You are on page 1of 48

. !!!

'; -

:1/P- .lc .

", \


Planning & Practice .

' .. ..
. .
. . . . ..... a a,.

ARE Programming,
Planning & Practice

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in
regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the pub-
lisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service.
If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent
professional should be sought.
President: Mehul Patel
Vice President & General Manager: David Dufresne
Vice President of Product Development and Publishing: Evan M. Butterfield
Editorial Project Manager: Jason Mitchell
Director of Production: Daniel Frey
Production Editor: Caitlin Ostrow
Production Artist: Virginia Byrne
Creative Director: Lucy Jenkins
Senior Product Manager: Brian O'Connor
1995 by Architectural License Seminars, Inc.
2008 by Dearborn Financial Publishing, Inc.
Published by Kaplan AEC Education
30 South Wacker Drive, Suite 2500
Chicago, Illinois 60606-7 481
(312) 836-4400
www.kaplanaecarchitecture. com
All rights reserved. The text of this publication, or any part thereof, may not
be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the
Printed in the United States of America
08 09 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN-13: 978-1-4277-7033-2
ISBN-10: 1-4277-7033-6
. - -. ;--.-1

Introduction v
Symbols and Abbreviations xm
Questions 1
Answers 19

WELCOME The ARE is designed and prepared by archi-
tects, making it a practice-based exam. It is
Thank you for choosing Kaplan ABC Edu- generally not a test of academic knowledge,
cation for your ARE study needs. We offer but rather a means to test decision-making
updates annually to keep abreast of code and ability as it relates to the responsibilities of the
exam changes and to address any errors discov- architectural profession. For example, the exam
ered since the previous update was published. does not expect candidates to memorize spe-
We wish you the best of luck in your pursuit of cific details of the building code, but requires
licensure. them to understand a model code's general
requirements, scope, and purpose, and to know
the architect's responsibilities related to that
code. As such, there is no substitute for a well-
ARE OVERVIEW rounded internship to help prepare for the ARE.

Since the State of Illinois first pioneered the 4.0 Exam Format
practice of licensing architects in 1897, archi-
tecturallicensing has been increasingly adopted The seven ARE 4.0 divisions are outlined in the
as a means to protect the public health, safety, table below.
and welfare. Today, all U.S. states and Cana-
dian provinces require licensing for individuals . DIVISiON QUESTIONS VIGNETTES
practicing architecture. Licensing requirements
Building Design 85 Accessibility/
vary by jurisdiction; however, the minimum
& Construction Ramp
requirements are uniform and in all cases
Systems Roof Plan
include passing the Architect Registration
Stair Design
Exam (ARE). This makes the ARE a required
Building Systems 95 Mechanical &
rite of passage for all those entering the pro-
Electrical Plan
fession, and you should be congratulated on
undertaking this challenging endeavor. Construction 100 Building Section
Documents &
Developed by the National Council of Archi-
tectural Registration Boards (NCARB), the Programming, 85 Site Zoning

ARE is the only exam by which architec- Planning &

ture candidates can become registered in the Practice

United States or Canada. The ARE assesses Schematic Building Layout

candidates' knowledge, skills, and abilities in Design Interior Layout
seven different areas of professional practice, Site Planning & 65 Site Design
including a candidate's competency in decision Design Site Grading
making and knowledge of various areas of the Structural 125 Structural Layout
profession. The exam also tests competence Systems
in fulfilling an architect's responsibilities and
in coordinating the activities of others while The exam presents multiple-choice questions
working with a team of design and construction individually. Candidates may answer ques-
specialists. In all jurisdictions, candidates must tions, skip questions, or mark questions for
pass the seven divisions of the exam to become further review. Candidates may also move
registered. backward or forward within the exam using

vi Introduction

-.. < ::." i

, - ..: ;-_ " :. -::.;(:.

Questions pertaining to the history of architecture throughout the ARE,

questions will vary not only by division butalso different yersions
general, however, history tends to be lightly tested,:witlr approXimately Ji:i:.
division, depending upon the total 11umber of tile divisim1..
divisions is that whatever history questiOns are will be reh1ted to that ;.
example, a question regarding Chicago's JohnHancockCenter.and tl:le purpose
bracing may appear on the Structural Syst<(ms exam. ' ' ., '
.. __:J,

Though it is difficult to predict how essential your knowledge of architectural history\vili ])etppassipg,any:Of
the multiple-choice divisions, it is recommended that you refer to a primer in this fieid.L;.such'as:K:avtali's!itchi
tectural taking each exam, and that you keep an eye out for topics th,e di-yision ?
which you are studying. It is always better to be overprepared than taken by at 5;:r:v::

simple on-screen icons. The vignettes require Which of the following cities is the capital
candidates to create a graphic solution accord- of the United States?
ing to program and code requirements.
Actual appointment times for taking the exam B. Washington, DC
are slightly longer than the actual exam time, C. Chicago
allowing candidates to check in and out of the D. Los Angeles
testing center. All ARE candidates are encour-
aged to review NCARB's ARE Guidelines for The second type of question is a negatively
further detail about the exam format. These worded question. In questions such as this, the
guidelines are available via free download at negative wording is usually highlighted using
NCARB's Web site ( all caps, as shown below.
Which of the following cities is NOT
Exam Format located on the west coast of the United
It is important for exam candidates to familiar- States?
ize themselves not only with exam content,
A. Los Angeles
but also with question format. Familiarity with
the basic question types found in the ARE will B. San Diego
reduce confusion, save time, and help you pass C. San Francisco
the exam. The ARE contains three basic ques- D.NewYork
tions types.
The third type of question is a combination
The first and most common type is a straight- question. In a combination question, more than
forward multiple-choice question followed by one choice may be correct; candidates must
four choices (A, B, C, and D). Candidates are select from combinations of potentially correct
expected to select the correct answer. This type choices. An example of a combination question
of question is shown in the following example. is shown on page viii.
Introduction vii


ARE 3.1
In November 2005 NCARB released ARE Guidelines Version 3.1, which outlines changes to the exam effec-
tive February 2006. These guidelines primarily detailed changes for the Site Planning division, combining the
site design and site parking vignettes as well as the site zoning and site analysis vignettes. For more details
about these changes, please refer to Kaplan's study guides for the graphic divisions.
The guidelines mean less to those preparing for multiple-choice divisions. Noteworthy points are outlined

All division statements and content area descriptions were unchanged for the multiple-choice divisions.
The number of questions and time limits for all exams were unchanged.
The list of codes and standards candidates should familiarize themselves with was reduced to those of
the International Code Council (ICC), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the National
Research Council of Canada.
A statics title has been removed from the reference list for General Structures.

ARE 4.0
In the spring of 2007, NCARB unveiled ARE 4.0, available as of July 2008. According to NCARB, the 4.0
version of the exam will be more subject-oriented than 3.1, and is intended to better assess a candidate's
ability to approach projects independently. The format combines the multiple-choice and graphic portions of
different divisions, reducing the number of divisions from nine to seven.
The transition will be gradual, with a one-year overlap during which both ARE 3.1 and ARE 4.0 will be
administered. Provided you pass at least one ARE 3.1 division prior to May 2008, you can continue to take '
ARE 3.1 divisions until July 2009.
If you have not passed all ARE 3.1 divisions by June 2009, you will be transitioned to the ARE 4.0 format.
You will be given credit for ARE 4.0 divisions according to which 3.1 divisions you have passed. Visit www. for more details.
In order to avoid being retested on subjects you have already passed, you should develop a strategy for which
divisions you take in which order. Here are some key points to keep in mind:
Building Technology is a key division in the transition; its vignettes will be dispersed across four
ARE 4.0 divisions. Be sure to pass Building Technology if you have passed and want credit for any of
the following ARE 3.1 divisions: Building Design/Materials & Methods; Construction Documents &
Services; General Structures; Lateral Forces; or Mechanical & Electrical Systems.
Pre-Design and Site Planning content will be shuffled in ARE 4.0: If you pass one, pass the other.
General Structures, Lateral Forces, and the Structural Layout vignette from Building Technology are
being merged into the Structural Systems division. If you pass any of these and want to avoid being
retested on material you have already seen, pass all three.
viii Introduction

Which of the following cities are located so that details learned while studying for
within the United States? earlier divisions will still be fresh in your
I. NewYork
2. The Construction Documents & Services
II. Toronto
exam covers a broad range of subjects,
III. Montreal dealing primarily with the architect's role
IV. Los Angeles and responsibilities within the building
A. I only design and construction team. Because
B. I and II these subjects serve as one of the core
foundations of the ARE, it may be
C. II and III
advisable to take this division early in the
D. I and IV process, as knowledge gained preparing for
this exam can help in subsequent divisions.
The single most important thing candidates can
3. Take exams that particularly concern you
do to prepare themselves for the vignettes is to
early in the process. NCARB rules prohibit
learn to proficiently navigate NCARB 's graphic
retaking an exam for six months. Therefore,
software. Practice software can be downloaded
failing an exam early in the process will
free of charge from their Web site. Candidates
allow the candidate to use the waiting
should download it and become thoroughly
period to prepare for and take other exams.
familiar with its use.

