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A COMPUTER-ASSISTED FRAMEWORK BASED ON A COGNITIVIST

LEARNING THEORY FOR TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN EARLY
PRIMARY YEARS

Nasrin Moradmand
School of Computer Science & Software Engineering, The University of Western Australia
nasrin.moradmand@grs.uwa.edu.au

Amitava Datta
School of Computer Science & Software Engineering, The University of Western Australia
amitava.datta@uwa.edu.au

Grace Oakley
Graduate School of Education, The University of Western Australia
grace.oakley@uwa.edu.au
Abstract

With the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the ways in which learning
activities in mathematics can be created and delivered are changing. However, to get the best
results from the integration of ICTs in education, any application’s design and development needs
to be based on pedagogically appropriate principles, in terms of both learners’ and teachers’
needs. The first part of this paper provides an overview of relevant literature by presenting four
interrelated key themes. Secondly, a new framework for using ICTs in the lower primary
mathematics classroom (ages 5-7), based on current pedagogical views of mathematics education
and a cognitivist learning theory, is proposed. Finally, suggestions for the development of
appropriate software and multimedia content, based on the framework, are offered.

Introduction

In the twenty-first century, the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has become
an important and essential part of the everyday life, work, and learning. During the past decade, the
impact of ICTs in different fields such as medicine, tourism, travel, business, law, banking, engineering
and architecture has been enormous (Oliver, 2002; Ongori & Mburu, 2010; Pramanik, 2011). Within
education, ICTs play an increasingly important role, not least as a means of transforming pedagogy and
supporting children’s learning. This role is becoming more and more important and there is little doubt
that this importance will continue to grow and develop in the 21st century (Oliver, 2002; Pramanik,
2011). The development of new ICTs has resulted in significant changes in the ways that teachers teach
and children learn in schools. The appropriate use of technology has proven to have broad pedagogical
affordances and invaluable potential to change teaching and learning. Hence, there is no question about
whether teachers should integrate technology in their existing practices; in fact, the main issue now is
how teaching can be transformed by technology through the creation and implementation of novel,
transformative learning opportunities (Angeli & Valanides, 2009).
In Australia, there have been education policy shifts to include ICTs in the schooling system. ICTs have
begun to have a place in education and access to computer-based technology in schools and classrooms
has increased. This became more important when the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for
Young Australians (MCEETYA, 2008) stated, “young people need to be highly skilled in the use of ICT”
(Ministerial Council on Education & Affairs, 2008). According to the Melbourne Declaration, schooling
should support the development of skills in the use of digital media and increase students’ effectiveness
in learning over the next decade.
In regards to the teaching of mathematics in Australia, all State, Territory and Commonwealth Education
Ministers some time ago agreed on a national goal that states ‘that every child leaving primary school
should be numerate’ (Doig, McRae, & Rowe, 2003). However, Australian students are performing less
well as measured by TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) than they used to.
In the TIMSS 2003 results, Australian and US students achieved similar levels. However, in TIMSS
 
