
L[TIÝOKOYKZZ_VKIGXKGXKYOTZG^G

[TJKZOVEJKEJGZKVUGZKG\KG[TGJOT\GRUXORK OTZKMKXJU[HRKYZXOTMGXXG_YG[UHPKIZ

=64È:2$
:_decfTèZf_ZA9A

:_decfTèZf_VR ViacVdZV
­TROSHGP[R6.6IG™OÍTROSHGP[R)UXOIKK^VXKYOK[XSGZÂJKIGXGIZKX[RV[TIZ™O
\OM[RÂYKIUTYOJKXÂGLOOTYZX[IÝO[TKOTYZX[IÝO[TKGK^VXKYOK

Exemplul 4.25

+^KSVR[RIUTÝOTKZXKOOTYZX[IÝO[TOK^VXKYOK)GXGIZKX[RV[TIZ™O\OXM[RÂKYZK
ZKXSOTGZUXJKOTYZX[IÝO[TKSGXIÁTJRUI[RÍTIGXKYKZKXSOTÂGIKGYZG+RKSKTZKRK[TKO
OTYZX[IÝO[TOYKVUZYKVGXGVXOTZX[TT[SÂXUGXKIGXKJKIGXGIZKXKYVGÝO[™OZGH

:_decfTèZf_VR T`^afdÍ S]`T
/TYZX[IÝO[TORKVUZLOMX[VGZKÍTZX[TMX[VJKOTYZX[IÝO[TOHRUIHRUI[RLOOTJJKROSOZGZ
VXOTGIURGJK

:_decfTèZf_Z T`_UZèZ`_R]V
2OSHGP[R6.6L[XTO`KG`ÂJU[ÂOTYZX[IÝO[TOIUTJOÝOUTGRK OLOTYZX[IÝO[TKIUTJOÝOUTGRÂ
YOSVR™OY]OZINOTYZX[IÝO[TKIUTJOÝOUTGRÂS[RZOVRÂ
9OTZG^GOTYZX[IÝO[TOOOLKYZK
"(#

[TJKK^VX2K^VX2K^VX2vK^VXKYOORUMOIK!
OTYZX[IZO[TKEOTYZX[IZO[TKEOTYZX[IZO[TKUXOIKOTYZX[IÝO[TO6.6!

>`UUVViVTfeRcV
,UXSG 9KK\GR[KG`ÂK^V2™OÍTIG`[RÍTIGXKGIKGYZGKYZKGJK\GXGZÂYKK^KI[ZÂ
OTYZX[IÝO[TKE
,UXSG 9KK\GR[KG`ÂK^V2™OÍTIG`[RÍTIGXKGIKGYZGKYZKTKT[RÂGJK\GXGZÂYK
K^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKEGRZLKRYKK^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKE
,UXSG
u 9KK\GR[KG`ÂK^V2
u *GIÂK^V2KYZKGJK\GXGZÂYKK^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKE™OYKZXKIKRG[XSÂZUGXKG
OTYZX[IÝO[TK
u *GIÂK^V2KYZKLGRYÂYKK\GR[KG`ÂK^V2™OYKK^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKEJGIÂ
K^VXKYOGKYZKGJK\ÂXGZÂYG[OTYZX[IÝO[TKEJGIÂK^V2KYZKLGRYÂ

,UXSGGOTYZX[IÝO[TOOOLT[GVGXKÍTROSHGP[R)JGXGRZKROSHGPKYVXKK^KSVR[
ROSHGP[R'*'UOSVRKSKTZKG`ÂÍTGIKGYZÂLUXSÂ
­TK^KSVR[RJKSGOPUY\USXKGRO`G[TYIXOVZIGXKYÂIGRI[RK`KSOTOS[RGZXKOT[SKXK

Exemplul 4.26

*KZKXSOTGXKG SOTOS[R[O V[ZKG LO XKGRO`GZÂ SGO YOSVR[ JGX GS VXKLKXGZ GIKGYZÂ
\GXOGTZÂVKTZX[GK^KSVROLOIG[ZORO`GXKGIKRKOJKGZXKOGLUXSKGOTYZX[IÝO[TOOOL

:_decfTèZf_VR dhZeTY
/TYZX[IÝO[TKGY]OZINKYZK[ZORO`GZÂGZ[TIOIÁTJYKJUXK™ZKYKRKIZGXKG[TKOGIÝO[TO
JOTSGOS[RZKVUYOHORKOGXLURUYOXKG[TUXOTYZX[IÝO[TOOLOSHXOIGZKGXSOI™UXGIRGXOZGZKG
YIXOVZ[R[O

"($

d pânã la întâlnirea unei instrucþiuni break sau pânã la sfârºitul lui switch.m. Dacã omitem instrucþiunea break. +^KSVR[RVXK`OTZÂ[TYIXOVZIGXKIGRI[RKG`ÂY[SGJOLKXKTÝGVXUJ[Y[RYG[ XGVUXZ[RGJU[ÂT[SKXKÍTL[TIÝOKJK\GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKO UVKXGZOK "(% .6OTIR[YO\OTYZX[IÝO[TKG HRUIagc >`UUVViVTfeRcV u YKK\GR[KG`ÂYKRKIZUX[R! u JGIÂ\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOYKRKIZUXKYZKKMGRÂI[\GREOYKK^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKG IUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKGIKYZ[OIG`OTYZX[IZO[TKEO! u JGIÂ\GRUGXKGK^VXKYOKOT[IUOTIOJKI[TOIO[TGJOTZXK\GRUXORK\GREg\GRET GZ[TIOYKK^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TKGYVKIOLOIGZÂVXOTJKLG[RZJGIÂK^OYZÂ Instrucþiunea break determinã încheierea execuþiei instrucþiunii switch ºi trecerea controlului la urmãtoarea instrucþiune. Specificarea unei instrucþiuni default este opþionalã. dupã executarea instrucþiunii instructiune_i. 9OTZG^G [TJK YKRKIZUXvK^VXKYOKI[\GRUXOT[SKXOIKYG[™OXJKIGXGIZKXK! \GREg\GRET IUTYZGTZKT[SKXOIKYG[™OXJKIGXGIZKXK! OTYZX[IZO[TKEgOTYZX[IZO[TKETvUXOIKOTYZX[IÝO[TO6. se trece la executarea instrucþiunii instructiune_i+1 º.a.

6 >`UUVViVTfeRcV+ hYZ]V ARd" 9KK\GR[KG`ÂK^VX ARd# *GIÂK^VXKYZKGJK\GXGZÂGZ[TIOYKK^KI[ZÂIUXV[ROTYZX[IÝO[TOO]NORK™OYKXKOG VGYGRZLKRK^KI[ÝOGOTYZX[IÝO[TOO]NORKYKÍTINKOK "(& .Exemplul 4.6JKLOTK™ZKZXKOOTYZX[IÝO[TOXKVKZOZO\K u /TYZX[IÝO[TKGOZKXGZO\ÂI[ZKYZOTOÝOGR ]NORK u /TYZX[IÝO[TKGOZKXGZO\ÂI[ZKYZLOTGR JUg]NORK u /TYZX[IÝO[TKGOZKXGZO\ÂI[T[SÂXI[TUYI[ZJKVG™O LUX 9OTZG^G [TJK u K^VXK^VXK^VXK^VXvK^VXKYOO! u OTYZX[IÝO[TKOTYZX[IÝO[TKvUXOIKOTYZX[IÝO[TO6.27 /TYZX[IÝO[TKGY]OZINKYZKJKUHOIKO[ZORO`GZÂVKTZX[IXKGXKGSKTO[XORUXJKUVÝO[TO VKTZX[LOKIGXKGRZKXTGZO\ÂXKGRO`ÁTJ[YKUVKXGÝOORKYVKIOLOIK :_decfTèZf_Z ZeVcReZgV 2OSHGP[R6.

U`rhYZ]V
ARd" 9KK^KI[ZÂIUXV[ROTYZX[IÝO[TOOJU]NORK
ARd# 9KK\GR[KG`Â K^VX*GIÂ K^VXKYZKGJK\ÂXGZÂYKXKOG VGYGRZLKRK^KI[ÝOG
OTYZX[IÝO[TOOYKÍTINKOK 
W`c
ARd" 9KK\GR[KG`ÂK^VX
ARd# *GIÂK^VXKYZKGJK\GXGZÂYKK^KI[ZÂOTYZX[IÝO[TORKJOTIUXV[ROTYZX[IÝO[TOOLUX!
JGIÂK^VXKYZKLGRYÂK^KI[ÝOGOTYZX[IÝO[TOOLUXYKÍTINKOK
ARd$ 9KK\GR[KG`ÂK^VX
ARd% 9KXKOG6GY
­TIUTZOT[GXK\USVXK`KTZGIOTIO\GXOGTZKVKTZX[XK`UR\GXKGGIKRKOG™OVXUHRKSK
LURUYOTJJO\KXYKOTYZX[IÝO[TOXKVKZOZO\K6XUHRKSGIUTYZÂÍTIGRI[RGXKG\GRUXOOLGIZUXOGR[R[O
[T[OT[SÂXTGZ[XGR

GRcZR_eR"
<USLURUYOOTYZX[IÝO[TKGW`cÍTsYZOR6GYIGRtGJOIÂ[ZORO`ÂSU\GXOGHORÂIUTZUX
OIGXK
OG\GRUXOJKRGRG
TI[VGY[R

Exemplul 4.28

GRcZR_eR#
<USXKGRO`GOTOÝOGRO`ÂXORKTKIKYGXKÍTIGJX[RK^VX[TJKGS[ZORO`GZUVKXGZUX[R\OXM[RÂ
VKTZX[GMXKMGXKGSGOS[RZUXK^VXKYOO

Exemplul 4.29

GRcZR_eR$
/TYZX[IÝO[TKG
XK`#
OKYZKOTIR[YÂÍTK^VXKYOGJKOTIXKSKTZGXK

Exemplul 4.30

GRcZR_eR%
8K`UR\GXKGVXUHRKSKOVXUV[YKLURUYOTJOTYZX[IÝO[TKGhYZ]V

"('

Exemplul 4.31

GRcZR_eR&
8K`UR\GXKGVXUHRKSKOVXUV[YKLURUYOTJOTYZX[IÝO[TKGJU]NORK

Exemplul 4.32

Instrucþiunea for a fost denumitã, în debutul lecþiei, instrucþiune iterativã
cu numãr cunoscut de paºi deoarece aºa este cunoscutã structura for în literatura de
specialitate. În limbajul PHP, structura for este atât de flexibilã încât poate fi scrisã în
nenumãrate moduri, inclusiv într-o formã apropiatã de instrucþiunea while:
$i=1;
for( ;$i<$n; )
{
. . .
$i++;
}
Prin urmare, structura for poate fi denumitã structurã repetitivã cu numãr cunoscut de
paºi, doar pentru a pãstra tradiþia.