Recommendations on
Exam Division Order EXAM PREPARATION
NCARB allows candidates to choose the order Overview
in which they take the exams, and the choice is
an important one. While only you know what There is little argument that preparation is key
works best for you, the following are some gen- to passing the ARE. With this in mind, Kaplan
eral considerations that many have found to be has developed a complete learning system for
beneficial: each exam division, including study guides,
question-and-answer handbooks, mock exams,
1. The Building Design & Construction and flash cards. The study guides offer a con-
Systems and Programming, Planning & densed course of study and will best prepare
Practice divisions are perhaps the broadest you for the exam when utilized along with the
of all the divisions. Although this can make other tools in the learning system. The system
them among the most intimidating, taking is designed to provide you with the general
these divisions early in the process will background necessary to pass the exam and to
give a candidate a broad base of knowledge provide an indication of specific content areas
and may prove helpful in preparing for that demand additional attention.
subsequent divisions. An alternative to this
approach is to take these two divisions last, In addition to the Kaplan learning system,
since you will already be familiar with materials from industry-standard documents
much of their content. This latter approach may prove useful for the various divisions. Sev-
likely is most beneficial when you take the eral of these sources are noted in the "Supple-
exam divisions in fairly rapid succession mentary Study Materials" section below.
Introduction ix

Understanding the Exam realize they will experience significant differ-

ences between CAD and the drawing tools used
The Programming, Planning & Practice exam on the exam.
is among the most broad of all the ARE divi-
sions. The exam content spans a wide range of Though no two people will have exactly the
topics including city planning, programming, same ARE experience, the following are
space needs, land development and site plan- recommended best practices to adopt in your
ning, code, financing, geology and soils zoning, studies and should serve as a guide.
project management, interaction among the
design team, project delivery methods, practice Set aside scheduled study time.
of architecture, budgeting and cost estimat- Establish a routine and adopt study strategies
ing, accessibility, and building layout. Further, that reflect your strengths and mirror your
environmental, social, and economic issues as approach in other successful academic pursuits.
well as sustainability are all subject matters for Most importantly, set aside a definite amount
which the candidate should prepare. of study time each week, just as if you were
taking a lecture course, and carefully read all of
Although the exam content is diverse, the the material.
material is all related to the pre-design pro-
cess and many of the aforementioned topics Take-and retake-quizzes.
overlap. Since many of the subjects covered After studying each lesson in the study guide,
span other exam divisions, this exam is widely take the quiz found at its conclusion. The quiz
considered one of the more difficult for which questions are intended to be straightforward
to prepare. However, the exam tends to focus and objective. Answers and explanations can be
on general principles of the above issues and found at the back of the book. If you answer a
avoids detailed calculations and data. For the question incorrectly, see if you can determine
Site Zoning vignette, remember not to disturb why the correct answer is correct before read-
existing trees, to use the sketch lines, and to ing the explanation. Retake the quiz until you
align driveways properly. Also be sure to use answer every question correctly and understand
the zoom, full screen cursor, and background why the correct answers are correct.
grid to produce more accurate solutions.
Identify areas for improvement.
Preparation Basics The quizzes allow you the opportunity to
pinpoint areas where you need improvement.
The first step in preparation should be a review Reread and take note of the sections that cover
of the exam specifications and reference mate- these areas and seek additional information
rials published by NCARB. These statements from other sources. Use the question-and-
are available for each of the seven ARE divi- answer handbook and online test bank as a final
sions to serve as a guide for preparing for the tune-up for the exam.
exam. Download these statements and familiar-
ize yourself with their content. This will help Take the final exam.
you focus your attention on the subjects on A final exam designed to simulate the ARE
which the exam focuses. follows the last lesson of each study guide.
Prior CAD knowledge is not necessary to Answers and explanations can be found on the
successfully complete vignettes. In fact, it's pages following the exam. As with the lesson
important for candidates familiar with CAD to quizzes, retake the final exam until you answer
x Introduction

every question correctly and understand why Pace yourself.

the correct answers are correct. Each division allows candidates at least one
minute per question. You should be able to
Use the flash cards. comfortably read and reread each question and
If you've purchased the flash cards, go through fully understand what is being asked before
them once and set aside any terms you know answering. Each vignette allows candidates
at first glance. Take the rest to work, reviewing ample time to complete a solution within the
them on the train, over lunch, or before bed. time allotted.
Remove cards as you become familiar with their
terms until you know all the terms. Review all Read carefully.
the cards a final time before taking the exam. Begin each question by reading it carefully and
fully reviewing the choices, eliminating those
Practice using the NCARB software. that are obviously incorrect. Interpret language
Work through the practice vignettes contained literally, and keep an eye out for negatively
within the NCARB software. You should work worded questions. With vignettes, carefully
through each vignette repeatedly until you can review instructions and requirements. Quickly
solve it easily. As your skills develop, track make a list of program and code requirements
how long it takes to work through a solution for to check your work against as you proceed
each vignette. through the vignette.

Supplementary Study Materials Guess.

In addition to the Kaplan learning system, All unanswered questions are considered
materials from industry-standard sources incorrect, so answer every question. If you are
may prove useful in your studies. Candidates unsure of the correct answer, select your best
should consult the list of exam references in the guess and/or mark the question for later review.
NCARB guidelines for the council's recom- If you continue to be unsure of the answer after
mendations and pay particular attention to the returning the question a second time, it is usu-
following publications, which are essential to ally best to stick with your first guess.
successfully completing this exam:
Review difficult questions.
International Code Council (ICC) The exam allows candidates to review and
International Building Code change answers within the time limit. Utilize
American Institute of Architects B 141-1997 this feature to mark troubling questions for
Standard Form ofAgreement Between review upon completing the rest of the exam.
Owner and Architect
Reference material.
American Institute of Architects Some divisions include reference materials
A20 1-1997 General Conditions of the
accessible through an on-screen icon. These
Contract for Construction
materials include formulas and other reference
content that may prove helpful when answering
Test-Taking Advice
questions in these divisions. Note that candi-
Preparation for the exam should include a dates may not bring reference material with
review of successful test-taking procedures- them to the testing center.
especially for those who have been out of the
classroom for some time. Following is advice
to aid in your success.
Introduction xi

Best answer questions. ABOUT KAPLAN

Many candidates fall victim to questions seek-
ing the "best" answer. In these cases, it may Thank you for choosing Kaplan AEC Educa-
appear at first glance as though several choices tion as your source for ARE preparation materi-
are correct. Remember the importance of als. Whether helping future professors prepare
reviewing the question carefully and interpret- for the GRE or providing tomorrow's doctors
ing the language literally. Consider the follow- the tools they need to pass the MCAT, Kaplan
ing example. possesses more than 50 years of experience as
Which of these cities is located on the east a global leader in exam prep and educational
publishing. It is that experience and history
coast of the United States?
that Kaplan brings to the world of architectural
A. Boston education, pairing unparalleled resources with
B. Philadelphia acknowledged experts in ARE content areas
C. Washington, DC to bring you the very best in licensure study
D. Atlanta
At first glance, it may appear that all of the cit- Only Kaplan AEC offers a complete catalog of
ies could be correct answers. However, if you individual products and integrated learning sys-
interpret the question literally, you'll iden- tems to help you pass all seven divisions of the
tify the critical phrase as "on the east coast." ARE. Kaplan's ARE materials include study
Although each of the cities listed is arguably an guides, mock exams, question-and-answer
"eastern" city, only Boston sits on the Atlantic handbooks, video workshops, and flash cards.
coast. All the other choices are located in the Products may be purchased individually or in
eastern part of the country, but are not coastal division-specific learning systems to suit your
cities. needs. These systems are designed to help you
better focus on essential information for each
Style doesn't count. division, provide flexibility in how you study,
Vignettes are graded on their conformance with and save you money.
program requirements and instructions. Don't
waste time creating aesthetically pleasing solu- To order, please visit or
tions and adding unnecessary design elements. call (800) 420-1429.


This introduction was written by John F. Hardt,

AlA. Mr. Hardt is vice president and senior
project architect with Karlsberger, an archi-
tecture, planning, and design firm based in
Columbus, Ohio. He is a graduate of Ohio State
University (MArch).
The following symbols and abbreviations are used in this book and are generally understood in struc-
tural design practice.

Symbol or Abbreviation Meaning

ft. or' foot
ft or sq. ft. square foot
ft or cu. ft. cubic foot
ft.-kip or ft.-k or 'k foot-kip
ft.-lb. or ft-# or '# foot-pound
in. or" inch
in or sq. in. square inch
in or cu. in. cubic inch
in.-kip. or in.-k or "k inch-kip
in.-lb. or in-# or"# inch-pound
kip or k kip (1 kip= 1 kilo pound or 1,000 pounds)
ksi or k/in kips per square inch
lb. or# pound
lb./cu. ft. or #/ft3 or pcf pounds per cubic foot
plf or #/' or #/ft. pounds per lineal foot
psf or #/ft2 pounds per square foot
psi or #/in pounds per square inch
11 (delta) 1. total strain (deformation)
2. thermal expansion or contraction
3. deflection
8 (theta) a common designation for an angle
1l (pi) the ratio of the circumference of a circle toits
diameter, equal to 3.14159
1: (sigma) summation of
<p (phi) strength reduction factor in reinforced concrete
# pounds

1. The design of a two-story senior citizen 4. A hospital cafeteriais designed to serve
center includes, as its largest space, a multi- doctors, nurses, and visitors. An important
purpose meeting hall that seats 300 people. planning goal of the hospital administration:
It is anticipated that this meeting facility is maximum flexibility, economy, and
will be used frequently. Where should it be comfort. Which among the following
located within the building? Check all that seating arrangements best expresses the
apply. client's goal?
A. At the extreme end of the structure, for A. Individual counter seating
easy exiting B. Two-person rectangular tables
B. On the second level of the structure, for C. Four-person round tables
D. Four-person booths
C. Near the structure's ground floor
entrance 5. Which of the following features is not
D. At the side of the structure with the best associated with the John Hancock Building
view in Chicago?
E. Within easy access of the toilet rooms A. Distinctive x-bracing structure
B. Park-like setting
2. The chief goal in creating an architectural
program is to C. Open ground floor shopping plaza
D. Battered tower inclines inward as it rises
A. establish the project intent.
B. identify the nature of the problem. 6. The programmed efficiency of a building is
C. organize the project standards. 65 percent. If the efficiency were increased
D. determine the project form. to 70 percent and the net area remained
constant, the gross area would
3. A second mortgage on a piece of property A. decrease by 7 percent.
generally carries a higher interest rate
B. decrease by 5 percent.
because the mortgagee
C. remain unchanged.
A. has no right of foreclosure on the
D. increase by 5 percent.
B. may have greater difficulty in obtaining 7. The well-decomposed, more or less stable
repayment. part of the organic matter found in mineral
C. is usually an individual rather than an soils is -----------------
D. is not bound by the normal regulations
concemmg usury.