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2001). ICTs are still only used as tools for designing instruction material and delivery. This paper then presents a proposed a new framework. 2010. the USA outperformed Australia in almost all the items reviewed (Thomson & Buckley. Wu.. educators. In the primary classroom. dos Santos. 2010. Mayer.. However. 2003). as well as an evaluation or assessment component (Scott. the ways in which mathematical learning activities are created and delivered have changed (Figueira-Sampaio. Ghazali. Liu. Relevant literature is reviewed through the discussion of four interrelated key themes: (a) the use of ICTs in the 21st century school. for effective use of ICTs in mathematics classroom (for lower primary school children). & Sung. & Carrijo. schools and communities (Kilpatrick. 2001). 2001. 2012). 2001. et al. but appropriate supporting conditions need to be in place (Lim. 2009. Literature Review The use of ICT in the 21st century school and school curriculum ICTs play a fundamental role in daily life and to exclude or relegate it from the educational context would be thoughtless (Yelland. However. Perth Australia Page 2 of 12   . Liu. the place of ICTs in school has been changing from “learning about ICT” through “learning with ICT” to “learning through ICT” (Markauskaitė. 1999). Solid mathematical skills are prerequisites for school achievement. Kozma. based on the framework. 2009. Mumtaz.2007. 2000. In the past three decades. Finally. Kozma. 2011. (b) teaching mathematics in the lower primary school. 2011. Schacter.5 2012. based on current pedagogical views of mathematics education. test their ideas and revise their understandings (Chang. 2000. 2004). Sarama. 2008). 2004. 2001). with the help of interactive technology. (c) pedagogies in mathematics. The first part of this paper provides an overview of the place of ICTs in the Australian education system. & Affairs.. Mumtaz. Mumtaz. 2001. some suggestions for the development of appropriate software and multimedia content. Dept. Rahman. 2001). 2009) and it has been recognised that children should be given the opportunity to access powerful mathematical ideas through high-quality child-centered activities in their homes. & Findell. A number of issues are raised about the design and use of computer-based applications in Australian education contexts. (d) current computer based maths applications and their pedagogical limitations. 2003). new curricula have been developed in   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . in many school settings. 2006). et al. are offered. subject matter or content.. Swafford. success in the workplace and in personal life. not all of the technology-based packages are usable for teaching and learning purposes within schools as they are not always designed with appropriate pedagogical frameworks in mind (Laurillard. attention to the importance of teaching mathematics to young children has increased (Clements. of Education. Kozma (1994) asserted that schools need to reform curriculum and pedagogy since traditional forms of schooling were not designed to address the use of ICTs. Weng. & DiBiase. It has been raised as a concern among business leaders. Saracho & Spodek. et al. Oakley & Liu. In recent years. coupled with a cognitivist framing. Arnedillo Sanchez. 2000. A curriculum includes aims and objectives. Several years later. Australia. Various research findings indicate that ICTs need to be integrated into education (Kim & Hannafin. Many studies have focused on technology integration in education and have concluded that ICTs can have a positive effect on student learning (Kim & Hannafin. not as learning devices or central components of teachers’ instructional programs (Liu. receive feedback on their performance. & Tangney. policymakers and parents that traditional practices are not necessarily delivering the skills that students need. Schacter. 2001). 1999) so that children can learn in new and dynamic ways and be prepared for the challenges of life in the 21st century (Yelland. 2010. there are many opportunities for ICTs to enhance the teaching of curriculum areas such as English and Mathematics. particularly in regard to mathematics teaching and learning. Studies also indicate that. and it is evident that traditional education environments do not always seem to be appropriate for preparing students to be productive in the workplaces of the 21st century (Yelland. Patten. et al. students are able to learn more deeply. 2001). and. & Ismail. 2009). Yelland. With the world around children moving rapidly into digital media and information. “We are fitting new technologies into old curricula which were developed prior to their existence” (Yelland. 2011. methods or procedures to teach content. Kozma.