:_decfTèZf_Z]VScVR\¤ZT`_eZ_fV
/TYZX[IÝO[TORKHXKGQ™OIUTZOT[KIUTYZOZ[OKK^IKVÝOOJKRGVXUMXGSGXKGYZX[IZ[XGZÂ
JKUGXKIK VKXSOZ OK™OXKG JOTZXU OZKXGÝOK OTJKVKTJKTZ JK IUTJOÝOG JK ZKXSOTGXK G
OTYZX[IÝO[TOOXKVKZOZO\KIGXKRKIUTÝOTK
/TYZX[IÝO[TKGHXKGQJKZKXSOTÂGHGTJUTGXKGK^KI[ÝOKOOTYZX[IÝO[TOOOZKXGZO\KÍTGRIÂXKO
IUXVYKGLRÂÍTZOSVIKIUTZOT[KJKZKXSOTÂGHGTJUTGXKGOZKXGÝOKOI[XKTZK™OZXKIKXKGRG
[XSÂZUGXKGOZKXGÝOK

"((

Exemplul 4.33

9IXOVZ[RJOTK^KSVR[RJKZKXSOTÂJGIÂ[TT[SÂXTGZ[XGRKYZKVXOSYG[T[
6XKY[V[TKSIÂ
TKYZKVXOS
+VXOS#:8;+*GIÂYKMÂYK™ZK[TJO\O`UXGRYÂ[GZ[TIO
\GXOGHORG
+VXOSJK\OTK,'29+OGXYZX[IZ[XGLUXT[GXKYKTYYÂIUTZOT[KJKIOOK™OS
LUXÝGZJOTIOIR[
;ZORO`GXKGOTYZX[IÝO[TOOIUTZOT[KKYZKOR[YZXGZÂJKK^KSVR[R

Exemplul 4.34

9IXOVZ[RJOTK^KSVR[RGTZKXOUXXKGRO`KG`ÂGLO™GXKGT[SKXKRUXTGZ[XGRKVGXKSGOSOIO
JKIÁZ/TYZX[IÝO[TKGIUTZOT[KYKK^KI[ZÂJKLOKIGXKJGZÂIÁTJ\GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKO
O
KYZKOSVGXÂJKZKXSOTÁTJTKKLKIZ[GXKGGLO™ÂXOO\GRUXOOGIKYZKOG
+^KSVRKRK™OY[TZVXK`KTZGZKJUGXVKTZX[GK^KSVROLOIGSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXK
GROTYZX[IÝO[TORUXHXKGQ™OIUTZOT[KVXKR[IXÂXORKKLKIZ[GZKJKGIKYZKGV[ZÁTJLOXKGRO`GZK
LÂXÂGLURUYOOTYZX[IÝO[TORKJKÍTZXKX[VKXKGOZKXGÝOKO

Limbajul PHP conþine o instrucþiune special conceputã pentru parcurgerea
tablourilor asociative, instrucþiunea foreach. Sintaxa ºi modul de utilizare a instrucþiunii
foreach vor fi descrise amãnunþit în capitolul dedicat tablourilor.

"()

=64È:2%
5VWZ_ZcVRdfSac`XcR^V]`c

6[ZKXKG[T[OROSHGPKYZKJGZ™OJKVUYOHOROZÂÝORKULKXOZKJKGIKYZGJKGYZX[IZ[XGVXUMXGS[R
ÍTY[HVXUMXGSK2OSHGP[R6.6INOGXJGIÂKYZK[TROSHGPJKYIXOVZOTMT[V[ZKGLGIKK^IKVÝOK
9[HVXUMXGSKRK6.6Y[TZJKT[SOZKL[TIÝOO™OG[YOTZG^G

[TJK
u OTYZX[IZO[TKEgOTYZX[IZO[TKETVUZLOUXOIKOTYZX[IÝO[TO6.6!
u ROYZGEJKEVGXGSKZXOGXKLUXSG 
\
\g
\ETLÂXÂGYKVXKIO`GZOV[RLOKIÂX[O
GXM[SKTZ!GXM[SKTZKRKL[TIÝOKOVUGXZÂT[SKRKJKVGXGSKZXOLUXSGRO!
u XK`[RZGZ[R XKZ[XTGZ JK L[TIÝOK KYZK YVKIOLOIGZ RG LKR IG ÍT )) VXOTZXU
OTYZX[IÝO[TKJKLUXSG XKZ[XTK^VXKYOK

6XOSGROTOKJOTJKLOTOÝOG[TKOL[TIÝOOIUTÝOTÁTJI[\ÁTZ[RINKOKL[TIZOUTT[SKRKL[TIÝOKO
™OROYZGGXM[SKTZKRUXVUGXZÂT[SKRKJKR_eVeYG[ac`e`eZaOGXYKI\KTÝGJKOTYZX[IÝO[TO
JKROSOZGZÂVXOTOTYZX[IÝO[TKGHRUIacYKT[SK™ZKT`caf]Wf_TèZVZ)UXV[R[TKOL[TIÝOOYK
K^KI[ZÂGZ[TIOIÁTJGIKGYZGKYZKGVKRGZÂVXOTZXUOTYZX[IÝO[TKJKLUXSG

2OYZGVGXGSKZXORUXGIZ[GROKYZKIUSV[YÂJOTZXUY[IIKYO[TKJKK^VXKYOO\GXOGHORK
YKVGXGZKVXOT\OXM[RÂ
/GZÂ[TK^KSVR[JKL[TIÝOKYOSVRÂVKTZX[IGRI[R[RGXOKO[T[OJXKVZ[TMNO

Exemplul 4.35

2OSHGPKRK YZ[JOGZK VÁTÂ GI[S 6GYIGR ™O )) OSV[TKG[ VXKIO`GXKG ZOV[R[O
VGXGSKZXORUXLUXSGRO™OGZOV[R[OXK`[RZGZ[R[OJKGIKKGSUJ[RJKJKLOTOXK™O[ZORO`GXKG
L[TIÝOORUXÍT6.6VUGZKVÂXKGJKX[ZGTZ
:OV[RXK`[RZGZ[R[OXKZ[XTGZJKUL[TIÝOKKYZKJKZKXSOTGZJKIUT\KXYOORKG[ZUSGZKJK
ZOVKLKIZ[GZKRGK\GR[GXKGK^VXKYOKOJOTOTYZX[IÝO[TKGXKZ[XT'YZLKRJGIÂGVKRÂSL[TIÝOG
JOTK^KSVR[RI[\GRUXORK™OXK`[RZGZ[R\GLOOGXJGIÂGVKRÂSL[TIÝOGI[
\GRUXORK™OqGHIrXK`[RZGZ[R\GLO`KXU
6[ZKSYIXOK™OL[TIÝOOIGXKT[XKZ[XTKG`ÂU\GRUGXKGT[SKÍT[XSGK^KI[ZÂXOORUX
IG`ÍTIGXKIUXV[RL[TIÝOKOT[\GIUTÝOTKOTYZX[IÝO[TKGXKZ[XT5GYZLKRJKL[TIÝOKKYZK
KINO\GRKTZ[R[TKOVXUIKJ[XO6GYIGRYG[G[TKOL[TIÝOO))I[ZOV[RXK`[RZGZ[R[O\UOJ
"(*

­TK^KSVR[RJKSGOPUYGSJKLOTOZUL[TIÝOKIGXKVKXSOZKGLO™GXKG[T[OSKYGPLURUYOTJ
KZOINKZK.:32VKTZX[LUXSGZGXKGGIKYZ[OG

Exemplul 4.36

ARcR^VecZgR]`RcV¤ZaRcR^VecZcVWVcZ_èÍ
­TSUJOSVROIOZVGXGSKZXOZXGTYSO™O[TKOL[TIÝOOY[TZVGXGSKZXO\GRUGXK*GIÂJUXOS
YÂLURUYOS[TVGXGSKZX[XKLKXOTÝÂKYZKY[LOIOKTZYÂ[ZORO`ÂSUVKXGZUX[RGJXKYÂ

ÍTGOTZKG VGXGSKZX[R[O+^KSVR[R[XSÂZUXJKYIXOKZKNTOIG[ZORO`ÂXOOXKLKXOTÝKRUXÍTZXUL[TIÝOKIGXK OTZKXYINOSHÂ\GRUXORKGJU[Â\GXOGHORK Exemplul 4.37 6[ZKSXKYIXOKK^KSVR[R[ZORO`ÁTJUL[TIÝOKIGXKT[XKZ[XTKG`ÂXK`[RZGZ[RJOXKIZ IOVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R[T[OVGXGSKZX[ZXGTYSOYVXOTXKLKXOTÝ­TGIKYZIG`YK\GSUJOLOIG ™OSUJ[RJKGVKRGRL[TIÝOKO Exemplul 4.38 ­TIGJX[RGVKR[R[OL[TIÝOKOVGXGSKZX[RKLKIZO\IUXKYV[T`ÂZUX[T[OVGXGSKZX[LUXSGR XKLKXOTÝÂZXKH[OKYÂLOKUHROMGZUXO[U\GXOGHORÂOGXVGXGSKZX[RKLKIZO\IUXKYV[T`ÂZUX [T[OVGXGSKZX[LUXSGR\GRUGXKVUGZKLOUXOIKK^VXKYOK'YZLKRL[TIÝOGJOTK^KSVR[R VUGZKLOGVKRGZÂVXOT ARcR^VecZ Z^a]ZTZèZ *KLOTOÝOG[TKOL[TIÝOO6.6VUGZKYÂIUTÝOTÂ[T[RYG[SGOS[RÝOVGXGSKZXOIÂXUXGROYK GZXOH[OK\GRUXOOSVROIOZK­TIG`[RÍTIGXKGVKR[RL[TIÝOKOYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTUSOZKXKG VGXGSKZXORUXVKTZX[IGXKYG[JKLOTOZ\GRUXOOSVROIOZKGZ[TIOGXM[SKTZKRKXKYVKIZO\K VXOSKYI\GRUGXKGVXKYZGHOROZÂJOTIGJX[RJKLOTOÝOKOL[TIÝOKO ")! .

40 6XOS[RGVKRKYZKIUXKIZJKUGXKIKYKGVKRKG`ÂL[TIÝOGLURUYOTJVGXGSKZXOGIZ[GRO JGXGRJUORKGGVKR\GMKTKXGUG\KXZO`GXKJKUGXKIK\GRUGXKGIUXKYV[TJKVXOS[R[O VGXGSKZX[LUXSGRJOTROYZGJKGXM[SKTZK :<'OGXXK`[RZGZ[RXKZ[XTGZKYZK`KXU'R ZXKORKGGVKRKYZKJKGYKSKTKGIUXKIZ\GRUXORK™OLOOTJZXGTYSOYKVGXGSKZXORUX :<'™O 6XKÝVKTZX[GRZXKORKGIUTYOJKXÁTJ[YK\GRUGXKGOSVROIOZÂ 8K`UR\GXKGVXUHRKSKOIUTYZÂÍTYIXOKXKGGTZKZ[R[OL[TIÝOKOY[HLUXSG GRcZRSZ]V]`TR]V¤ZgRcZRSZ]VX]`SR]V <GXOGHORKRKJKLOTOZKÍTOTZKXOUX[RIUXV[R[O[TKOL[TIÝOOY[TZgRcZRSZ]V]`TR]VKRKV[ZÁTJLO [ZORO`GZKJUGXÍTIGJX[RL[TIÝOKOÍTIGXKG[LUYZJKLOTOZK<GXOGHORKRKJKLOTOZKÍTGLGXGIUXV[R[O L[TIÝOORUXY[TZgRcZRSZ]VX]`SR]VKRKV[ZÁTJLO[ZORO`GZKVKZUZVGXI[XY[RYIXOVZ[R[OI[K^IKVÝOG IUXV[R[OL[TIÝOORUX *GIÂJKLOTOSU\GXOGHORÂMRUHGRÂ ^™O[ZORO`ÂSGIKRG™OOJKTZOLOIGZUXVKTZX[U\GXOGHOR JOTOTZKXOUX[R[TKOL[TIÝOOGZ[TIO6.39 +YZKXKIUSGTJGZYÂYVKIOLOIÂSVGXGSKZXOLUXSGROI[\GRUXOOSVROIOZKRGYLÁX™OZ[RROYZKO JKGXM[SKTZKGRKL[TIÝOKOJKLOTOZKVKTZX[GK\OZGVXUHRKSKRKIKVUZYÂGVGXÂRGGVKR Exemplul 4.6IUTYOJKXÂIÂ\GXOGHORG ^JOTOTZKXOUX[RL[TIÝOKO KYZKU\GXOGHORÂRUIGRÂVXOT[XSGXKJOLKXOZÂJK\GXOGHORGMRUHGRÂI[GIKRG™OT[SK ")" .Exemplul 4.