2 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

8. The project development budget for a 11. Which of the following schematic diagrams
proposed County Library is limited to of a hypothetical office structure allows the
6.3 million dollars. The building program most direct elevator access from any point
results in a total net usable area of 49,000 on the ground floor to the upper floors of
square feet with a targeted efficiency of 70 the tower?
percent. Select the incorrect statement from
those below.
A. The total gross building area will be
70,000 square feet.
B. The unit cost for construction will be
$90 per square foot.
C. At 8 percent the architect's fee would
not exceed $500,000. A.
D. The cost of furnishings and equipment
would normally be included in the 6.3
million dollar budget.

9. A lecture hall is programmed to

accommodate 300 persons in fixed
auditorium-type seats. A demonstration B.
table with sink and utilities and the adjacent
lecture area requires approximately 500
12. Diagrammatic layouts, also referred to as
square feet. Which of the following
concept or bubble diagrams, graphically
dimensions would provide an adequate
represent which of the following?
space for the programmed use?
I. Floor area comparisons
A. 50 feet wide by 50 feet deep
II. Circulation relationships
B. 40 feet wide by 65 feet deep
III. Structural considerations
C. 50 feet wide by 80 feet deep
IV. Physical configurations
D. 25 feet wide by 110 feet deep
V. Functional associations
10. A graphic representation of the A. I and II
relationships of spaces is called a B. II and V
C. I, III, and V
D. I, IV, and V
Questions 3

13. The following schematic designs represent 15. The maximum allowable floor area ratio for
a typical floor of a multistory apartment the lot shown is 2.0. Which of the following
building located along a body of water. statements is correct?
Which design would best accomplish the
objective of providing a view of the water? 76'
.rk_ _ _
Assume an equal number of units in each
design. 1 1---.f- 20 REARI

-, -}t- YARD


-;(-- 20' FRONT
--,L_ YARD

ctSIPE Y.:!s
A. The total floor area of a building on this
lot may not exceed 5,625 square feet.
B. The total floor area of a building on this
14. Which of the following statements about lot may not exceed 14,300 square feet.
programming and design are correct? C. The total floor area of a building on this
lot may not exceed 22,500 square feet.
I. Programming is problem seeking,
while design is problem solving. D. The net floor area of a building on this
lot may not exceed 22,500 square feet.
II. Programming involves physical
solutions to architectural problems. 16. Other than the building program, which
III. Design involves functional solutions to of the following would have the greatest
performance problems. impact on the floor area of a building?
IV. Ideally, programming should be A. Site utilities
completed before design is begun.
B. Topography
A. II and III
C. Functional relationships
B. I, II, and III
D. Building codes
C. I and IV
D. I, II, III, and IV
4 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers





17. With reference to the diagrammatic layout 18. An assessment made according to the value
shown, an exit path from the cafeteria of a property is called _ _ __
might' go through any of the following
spaces, EXCEPT the 19. Mannerism is an architectural style that
A. lobby/entry plaza. may be accurately described as
B. dining terrace. A. an expression in which classic elements
C. lobby/exit corridor. are used unconventionally.
D. electronic games. B. an expression in which classic motifs
are harmoniously integrated.
C. the expression most frequently used by
postmodemist architects.
D. the expression most closely identified
with Charles Moore.
Questions 5

20. The cluster-type residential development 23. The geographic area from which the
would be most appropriate for an area that customers of a retail center are drawn is
has called a _ _ _ _ __
A. a restricted size.
24. Which of the following statements about
B. dense natural foliage.
landscaping is NOT correct?
C. unusually high fuel costs.
A. Trees can be used to screen winds and
D. highly irregular contours.
increase ventilation in desired areas.
21. The City Beautiful Movement from the B. Vegetation can capture moisture, reduce
1890s resulted in all of the following, fog, and increase the amount of sunlight
EXCEPT reaching the ground.
C. Coniferous trees screen out direct
A. it restored human scale to the new
sunlight in the summer while allowing it
industrial cities.
to pass in the winter.
B. it launched a classic revival moment
D. Planted areas are cooler during hot days
throughout the country.
and have less heat loss during the night.
C. it led to a greater awareness of city
planning. 25. To discourage vandalism in a housing
D. it resulted in a profusion of dome- project, which of the following details
topped civic buildings. should be incorporated at exterior spaces?
A. Exterior paths and entrance doors
22. Which of the following traffic circulation
arranged for visibility
systems might be considered the best
choice for a community focused on B. Exterior paths arranged in curves, rather
sustainable design? than straight lines
C. Low levels of exterior lighting to
A. Curvilinear system
eliminate glare
B. Grid system
D. Natural and attractive exterior materials
C. Radial system used to inspire respect
D. Linear system
26. If a designer wanted to impart symbolic
importance to a public institutional
building, the form of the structure might
I. a number of wide entrance doors.
II. a symmetrical arrangement.
III. a long flight of entrance steps.
IV. small, randomly placed windows.
V. a flagpole.
A. I, II, and V C. II, III, and V
B. J, III, and V D. II, III, and IV
6 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

27. If a building were to be planned with regard 30. A five-story reinforced concrete office
to the sun's impact on space heating, the building is planned for a site. A soil boring
most desirable forms of the building would log for the site is shown below. Which of
be which of the following? the following foundation types is likely to
be economical and appropriate?
I. Circular
II. Square 900
III. Elongated on the north-south axis
IV. Staggered vertically or horizontally
V. Stacked vertically 890
A. I and III
B. IVandV
C. I, II, and IV
D. II, Ill, IV, and V

28. Kevin Lynch described five basic elements

that comprise one's perception of a city.
The Harvard campus in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, is an example of which
A. Path
A. Grade beams on piles
B. District
B. Spread footings
C. Landmark
C. Spread footings on recompacted fill
D. Node
D. Mat foundation
29. If you were commissioned to restore a
31. Symmetry in architectural design is
19th-century building designed in the
associated with which of the following?
Second Empire Style, you might have to
consider I. Formality
I. a mansard roof. II. Uncomplicated building programs
II. accents of color. III. Authority
III. forward breaks in elevation. IV. Irregular building sites
IV. multiple towers. A. I and III
A. II and IV B. I, II, and III

B. I and II C. II and III

C. I and III D. I and IV
D. III and IV
Questions 7

32. Which of the following site planning 35. The Natural Step is an approach to the
techniques are most effective in inhibiting environment that follows which of the
criminal activity in a residential following principles?
I. The biosphere affecting humans is
I. Large superblocks with no interior a relatively stable and resilient zone
vehicular traffic that includes five miles into the
II. Sites subdivided by streets earth's crust and five miles into the
III. Symbolic barriers that define the
boundaries of a site II. Improved technologies have
dramatically increased the number and
IV. Play areas located at the periphery of
quantity of available natural resources.
a site
III. Toxic substances released into either
A. I only
the sea or atmosphere will only
B. II and III influence areas adjacent to the toxic
C. II and IV source.
D. I and III IV. Using building materials that are
recycled is an adequate sustainable
33. Which of the building forms shown is the design approach.
most appropriate for a temperate climate? A. I
C. II and IV
D. None ofthe above

36. Select the INCORRECT statement about

life-cycle cost.
A. c. A. Financing costs may be decreased when
a fast-track procedure is used.
B. Construction costs represent about
15 percent of the long-term cost of a
EAST C. High quality products usually have a
greater long-term cost than products of
lower quality.
34. What is the floor area ratio (FAR) of a five- D. Life-cycle costs include the costs of
story building on a one-acre parcel of land, replacement and renovation.
if each floor contains 17,420 square feet?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Five
8 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