which is focused on ICTs in schools – leadership. preschoolers. learning resources and teacher capability (Department of Education. Cheeseman. as in the past. the National Technology Leadership Summit. 2002). 2011). Underwood. Teaching mathematics in the lower primary school Mathematics has a central position in primary school curricula (Anthony & Walshaw. 2009. including Australia. 2009) and mathematical understanding influences decision making and increases opportunities for young people in their current and future private. infrastructure. along with other countries such as New Zealand. For example. United State and Canada. Garofalo. This prediction has so far been accurate and computers and other ICTs are widespread in most schools in developed countries. 2011a). the National Council for the Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) has been successful in creating an agenda for reform of mathematics teaching. 2001). & Harris. Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) and The Australian National Standards for Teachers (AITSL. England.. draw graphs and interpret data. The majority of studies and computer-based applications that are currently used in Australia originate from the USA and in recent years more have been coming from the UK (Eng. Thomson. which has included the use of ICTs in the curriculum (Yelland. and primary school children. et al. et al. They encourage teachers and students to use ICTs in the classroom to make calculations. Subsequently. there is limited evidence to show that they are being used effectively in mathematics teaching and learning in primary schools. which introduces the use of ICTs as a ‘general capability’ across the curriculum. Employment and Workplace Relations announced a ‘Digital Education Revolution’. 2011) both include a strong focus on the use of ICTs across the curriculums. Phelps. Friedrich Froebel. the integration of ICTs across the curriculum has become a priority (Phelps. in many cases. today. 2009). Saracho & Spodek. 2005. 2004. children should learn to describe and draw two-dimensional shapes with and without digital technologies. Due to these issues. like other developed countries. 2011). 2005. create spreadsheets. composed of teacher educator associations. Therefore. Their theories remain a major element relating to the teaching and learning of mathematics for infants. In recent years. the mathematics education of young children has received increased attention among Australian researchers (Clarke. Perth Australia Page 3 of 12   . but teachers clearly still need support in modifying their pedagogies in order to use ICTs effectively. Rowe. has undertaken initiatives designed to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics among young children and to promote young children’s mathematical thinking. & Doig. Graham. By having the new Australian Curriculum. social and civil lives. 2008.Australia.. and Piagetian and Vygotskian theories propose that young children should obtain an informal understanding of mathematics in the early stages of their lives. however.. and other pioneers in the education of young children raised awareness about the importance of mathematics teaching in the early years of school. many students struggle with mathematics in the classroom and in their daily lives (Anthony & Walshaw. Thus. the issue is no longer whether ICTs should be integrated in existing classroom practices. In 2008. et al. Maria Montessori. there is a great need for Australian-based quality applications to address and cover the needs of Australian teachers and students. Unfortunately. there is no doubt about the need for quality studies in this area. sourcing computer based technology and applications to facilitate learning in a pedagogically acceptable manner has become an area of challenge for Australian schools. the Department of Education.. Yelland. stated that “ubiquitous computing will be a widespread force in schools by the end of the decade or sooner” (Bull. but how to use it to transform teaching and create new opportunities for learning. et al. educational packages are mainly based on the curricula of these countries and their teaching philosophies and methods. In the USA. the pedagogical integration of ICTs across the curriculum has been highlighted. The Australian Curriculum.5 2012. 2009). 2001). & Watts. Perry. Offer & Bos. Dolckett. As a result of this technology revolution. Furthermore. and practise with dynamic geometry software and computer algebra software in ways that have previously not been possible (ACARA. Young-Loveridge. and the Australian government’s ‘Digital Education Revolution’ policy. there is an increased concern around the teaching of mathematics to young children (Clements. Thus. Young-Loveridge. In Australia. & Peck. in the Year 2 mathematics curriculum. 2004). 2006. 2011. The Australian Association of Mathematics   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . Australia. & Clarke. even in early years of schooling.