Exemplul 4.42 +^KSVR[ROR[YZXKG`ÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKG[TKO\GXOGHORKYZGZOIK6XOS[RGVKRGR L[TIÝOKO/TIXKSKTZGXKXKGRO`KG`ÂJKIRGXGXKG\GXOGHORKOYZGZOIK ^™OOTOÝOGRO`GXKGGIKYZKOG I[\GRUGXKGv2G[XSÂZUGXKRKGVKR[XO\GXOGHORGYKIUTYOJKXÂJKLOTOZ™OVÂYZXKG` \GRUGXKGUHÝOT[ZÂRGÍTINKOKXKGVXKIKJKTZ[R[OGVKRGRL[TIÝOKO6XOT[XSGXKYIXOVZ[RJOT K^KSVR[RGLO™KG`Â\GRUXORK +^OYZÂIG`[XOIÁTJKYZKTKIKYGXYÂ[ZORO`ÂS\GRUGXKG[TKO\GXOGHORKMRUHGRKÍTIGJX[R [TKOL[TIÝOOR[IX[OSVUYOHORÍTSUJTUXSGRJGXVUYOHORJGIÂJUSKTO[RJK\O`OHOROZGZKGR \GXOGHORKOMRUHGRKKYZKK^ZOTYÍTIGJX[RL[TIÝOKOVXOTZXUJKIRGXGÝOK global $variabilã 8KYIXOKSYIXOVZ[RJOTK^KSVR[RJKIRGXÁTJ\GXOGHORG ^JOTIGJX[RL[TIÝOKOZKYZ IGLOOTJMRUHGR Exemplul 4.41 <GXOGHORKRKRUIGRKY[TZJOYZX[YKUJGZÂI[ÍTINKOKXKGK^KI[ZÂXOOL[TIÝOKOÍTIGXKG[ LUYZJKLOTOZK­TIG`[RÍTIGXKJUXOSIGU\GXOGHORÂRUIGRÂY™OVÂYZXK`K\GRUGXKGJKRG [TGVKRGRL[TIÝOKORGGRZ[R\USJKIRGXG\GXOGHORGIGLOOTJYZGZOIÂVXOTZXUIUTYZX[IÝOKI[ YOTZG^G YZGZOI \GXOGHOR Exemplul 4.43 ")# .

[TIÝOOMXGLOIK Q .6KYZKVKXSOYÂJKIRGXGXKG[TKOL[TIÝOOGRIÂXKOIUXVIUTÝOTK[TG[ZUGVKR Exemplul 4.[TIÝOOJKR[IX[I[\GXOGHORKRK Q .[TIÝOOVKTZX[ZXGZGXKGKXUXORUX Q .[TIÝOOJKSGTOV[RGXKGJOXKIZUGXKRUX™OLO™OKXKRUX Q .[TIÝOOJKGIIKYRGHG`KRKJKJGZK Q .6V[TKRGJOYVU`OÝOGVXUMXGSGZUXORUX[TYKZJKVKYZKJKL[TIÝOO VXKJKLOTOZKMX[VGZKÍTSGOS[RZKIGZKMUXOOJOTZXKIGXKGSOTZOS Q.[TIÝOORKXKI[XYO\KIUTY[SÂXKY[XYKOSVUXZGTZKÍTZOSV[RK^KI[ÝOKOOGXYIXOKXKG[TUX IUTJOÝOOJKUVXOXKKXUTGZKVUGZKVXU\UIGTKVRÂIKXOYKXOUGYK 7f_TèZZ acVUVWZ_ZeV 2OSHGP[R6.[TIÝOOYVKIOGRO`GZKÍTZXGTYLKX[RJKJGZKVXOT.6ÍTIKVÁTJJKRG\KXYO[TKGV[TKRGJOYVU`OÝOKUYKXOKÍTZXKGMÂJK IUTYZGTZKSGZKSGZOIKJOTZXKIGXKKT[SKXÂSIÁZK\GÍTZGHKR[RJKSGOPUY ")$ .::6656KZI 3GT[GR[RJKLGÝÂ͙OVXUV[TKYÂVXK`OTZKY[IIOTZUVGXZKJOTZXKIKRKSGOOSVUXZGTZK L[TIÝOO.[TIÝOORKXKLKXOZUGXKRGZGHRU[XO™OX[XOJKIGXGIZKXKYKYO[TOJKSGTOV[RGXKG LO™OKXKRUX™OVKTZX[GIIKYGXKGHG`KRUXJKJGZK\UXLOVXK`KTZGZKÍTIGVOZURKRK\OOZUGXK YKIÝO[TKGJKLGÝÂVXK`KTZÁTJIÁZK\GL[TIÝOOOSVUXZGTZKJOTGRZKIGZKMUXOO 7f_TèZZ ^ReV^ReZTV 2OSHGP[R6.44 *KLOTOXKG[TKOL[TIÝOOXKI[XYO\KT[YKP[YZOLOIÂJKIÁZLUGXZKXGXÍTZXUGVROIGÝOK=KH .[TIÝOOVKTZX[VXKR[IXGXKGIGXGIZKXKRUX™OG™OX[XORUXJKIGXGIZKXK Q .[TIÝOOSGZKSGZOIK Q .[TIÝOOVKTZX[VXKR[IXGXKGZGHRU[XORUX Q .:6.[TIÝOOVKTZX[VXKR[IXGXKGJGZKO™OUXKO Q .7f_TèZZ cVTfcdZgV ­TROSHGP[R6.[TIÝOOVKTZX[IUTZXUR[RYKYO[TORUX Q .

6 +^KSVR[ROR[YZXKG`ÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGL[TIÝOORUXSGZKSGZOIK Exemplul 4. )KRKSGOOSVUXZGTZKL[TIÝOOSGZKSGZOIKY[TZVXK`KTZGZKÍTZGHKR[R[XSÂZUXVKTZX[ LOKIGXKL[TIÝOKLOOTJYVKIOLOIGZK T[SKRKGTZKZ[R™OUYI[XZÂJKYIXOKXK6XOTZOV\US ÍTÝKRKMKUXOIKZOVJOTROSHGP[R6.45 7f_TèZZUVT`_gVcdZVØ_ecVSRkV]VUV_f^VcRèZV baza b1 +^KSVR[ROR[YZXKG`ÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGL[TIÝOORUXJKIUT\KXYOKÍTZXKHG`KRKJK T[SKXGÝOK ")% .

[TIÝOGXU[TJGIÝOUTKG`ÂV[ÝOTJOLKXOZLGÝÂJKL[TIÝOORKVKTZX[XUZ[TPOXK™OZX[TINOKXK YZ[JOGZKVÁTÂGI[S Exemplul 4.46 7f_TèZZUVc`ef_[ZcV¤Zecf_TYZVcV .Exemplul 4.47 *GIÂT[YKYVKIOLOIÂGRJUORKGGXM[SKTZGZ[TIOL[TIÝOGXUZ[TPK™ZKGXM[SKTZ[RRGIKR SGOGVXUVOGZÍTZXKM*GIÂKYZKYVKIOLOIGZ[TT[SÂXJK`KIOSGRKVKTZX[XK`[RZGZGZ[TIO XU[TJKROSOTÂ`KIOSGRKRKÍTVR[YXUZ[TPOTJUVK[RZOSG ")& .

48 =64È:2& 2a]ZTRèZZcVk`]gReV 2a]ZTRèZR" 'LO™GÝOT[SKXKRKVXOSKJOTOTZKX\GR[RATCY[HLUXSG[T[OZGHKRG\ÁTJ)URIURUGTK ­TLOTGRYK\GGLO™GT[SÂX[RGIKYZUXG 8K`UR\GXK 8K`UR\GXKGIKXOTÝKOT[XOJOIÂVXUHRKSKJKUYKHOZK<USIUTYOJKXGVKXÁTJLOKIGXK T[SÂXJOTOTZKX\GR[RATC™OÍO\USZKYZGVXUVXOKZGZKGJKVXOSGROZGZK*GIÂT[SÂX[RKYZK VXOS\GRUGXKGGIKYZ[OG\GLOGLO™GZÂÍTZXUIKR[RÂJKJGZKGZGHKR[R[O2GIUSVRKZGXKG [TKOROTOOJKZGHKRGZ[TIOIÁTJT[SÂX[RJKT[SKXKVXOSKKYZKS[RZOVR[JK)URYK\G ÍTINOJKSGXIGP[RJKYLÁX™OZJKROTOK 9OTM[XGVXUHRKSÂ\GLOÍTIG`[RÍTIGXKT[SÂX[RZUZGRJK\GRUXOVXOSKT[KYZKS[RZOVR[ JK)URVKTZX[IÂ[RZOSGROTOKGZGHKR[R[OLOOTJOTIUSVRKZÂ\GLOGLO™GZÂTKIUXKYV[T`ÂZUX JKIO\GLOTK\UOKYÂIUSVRKZÂS[RZOSGROTOKGZGHKR[R[OI[IKR[RK\OJK ")' .6TKIKYOZÂMKTKXGXKG[TUX\GRUXOGRKGZUGXK!JKK^KSVR[YKVUZ MKTKXGVGXURKVKTZX[IUTZ[XOT[SKJKLO™OKXKKZI +^OYZÂSGOS[RZKL[TIÝOOVKTZX[MKTKXGXKGT[SKXKRUXGRKGZUGXKJGXIKGSGOXGVOJ KYZKL[TIÝOGSZEXGTJIGXKGXKYOTZG^G .[TIÝOGSZEXGTJXKZ[XTKG`Â[TT[SÂXTGZ[XGRGRKGZUXJOTOTZKX\GR[RA<SOT<SG^C *GIÂVGXGSKZXOY[TZUSO™OL[TIÝOGXKZ[XTKG`Â[TT[SÂXGRKGZUXÍTZXK™O8'4*E3'> IUTYZGTZGJKYKSTÁTJIKRSGOSGXKT[SÂXTGZ[XGRVUYOHORJKXKZ[XTGZ<GRUGXKGIUTYZGTZKO 8'4*E3'>KYZKXKZ[XTGZÂJKL[TIÝOGSZEMKZXGTJSG^ Exemplul 4.7f_TèZZaV_ecfXV_VcRcVR_f^VcV]`cR]VRe`RcV 3[RZKYIXOVZ[XO6.