37. Which of the following are included in 39. The International Building Code classifies
the federal guidelines for rehabilitating every building according to which two of
buildings on the National Register of the following?
Historic Places? Check all that apply.
I. The building's quality of construction
A. Every reasonable effort shall be made to II. The building's type of construction
use a property for its originally intended
III. The building's occupancy
purpose or to provide a compatible
use that requires minimum alteration IV. The building's proximity to fire
of the building's structure, site, and department equipment
environment. A. I and II
B. Changes that have taken place in the B. I and III
course of time may have acquired C. II and III
significance in their own right, and this D. II and IV
significance shall be recognized and
40. Which of the following statements would
C. Deteriorated architectural features least likely be found in the building code?
shall be replaced rather than repaired,
wherever possible, with materials that A. Stairs in smokeproof enclosures shall be
match the design, color, texture, and of noncombustible construction.
other visual qualities of the original B. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed four
materials. feet in width.
D. Contemporary design for alterations C. The maximum height and number
to existing properties shall not be of stories of a building shall be
discouraged when such alterations dependent on its occupancy and type of
are compatible and do not destroy construction.
significant historical, architectural, or D. The area of the building. may not exceed
cultural material. 75 percent of the total area of the
building lot.
38. The total width of exits required for a
multistory building is determined by the 41. The goal of barrier-free design is to
A. the occupant load of the largest floor in A. permit autonomous functioning.
the building. B. permit free use by the nonambulatory.
B. the total number of occupants in the C. eliminate the physical barriers within all
building. buildings.
C. the area of the largest floor in the D. provide unobstructed access to all
building. buildings.
D. the purpose for which the building is
Questions 9

42. Select the statement that is LEAST correct. 45. In general, why does a governmental
agency use the right of eminent domain?
A. Barrier-free design is frequently
considered to be a civil right. I. To acquire land from an owner who
B. Barrier-free design is usually beneficial refuses to sell at any price
to all building users. II. To acquire land from an owner who
C. Barrier-free design resolves the life refuses to accept the purchase price
safety problems of the handicapped. offered by the agency
D. Barrier-free design generally increases a III. To establish a scale of values,
project's cost. which is then used to determine fair
compensation for all owners whose
43. In a public building it is necessary to property is acquired
provide an appropriate number of public IV. To avoid the normal procedures for
telephones that are accessible to physically buying land, which are costly and
handicapped persons. In this regard, which time-consuming
of the following considerations must be V. To avoid a court determination of the
taken into account? value of acquired land
I. Locate the phones on the ground floor A. I, II, and IV
II. Height of the coin slot B. I and II
III. Size of doors leading to the phones C. I, Ill, and V
IV. Provisions for hearing disabilities D. II, IV, and V
V. Visual identification sign
46. Zoning ordinances provide light, air,
A. I, II, and III
and spaciousness through the use of
B. III, IV, and V
C. I, II, and V
D. II, III, IV, and V 47. An urban site is 130 feet wide in an area
where the zoning ordinance requires the
44. A knurled door knob would be of greatest minimum to be 150 feet. Under these
benefit to someone who is circumstances, the owner wishing to
A. blind. develop the site would probably apply for
B. arthritic. A. spot zoning.
C. confined to a wheelchair. B. incentive zoning.
D. using crutches. C. a conditional use permit.
D. a zoning variance.
10 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

48. The zoning ordinance requires 6-foot 51. An acquired right of use by one party on
side yards in a residential zone. However, the property of another without ownership
overhanging eaves are permitted to is called a(n) _ _ _ _ __
project a maximum of 18 inches into
the side yards. If a building has a 6-foot 52. According to the International Building
overhanging eave, how close to the side Code (IBC), an office building that is
property line can the building be placed? designated Use Group B (Business) and
A. 6 feet being constructed of Type IV construction
is permitted to have what maximum height
B. 7 feet 6 inches
and area? Use the table provided.
C. 10 feet 6 inches
D. 12 feet

F.R. F.R. "
DneohOIH' N One-hour
H.T, One-hour N

(48768mm) I (tn::'mm) I (167lfmm) I I (15Jgmm) I (121::mm}
UnGroup H1lght x0.0921formz
A-I H UL 4
A UL 29,900 Not Pcnnined
A-2.2.1:! H UL 4 2 NP 2 NP 2 2 NP
A UL 29.900 13,500 NP 13.500 NP 13,500 10.500 NP
H UL 12 2 I 2 I 2 2 I
A UL 29,900 13.500 9.100 13,500 9,100 13.500 10.500 6.100
B.F-I.M.S-1, H UL 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
S-3.S-5 A UL 39.900 18.000 12,000 18.000 12.000 18.000 14,000 8,000
E-1,2.34 H UL 4 2 I 2 I 2 2 I
A UL 4$,200 20,200 13,500 20,200 13,500 20.200 15,700 9.100
F-2.S-2.l II UL 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
A UL 59,900 27,000 18.000 27,000 18,000 27,000 21,000 12,(100
H-l:i H I I I I
A 15.000 12,400 5,600 3,700 Not Pcnnined
H-2!1 H UL 2 I I I I I I I
A 15,000 12,400 5.600 3.700 5.600 3.700 5,600 4,400 2,!500
H UL 5 2 I 2 I 2 2 I
A UL 24,800 11.200 7.500 11,200 7,500 11.200 8.800 5.100
H-6,7 H 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 I
A UL 39.900 18,000 12,000 18.000 12.000 18,000 14.000 8,000
1-1.1". 1.2 H UL 3 I NP I NP I I NP
A UL 15,100 6.800 NP 6,800 NP 6.800 5,200 NP
1-2 H UL 3 2 NP 2 NP 2 2 NP
A UL 15,100 6,800 NP 6,800 NP 6,800 5,200 NP
1-3 H UL 2
A UL IS,HXJ Nol Pcnniued7
R-1 II UL 12 4 2' 4 2' 5 3 2'
A UL 29,900 13,500 9,1009 13,500 9,1()(19 13.500 10,500 6,0009

49. The designation of a parcel of land for a

A. One story and 12,000 square feet per
use classification different from that of the
surrounding area to favor a particular owner
is called _ _ _ _ __ B. Two stories and 12,000 square feet per
50. Special permission granted to an owner C. Two stories and 18,000 square feet per
to deviate from the zoning requirements floor
normally applicable to his property is called D. Four stories and 18,000 square feet per
A. spot zoning.
B. variance.
C. conditional use.
D. nonconforming use.
Questions 11

53. The occupancy classification, or Use 56. The critical factor in determining the size
Group, of a structure is determined by of building exits is the occupant load of the
the activities for which the structure is building. This calculation is determined by
intended. Which of the following is NOT an using
occupancy classification recognized by the
A. requirements specified in the building
International Building Code (IBC)?
A. Business (B) B. the number of occupants the architect
B. Institutional (I) expects to utilize the building.
C. Assembly (A) C. the expected number of occupants as
D. Office (0) established by the owner.
D. the number of occupants expected to use
54. Which of the following is the PRIMARY the building based on precedent.
purpose of the fire resistance requirements
in the International Building Code (IBC)? 57. Stairways that serve as required building
exits must meet numerous requirements
A. Maintain structural integrity long
described in the code. Among these are
enough for firefighters to extinguish the
blaze I. width, rise, and run of the steps.
B. Provide sufficient protection to the II. location of the handrails.
structure to limit damage and avoid III. headroom.
IV. fire rating of the enclosure.
C. Permit the safe egress of the occupants
A. I and II
in the event of fire
B. I, II, and III
D. Protect the contents of the structure
C. I, II, and IV
55. To encourage openness, some zoning codes D. I, II, III, and IV
limit the bulk of a building by means of a
formula that restricts the total floor area to 58. In the critical path network diagram shown,
a multiple of the lot area. This is referred to which of the following is the critical path?
as the
A. allowable floor area.
B. floor area ratio.
C. required yards.
D. maximum lot coverage.
B. 1-3-4
c. 1-2-4
D. 1-2-3-4
12 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

59. Float time is 61. That portion of a construction loan that

must be paid to the lender for the privilege
A. the amount of time that a construction
of borrowing the money is called the
activity can be delayed without causing
the project completion to be delayed. A. discount.
B. the amount of time between completion B. recording fee.
of an increment of construction and the C. balloon payment.
earliest date when loads may safely be
D. amortization.
imposed on that increment.
C. nonproductive time on a construction 62. Select the correct statements about the
project, such as weekends and holidays. critical path method (CPM).
D. the shortest time required to complete a
I. The path in the network diagram that
construction activity.
has the longest total required time is
called the critical path.
60. A $100 per student per semester fee is
the principal source of revenue to repay II. The extra time available for an activity
a proposed bond issue for the planned is called the float.
construction of a new student union to be III. CPM utilizes bar graphs to show
located on a state college campus. Based the sequential relationships between
on the college's preliminary assessment of construction activities.
space needs, the project cost will exceed the A. I and II
proposed bond issue by approximately 25 B. II and III
percent. In response to the owner's request
for guidance, the architect would most C. I and III
likely recommend which of the following? D. I, II, and III

A. Increase the student fee to $125 per

63. A system of planning construction
semester and proceed with the project.
operations that analyzes sequences and
B. Delay the project until the student durations of time using network diagrams
enrollment has increased to the point is called
where it can support the larger bond
issue required for the project. A. bar graph.
C. Proceed with the project on the basis B. scheduling.
of the available funds and attempt to C. critical path method.
reduce the scope or quality of work D. project calendar.
during the programming phase.
D. Request the owner to reduce his gross 64. Which of the following architectural
space needs sufficiently to meet the services are NOT typically within the scope
budgetary constraints prior- to entering of an architect's basic services?
into an agreement for professional A. Programming
B. Schematic design
C. Design development
D. Construction documents
Questions 13