& Duchesne. 2007).5 2012. 1992. can give children access to powerful new ways to explore concepts at a depth that has not been possible in traditional ways of teaching. Using multimedia and computer- based tools can also allow multiple representations to be linked dynamically. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen. Using children’s literature (storytelling) to teach mathematics has proven to be a very effective method (Elia. and to learn (Zazkis & Liljedahl. to imagine. According to ACARA. Telling mathematics concepts through stories can create powerful and memorable images in a learner’s mind (Zazkis & Liljedahl. find various answers. Elshout identified problem solving as a cognitive function that requires the problem solver to recall and process the relevant information (Elshout. Cognitive education in the teaching and learning process encourages learners to think and analyse a particular topic in gradually more complex ways (Krause.e. for instance changing a formula that can instantly change a graph (Milovanovic. 2001). Teachers can provide opportunities for students to learn and understand mathematics concepts in various ways. Storytelling. Perth Australia Page 4 of 12   . Boggan. recall definitions and (for older children) manipulate equations and terms to find answers (ACARA. 2009) and help them link mathematics concepts to their existing knowledge and understandings about the world. et al. which depends to a large extent on the fluency of lower level learning. 1987). In 1956. it undoubtedly involves higher order thinking (HOT). A multimedia approach is a powerful tool for the visualisation and representation of mathematical concepts and can facilitate the learner’s abstract thinking. Drake. 2010). Learning through technology. In 2001. fluency building strategies and problem solving are well known pedagogical approaches in mathematics education for young children. 2011) or showing a numeral and having multiple representations of the relevant number available in pictures. & Georgiou.g. The project being reported here draws on a cognitivist approach to learning. and the transformation power of available/new technology in society is a major driver of this need (Saracho & Spodek. & Sherley. 2011). Bochner.. 2010) and it can motivate learners to think. 2009). which require a more sophisticated way of evaluating and analysing content (Bloom. Maths fluency can be described as the ability to compute maths facts (e. knowing and understanding) to higher levels of thinking. communities. clearly and with automaticity. manipulate and remember information during learning. Pedagogy in mathematics ‘Pedagogy’ refers to strategies of instruction.. Tucker.school settings and schools. 2010. The recall of basic facts is recognised as a vital goal of mathematics education in primary schools since the prompt recall of mathematics facts can ensure that students have the cognitive capacity to attend to the more complex activities of problem solving and higher-order processing (Tait-McCutcheon. or a style of instruction used to promote development and learning (Epstein. multiplication and division) and problems quickly and with confidence (Mercer & Miller. Children should be given the opportunity to access these ideas through high quality child-centred activities in their homes. 1956).” Yet it should be stressed that there is a need to update mathematics education for young children. ‘Problem solving’ can be described as a process of working through the details of a problem to reach a solution and is recognised as a very important task in mathematics education (Lazakidou & Retalis.Teachers and Early Childhood Australia (AAMT/ECA)(Australia. Tait-McCutcheon.. & Harper. Bloom described a hierarchical model for cognitive learning objectives. especially multimedia learning. sounds and even animation. addition. students are considered to be fluent when they can calculate answers efficiently and confidently. 2006). 2011). subtraction. et al. 2006) state that: “The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers and Early Childhood Australia believe that all children in their early childhood years are capable of accessing powerful mathematical ideas that are both relevant to their current lives and form a critical foundation for their future mathematical and other learning. 2011b). ‘Fluency’ is the ability to express something effortlessly. ranging from lower levels of learning (i. which focuses on mental processes and how learners attend to. Although the construct of problem solving has no commonly accepted definition in mathematics education. 2009). Anderson and a team of cognitive psychologists revisited Bloom’s model and made some changes to the terminology and the structure of the existing taxonomy (Anderson et al. prior-to. These two versions of the taxonomy are often referred to as Bloom’s taxonomy   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 .