49 +LKIZ[RK^KI[ZÂXOOYKI\KTÝKOKYZK\O`OHORÍTLKXKGYZXG[XSÂZUGXK 5HYKX\GÝOSUJ[RÍTIGXKYKI\KTÝKRK6.Exemplul 4.6YKÍTZXKX[VÍTYIUV[ROTYKXÂXOOJKIUJ.:32 2a]ZTRèZR# 8KGRO`GÝOUJOGMXGSÂIGXKYÂXKVXK`OTZKMXGLOIYOZ[GÝOG\UZ[XORUXK^VXOSGZKRG[T YUTJGPUTROTKI[ZXKO\GXOGTZKJKXÂYV[TY6KTZX[LOKIGXK\GXOGTZÂYKI[TUG™ZKT[SÂX[R \UZ[XORUXK^VXOSGZKJKVGXZOIOVGTÝOORGYUTJGP 8K`UR\GXK )GRI[RÂSXGVUXZ[RVXUIKTZ[GRVKTZX[LOKIGXKJOTZXKIKRKZXKO\GXOGTZK<USXKVXK`KTZG MXGLOIGIKYZXGVUXZVXOTGLO™GXKG[T[OJXKVZ[TMNOIURUXGZJKJOSKTYO[TKVXUVUXÝOUTGR ")( .

50 8K`[RZGZ[RK^KI[ZÂXOOYIXOVZ[R[OVKTZX[\GRUXORK™OXKYVKIZO\KYZK 2a]ZTRèZR$ 9IXOKÝO U L[TIÝOK I[ JU[Â GXM[SKTZK IGXK GLO™KG`Â [T SKYGP 6XOS[R GXM[SKTZ XKVXK`OTZÂIUJ[RSKYGP[R[OT[SÂXTGZ[XGRGYUIOGZSKYGP[R[OOGXGRJUORKGGXM[SKTZ VXKIO`KG`ÂZOV[RSKYGP[R[O JKKXUGXKYG[JKOTLUXSGXK ")) .I[VXUIKTZ[RUHÝOT[Z*XKVZ[TMNO[R\GLOXKVXK`KTZGZVXOTZX[TZGHKRI[UYOTM[XÂIKR[RÂ 6KTZX[GLO™GXKGVXUIKTZ[R[OI[`KIOSGRKGS[ZORO`GZL[TIÝOGVXKJKLOTOZ string number_format(expresie_realã. numar_zecimale) IGXKGXKIGXK`[RZGZ™OX[RUHÝOT[ZJOTZX[TINOKXKG\GRUXOOK^VXKYOKOXKGRKRGT[SÂX[RJK `KIOSGRKYVKIOLOIGZ 9IXOVZ[RIKXK`UR\ÂVXUHRKSGKYZKVXK`KTZGZÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplul 4.

[TIÝOG'LOYGXK3KYGPYKVUGZKJU\KJO[ZORÂÍTZXUGVROIGÝOK=KH[TJKKYZKTK\UOK JKIÁZK\G`KIOYG[INOGXY[ZKJKSKYGPKJKKXUGXK™OG\KXZO`GXK*GIÂT[SÂX[RSKYGPKRUX KYZKLUGXZKSGXKGIKYZKGVUZLOVÂYZXGZKÍTZX[TLO™OKXZK^ZYG[ÍTZXUZGHKRÂJKJGZK ")* .8K`UR\GXK 'LO™GXKGSKYGP[R[OYK\GXKGRO`GVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R[T[OZGHKRI[UROTOK™OJU[ÂIURUGTK ÍTVXOSGIKR[RÂYK\GÍTIÂXIGUOSGMOTKIUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKZOV[R[OSKYGP[R[OOGXÍTIKGRGRZ IKR[RÂYK\GGLO™GZK^Z[RSKYGP[R[O .51 8K`[RZGZ[RGVKR[R[OL[TIÝOKOKYZKOR[YZXGZGYZLKR .[TIÝOGIKXK`UR\ÂIKXOTÝGKYZKROYZGZÂÍTK^KSVR[R Exemplu 4.

else echo “0<BR>”. $y=10. if($x==$y) echo “1<BR>”. else echo “0<BR>”. if((int)$x===$y) echo “1<BR>”. ?> <GRUXORKGLO™GZKÍT[XSGK^KI[ZÂXOOYIXOVZ[R[OY[TZ G –2 3 -2 H –6 3 -2 I –2 -2 -2 J 6 3 -2  . $z=’12B’. $z=++$x .++$y + 1. echo “$x $y $z”. else echo “0<BR>”. 2A=:42È:: 2:eV^ZTfR]VXVcV^f]eZa]Í  )GXKJOTZXK[XSÂZUGXKRKIUTYZGTZKÍTZXKMOKYZKYIXOYÂOTIUXKIZ% G 0x0ABCD H +0x10A I –0331 J 0128  )GXKJOTZXK[XSÂZUXOOOJKTZOLOIGZUXOJK\GXOGHORKKYZKJKLOTOZOTIUXKIZ% G E\GOGHORGESKG H Y I Y J EEY[SG  .OK[XSÂZUGXKGYKI\KTÝÂ6.OK[XSÂZUGXKGYKI\KTÝÂ6. else echo “0<BR>”. $y=8.00.6 <?php $x=5. ?> )K\GRUXOGLO™KG`ÂYKI\KTÝG% "*! . if($x > $z) echo “1<BR>”. if($x===$y) echo “1<BR>”.6 <?php $x=10. $y-=$x.

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echo $rez. } echo $nr. echo floor($x). $nr++. $rez<<=1.’<BR>’. echo round($x).OKYKI\KTÝG[XSÂZUGXK <?php $x = 1.451. $i = 2. ?> G  H  I  J  . echo ceil($y). echo round($x+$y.24.’<BR>’. $y=-4. *KZKXSOTGÝOU\GRUGXKOTOÝOGRÂVKTZX[\GXOGHORG ^GYZLKRÍTIÁZYKI\KTÝGJKSGOPUYY GLO™K`K\GRUGXKG <?php $x=. . do { "*# . ?>  )KXK`[RZGZKYZKGLO™GZÍT[XSGK^KI[ZÂXOOYKI\KTÝKO <?php for($i=1. . $y= 8. $i<=10. $x-=$y. $numar = 21.’<BR>’.’<BR>’.1).$i++). while($x>0) { $y++. $nr=0. ?> G  H KXUGXKJKYOTZG^ I  J  )KXK`[RZGZYKGLO™KG`ÂÍT[XSGK^KI[ZÂXOOYKI\KTÝKO <?php $x=7. .$rez=1.

$b) { $x=12. //linia 1 $i++. $x+=$y. "*$ . &$b) YKI\KTÝG\GGLO™G G  H  I  J  . //linia 2 ?> ­T[XSGK^KI[ZÂXOOYKI\KTÝKOYKGLO™KG` G KXUGXKÍTROTOG H KUGXKÍTROTOG I *' J 4. }while($i<$numar). } F($x. $a=$x+$b—. echo $x!=1 && $numar!=2 ? ‘NU’:’DA’. $x= $x && ($numar % $i).OKYKI\KTÝG <?php function F($x) { global $y. $y = 15. ?> ­T[XSGK^KI[ZÂXOOYKI\KTÝKOYKGLO™KG` G  H  I  J  3UJOLOIÁTJGTZKZ[RL[TIÝOKOJOTK^KXIOÝO[RVXKIKJKTZGYZLKR function F($a. . $y). echo $x.’ ‘.OKYKI\KTÝG <?php $x = 10. echo “$x $y”. function F(&$a.

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Exemplul 5.8

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Exemplul 5.9
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Exemplul 5.10

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Exemplul 5.11 (a)
5.11

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Exemplul 5.11(b)
5.11(b)

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Exemplul 5.12

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Exemplul 5.13

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Exemplul 5.14

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Exemplul 5.15
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Exemplul 5.16

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Exemplul 5.17

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Exemplul 5.[TIÝOGGIIKVZÂIGVGXGSKZX[[TZGHRU[:™OÍTZUGXIKIGXK`[RZGZ[TZGHRU[GYUIOGZO\ IGXKGXKJXKVZINKO\GRUXORKJOYZOTIZKJOT:OGXIG\GRUXOT[SÂX[RJKGVGXOÝOOGRKLOKIÂXKO INKOÍTZGHRU[ROTOÝOGR: #!& .18 'XXG_E\GR[KY DZ_eRiR+ GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ .[TIÝOGXKZ[XTKG`Â[TZGHRU[IKIUTÝOTKGIKRKG™OKRKSKTZKIG™O:ÍTGIKKG™OUXJOTK JGXINKORKGYUIOGZKGIKYZUXGY[TZT[SKXKÍTZXKMOÍTZXK™OIU[TZ: Exemplul 5.19 6[ZKSIUTYOJKXGIÂL[TIÝOGGXXG_E\GR[KYZXGTYLUXSÂ[TZGHRU[GYUIOGZO\ÍTZX[T[R YKI\KTÝOGR 'XXG_EIU[TZE\GR[KY DZ_eRiR+ GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ .

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24 #!( .23 'XXG_E[TOW[K DZ_eRiR+ GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ .[TIÝOGGXXG_E[TOW[KXKZ[XTKG`Â[TZGHRU[IUTYZX[OZVXOTKROSOTGXKGKRKSKTZKRUX J[VROIGZJOTZGHRU[R: Exemplul 5.Exemplul 5.[TIÝOGIGRI[RKG`ÂY[SGKRKSKTZKRUXJOTZGHRU[R:ÍTZUXIÁTJ\GRUGXKGUHÝOT[ZÂ *GIÂKRKSKTZKRKJOT:T[Y[TZJKZOVT[SKXOIGZ[TIORGJKZKXSOTGXKGY[SKOYK GVROIÂXKM[RORKJKIUT\KXYOKG[ZUSGZÂ Exemplul 5.22 .[TIÝOGGXXG_EYROIKXKZ[XTKG`ÂYKI\KTÝGJKKRKSKTZKJOT:ÍTIKVÁTJJKRGKRKSKTZ[R :A6U`C™OVÁTÂRGYLÁX™OZ[RZGHRU[R[OGZ[TIOIÁTJVGXGSKZX[R2MKYZKUSOY 'XXG_EY[S DZ_eRiR+ GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ .

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$j++) echo $Sir[$j]. putem modifica orice caracter din ºir printr-o operaþie de atribuire.$j<strlen($Sir). parcurgerea acestuia se poate face astfel: for($j=0. în vederea prelucrãrii acestora ºi. De exemplu.’<BR>’. Aceasta înseamnã cã putem parcurge ºirul caracter cu caracter. 7f_TèZZaV_ecfacV]fTcRcVR¤ZcfcZ]`cUVTRcRTeVcV . dacã avem un ºir de caractere $Sir.6IGXKUVKXKG`ÂGY[VXG™OX[XORUXJKIGXGIZKXKG[YOTZG^GGYKSÂTÂZUGXK I[L[TIÝOORKJKLOTOZKÍTHOHROUZKIGYZXOTMNGROSHGP[R[O))JGXG[LUYZOTZXUJ[YK T[SKXUGYKL[TIÝOOIGXK[™[XKG`ÂR[IX[RI[™OX[XORKJKIGXGIZKXK L[TIÝOOVKTZX[K^ZXGMKXKG Y[H™OX[XORUXVKTZX[ÍTRUI[OXKGGVGXOÝOORUX[T[OY[H™OXÍTZX[T™OXL[TIÝOOVKTZX[VXKR[IXGXKG K^VXKYOORUXXKM[RGZKKZI #!* . de asemenea. =64È:2$ ”ZcfcZUVTRcRTeVcV 4UÝO[TOXKLKXOZUGXKRG™OX[XORKJKIGXGIZKXKG[LUYZVXK`KTZGZKY[SGX™OÍTIGVOZURKRK VXKIKJKTZKIGY[VUXZVKTZX[[ZORO`GXKGL[TIÝOORUXJKGLO™GXKGJGZKRUX™OVKTZX[IUTYZX[OXKG ZGHRU[XORUX­TXK`[SGZVXOTIOVGRKRKIGXGIZKXOYZOIOGRK™OX[XORUXJKIGXGIZKXKY[TZ u IUTYZGTZKRK™OXJKIGXGIZKXKY[TZJKROSOZGZKVXOTMNOROSKRKYG[GVUYZXUL[XOJOLKXKTÝG IUTYZÁTJÍTSUJ[RJKK\GR[GXKG\GXOGHORKRUXIUTÝOT[ZKJKGIKYZKG JKROSOZGXKG YOX[R[OVXOTMNOROSKRKVKXSOZKGLO™GXKG\GRUXORUX\GXOGHORKRUXJOTOTZKXOUX[R™OX[R[O ÍTZOSVIK[ZORO`GXKGGVUYZXUL[XORUXJKZKXSOTÂGLO™GXKG™OX[R[OG™GI[SKYZKYIXOY! u ÍTOTZKXOUX[R™OX[XORUXYKVUZ[ZORO`GIGXGIZKXKKYIGVK! u ™OX[XORKJKIGXGIZKXKVUZLOIUTIGZKTGZKI[GP[ZUX[RUVKXGZUX[R[OV[TIZ! u ™OX[XORKJKIGXGIZKXKVUZLOIUT\KXZOZKG[ZUSGZGZ[TIOIÁTJGVGXÍTZXUK^VXKYOKIK IUTÝOTK™OUVKXGT`OT[SKXOIO 9KIÝO[TKGJKLGÝÂVXK`OTZÂIKRKSGOOSVUXZGTZKL[TIÝOOIKUVKXKG`ÂGY[VXG™OX[XORUX JKIGXGIZKXK FeZ]ZkRcVR T`UfcZ]`c 2D4:: 2OSHGP[R6.6L[XTO`KG`ÂIÁZK\GL[TIÝOOJKR[IX[I[JGZKJKZOVIGXGIZKXJU[ÂJOTZXK GIKYZKGLOOTJVXK`KTZGZKÍTZGHKR[R[XSÂZUX ­TK^KSVR[R[XSÂZUXGLO™ÂSZUGZKROZKXKRKSOIOGRKGRLGHKZ[R[OKTMRK`ÍSVXK[TÂI[ IUJ[R'9)//GYUIOGZ Exemplu 5.[TIÝOORK6.26 Un ºir de caractere poate fi privit ca fiind un tablou unidimensional cu elemente de tip caracter.

28 ‰OX[XORK Y™O YG[[TIUTÝOT[ZOJKTZOIK^IKVÝOKLÂIÁTJYVGÝOORK™OIGXGIZKXKRKZGH JKRGK^ZXKSOZÂÝO 4`_gVcdZR¤ZcfcZ]`c]R^R[fdTf]VdRf^Z_fdTf]V 2OSHGP[R6.[TIÝOORK6.2W]RcVR]f_XZ^ZZf_fZ¤Zc *KZKXSOTGXKGR[TMOSOO[T[O™OXJKIGXGIZKXKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTGVKR[RL[TIÝOKOYZXRKT IGXKXKZ[XTKG`ÂT[SÂX[RJKIGXGIZKXKJOT™OX[RVXKIO`GZIGVGXGSKZX[ Exemplul 5.27 6]Z^Z_RcVRdaRèZZ]`cUZ_ecf_¤ZcUVTRcRTeVcV +ROSOTGXKG IGXGIZKXKRUX YVGÝO[ v ]NOZK YVGIKY v JK RG K^ZXKSOZÂÝORK [T[O ™OX JK IGXGIZKXKKYZKULGIOROZGZKOSVUXZGTZÂGZ[TIOIÁTJJGZKRKY[TZVXKR[GZKJOTLUXS[RGXK YG[HG`KJKJGZKGIURUV[ZÁTJYÂGVGXÂYVGÝOOTKJUXOZKIGXKGXMKTKXGKXUXOÍTGVROIGÝOK )GXGIZKXK]NOZKYVGIKYY[TZIUTYOJKXGZKGZÁZIGXGIZKX[RYVGÝO[IÁZ™OIGXGIZKXKRK:'( )8ZGH\KXZOIGRKZI .6ULKXÂL[TIÝOOVKTZX[XKGRO`GXKGIUT\KXYOKOIGXGIZKXKRUX[T[O™OXRG SGP[YI[RKYG[SOT[YI[RK YZXZU[VVKX™OYZXZURU]KX #"! .6GLRGZKÍTGIKGYZÂIGZKMUXOKY[TZ ™OX[R[O™OX ™OX +^KSVR[RGXGZÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGRL[TIÝOORUXVKTZX[KROSOTGXKGYVGÝOORUXJOTZX[T ™OXJKIGXGIZKXK Exemplul 5.

29 4`^aRcRcVR¤ZcfcZ]`c .Exemplul 5.[TIÝOORKVKTZX[IUSVGXGXKG™OX[XORUXXKZ[XTKG`ÂU\GRUGXKSGOSOIÂJKIÁZ`KXU KMGRÂI[`KXUYG[SGOSGXKJKIÁZ`KXUÍTL[TIÝOKJKXK`[RZGZ[RIUSVGXGÝOKO)USVGXGÝOG YKHG`KG`ÂVKUXJOTKGRK^OIUMXGLOIÂ s Exemplul 5.30 #"" .

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34 #"% .33 +^VRUJK DZ_eRiR+ GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ +^ZXGMKJOT™OX[R9OXZUGZKY[H™OX[XORKJKROSOZGZKVXOTIGXGIZKX[R9KV<GRUGXKGXKZ[XTGZ KYZK[TZGHRU[IKIUTÝOTKY[H™OX[XORKK^ZXGYKLOKIGXKÍTZX[TKRKSKTZYKVGXGZ*GIÂ9KV KYZK™OX[R\OJL[TIÝOGXKZ[XTKG`Â.Exemplul 5.'29+OGXJGIÂYKVGXGZUX[RT[KYZKMÂYOZÍT9OXGZ[TIO ZGHRU[RXKZ[XTGZ\GG\KG[TYOTM[XKRKSKTZ™OX[R9OX Exemplul 5.

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2[IX[RI[JGZKYZUIGZKÍTZXUHG`ÂJKJGZKXKRGÝOUTGRÂ3_972YKJKX[RKG`ÂJ[V [XSÂZUX[RSUJKR u YK JKYINOJK U IUTK^O[TK I[ YKX\KX[R JK HG`K JK JGZK 3_972 L[TIÝOG S_YWREIUTTKIZ! u YKRKIZÂSHG`GJKJGZKJUXOZÂL[TIÝOGS_YWREYKRKIZEJH! u YKKSOZOTZKXUMÂXO972GY[VXGHG`KOJKJGZKI[XKTZKXK`[RZGZKRKLOOTJGIIKYOHORK VXOTOTZKXSKJO[R[TUXL[TIÝOO6.22vYKSTOLOIÂU\GRUGXKTKJKLOTOZÂ!T[ZXKH[OKIUTL[TJGZÂI[\GRUGXKG `KXUYG[I[™OX[R\OJ .TIÁSVGR[TKOZGHKRK3_972YKÍTIGJXKG`ÂÍTZX[TGJOT[XSÂZUGXKRKIGZKMUXOOJK ZOV[XO ZOV[XOT[SKXOIKZOV[XOJGZÂUXÂZOV[XO™OXJKIGXGIZKXK :GHKR[R[XSÂZUXVXK`OTZÂZOV[XORKJKJGZKT[SKXOIKIGXKVUZLO[ZORO`GZKÍT3_972 VXKIO`ÁTJJUSKTO[RJK\GRUXO™OGZXOH[ZKRKUVÝOUTGRK)UTYZGTZG3YVKIOLOIÂT[SÂX[R SG^OSJKIGXGIZKXKIOLXKOGX*XKVXK`OTZÂT[SÂX[R`KIOSGRKRUXVKTZX[ZOV[XORKXKGRK #%% .6YVKIOGRO`GZKS_YWREW[KX_S_YWRET[SEXU]Y S_YWRELKZINEGXXG_! u YKÍTZXKX[VKIUTK^O[TKGI[YKX\KX[R3_972L[TIÝOGS_YWREIRUYK 'IIKY[RGVROIGÝOKOIROKTZRGHG`GJKJGZKVXKY[V[TKG[ZKTZOLOIGXKGVXKGRGHORÂGIROKTZ[R[O VKHG`G[T[OT[SKJKIUTZ™OG[TKOVGXURK5VKXGÝOORKIKVUZLOKLKIZ[GZKGY[VXGHG`KO JKJGZKJOLKXÂÍTL[TIÝOKJKJXKVZ[XORKJKGIIKYYZGHOROZKJKGJSOTOYZXGZUX[RHG`KOJK JGZKVKTZX[IUTZ[XORKJK[ZORO`GZUX 9KX\KX[RJKHG`KJKJGZK3_972KYZKOJKGRVKTZX[JK`\URZGXKGGVROIGÝOORUXSOIO™O SKJOOLOOTJ[TVXUJ[YXGVOJYOM[X™OT[ÍT[RZOS[RXÁTJMXGZ[OZ EZafcZUVUReV 3_972VKXSOZK[ZORO`GXKG[XSÂZUGXKRUXZOV[XOJKIUTYZGTZK u ™OX[XO JK IGXGIZKXK v ™OX[XORK JK IGXGIZKXK Y[TZ JKROSOZGZK VXOT MNOROSKRK YG[ GVUYZXUL[XO™OVUZIUTÝOTKIGXGIZKXKKYIGVK! u IUTYZGTZKT[SKXOIKÍTZXKMOYG[I[\OXM[RÂSUHORÂ! u IUTYZGTZG4.

4 Conectarea la interpretorul de comenzi #%& . :OV[XORKJKJGZKVKTZX[SKSUXGXKGUXKO™OGJGZKRUXIGRKTJGXOYZOIKY[TZVXK`KTZGZK Y[IIOTZÍTZGHKR[R[XSÂZUX LOOTJ 5VGXZKJOTZOV[XORK™OXJKIGXGIZKXKY[TZVXK`KTZGZKÍTZGHKR[R[XSÂZUX 4`^V_kZ >jDB= UV RU^Z_ZdecRcV R T`_efcZ]`c )USKT`ORKVUZLOK^KI[ZGZKLOKVXOTOTZKXSKJO[ROTZKXVXKZUX[R[OJKIUSKT`OTUTMXGLOI V[YRGJOYVU`OÝOKJKYKX\KX[R3_972LOKVXOTZXUGVROIGÝOKIKVKXSOZKGIIKYGXKGHG`KRUX JKJGZKVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R[TKOOTZKXLKÝKMXGLOIK)KGSGO[ZORO`GZÂOTZKXLGÝÂMXGLOIÂKYZK L[XTO`GZÂJKGVROIGÝOG6.6S_'JSOTV[YÂRGJOYVU`OÝOG[ZORO`GZUXORUXJKSGPUXOZGZKG YKX\KXKRUXMG`JÂJGXV[ZKÝOJKYIÂXIGGVROIGÝOORK3_972)UTZXUR)KTZKXYG[3_972-./ JKRGGJXKYG]]]S_YWRIUS /TZKXVXKZUX[RJKIUSKT`OTUTMXGLOIGRYKX\KX[R[O3_972VUGZKLORGTYGZÍTK^KI[ÝOK GIIKYÁTJ9ZGXZ$6XUMXGSY$3_972$3_9729KX\KX$3_972)USSGTJ2OTK )ROKTZ 3GO ÍTZÁO ZXKH[OK YÂ \Â G[ZKTZOLOIGÝO OTZXUJ[IÁTJ VGXURG [ZORO`GZUX[R[O XUUZ GJSOTOYZXGZUX[RYKX\KX[R[OJKHG`KJKJGZK6GXURGOSVROIOZÂYZGHOROZÂRGOTYZGRGXKG YKX\KX[R[O3_972KYZKS_YWR *GIÂG[ZKTZOLOIGXKGYKXKGRO`KG`ÂI[Y[IIKY[ZORO`GZUX[RKYZKÍTZÁSVOTGZI[SKYGP[R JOTLOM[XG Figura 6.