65. In the critical path network diagram shown, 68. Which of the following is a method
what is the critical path? by which a community might finance
the construction of a new community
recreation center?
A. Comprehensive planning
B. Property tax
C. Bonds
A. 1-3-4-5
./ D. Eminent domain
B. 1-2-3-4-5
c. 1-4-5 69. An HVAC engineer would likely perform .
D. 1-2-3-4 final cooling load calculations and perform
detailed ductwork layouts in which phase
66. Which of the following has the LEAST of basic services?
impact on the time required for schematic
A. Pre-design
B. Schematic design
A. The size and complexity of the project
C. Design development
B. The quality and completeness of the
D. Construction documentation
C. The decision-making ability of the client 70. Buildings are often sited parallel, rather
D. The size of the design team than perpendicular, to the contours because
that orientation generally
67. Which of the following statements
A. minimizes the amount of grading
regarding float is INCORRECT?
required to fit the building to the site.
A. It is defined as difference in time B. minimizes the amount of disturbance to
duration between the critical path and the existing natural surface drainage.
any other path.
C. maximizes the available area for
B. It is a measure of the extra time construction.
available for a given activity or group of
D. maximizes the solar advantage in
northern latitudes.
C. As long as float time is not exceeded, no
delay in project completion will result. 71. On a road with a gradient of 5 percent,
D. Any activity may be delayed, so long as what will the elevation be 150 feet distant
the delay does not exceed the available and uphill from a point at elevation 142.5?
B. 149.5
D. 183.3
14 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

72. Where topography is steep and irregular, 75. In the hot-arid climatic zone of the United
the installation of an underground sewer States, which of the following construction
line is generally elements would be appropriate?
A. more expensive than for a level site, I. Thick walls
because the line requires more sewer II. Wide overhangs
III. Dense windbreaks
B. less expensive than for a level site,
Iv. High ceilings
because the line can follow the natural v,_
slope to drain. A. I and II
C. less expensive than for a level site, B. I, II, and IV
because the line will require less C. II, III, and IV
excavation. D. I, III, and IV
D. about the same expense as for a level
site, because the underground work for 76. The first winter after completion of a
both is similar. construction project, the building remained
stable, but large paved areas of an adjacent
73. Solid contour lines on a topographic map parking lot rose several inches above their
do which of the following? original level. The probable reason was
I. Connect points of equal elevation
II. Represent proposed landform A. of frost and heaving of the subsoil.
modifications B. the parking lot was built over filled land.
III. Indicate natural topographic C. the paving subsurface was insufficiently
configurations compacted.
IV. Never close on themselves D. a subsurface water or sewer pipe froze
V. Never split in two and burst.
A. I and V
77. On a topographic survey that has a contour
B. III and IV interval of 1 foot, a road is shown with
C. I, II, and V a 5 percent grade. How far apart will the
D. I, II, IV, and V contours on the road be indicated?
A. 1 foot
74. All of the following information may be
B. 2 feet
found on a topographic map, EXCEPT
C. 10 feet
A. property lines, easements, and utilities.
D. 20 feet
B. location of streams.
C. location of roads and buildings.
D. location and identification of soil
Questions 15

78. For the graded bank shown below, the 80. Select the incorrect statement concerning
grade of the slope is traffic flow in a parking area.
A. Traffic aisles should be arranged so that
they lead towards the buildings they
B. Angled parking requires one-way traffic
C. Perpendicular parking layouts usually
lead to the most rapid traffic flow.
D. Circulation of traffic within large
parking areas should be continuous.
A. 12.5 percent
81. The U.S. System of Surveying the Public
B. 40 percent Lands, begun in 1785, divides land into
C. 80 percent
A. townships and sections.
D. 125 percent
B. metes and bounds.
79. Vehicles entering a parking lot from the C. blocks and lots.
street generally have a different effective D. villages and hamlets.
turning radius than vehicles exiting from
the same lot. The reason for this is because 82. A is a legal clause that
places limitations or restrictions on the use
A. drivers entering a parking lot are usually
- of the property.
less familiar with the lot layout than
those exiting.
83. Which of the following utility lines do NOT
B. drivvrs entering a parking lot are usually
flow by gravity?
moving at a faster rate than those
exiting. I. Sanitary sewers
C. drivers entering a parking lot usually. II. Storm drains
take less care than those exiting. III. Water lines
D. entrance driveways are usually wider IV. Gas lines
than exit driveways, since it is assumed
A. III only
that those exiting have greater control
than those entering. B. I and IV
C. II, III, and IV
D. III and IV
16 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

84. The dotted line in the contour map shown 86. The contours shown below represent a
represents a
...._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _,.. 30


A. uniform slope.
B. concave slope.
C. convex slope.
D. valley.
88 90 92 94 96 98100 !02.
87. Which of the following statements about
A. swale. septic drain fields is correct?
B. ridge.
A. The underlying soil at a site to be used
C. trench drain. for a septic drain field should preferably
D. drain pipe. be impermeable.
B. The drain tiles in a septic drain field
85. What is the grade of the slope shown? should be sloped at least 1/4 inch per foot.
C. The effluent sewage from a septic drain
field may be permitted to flow to a
potable water course.
D. Drain fields should be at least 100 feet
from any surface water or well.

88. A parking area for a community college

A. 20 percent must accommodate 400 cars. What is the
B. 40 percent least amount of levelland required for this
parking area?
C. 50 percent
D. 100 percent A. Two acres C. Four acres
B. Three acres D. Five acres
Questions 17

89. The contours shown represent a road 91. An architect instructs his consulting civil
engineer to ensure that the amount of soil
I. with a crown at the center.
removed from one portion of a site is equal
II. with a gutter at the center. to the amount added to another to avoid
III. with a six-inch-high curb at each edge. having to truck soil to or from the job site.
IV. that is elevated six inches above the This practice is called
adjacent grade at each edge. A. cutting the site.
ROAD B. filling the site.
C. balancing the site.
D. engineering the site.

92. On a topographic survey, lines connecting

points of equal elevation are called
A. contour lines.
B. property lines.
C. fall lines.
D. base lines.

- a proposea retaining
A. I and III wall superimposed on naturally sloping
B. II and IV land. If the area on the west side of the
wall were graded to a constant elevation of
C. II and IV 4, what would be the elevation necessary
D. II and III at the highest point along the wall's top in
order to retain the natural grade?
90. Place the following roadway types in order
from smallest to largest based on their
traffic carrying capacity.
I. Local access streets
II. Collector streets
III. Expressway
14 ,_.,------ - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . .
IV. Arterial
A. 4 feet
B. 8 feet
C. 12 feet
D. 16 feet
18 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

94. An ordinance in a small city prohibits new 96. Construction within a flood plain is
buildings from exceeding the height of the
A. never permitted.
city hall dome, which is at elevation 168.
For the construction of a new five-story B. limited to nonresidential uses.
office building along Main Street, between C. usually uneconomical because the
1st Avenue and 2nd Avenue, which is the land can be used more efficiently for
highest site that would comply with the agriculture.
ordinance assuming the owner requires a D. generally limited and elevated above
floor to floor height of 11 feet? flood level.

97. Select the correct statements about solar

Main Street
L radiation.
I. The south wall of a building receives
maximum solar radiation in the winter.

60' 100' 80' 60' Q)

ll. The south wall of a building receives
c maximum solar radiation in the

lli. The roof and east and west walls of
a building receive maximum solar
radiation in the winter.
A. Site I
IV. The roof and east and west walls of
B. Site II a building receive maximum solar
C. Site III radiation in the summer.
D. Site IV A. I and III
B. I and IV
95. In a structure located in the southwest
C. II and III
desert area of the United States, which
of the following design features would D. II and IV
most significantly recognize the climatic
problems of the area? 98. The winter solstice refers to

A. Insulated glass windows A. the day when the length of day and night
is equal.
B. Flat roof planes
B. the day that has the maximum hours of
C. Fixed vertical louvers
D. Deeply recessed openings
C. the day with the minimum hours of
D. none of the above.
1. C and E. The correct answers are C and including those concerning usury, which is
E. Large spaces used often by many people lending money at exorbitant rates. Higher
should be located on the ground floor, in interest on second mortgages is justified
a central location near the entrance (C) by the additional risk and difficulty one
so that they are easy to find and use and has in obtaining repayment on the loan, as
circulation is minimal. It is also a good described above (correct choice B).
idea to make toilet rooms readily accessible
4. B. The answer is Two-person rectangular
(E) wherever large groups gather. At the
tables. The differences in economy and
extreme end (A) is likely too distant for
comfort among the various choices is
easy access; on the second level (B) is
relatively minor; however, the differences
unnecessarily inconvenient for senior
in flexibility are significant. The least
citizens; and the best view (D) seems to be
flexible seating arrangements are those that
an unimportant feature for a meeting room.
are fixed, such as counter seating (choice
2. B. The answer is identify the nature A) or booth seating (choice D). Between
of the problem. The chief goal of the rectangular and found tables, rectangular
programming process is to identify and are preferred, since they may be joined
understand the nature of an architectural end to end to create a variety of groupings.
problem. Programming may establish Finally, two-person tables are most
desirable objectives (choice A), and it may suitable, because the greatest flexibility
also organize structural, aesthetic, and is always achieved by using the smallest
budgetary standards (choice C). However, organizational unit.
since programming states, rather than
5. B. All of the choices are features of
solves, the problem, it does not determine
prominent modem buildings and all apply
form (choice D). Programming is clearly
to the John Hancock Building with the
not design; it is the process of identifying
exception of B. The building, designed
essential information that permits one to
by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, is a
create an intelligent and responsive design.
single battered tower that inclines inward
3. B. The answer is the mortgagee may have as it rises 100 stories above Michigan
greater difficulty in obtaining repayment. Avenue. It is set in a predominantly paved
A mortgage on a piece of property is a shopping plaza (not a park-like setting),
contract by which a buyer borrows money and the tower is further distinguished by
and pledges the property as security for the the exposed diagonal steel braces. Answer
loan. Second mortgages are subordinate B, therefore, is the incorrect answer we are
to first mortgages, that is, the holder of looking for.
the first mortgage has first claim against
6. A. The efficiency of a building is the ratio
the property. If the buyer defaults on a
of the net area to the gross area, where
prior mortgage, the second mortgagee
the net area is the sum of all usable floor
may pay the defaulted amount, add it to
spaces not including circulation and general
his loan, and foreclose on the property
service areas. If we assign number 1 to the
(choice A). The mortgagee may be an
65 percent efficient building and number 2
individual or an institution (choice C),
to the 70 percent efficient building, we have
and in any event,second mortgages are
bound by all prevailing laws (choice D), net area 1 =0 _65 and
gross area 1