. learners have a chance to define their own approach. leading to repetition and individualised drill and practice. 2011).(Bloom. has little consideration for the teaching contexts in which it is supposed to be used (Hinostroza & Mellar. curriculum and pedagogy (Mumtaz. to tackle a maths problem in a collaborative way. Patten. 2000. & Horton. there is all too often a disconnection between theory for designing educational applications and theory relating to the application of technology in classrooms (Offer & Bos.g. 1992. especially handheld devices. 2008). also. Clements & Nastasi. The lack of provision for collaborative learning is another shortcoming of many existing educational applications. are creating exciting opportunities for supporting collaborative learning. software) needs to be designed with the requirements of education as the starting point. Evidence shows that most educational software is commercially produced and is not widely accepted by educators. and can help learners and their teachers to identify errors and become aware of misconceptions and areas that need to be consolidated. In recent years. 2001). 2009). 2001). and also the opportunity to learn from their peers. many of them have not been successfully used in the school setting. Hence. 2005). Studies have shown that software is rarely designed with an appropriate pedagogical framework in mind (Laurillard. 1993). 2001). However. current educational applications are rarely based on the requirements of education. For example. 2009. Mumtaz. 2009. However. logistical and technical agendas and not pedagogical considerations. 1987. 2001). Inappropriate use of multimedia in terms of educational content and an inadequate ability to provide an effective learning environment are other problems associated with educational software (Sim. et al. exchange and discuss their ideas. new technologies. 2006) and. it is argued that not many educational applications fit well in Australian primary school settings to facilitate mathematics learning in a manner that is considered to be pedagogically appropriate by teachers. offering little beside whether the child’s response is correct or incorrect (Gadanidis. collaborative learning can enable learners to share. et al. teaching and learning mathematics through computer based education software has been growing rapidly. 2004). however. Statement of the problem It is clear from this literature review that there is potential for mathematical achievement to be improved in schools through the effective design and use of ICTs. It also enables learners to learn from their peers and build on their skills (Laurillard. explaining the reasons for incorrect answers and providing students with appropriate methods of solving problems and arriving at correct answers and processes are more effective and motivational (Mason & Bruning. et al. MacFarlane. policy makers and researchers (Kingsley & Boone. any teaching resource (e. the provision of feedback to children has often been a weak link in educational software. in terms of both learners’ and teachers’ needs. digital tools of this kind are rarely developed with the learners’ and teachers’ needs in mind (Laurillard. Further to the above issues. and they mainly concentrate on the software itself and not the educational theory underpinning it (Patten. 2006). Therefore. It has been asserted (Laurillard. et al. Whilst this may have a place. articulate and examine their thinking..5 2012. 2001). 2009) that to get the best outcome from technology. Yelland. Pifarre & Kleine Staarman.. Immediate and appropriate feedback on individual responses is one of the main potential advantages of computer-based education (Mason & Bruning. 2009). 1956) and the revised Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson. there is a need to design an educational framework based   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . as well as a lack of alignment between technology. and the largest gains so far appear to have been with the use of mathematical training and practice software (Clements. although several educational software and applications have been developed. 2001). To add to the above issues.. In the current digital age. This taxonomy underpins the software to be described in this paper. 2000.. especially computer based and multimedia educational applications. Yelland. since they are often designed for the individual learner and are underpinned by behaviourist principles. Current computer based math applications and their pedagogical limitations It has long been claimed that the use of computers can increase the mathematical achievement of children in pre-school and primary grades (Clements. Current applications are largely driven by financial. et al. However. Perth Australia Page 5 of 12   .

& Robbins. 2006. storytelling covers both “Remembering” and “Understanding” in the Bloom/Anderson model.shtml We propose a new framework for designing mathematics software.educationworld. Applying. the approach has seldom been used for designing computer-based educational applications for schools. and focus on knowledge. storytelling. Understanding. et al. As is shown in figure 2. Hu. However. and these three approaches are at the core of the proposed framework. retelling the story. and has been applied in higher education domains such as engineering. Luxton-Reilly. Therefore. Whalley. 2001). Tucker. 2006. As mentioned in the literature review. Figure 1. the Bloom/Anderson taxonomy has been used to inform the design of a mathematics educational framework. This ties in with the first category (Remember) of the Bloom/Anderson model.on accepted pedagogical approaches before developing any educational software and multimedia content. et al. et al. et al. where the whole class can be engaged.. and can encourage them to imagine and sequence story scenes (Krause. et al. Analysing. which captures all elements of the Bloom/Anderson taxonomy (Figure 2). comprehension and application. structuring assessments and computer science for course design and evaluation (Thompson. The storytelling method can assist learners with reference to the recall of facts. The next section of this paper proposes a new framework based on a cognitivist learning theory for effective use of ICTs in mathematics classrooms for lower primary school children.. Also.. skill building (fluency building) and problem solving are three effective approaches to mathematics education for young children. Theoretical Framework The Bloom/Anderson taxonomy is a useful learning model and is widely used as a planning tool in educational settings (Krause. Bochner. & Duchesne. 2010) ("Understand" categories of Bloom/Anderson model). The last three categories are more sophisticated and need higher orders of thinking by learners. These elements emphasise analysis. Perth Australia Page 6 of 12   .com/a_curr/mathchat/mathchat026. storytelling is the first level of the framework (lower section). asking ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions.. Evaluating. and having children describe scenes and characters (which should contain maths concepts) in their own words (Krause. 2010). 2008). Figure 1 illustrates the base of the Bloom/Anderson taxonomy. The middle section of the framework focuses on the skill building of individual students through the use   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . The first three categories of Remembering. storytelling can assist with the comprehension of a subject through explaining the scenes. In the study being discussed here. Tucker. there is substantial teacher involvement (scaffolding) to focus children’s attention and build comprehension.. Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson. which has in turn underpinned the design and development of a computer-based application to facilitate the teaching and learning of mathematics concepts to children in lower primary school classrooms. Understanding and Applying require a good deal of involvement and scaffolding from teachers. Here.. and Creating (Anderson.5 2012. et al. evaluation and creativity. 2001) Source: http://www. 2006). terms and concepts. which consists of six major categories including of Remembering.

