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Experiment 1

Title : Forced and natural convection

Objective

To demonstrate the use of a flat plate to improve the thermal properties of heat transfer
in forced convection.

Apparatus

1. Heater
2. Flat plate
3. Fan
4. Wattmeter ( Appendix )
5. Anemometer ( Appendix )
6. Temperature probe

Experimental Procedure
1. The heat exchanger is placed into the test duct. The ambient temperature was
recorded.
2. The heater power control was set to 60W.
3. After 1 min, the experiment begin with the initial fan velocity of 3.0 m/s. The
heated plate surface temperature was recorded at each 1 minute interval until the
temperature reach the steady state condition.
4. At steady state condition, the local Prandtl Number, local Reynold Number, drag
coefficient, friction coefficient, local boundary layer, local thermal boundary layer
and Rayleigh number was calculated for every 10 cm distance at base plate.
Results

Fan speed : 3.0m/s Heater power : 60W Ambient temperature : 30.3C

T = Surface temperature Ambient temperature

Time (min) Temperature (C) T(C) Time (min) Temperature (C) T(C)
1 32.1 1.8 23 54.1 0.5
2 33.9 1.8 24 54.5 0.4
3 35.7 1.8 25 54.9 0.4
4 37.3 1.5 26 55.2 0.3
5 38.9 1.4 27 55.5 0.3
6 40.3 1.4 28 55.8 0.3
7 41.6 1.3 29 56.0 0.2
8 42.8 1.2 30 56.3 0.3
9 44.0 1.2 31 56.5 0.2
10 45.1 1.1 32 56.7 0.2
11 46.1 1.0 33 56.9 0.2
12 47.1 1.0 34 57.0 0.1
13 47.9 0.8 35 57.2 0.2
14 48.7 0.8 36 57.4 0.2
15 49.5 0.8 37 57.5 0.1
16 50.2 0.7 38 57.7 0.2
17 50.8 0.6 39 57.8 0.1
18 51.4 0.6 40 57.9 0.2
19 52.0 0.6 41 58.1 0.2
20 52.6 0.6 42 58.3 0.2
21 53.1 0.5
22 53.6 0.5
Calculation


=


=

5
=

2 1
= 2
= 0.664
2

1
= 3
1.026

1
= 0.664 0.5 3

1
= 0.037 0.8 3

1
= (0.037 0.8 871) 3

= ()
Temperature vs Time
60

55

50
Temperature (C)

45

40

35

30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Time (min)

T vs Time
1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
T (C)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Time (min)
Appendix

The experiment setup

The control system of the experiment (left) and the model of the heat exchanger (right)

The Wattmeter on the left is an instrument which measure the electrical supply in Watt
of a given circuit in the experiment setup.
The base plate (left) and the Anemometer (right)

The Anemometer is an instrument by which measure the wind velocity.


DISCUSSION

From the experiment conducted, which is known as forced and natural convection. At
first, it was known that convection is a heat transfer process that occur when the fluid is heated,
by a subject in contact, carrying the heat away and bringing along the energy. In the experiment,
there was two types which is forced, and natural convection. Forced convection is a mechanism,
or type of transport in which fluid flow is generated by an external force. While free or natural
convection is the heat transfer tin which fluid flow is not affected by any external sources, but
only by the density differences in the fluid occurring due to temperature gradients.

The experiment was carried out to distinguish the heat transfer characteristics and
qualities, that would vary depends on the type of convection done. The difference between the
two types of convection is that in forced convection, the velocity of air flow varies, by changing
the velocity of air flow. While in natural convection, the air flow is considered steady, thus the
velocity is constant while the temperature may vary. The main equation used is the Newtons
Law of Cooling, which will be useful to find the amount of heat transfer to a surface in contact.

The thermal properties were calculated for forced convection heat transfer. Throughout
the increasing surface in contact with moving air, the forced friction coefficient , increasing,
local boundary layer in natural convection increasing, local thermal boundary layer, of
natural increasing and the value of Nusselts number are increasing. Moreover, the Reynolds
number for forced convection increasing.

The quality or the characteristics of heat transfer itself can be represented or observed by
the characteristics of the thermal properties. From the graph plotted it can also be assumed that
the increasing of air temperature increase gradually with time of convection. And the
temperature difference between the plate surface and the moving air decreases over time.
CONCLUSION

From the experiment, it can be concluded that the rate of temperature drops in surface of plate
for forced convection increasing with the increasing velocity of air controlled by the external source.
Therefore, the heat transfers for forced convection could be controlled by manipulating the velocity of
motion of air, using external sources, such as in this case is an air pump.