20 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

of the anticipated contract price plus a

net area 2 = 0 _70 small contingency allowance for change
gross area 2
orders and other costs incurred during
Since the net area remains constant construction. The project budget, however,
includes not only the cost of construction
net area 1 = 0.65 gross area 1 =
but in addition, all costs for fees, surveys,'
net area 2 = 0.70 gross area 2
tests and inspections, utility connections,
0.65 gross area 1 = 0.70 gross area 2 furnishings and equipment, etc. Those costs
over and above the basic construction cost
gross area 2 = 0.65 =0 _93 normally amount to about 15 percent of
gross area 1 0.70
the total project budget. The efficiency of
In other words, the gross area of the 70 a building is the ratio of the net area to the
percent efficient building is 93 percent of gross area, where the net area is the total
the gross area of the 65 percent efficient usable floor area, not including circulation
building. The gross area thus decreases by and general service. Since we are told
7 percent (correct choice A). that the programmed net area is 49,000
7. Humus. Questions pertaining to square feet and the efficiency is to be 70
landscaping may test the candidate's percent, we can calculate the building's
understanding of soils, soil improvement, gross area as follows: 49,000-:- 70% =
fertilizers, and various organic and 70,000 square feet. Consequently, choice
inorganic matter utilized in growing plant A is a correct statement. To calculate the
material. The definition provided refers building's unit cost, we simply divide the
to humus. In contrast, mulch is generally cost of construction by the total building
used to help conserve moisture, control area. Since we know that the construction
temperature, prevent surface compaction, budget is about 85 percent of the 6.3
reduce runoff and erosion, improve soil million dollar project budget, the unit
structure, or control weeds. Muck is a cost is not $6,300,000 -:- 70,000 SF, but
combination of soil and water, having roughly 85 percent of that, or about $76.50
a higher mineral content than peat. It is per square foot. Choice B is therefore the
decomposed to the point where the original incorrect statement and the correct answer
plant parts cannot be identified. Compost, to the question. The architect's fee is
when mixed with nitrogen and soil, is usually based on a percentage of the cost
used as an organic fertilizer. The principal of construction; we can calculate this to
purpose in making compost is to permit the be 8% X .85 X 6,300,000 = $428,400 (C is
organic materials to become crumbly and correct). And, as stated before, furnishings
to reduce the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the and equipment are included within a project
material. budget; therefore, choice D is also a correct
8. C. This type of question tests the
candidate's understanding of the various 9. B. This question tests a candidate's
knowledge about two basic considerations
components that make up a project .,
budget. To begin with, one must be in the programming of lecture space: 1) the
aware of the difference between a project amount of area required to accommodate a
development budget and a construction specified number of occupants and, 2) the
budget. The construction budget consists preferred shape of a space for a particular
Answers 21

programmed use. Fixed auditorium-type A quick concept diagram shows each

seating requires approximately seven space as a rough shape with no regard to
square feet per occupant. Allowing for the scale. These shapes are then connected
additional 500 square feet of lecture and by lines or arrows to other shapes with
demonstration area at the front of the room, which they have a functional association.
we calculate the space need to be 300 x 7 By so doing, one establishes not only a
+ 500 = 2,600 square feet. The shape of a graphic indication of the functions, but
lecture hall is determined largely by sight also the important circulation relationships
lines, since the demonstration table must be (II) that exist among the spaces. Thus,
clearly visible from all seats. Consequently, diagrammatic layouts deal with circulation
a square room is not desirable, since some and function, as stated in correct answer
of its seats will be located too far to the B. Bubble diagrams do not deal with areas
sides of the room, causing distorted sight (1), since they are not to scale; nor do they
lines, especially for projected images on involve structure or form (Ill and IV),
a screen. A narrow but deep rectangular which are generally considered later in the
shape will provide good sight lines for design process.
half the seats, but those located in the rear
13. C. In this question we must assume
portion will be too far away to see and hear
that complete satisfaction of the objective
well. Choice A is too small a space, choice
is impossible, since every side of the
C is too large, and choice D is a poorly
structure cannot be oriented toward the
proportioned space. Choice B, however, is
water. Therefore, the best solution will be
the correct size and a good proportion for
the one that allows the greatest number of
the programmed use.
units to overlook the water. We should also
10. Bubble diagram. The bubble diagram, assume that an authentic view is one that
sometimes called a programmatic diagram, encompasses up to a 45 degree angle from
is a graphic tool that represents the relative any unit. In design A, exactly half of the
relationships of program elements in order units have a view of the water. By rotating
to communicate functional requirements the cruciform plan, as in design B, we have
and adjacencies. not materially changed the relationship
of the units to the water; half of the units
11. B. We assume that "direct" refers to the
still have a view. In schematic designs C
circulation path to these elevators from
and D we have an L-shaped structure in
any part of the ground floor. Therefore,
which more units can be placed on one side
we are looking for the diagram that places
of the corridor than the other. Therefore,
the tower centrally over the ground floor,
the solution in which the long sides face
so that access from any point is relatively
the water (correct answer C) is the one
equidistant. The correct solution is answer
in which the greatest possible number of
B, since the other diagrams show greater
units have a water view. In fact, design C
distances from the farthest ground floor
provides a water view for more than half of
points to the center of the tower.
the units, while design D provides a view
12. B. The principal purpose of a for somewhat less than half of the units.
diagrammatic layout is to determine
14. C. This question may seem abstract
graphically the functional relationships
and esoteric. Nevertheless, questions of
(V) among various programmed spaces.
22 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

this kind often appear on the exam, and 18. Property tax. Property tax is a tax based
candidates should be prepared for them. on a property's value, as distinguished from
Programming is the process of searching a tax on income, personal possessions,
for sufficient information about a proposed or sales price. This tax was originally
project, so that the problem can be stated (I a general tax on land, buildings, and
and IV are correct). It involves functional possessions, such as livestock and tools.
solutions, while the design process involves However, possessions could easily be
actual physical solutions (II and III are concealed when the tax assessor came
incorrect). around, and thus, it gradually became
a tax on the physical property that was
15. C. The floor area ratio (FAR) is the ratio
impossible to conceal or move elsewhere.
of the total floor area of a building to the
The value that is taxed is not necessarily
total area of the lot. The lot in this question
the property's market value, but only a
has an area of 75 x 150 = 11,250 square
valuation for tax purposes. Thus, valuations
feet. The total permitted floor area of a
and/or tax rates may be raised or lowered in
building on this lot is the floor area ratio
order to produce desired tax revenues.
of 2.0 multiplied by the lot area of 11,250
square feet, or 22,500 square feet (answer 19. A. The answer is an expression in which
C). The front, rear, and side yards refer to classic elements are used unconventionally.
required open space on all four sides of a Mannerism was a style of architecture in
building and are irrelevant in this question. Italy and elsewhere that evolved between
The net floor area (D) is the total, or gross, the Renaissance and baroque periods. The
floor area minus the area used for service style was an expression of the manner,
and circulation, and is also irrelevant in this rather than the substance, of classical
question. elements, and it was characterized by a
lack of classical harmony and order, as
16. D. The building codes establish minimum
well as the incongruous use of classical
allowable sizes for many building elements
motifs (choice A). Principal examples
including stairways, corridors, toilet
of this style in Italy are Michelangelo's
rooms, and mechanical spaces. The codes,
Medici Chapel and Laurentian Library.
therefore, have the second greatest impact
Some postmodemists have been likened
on the size of a building other than the
to mannerists (choice C), because
owner's program requirements.
elements from the past may be used in
17. D. Questions on this exam may test your unconventional ways in some of their
ability to read and comprehend bubble buildings. An example of this are the
diagrams or diagrammatic layouts. In classically inspired columns used by
this question, there are several possible Charles Moore (choice D) in his own house
exit paths from the cafeteria. The most in Orinda in 1961. Nevertheless, mannerism
direct path is through the lobby and out is not the same as postmodemism (choice
to the entry plaza (A). Another possibility C), nor is it a term that characterizes the
is through the lobby to the exit corridor, work of Charles Moore (choice D).
which leads outside (C). A third path is
20. D. The answer is highly irregular
out to the dining terrace (B). Since no exit
contours. The cluster-type arrangement
from electronic games is shown, this space
features a concentrated grouping of
would not be part of any exit path.
Answers 23