OM[XGXKVXK`OTZÂ[TK^KSVR[JKIXKGXKG[T[OIUTZJK[ZORO`GZUXI[T[SKRKJKIUTZ sIUYZKRt™OVGXURGsVGXURGSKGtG\ÁTJJXKVZ[XOJKGJSOTOYZXGXKGY[VXGHG`KOJKJGZK+RK\O u )UTKIZGXKG[T[O[ZORO`GZUXUGXKIGXKRGOTZKXVXKZUX[RJKIUSKT`OGRYKX\KX[R[O3_972 YKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTOTZKXSKJO[RIUSKT`OO #%' ./+*(?sVGXURGtVXKIO`KG`ÂVGXURGGYUIOGZÂIUTZ[R[OJK[ZORO`GZUXIXKGZ v UHOKIZYZGHORK™ZKHG`KRKJKJGZKYG[ZGHKRKRKOTJO\OJ[GRKJOTZXUHG`ÂJKJGZK VKTZX[GJSOTOYZXGXKGIÂXUXGYKGIUXJÂJXKVZ[XO[ZORO`GZUX[R[O5HOKIZ[RVUGZK LOUZGHKRÂJOTHG`GJKJGZKI[XKTZÂIG`ÍTIGXKVXKIO`ÂST[SKRKZGHKRKO ÍTZXKGMGHG`ÂJKJGZKI[XKTZÂZUGZKZGHKRKRKJOTZXUHG`ÂJKJGZKYVKIOLOIGZ T[SK(*UGT[SOZÂZGHKRÂJOTZXUHG`ÂJKJGZKT[SK(*T[SK:GHKRGYG[ ZUGZKZGHKRKRKZ[Z[XUXHG`KRUXJKJGZK v VXO\ORKMOORKvXKVXK`OTZÂGIÝO[TORKVKIGXK[ZORO`GZUX[RRKVUGZKXKGRO`GGY[VXG HG`KRUXJKJGZKYG[ZGHKRKRUXVXKIO`GZKRGUHOKIZYG[JXKVZ[XOJKGJSOTOYZXGXK +^OYZÂ VKYZK  JK GIÝO[TO VUYOHORK I[S GX LO  )8+':+ VKXSOZK IXKGXKG ZGHKRKRUX™OGHG`KRUXJKJGZK*+2+:+GIUXJÂJXKVZ[RJKG™ZKXMKÍTXKMOYZXÂXO JOTZGHKRK9+2+):VKXSOZKOTZKXUMGXKGHG`KRUXJKJGZK-8'4:GIUXJ VXO\ORKMOORKGJSOTOYZXGZUX[R[O'22GIUXJÂZUGZKJXKVZ[XORKGY[VXGUHOKIZKRUX YVKIOLOIGZKÍTIRG[`G546KTZX[UROYZÂJKZGROGZÂGVXO\ORKMOORUXIUTY[RZGÝO SGT[GR[RYKX\KX[R[O3_972 . )[XYUX[R S_YWR$ E GXGZÂ IÂ OTZKXVXKZUX[R G™ZKGVZÂ OTZXUJ[IKXKG [TKO IUSKT`O IUSGTJG ZXKH[OTJ YÂ YK ÍTINKOK VXOT IGXGIZKX[R V[TIZ ™O \OXM[RÂ  6KTZX[ GLO™GXKG OTYZX[IÝO[TORUXJK[ZORO`GXKYKVUGZKOTZXUJ[IKIUSGTJGNKRV. ­TGIKYZSUSKTZY[TZKÝOIUTKIZGZÍTIUTZ[RGJSOTOYZXGZUX[R[OYKX\KX[R[O3_972G\ÁTJ JXKVZ[XOJKVROTKVKTZX[MKYZOUTGXKG[ZORO`GZUXORUXIUTLOM[XGXKGYKX\KX[R[O3_972™O MKYZOUTGXKGZ[Z[XUXHG`KRUXJKJGZK /GZÂIKRKSGOOSVUXZGTZKIUSKT`OVKTZX[MKYZOUTGXKGIUTZ[XORUX[ZORO`GZUXORUX u 9INOSHGXKGVGXURKOVKTZX[IUTZ[RXUUZYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTIUSGTJGS_YWRGJSOT I[[XSÂZUGXKGYOTZG^G u )XKGXKG[T[OIUTZJK[ZORO`GZUXYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOT[ZORO`GXKGIUSKT`OO-8'4: IGXKVKXSOZKYZGHOROXKGT[SKR[OJKIUTZ™OGVGXURKO[ZORO`GZUX[R[OVXKI[S™OG JXKVZ[XORUX JK GIIKY GRK GIKYZ[OG VXO\ORKMOO RG GT[SOZK HG`K JK JGZK *GI [ZORO`GZUX[RK^OYZÂIUSGTJG-8'4:KYZKLURUYOZÂRGSUJOLOIGXKGIGXGIZKXOYZOIORUX IUTZ[R[OXKYVKIZO\9OTZG^GYOSVROLOIGZÂGIUSKT`OOKYZK [TJK v [ZORO`GZUX YVKIOLOIÂ T[SKRK IUTZ[R[O JK [ZORO`GZUX ™O T[SKRK YKX\KX[R[O IK MÂ`J[OK™ZKIUTZ[RG\ÁTJLUXSGqT[SKEIUTZr&rT[SKEYKX\KXr v /*+4:/.

5 Crearea unui cont de utilizator u 'T[RGXKGVXO\ORKMOORUXGIUXJGZK[T[OGYG[SGOS[RZUX[ZORO`GZUXOYKXKGRO`KG`ÂI[ GP[ZUX[RIUSKT`OO8+<51+IGXKGXKYOTZG^G )USGTJG8+<51+GT[RKG`ÂGT[SOZKVXO\ORKMOOGIUXJGZKGTZKXOUX[ZORO`GZUXORUXVXOT IUSGTJG-8'4:JGXT[GXKIGKLKIZ™ZKXMKXKGIUTZ[XORUX[ZORO`GZUXORUX6KTZX[G™ZKXMK [TIUTZJK[ZORO`GZUXZXKH[OKY™ZKXMKSÍTXKMOYZXGXKGIUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKIUTZ[R[OJOT HG`GJKJGZKI[T[SKRKS_YWRZGHKRG[YKX9[IIKYO[TKGJKIUSKT`OTKIKYGXK™ZKXMKXOO [T[OIUTZKYZKVXK`KTZGZÂÍTLOM[XG Figura 6.2.9. )USGTJGYKOTZXUJ[IKJKRGVXUSVZ[RYOYZKS[R[OJKUVKXGXKÍT=OTJU]YVUGZKLO OTZXUJ[YÂÍT9ZGXZ$8[T Figura 6.6 ªtergerea unui cont de utilizator *[V ™ZKXMKXKG ÍTXKMOYZXÂXOO GYUIOGZK IUTZ[R[O GS LURUYOZ IUSGTJG . 68/</2+-+9VKTZX[IGYKX\KX[R3_972YÂXKÍSVXUYVÂZK`KOTLUXSGÝOORKXKLKXOZUGXKRG JXKVZ[XORKJKGIIKYGRK[ZORO`GZUXORUX #%( .

17 'LO™GXKGYZX[IZ[XOO[TKOZGHKRKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂI[GP[ZUX[RIUSKT`OO 9ZX[IZ[XGZGHKRKO/TLU+RK\O\GLOGLO™GZÂIGÍTLOM[XG ‰ZKXMKXKG[TKOZGHKRKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTIUSGTJG #%) .4`^V_kZ>jDB=aV_ecfXVdeZ`_RcVRSRkV]`cUVUReV ­TIUTZOT[GXK\USVXKY[V[TKIÂGJSOTOYZXGZUX[RGIXKGZ[TIUTZJK[ZORO`GZUXI[ JXKVZ[XOGY[VXGHG`KOJKJGZKI[T[SKRK+RK\O*OTGIKYZSUSKTZJ[VÂIUTKIZGXKGRG OTZKXVXKZUX[RJKIUSKT`O3_972[ZORO`GZUX[RVUGZK[ZORO`GIUSKT`ORKVKTZX[MKYZOUTGXKG HG`KOJKJGZK)KRKSGO[ZORO`GZKJOTZXKGIKYZKGY[TZ u 'LO™GXKGT[SKRUXHG`KRUXJKJGZKGIIKYOHORK[ZORO`GZUX[R[O u )XKGXKGHG`KOJKJGZK u 9KRKIZGXKGHG`KOJKJGZKI[XKTZK u <O`[GRO`GXKGZGHKRKRUXJOTHG`GJKJGZKI[XKTZ u ‰ZKXMKXKGHG`KOJKJGZK )USGTJG*856*':'('9+GXKIGKLKIZ™O™ZKXMKXKGZ[Z[XUXZGHKRKRUXJOTHG`G JKJGZKYVKIOLOIGZÂ +^KI[ZGXKGI[Y[IIKYGIUSKT`ORUXJKSGOY[YKYZKJKVKTJKTZÂJKVXO\ORKMOORKGYUIOGZK [ZORO`GZUX[R[OXKYVKIZO\ 4`^V_kZ >jDB= aV_ecf XVdeZ`_RcVR eRSV]V]`c )XKGXKG[TKOZGHKRKÍTIGJX[RHG`KOJKJGZKI[XKTZKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOT[ZORO`GXKG IUSKT`OO972)8+':+:'(2+*KK^KSVR[IXKGXKGZGHKRKO:_W`6]VgZIGXKSKSUXKG` JGZKXKLKXOZUGXKRGKRK\OO[TKO™IUROYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTIUSGTJG Exemplul 6.

8 Meniul principal al aplicaþiei PhpMyAdmin #%* .Figura 6.7 Structura tabelei InfoElevi FeZ]ZkRcVR Ra]ZTRèZVZ AYa>j2U^Z_ 6NV3_'JSOTKYZKUGVROIGÝOKI[OTZKXLGÝÂMXGLOIÂIKVKXSOZKMKYZOUTGXKGHG`KRUXJK JGZK3_9723GPUXOZGZKGYKX\KXKRUXIGXKL[XTO`KG`ÂYKX\OIOOJKMÂ`J[OXKGYOZK[XORUX =KHVKXSOZ[ZORO`GXKGGIKYZKOGVROIGÝOO 2GTYGXKGÍTK^KI[ÝOKGGVROIGÝOKOYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTYIXOKXKGÍTHGXGJKGJXKYKG TG\OMGZUX[R[OG[XSÂZUGXKOGJXKYK NZZV RUIGRNUYZVNVS_GJSOTOTJK^VNV Figura 6.