1987) that entails the ability to recognise. repeating and accomplishing. et al. where students can work individually or in pairs or small groups to analyse and find solutions to maths problem. As it presented in figure 2. which require a higher order of thinking by learners (Anderson. 2001). if required.of knowledge and understandings already gained through the first level. Then.5 2012. understand and analyse a problem. Skill building (fluency building) can be described as a way of learning by developing a capacity to retrieve basic facts from memory quickly and effortlessly (with automaticity). This can be related to the last three categories (“Analyse”. “Evaluate” and “Create”) of the Bloom/ Anderson model. This aligns with the “Apply” category of the Bloom/Anderson model.. Problem solving is a “higher-order cognitive process” (Goldstein & Levin. Figure 2. Proposed educational framework The conceptual ties between the Bloom/Anderson model and the proposed framework provide a strong basis for designing a computer based mathematics educational application (Figure 3). The conceptual ties between the Bloom/Anderson taxonomy and the proposed framework   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . Figure 3. readily counting numbers in sequences and continuing patterns can be achieved through regular corrected practice. this is the upper level of the proposed framework. This can be achieved through practising. all of the components need to be evaluated and incorporated to create a new form or representation. Learners have the opportunity to move back and forth between these three levels of framework. Perth Australia Page 7 of 12   . For example.