residential units surrounded by open space. A), utilizes the natural topography by
The idea of clustering is to place units in following the natural contour of the land
a tight group by reducing lot sizes, and as much as possible. In this regard there is
thereby end up with large common areas less grading work required and the natural
of open space that canbe developed or flow of water across a site would be less
simply enjoyed in a communal way. In disturbed making it a good choice for
cluster plans, the lengths of streets and sustainable design. The grid system usually
utility runs are generally reduced, and most consists of equally spaced streets which run
residential units adjoin some open space. perpendicular to each other. This system of
For these reasons, such a development is circulation is most often used on flat land
most suitable in a hilly area, an area defined and ideally continues uninterrupted. The
by irregular contours. Clustered units may radial system directs flow to a common
be sited on moderately sloping land, while central point and in cases where there is
more steeply sloping land could be left a great deal of activity at the center, may
undeveloped as common open space. The cause congestion and crowding. Because
other three choices have little relevance of their rigid geometric patterns, both of
in the arrangement of residential units. these systems lack regard for the natural
The problems and influences of land size, topography and create visual monotony (B
natural foliage, and fuel costs are similar and Care incorrect). The linear system of
regardless of the development type. circulation, is typical of a highway, railway,
or canal and is unsuitable for use in a
21. A. The answer is it restored human
community setting (Dis incorrect).
scale to the new industrial cities. The City
Beautiful Movement was an outgrowth 23. Catchment area. The term catchment
of the enormous influence generated by area describes the geographic area from
the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. On the where the participants in a particular
shores of Lake Michigan, Daniel Burnham activity are drawn. Catchments may be
created the spacious, classically-scaled local, regional, or national. For example,
White City, which launched a classic Disneyland draws its visitors from all over
revival that swept the country (choice the country, while a local shopping mall
B). This surge of development led to the may only draw its visitors from surrounding
creation of city planning organizations neighborhoods.
(choice C), and resulted in a profusion of
24. C. All of the statements are true except
classically-inspired civic centers, dome-
C. The statement provided in C is true of
topped structures, and grand plazas,
deciduous trees, which lose their leaves in
complete with monuments and fountains.
the winter months, but not coniferous trees.
Unfortunately, the scale of development, far
Therefore, C is the incorrect answer we are
from restoring a more human expression
looking for.
(choice A), promoted the monumental and
grandiose. 25. A. Vandalism, which is the willful
destruction of property, is an unfortunate
22. A. Regarding circulation systems, there
fact of modem life, and a subject with
are several patterns that have developed
which architects must often be concerned.
through history to solve specific traffic
To deal with the perils of vandalism,
problems. The curvilinear system (choice
one must understand the techniques of
24 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

security. For example, at exterior spaces minimize the use of energy. In general, the
the key technique is surveillance, with optimum shape of a building is one that
local residents taking the responsibility loses a minimum amount of heat in the
over their own locality. In this regard one winter and gains a minimum amount of
would arrange paths for high visibility (A is heat in the summer. Considering the choices
correct), and provide well-lighted grounds of this question, a circular or square shape
(Cis incorrect). Further, one would avoid (I and II) are not desirable, since they have
curved paths (B is incorrect) because they the least amount of enclosing walls for the
tend to obscure the view ahead. Finally, area. This means that sunlight will strike
one must be realistic. While attractive or an absolute minimum amount of exterior
natural materials are desirable, they are not surface. The very best shape is a form
immune to vandalism and durability is a elongated in the east-west direction (not
more critical quality (Dis incorrect). the north-south as stated in III), as this form
will derive maximum heat gain during the
26. C. Architectural symbolism has existed
winter months, while exposing the shorter
and been employed for thousands of years.
east and west sides to minimum heat
Throughout nearly all that time, informal
gain in the summer. Staggered or stacked
or casual arrangements have signified
buildings (IV and V) can also be beneficial,
relative unimportance, while importance
since direct sunlight will strike large
has been characterized by rigid formality.
surface areas, especially if the building's
In the case of an important public building,
longer dimensions are oriented to the south.
therefore, the designer would include a
The correct combination of choices is
symmetrical arrangement (II), which is
found in correct answer B.
regarded as formal, and a long flight of
entrance steps (III), which accentuates 28. B. A path is a circulation route, such as a
the insignificance of the user, and thus, street or a highway. A district is a section of
the relative importance of the institution. a city that has an identifying character, such
Additionally, one would use a flagpole as a neighborhood, a suburb, or a college
(V), since this object symbolizes the campus. An edge is the boundary between
institution's important association with the districts, such as a shore line, a railroad
governing state or country. The use of many line, or a wall of buildings. A landmark is a
entrance doors (I) actually diminishes the prominent visual feature that acts as a point
importance of a single principal entrance; of reference, such as a major department
furthermore, a tall, rather than wide door store, a city hall, or a train station. A node
would signify greater prominence. Finally, is a center of activity, such as a square,
for the reasons already mentioned, one a plaza, or a civic center. Although the
would avoid random placement of openings university campus in this question might
(IV). The correct combination is found in be considered a landmark or a node, it is
answer C. primarily a district (correct answer B).
27. B. Buildings that disregard the sun's 29. C. The Second Empire Style, named for
impact frequently require large amounts of the Second French Empire, was popular
energy to heat and cool. When determining throughout the Western world in the mid-
a building's shape, designers should to late-19th century. It had two features
consider the solar orientation that will that were clearly identifiable: the mansard
Answers 25

roof (I) and the pavilion, which consisted continue through the site (I is incorrect, II is
of one or more forward breaks in elevation correct). The reason is that through streets
(Ill). These were generally symmetrical are easily patrolled and provide more direct
and at the center although they could also access and the likely presence of people.
be at other locations as well. This style was Symbolic barriers, such as planters, low
widely used in governmental and other walls, and formal entries do not physically
buildings to convey an image of prestige restrict criminal activity, but tend to
and authority. inhibit such activities by making potential
criminals more conspicuous (III is correct).
30. A. Spread footings (B) are appropriate
Play areas should be located relatively
where good soils are found at a shallow
close to homes, where they can be watched
depth. Since the site in this question is
by residents. Locating such areas far
underlain by 20 feet of loose fill, spread
from dwelling units invites vandalism
footings would be inappropriate. Placing
and possibly more serious crimes (IV is
spread footings on recompacted fill (C)
incorrect). The correct choices are therefore
is often economical where the maximum
II and III (answer B).
depth of fill is about five feet, and would
therefore be uneconomical in this case. A 33. B. A rectangular box with its long axis
mat foundation (D), which is essentially in the east-west direction is the most
one large footing under the entire building, appropriate for a temperate climate, in
is sometimes used where soil conditions which there is too much heat in the summer
are fair to poor. But since we have no and not enough heat in the winter. The
information about the loose fill close to the long east-west axis provides a great deal
surface, we cannot assume that it would be of southern exposure and a minimum of
adequate to support building loads. A better eastern and western exposure. This is best
solution would be grade beams supported in winter, when the predominant heat gain
on piles that extend into the sand layer is on the south facade. Conversely, in the
(correct choice A). summer, the primary gain is on the roof
and on the east and west facades, which are
31. B. Symmetry is a balanced arrangement
minimal in a building with a long east-west
of elements that are exactly the same on
each side of a central axis. Symmetry is
found throughout nature, and has become 34. B. The answer is two. A candidate must
associated in the man-made environment know two facts to solve this problem: the
with formality and authority (I and III). definition of FAR and the number of square
Symmetry is most appropriate where feet in an acre. FAR, or floor area ratio, is
building programs are uncomplicated (II) the ratio between the gross floor area of a
and building sites are regular in shape (IV building and the gross land area on which
is incorrect). the building sits. In this case, the gross floor
area of the building is 17,420 square feet on
32. B. Removing vehicular traffic from the
each of five floors, or 17,420 x 5 = 87,100
interior of a large residential project may be
square feet. The gross land area is one acre,
a desirable goal, since it allows the interior
which contains 43,560 square feet. The
to be used for recreation. However, such
FAR, therefore, is 87,100 I 43,560 = 1.999.
developments often have more crime than
Note that in calculating FAR ratios, gross
comparable projects having streets that
26 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