:¢ Figura 6. .9 Crearea unei tabele ARd$ 6KTZX[ LOKIGXK IÁSV YK \UX OTZXUJ[IKGRKMK ÍT ZGHKR[R GLO™GZ [XSÂZUGXKRK OTLUXSGÝOO u T[SKRKIÁSV[R[OIURUGTG)ÁSV! u ZOV[RIÁSV[R[OIURUGTG:OV! u R[TMOSKGIÁSV[R[OIURUGTG2[TMOSK9KZGXK!JGIÂZOV[RIÁSV[R[OKYZKT[SKXOI YG[\GXINGXGZ[TIOYKVXKIO`KG`ÂT[SÂX[RSG^OSJKIOLXKIGXGIZKXKOGXJGI ZOV[RKYZKKT[SYG[YKZYK\UXVXKIO`GKRKSKTZKRKZOV[R[OXKYVKIZO\! u YKVXKIO`KG`ÂJGIÂ\GRUGXKGIÁSV[R[OVUGZKLO4.22YG[T[IURUGTG4[RR! u YKZGXKJKHG`ÂXKVXK`OTZÂ\GRUGXKGOSVROIOZÂGYUIOGZÂIÁSV[R[O! u YKGRKMKUVÝO[TKGG[ZUEOTIXKSKTZJOTIURUGTG+^ZXGJGIÂJUXOSIG\GRUGXKG IÁSV[R[OYÂYKOTIXKSKTZK`KG[ZUSGZRGOTYKXGXKG[TKOÍTXKMOYZXÂXO! #&! .KXKGYZXGVXOTIOVGRÂGGVROIGÝOKO\K`OLOM[XGKYZKÍSVÂXÝOZÂÍTJU[ÂVGTU[XO 6GTU[RJOTYZÁTMGVKXSOZKYKRKIZGXKGHG`KOJKJGZKI[XKTZK™OGLOROKG`ÂT[SKRKZ[Z[XUX ZGHKRKRUXVKIGXKRKIUTÝOTK 6GTU[RJXKVZIUTÝOTKROTQ[XOIÂZXKIGZKMUXOORKJKUVKXGÝOOJKGJSOTOYZXGXKIKVUZLO KLKIZ[GZK)KRKSGOOSVUXZGTZKY[TZ u GLO™GXKG OTLUXSGÝOORUX XKLKXOZUGXK RG VXUIKYKRK K^KI[ZGZK ÍT IGJX[R YKX\KX[R[O 3_972! u GLO™GXKG\GXOGHORKRUXJKYOYZKS3_972! u JXKVZ[XOJKGIIKY GIKGYZÂIGZKMUXOKJKIUSKT`OVKXSOZKMKYZOUTGXKG[ZORO`GZUXORUX ™OGJXKVZ[XORUXJKGIIKY! u HG`KJKJGZK GLO™KG`ÂOTLUXSGÝOOJKYVXKHG`KRKJKJGZKMÂ`J[OZKJKYKX\KX[R 3_972! u UVKXGÝOOJKOSVUXZK^VUXZ VKXSOZ[ZORO`GZUX[R[OYGR\GXKGHG`KRUXJKJGZKY[HLUXSG [T[OLO™OKXJKIUSKT`O972VXKI[S™OÍTIÂXIGXKGJGZKRUXJOTZX[TGYZLKRJKLO™OKX -KYZOUTGXKGHG`KOJKJGZK™OGZGHKRKRUXIUSVUTKTZKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R SKTO[XORUXJKUVÝO[TOÍTSUJMXGLOI)XKGXKGZGHKRKO/TLU+RK\OVUGZKLOXKGRO`GZÂVXOT [XSGXKGVG™ORUXJKSGOPUY ARd" 9KRKIZÂSHG`GJKJGZK+RK\OVXOTYKRKIZGXKGGIKYZKOGJOTROYZGJKUVÝO[TOGLRGZ ÍTVGTU[RYZÁTM­TGIKYZSUSKTZHG`GJKJGZKT[IUTÝOTKZGHKRK ARd# )UTYZX[OSZGHKRG/TLU+RK\OVXKIO`ÁTJT[SKRKGIKYZKOG™OT[SÂX[RIÁSV[XORUX ÍTLUXS[RGX[RJOTVGTU[RJXKVZ\K`OLOM[XG'VÂYGÝOH[ZUT[R+>+).

10 Definirea structurii tabelei u YKGRKMKZOV[RJKOTJK^JUXOZVKTZX[IÁSV[RI[XKTZINKOKVXOSGXÂOTJK^UHO™T[OZ OTJK^I[\GRUXO[TOIKLÂXÂOTJK^! u YKOTYKXKG`Â[TIUSKTZGXO[IGXKYÂJKYIXOKIÁSV[R 9KVUGZKGYUIOG[TIUSKTZGXO[IGXKYÂJKYIXOKYKSTOLOIGÝOGZGHKRKOIXKGZK'VÂYGÝO H[ZUT[R9'2<+'@¢*GIÂZGHKRGGLUYZJKLOTOZÂIUXKIZYK\GGLO™GIUSGTJG972 IUXKYV[T`ÂZUGXKVUGZKLOKJOZGZ™OK^KI[ZGZÂ[RZKXOUXYZX[IZ[XGZGHKRKOY[HLUXSG [T[OZGHKRIÁSV[XORKVUZLOKJOZGZKYG[™ZKXYK™OV[ZKSOTYKXGTUOIÁSV[XO VXKI[S™OGRZKOTLUXSGÝOOXKLKXOZUGXKRGOTJK^[XORGYVGÝO[RJKSKSUXOKUI[VGZ™O OTLUXSGÝOOYZGZOYZOIK ­TVGXZKGJKY[YGVGTU[R[OJXKVZIGXKGLO™KG`ÂYZX[IZ[XG™OVXUVXOKZÂÝORKZGHKRKO TU[IXKGZKYKGLRÂ[TSKTO[I[UVÝO[TOJKMKYZOUTGXKGZGHKRKO™OGJGZKRUXSKSUXGZK JKGIKGYZG'IKYZKGY[TZ u 4G\OMGXK VKXSOZK\O`[GRO`GXKGÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOTZGHKRÂ\GRUXORKIÁSV[XORUX V[ZÁTJLOSUJOLOIGZK u 9ZX[IZ[X GLO™KG`ÂYZX[IZ[XGZGHKRKO™OUVÝO[TORKJKKJOZGXKGGIKYZKOG u 972 VKXSOZKOTZXUJ[IKXKG™OK^KI[ZGXKG[TKOIUSKT`O972 u )G[Z  L[XTO`KG` U OTZKXLGÝ VKTZX[ IUTYZX[OXKG [TKO OTZKXUMÂXO 9+2+): [ZORO`GZÂÍTIÂ[ZGXKGÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXIGXKYGZOYLGIUIUTJOÝOKYVKIOLOIGZ u /TYKXGXK VKXSOZKOTZXUJ[IKXKGJKÍTXKMOYZXÂXOTUOÍTZGHKR u /SVUXZ VXKR[GXKGYZX[IZ[XOOZGHKRKO™OYG[GJGZKRUXJOTZX[TLO™OKXK^ZKXT u +^VUXZ YGR\GXKGYZX[IZ[XOOZGHKRKO™OYG[GJGZKRUXÍTZX[TLO™OKXK^ZKXT u 5VKXGÝOO MX[VKG`ÂUVÝO[TOJKXKUXJUTGXKGIÁSV[XORUXJKSUJOLOIGXKGZOV[R[O JKSKSUXGXKGZGHKRKOJKGTGRO`GXKXKVGXGXK™OUVZOSO`GXKG[TKOZGHKRK u -URK™ZK ™ZKXMKÍTXKMOYZXÂXORKJOTZGHKR u 'X[TI ™ZKXMKZGHKRG #&" .Figura 6.

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Exemplul 7.6*':+ T[XKZ[XTKG`Â[TYKZJKXK`[RZGZKVXKI[SIUSGTJG9+2+):6KTZX[GJKZKXSOTGJGI K^KI[ZGXKGIUSKT`OOGVXUJ[YSUJOLOIÂXOGY[VXGHG`KOJKJGZKYK[ZORO`KG`ÂL[TIÝOG S_YWREGLLKIZKJEXU]YIGXKGXKYOTZG^G GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ .[TIÝOGXKZ[XTKG`ÂT[SÂX[RÍTXKMOYZXÂXORUXJOTHG`GJKJGZKIGXKG[LUYZGLKIZGZKJK K^KI[ZGXKG [RZOSKO OTZKXUMÂXO /49+8: *+2+:+ YG[ .6 #'! .5 6iVTfeRcVR T`^V_kZ]`c UV RTefR]ZkRcV :?D6CE 56=6E6 FA52E6 )USKT`ORKJKGIZ[GRO`GXKIGXKIUTÝOTIUSKT`ORK972/49+8:*+2+:+.6*':+ GYUIOGZK IUTK^O[TOO OJKTZOLOIGZKVXOT/J8KY*GIÂVGXGSKZX[RROVYK™ZKYKIUTYOJKXÂ[RZOSGIUTK^O[TKI[ HG`GJKJGZKJKYINOYÂVXOTZX[TGVKRS_YWREIUTTKIZ ­TIG`[RÍTIGXK[RZOSGOTZKXUMGXKGK™[GZL[TIÝOGÍTZUGXIK\GRUGXKGv +^KSVR[ROTYKXKG`ÂUTU[ÂÍTXKMOYZXGXKÍTZGHKRGSGZKXOO\KXOLOIÁTJXKGRO`GXKG I[Y[IIKYGGIKYZKOUVKXGÝOO Exemplul 7.