two or three digit numbers. when teaching addition and subtraction concepts in lower primary. engage and inspire children to explore mathematical concepts actively and enthusiastically. clean and easy to use to encourage mathematics learning without the technology ‘getting in the way’. Reproduced by permission of Walker Books Australia on behalf of Candlewick Press   nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . Text copyright © 2003 April Pulley Sayre & Jeff Sayre. a high level of computer skills cannot be assumed and. Moreover. Perth Australia Page 8 of 12     . The proposed computer based application is. while older children can benefit from using this application to learn skip counting. e. the researchers chose an engaging mathematics concept book. Ten is a Crab”. person. each time using different mathematical concepts and expressions. Teachers can create interactive stories by choosing scenes. spider. Illustrations copyright © 2003 Randy Cecil. Based on a review of existing mathematics concept books and discussions with teachers and other mathematics educators. and Randy Cecil (2003)1. There are many books that can be used effectively and creatively in the classroom for teaching in the field of mathematics. settings and multimedia content. video and informal. The interactive multimedia educational application. For example. With permission from the publisher. and communicating mathematically is argued to be an effective way to motivate. Mathematical language is reinforced and extended and cross curricular links are made with literacy.g. 2005). based on the Bloom/Anderson taxonomy and the aim is to produce educational multimedia texts or stories that encourage the cognitive learning objectives in the Bloom/Anderson taxonomy. not every book will be appropriate for enhancing a mathematics lesson. The story can be generated over and over. the system needs to be simple. 2009). The My Maths Story application should offer teachers many opportunities to share and discuss a range of mathematical concepts for various ability levels. Students have opportunities to interact with the story and introduce variations (and even to pose their own problems) to permit engagement with the relevant concepts more thoroughly and deeply. a snail. hence. 10's. subtraction and multiplication in different ways. The application also allows for problem solving when presenting certain numbers to represent different animals according to the amount of feet on each animal. audio. writing. Embedding mathematics concepts within a story and presenting it in a multimodal way by using pictures. TEN IS A CRAB: A COUNTING BY FEET BOOK. a counting by 'feet' book written by April Pulley Sayre.Proposed computer based mathematics educational application Using children’s literature with a focus on reading. the researchers have used this book to design and develop an "Interactive Multimedia Application" that contains mathematical concepts relevant to the early primary curriculum (Year1-3). familiar language can help children grasp the mathematical ideas and concepts more keenly (Ward. However. and the proposed mathematics application capitalises on this. insect. crab) and appropriate multimedia such as sound and                                                                                                                 1 From ONE IS A SNAIL. called "My Maths Story" applies the cognitive learning objectives through the use of technology with a strong theoretical underpinning. number sense. counting by sets of 2’s. teachers can use My Maths Story application to generate stories to help teach addition and subtraction concepts involving one. They will also be able to generate their own stories by choosing appropriate characters. Younger children can learn counting. This picture book is about counting animals with various numbers of feet. the application can be adapted to multiple grade levels and can be used to target different learning objectives throughout the year. as previously mentioned. dog. Since our target audience is early primary students. Teachers and educators should be able to use this interactive application to introduce many mathematical concepts relevant to their classroom and curriculum. even and odd numbers. characters (e. and each time becoming more complex. Jeff Sayre. there should be a natural relationship between the book chosen to enhance the lesson and the lesson itself (Price. within the motivational context of a storybook that links mathematical concepts to real world events and settings.5 2012. “One is a Snail. number relationships and basic addition. 4's. place value. “5 is a dog [with 4 feet] and a snail [with 1 foot]”.g. addition.

will not have the same kinds of shortcomings as many of the existing mathematics software packages. students can use this system to interact with the story for practising and repeating the targeted maths concept(s). Through interacting. any application’s design and development needs to be based on accepted pedagogical principles. With this underpinning framework. References ACARA. by generating a story and asking students to analyse. The Interactive Multimedia Application Conclusion The integration of ICTs into the learning environment can provide valuable learning experiences when it is designed and utilised in a pedagogically appropriate manner. Perth Australia Page 9 of 12     . describing and explaining (the "Remember" and "Understand" categories of Bloom/Anderson model-lower level of the proposed framework). Further. students can build fluency skills by calculating answers.pdf nd th ACEC2012: ITs Time Conference October 2 . "Evaluate" and "Create" categories of Bloom/Anderson model-upper level of the proposed framework).edu.5 2012. explaining the scene. The details of the various components of the system and the evaluation of this application will be discussed in future publications. in terms of both learner’s and teacher’s needs. Below are screen shots of the My Maths Story application. and creating various stories. This application is to be evaluated in schools then refined in response to the findings. manipulating. because of its theoretical and pedagogical underpinnings. This system can also be used for more complex maths concepts. it has been possible to design and develop an interactive multimedia application for teaching mathematics in lower primary school classrooms. Australian Curriculum INFORMATION SHEET. terms and concepts by remembering. Figure 4. which is in the final stage of development and will be used for teaching primary school students for approximately one school term. Retrieved 27/10/2011. to get the best results from the integration of ICTs in education. finding various answers and recalling factual knowledge and concepts readily (the "Apply" category of Bloom/Anderson model-middle section of the proposed framework). From http://www. (2010). This can help students to recall facts. understand and solve a problem individually or in pairs (the "Analyse". retelling. This paper presents an educational framework for teaching mathematics that is based on Bloom/Anderson’s taxonomy and current pedagogical views of mathematics education. It is envisaged that this new software. in three primary schools in Western Australia.au/verve/_resources/AC_MATHEMATICS_INFO_Senior_Sec_v1_2010051 2.text. and asking ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions. teachers can emphasise the intended learning outcomes or objectives by creating a new story. Also.acara. explain.

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