astfel cã valoarea sa este inseratã automat în tabelã.+JGIÂUVKXGÝOGYGK^KI[ZGZI[Y[IIKY™O. Uneori este nevoie sã determinãm care a fost ultima valoarea inseratã într-un câmp cu autoincrementare. respectiv Drop Table. Limbajul PHP nu permite realizarea acestor operaþii prin intermediul unor funcþii predefinite. iar comanda SQL INSERT din exemplul anterior insereazã valori doar pentru câmpurile denumire ºi tip.[TIÝOGS_YWREJXUVEJH™ZKXMKHG`GJKJGZKYVKIOLOIGZÂ'SHKRKL[TIÝOOXKZ[XTKG` :8. fiind cu o unitate mai mare decât ultima valoare inseratã în acest câmp. precum ºi folosind alte funcþii PHP ce opereazã asupra seturilor de rezultate. Câmpul idmaterie este un câmp cu autoincrementare. Tabela materii conþine 3 câmpuri. @aVcRèZZTfSRkVUVUReV 5VKXGÝOORKJKIXKGXK™O™ZKXMKXKGHG`KRUXJKJGZKYKVUZXKGRO`G™OVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R L[TIÝOORUX6.[TIÝOGS_YWREROYZEZGHRKYL[TIÝOUTKG`ÂYOSORGXL[TIÝOKOS_YWREROYZEJHYXKZ[XTÁTJ [TYKZJKXK`[RZGZKI[OTLUXSGÝOOJKYVXKZGHKRKRKJOTHG`GJKJGZKYVKIOLOIGZÂYG[.[TIÝOG S_YWREIXKGZKEJH IXKKG`Â HG`G JK JGZK I[ T[SKRK 4[SK*( LURUYOTJ IUTK^O[TKGI[OJKTZOLOIGZUX[R/J8KYXKYVKIZO\IUTK^O[TKGI[XKTZÂJGIÂVGXGSKZX[R /J8KYT[KYZKYVKIOLOIGZ .6 GR]`RcVcVefc_ReÍ+ . #'" . Crearea ºi ºtergerea tabelelor sunt operaþii care se pot realiza prin intermediul unor interogãri ce conþin comenzile SQL Create Table. Acest lucru se determinã prin apelul funcþiei int mysql_insert_id([resource IdConexiune]) Funcþia returneazã valoarea zero dacã nu s-a efectuat nicio autoincrementare.'29+GRZLKR *KZKXSOTGXKGHG`KRUXJKJGZKGLRGZKVKYKX\KXYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTGVKR[RL[TIÝOORUX 6XOSGL[TIÝOKXKZ[XTKG`Â[TYKZJKXK`[RZGZKIKIUTÝOTKOTLUXSGÝOOXKLKXOZUGXKRG HG`KRKJKJGZKGLRGZKVKYKX\KXT[SKRKGIKYZUXGLOOTJUHÝOT[ZKVXOTGVKR[RL[TIÝOKO S_YWREZGHRKTGSK/J/TZKXUMGXKKYZKOJKTZOLOIGZUX[RGYUIOGZYKZ[R[OJKXK`[RZGZKXKZ[XTGZ JKL[TIÝOGS_YWREROYZEJHYOGX/TJOIKYVKIOLOIÂVU`OÝOGHG`KOJKJGZKÍTYKZ[RI[XK`[RZGZK *KZKXSOTGXKGT[SKRUXZGHKRKRUXJOTZXUHG`ÂJKJGZKKYZKXKGRO`GZÂVXOTGVKR[RL[TIÝOKO .'29+ JGIÂUVKXGÝOGK™[KG`Â4[SKRKZGHKRKRUXY[TZK^ZXGYKJOTYKZ[RJKXK`[RZGZKVXOTGVKR[XO Y[IIKYO\KGRKL[TIÝOKOS_YWREZGHRKTGSK +^KSVR[RGLO™KG`ÂZUGZKHG`KRKJKJGZKK^OYZKTZKVXKI[S™OZGHKRKRKIUTÝOT[ZK JKGIKYZKG Extragerea numelor bazelor de date/tabelelor din setul de rezultate returnat de mysql_list_dbs()/mysql_list_tables() poate fi realizatã ºi prin apelul funcþiei mysql_fetch_array().

6 :XGTYSOZKXKG\GRUXORUX\GXOGHORKRUXVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R.6VXKJKLOTOZK<GRUGXKG\GXOGHORKOIUUQOKKYZKGIIKYOHORÂÍT UXOIKYIXOVZJOTIGJX[RGVROIGÝOKO*K`G\GTZGPKRK[ZORO`ÂXOO\GXOGHORKRUXIUUQOKY[TZ u \O`OZGZUX[RGXKVUYOHOROZGZKGJKGIUTLOM[XGTG\OMGZUX[RYÂT[VKXSOZÂJOTXGÝO[TO JKYKI[XOZGZK[ZORO`GXKG\GXOGHORKRUXIUUQOKIKKGIKIUTJ[IKRGOSVUYOHOROZGZKG L[TIÝOUTÂXOOIUXKIZKGGVROIGÝOKO! #'# .7 =64È:2# 8VdeZ`_RcVRdVdZf_Z]`cA9A ­TIGVOZURKRKGTKXOUGXKGSJOYI[ZGZJKYVXKSUJGROZÂÝORKJKZXGTYSOZKXKG\GRUXOO[TUX \GXOGHORKÍTZXKJU[ÂYIXOVZ[XO6.63GPUXOZGZKGGVROIGÝOORUX=KHTKIKYOZÂLURUYOXKG[TUX \GXOGHORKGRIÂXUXJUSKTO[JK\O`OHOROZGZKYÂLOKSGOSGXKJKIÁZL[TIÝOGYG[YIXOVZ[RÍT IGXKY[TZJKLOTOZKGYZLKRIG\GRUGXKGGIKYZUXGYÂLOKGIIKYOHORÂZ[Z[XUXLO™OKXKRUXIK IUSV[TGVROIGÝOG +^OYZÂZXKOSKIGTOYSKVXOTIGXKV[ZKSXKGRO`GGIKYZR[IX[ u ZXGTYSOZKXKG\GRUXORUX\GXOGHORKRUXVXOTOTZKXSKJO[R.Exemplul 7.82[R[OYIXOVZ[XORUXKYZK\GXOGTZG IKGSGOV[ÝOTOTJOIGZÂJKUGXKIK u KLUXZ[RJKVXUMXGSGXKIXK™ZK\GXOGHORKRKZXGTYSOYKÍTROTOGJKGVKRZXKH[OTJVXKR[GZK ÍTLOKIGXKYIXOVZ! u T[SÂX[R\GXOGHORKRUXT[VUGZKLOVXKGSGXK™OJKGYKSKTKGT[YKVUZZXGTYSOZK IGTZOZÂÝOSGXOJKJGZK! u YKI[XOZGZKGGVROIGÝOKOKYZKYIÂ`[ZÂ\GRUXORK\GXOGHORKRUXZXGTYSOYKIGVGXGSKZXO V[ZÁTJLOOTZKXIKVZGZKI[Y[LOIOKTZÂ[™[XOTÝÂJKVKXYUGTKRKXÂ[OTZKTÝOUTGZK <GXOGHORGIUUQOKKYZK[TZOVYVKIOGRJK\GXOGHORÂGIÂXKO\GRUGXKYKSKSUXKG`ÂÍTZX[T LO™OKX ZK^Z JK JOSKTYO[TK SOIÂ SKSUXGZ ÍTZX[T LURJKX YVKIOGR GLRGZ VK IGRI[RGZUX[R \O`OZGZUX[R[O)XKGXKGGIIKYGXKG™O™ZKXMKXKG[TKO\GXOGHORKIUUQOKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOT OTZKXSKJO[R[TUXL[TIÝOO6.82[R[OYIXOVZ[R[O! u [ZORO`GXKG\GXOGHORKRUXIUUQOK! u LURUYOXKGYKYO[TORUX6.

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+ÍTIG`JK Y[IIKY­TINOJKXKGYKYO[TOOVXKY[V[TKJOYZX[MKXKGZ[Z[XUXJGZKRUXGYUIOGZKGIKYZKOG VXKI[S™O™ZKXMKXKGIUUQOK[R[OIGXKSKSUXKG`ÂIGXGIZKXOYZOIORKYKYO[TOO *KLOTOXKG™OGIIKYGXKG\GXOGHORKRUXJKYKYO[TKYKXKGRO`KG`ÂVXOTOTZKXSKJO[RZGHRU[R[O GYUIOGZO\Y[VKXMRUHGR E9+99/54GYZLKR Exemplul 7.[TIÝOG YKYYOUTEJKYZXU_ ÍTINOJKYKYO[TKGI[XKTZÂXKZ[XTÁTJ :8.10 (a) u IXKG`GVNVKYZKYIXOVZ[RIGXKVXKOGJGZKRKOTZXUJ[YKJK\O`OZGZUXÍTLUXS[RGX OTOÝOG`ÂYKYO[TKG™OSKSUXKG`ÂT[SKRKVXKT[SKRK™OI[RUGXKGIG\GXOGHORKJK YKYO[TK/TOÝOGRYK\KXOLOIÂ\GXOGHORKRKJKYKYO[TKJGIÂT[G[LUYZJKLOTOZKJKPG VXOTZX[TGVKRGTZKXOUXGRYIXOVZ[R[OIXKG`GVNV­TIG`[RÍTIGXK\GXOGHORKRKJK YKYO[TKTG[LUYZJKLOTOZKOGX[ZORO`GZUX[RGIUSVRKZGZZUGZKX[HXOIORKJOTLUXS[RGX GZ[TIO JKLOTOS \GXOGHORKRK JK YKYO[TK VXOT OTZKXSKJO[R ZGHRU[R[O GYUIOGZO\ E9+99/54 #'& .6+^KSVR[RIUTÝOTK LO™OKXK u G[ZKTZOLOIGXKVNV IUTÝOTK LUXS[RGX[R ÍT IGXK [ZORO`GZUX[R OTZXUJ[IK T[SKRK VXKT[SKRK™OI[RUGXKGVXKLKXGZÂ! Exemplul 7.9 <KXOLOIGXKGK^OYZKTÝKO[TKO\GXOGHORKJKYKYO[TKYKVUGZKLGIKRGLKRIGVKTZX[UXOIK \GXOGHORÂVXOTGVKR[RL[TIÝOKOOYYKZ +^KSVR[RK^KSVROLOIÂSUJ[RJK[ZORO`GXKGYKYO[TORUX6. .

10 (c) u OKYOXKVNVXKGRO`KG`™ZKXMKXKG\GRUXORUX\GXOGHORKRUXJKYKYO[TK™OÍTINOJKXKG YKYO[TOO ‰ZKXMKXKG \GXOGHORKRUX JK YKYO[TK YK XKGRO`KG` VXOT GVKR[R L[TIÝOKO YKYYOUTE[TYKZ Exemplul 7.Exemplul 7.10 (d) u OTJK^VNV KYZK VGMOTG VXOTIOVGR IGXK VKXSOZK \O`OZGZUX[R[O GIIKY[R VXOT OTZKXSKJO[R[T[OSKTO[RGLO™OKXKRKJKYIXOYKSGOY[Y Exemplul 7.10 (e) #'' .10 (b) u GLOYGXKVNVZOVÂXK™ZKÍTLKXKGYZXGTG\OMGZUX[R[OT[SKRKVXKT[SKRK™OI[RUGXKG GRKYKJK\O`OZGZUX[RI[XKTZK^KSVROLOIÁTJSUJ[RJKGIIKYGXKG\GRUXORUX\GXOGHORKRUX JKYKYO[TK! Exemplul 7.

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În cazul în care autentificarea se face cu succes. Dacã utilizatorul are contul blocat sau încã nevalidat se va afiºa un mesaj de eroare corespunzãtor.OKIGXKVGMOTÂGYOZK[R[O \KXOLOIÂJXKVZ[RJKGIIKYGR[ZORO`GZUX[R[OG[ZKTZOLOIGZ*KK^KSVR[UVGMOTGGYOZK[R[O IKVUGZKLOGIIKYGZÂGZÁZJKGJSOTOYZXGZUXIÁZ™OJKVXULKYUXO\GIUTÝOTK\KXOLOIGXKG JXKVZ[XORUXJKGIIKYY[HLUXSG #)" . inexistenþa contului sau incorectitudinea parolei determinã eºuarea tentativei de autentificare. Se verificã starea contului. Se realizeazã o interogare SQL pentru a determina dacã numele de cont ºi parola sunt înregistrate în baza de date. Exemplul 8. Variabilele de sesiune sunt memorate cu ajutorul tabloului asociativ predefinit $_SESSION. pentru a putea fi utilizate pe tot parcursul aplicaþiei.4 *[VÂG[ZKTZOLOIGXKGI[Y[IIKYG[ZORO`GZUX[R[OGIKYZGVUGZK[ZORO`GLGIOROZÂÝORKGVROIGÝOKO ÍTL[TIÝOKJKTO\KR[RJXKVZ[XORUXJKGIIKYGZG™GZKIUTZ[R[OYÂ[. o parte din informaþiile referitoare la cont se memoreazã în variabile de sesiune.

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