areas are always used, with no regard for life span than lower quality products,
elements such as building circulation or site resulting in a lower long-term cost.
37. A, B, and D. All provided answers
35. D. The correct answer is None of the are correct with the exception of C.
above. Choice I is not correct. The zone Deteriorated architectural features shall
of the earth that supports human life is be replaced rather than repaired, wherever
an extremely fragile ecosystem. This possible, with materials that match the
biosphere, which has evolved over millions design, color, texture, and other visual
of years, has been dramatically affected qualities of the original materials. All
by the growth of human activity in the last guidelines presented are accurate, with
100 years. While innovative technologies the exception of the matter in which
are improving energy efficiency of some deteriorated architectural features are dealt
building systems, the vast majority of the with. These should be repaired, whenever
built environment is energy inefficient possible, in preference to their replacement.
(choice II is incorrect). Toxic substances If repair is not feasible or architectural
have the tendency to expand and affect features are missing, their replacement
large areas. For example, the air above the should be based on accurate duplications
Great Lakes contains evidence of DDT, a that are substantiated by historical
toxic pesticide banned in the United States evidence.
decades ago. It was discovered that DDT
38. B. The answer is the total number of
is captured in the jet stream bringing toxic
occupants in the building. The total width
materials from far away continents that still
of required exits is determined by the total
use the pesticides (choice III is incorrect).
occupant load of a particular floor plus
Finally, while recycling is helpful, it is ]list
an additional allowance for occupants of
the beginning of the sustainable design
floors above and below that floor, if those
process. The principals of sustainable
occupants use the same exit path. The
design say that we need to have more
required width is usually calculated by
building products that can be recycled
dividing the total number of occupants by
and are biodegradable to create a more
a factor, such as 50, resulting in a total exit
sustainable ecosystem.
width expressed in feet. For example, if
36. C. Life-cycle costs include construction the total occupant load of a building was
costs (around 15 percent), as well as 600, the total width of required exits would
operational and maintenance costs, taxes, be 600/50 = 12 feet of width. This width
financing, replacement, and renovation (B would be divided approximately equally
and Dare correct). Financing costs may be among four separate exits (three-foot-wide
decreased if the design and construction doors). The total exit width has nothing to
processes are accelerated using fast-track do with floor area, nor does it depend on
or other similar delivery systems (A is building usage, although the floor area per
correct). Cis the incorrect statement we are occupant may be specified by usage in the
looking for; although high quality products code.
have a greater initial cost, they generally
39. C. Candidates are expected to understand
require less maintenance and have a longer
the theory and application of building
code regulations. Although all building
Answers 27

codes used in this country are generally ambulatory (B), but also the ambulatory
similar, they are by no means identical. who are handicapped, such as the blind.
The code most frequently used as the basis Choices C and D are also correct, as far as
for questions on the licensing exams is the they go, but they are incomplete. Physical
International Building Code. According to barriers must be eliminated outside of,
this code, every building is classified by as well as within, all buildings (C). And
the building official according to its use or finally, unobstructed access (D) serves little
character of its occupancy (Ill) and its type purpose if the handicapped person cannot
of construction (II), making C the correct use the facilities once he arrives at his
answer. destination. Candidates should note that in
this question, where each choice is partially
40. D. Candidates often find it difficult to
correct, the right answer is the choice that
differentiate between a building code and
is most inclusive. In other words, some
a zoning ordinance. The primary purpose
questions require one to find the answer
of the building code is to provide for the
that is most correct and, therefore, better
safety and health of the public. It is created
than all the others.
by an ordinance to regulate the construction
of buildings within a municipality. In 42. C. All of the statements concerning
contrast, zoning is created by an ordinance barrier-free design are true, with
to regulate the character and use of a the exception of correct answer C.
parcel of land. Zoning ordinances stipulate An unresolved problem exists with
the type of development; i.e., residential, handicapped individuals in the event of
commercial, industrial, agricultural, and so fire in a multistoried building. In that
forth, that may take place within a given case, the able-bodied will exit through
area. In most instances, zoning ordinances enclosed fire-stair towers. The handicapped,
also control the extent of allowable land however, must rely on elevators, which
coverage, setbacks from property lines, are risky because they tend to stall at the
allowable densities, and building heights fire floor; on aid from the able-bodied,
and areas. Building codes also regulate which is unpredictable; or on "refuge"
maximum building heights, areas, and compartments at each floor, which are
allowable number of stories. However, these designed to provide protection long enough
limitations are based on construction and to allow the fire to be extinguished. All
occupancy types to provide for the safety of these alternatives have drawbacks and
of the public. Similar restrictions imposed create a serious problem of life safety
under zoning ordinances are intended to that barrier-free design has yet to solve.
provide uniform standards of development Concerning choice B, it is true that all
to protect the environment and property building users benefit from certain barrier-
values. The correct answer is D. free elements that are provided expressly
for the handicapped. For example, nearly all
41. A. Most authorities agree that the goal
able-bodied individuals would appreciate
of barrier-free design is to permit any
ramps rather than steps, door levers rather
person with a handicap to participate in
than knobs, wider entrances, non-slip
normal activities without help-in other
floors, and a general absence of hazardous
words, autonomous functioning (correct
building elements. Incidentally, choice D
answer A). This includes not only the non-
states that project costs increase with the
28 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

inclusion of handicapped provisions, which statements I and II are correct, B is the

is true, but the increase rarely exceeds 2 answer to this question.
percent, on the average, of the total project
46. Setbacks. The primary purpose of
setbacks is to provide light, air, and
43. D. All of the features listed should be spaciousness to surrounding properties.
incorporated when providing barrier-free Although setbacks may be used to provide
phones, with the exception of I. Telephones off-street parking or fire- fighting access,
need not be placed on the ground floor neither of these is the principal purpose of
because all other floors must also be setbacks.
handicapped accessible. Further, phones
47. D. Zoning ordinances sometimes cause
must be provided in locations where doors
undue hardship to owners of specific parcels
comply with code requirements to provide
of land. Exceptions to or deviations from
access to those in wheelchairs (answer III).
the precise terms of the zoning ordinances
All other choices are standard practice to
are sometimes permitted, and these are
meet the requirements of barrier-fee design
called zoning variances (correct answer D).
as expressed in correct answer D.
Spot zoning (A) is the zoning of a parcel
44. A. Knurled door knobs are those that of land to permit a use different from that
have a series of small ridges carved around of the surrounding area. Incentive zoning
their edges. They are used principally to (B) permits certain requirements
identify hazardous areas to those who to be waived if the developer of the parcel
are visually handicapped (correct answer provides special features, for example,
A) and, thus, cannot be warned by other allowing a greater floor area in exchange
means. A blind person touching the knurled for the developer providing an open plaza.
surface is alerted to the fact that beyond A conditional use (C) may be permitted if
the door may lie a boiler room, fire escape, specific conditions are met and it is in the
loading platform, or other area that is a public interest, such as a neighborhood
hazard to one who is unable to see. For this school in a residential zone.
same purpose, square knobs are sometimes
48. C. The sketch on the next page will
used, as well as knurled levers, etc.
clarify this problem. The eave projects 6
45. B. Eminent domain is the right of the feet beyond the building, of which 1'-6" is
government to take private property for permitted to extend past the setback. Thus,
public use, with the owner receiving fair the building must be at least 4'-6" (6'-0"
compensation. Ordinarily, a governmental minus 1'-6") inside of the side yard. Since
agency will first attempt to buy the land in the setback is 6 feet, the building must be
the normal manner, negotiating the price no closer than 10'-6" (6'-0" plus 4'-6") from
with the owner, rather than exercise its right the property line.
of eminent domain (incorrect statements
III and IV). If agreement with the owner
cannot be reached, eminent domain may
be used as a last resort (I and II). In that
case, the value of the property may have
to be determined by the court (V). Since
Answers 29

may be granted. Such permission is called

a variance (B is correct). Aconditional
use is similar to a variance, except that it
permits a special use, such as a school or
hospital, which is for the public welfare and
convenience (Cis incorrect). Sometimes,
small spot zones are established, which
may be inconsistent with the general intent
of the zoning regulations and which favor a
particular property owner (A is incorrect).
51. Easement. An easement allows a
property owner to use the property of
another for a specific use. Common types
of easements include the right of a public
49. Spot zoning. A zoning ordinance is a law utility to gain access to private land for
enacted by a municipality for the general the purpose of placing and maintaining
welfare, which establishes zones or districts utility services. Easements exist for other
within which the location, height, and use reasons, such as to gain access such as for a
of buildings are regulated. If a building shared driveway. Covenants are restrictions
already exists when a zoning ordinance placed on a property to protect the aesthetic
is enacted, its lawful use may usually be harmony and value of properties. Deeds are
continued even though it does not conform documents conveying property from one
with the zoning regulations. This is known owner to another.
as a nonconforming use. Sometimes, small 52. D. This question simply tests a
spot zones are established. Spot zones are candidate's ability to use the table provided
sometimes inconsistent with the general in the building code. We are told that
intent of the zoning regulations and which the building's Use Group is B, and the
favor a particular property owner. Construction Type is IV. Locating these two
50. B. A zoning ordinance is a law enacted criteria to the left and top of the table, we
by a municipality for the general welfare, simply read down to the appropriate square
which establishes zones or districts, within that indicates the maximum permitted
which the location, height, and use of number of stories (4) and the maximum
buildings are regulated. Each of the four permitted area per floor (18,000). The
choices represents a deviation from normal correct answer, therefore, is D.
zoning regulations. If a building already 53. A. Office (0) is not a recognized Use
exists when a zoning ordinance is enacted, Group, rather offices and several other uses
its lawful use may usually be continued are placed in the common classification
even though it does not conform with the "Business" (D is incorrect). Institutional
zoning regulations. This is known as a and Assembly are both classifications that
nonconforming use (Dis incorrect). Where are recognized by the Building Code.
strict application of zoning regulations would
result in exceptional hardship, special 54. C. All of the choices provided are
permission to deviate from the regulations benefits of the fire resistance requirements,
30 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

however, only choice C is the primary referred to by a number. Between events

purpose of these requirements. In general, are letters representing activities and below
the building code is not as concerned with the letters are numbers representing the
protecting the structure and its contents as number of days each activity is estimated to
it is with protecting the lives of a building's take. Since each path of a diagram must be
occupants. traversed to complete the project, the total
project time is established by the path with
55. B. Linking the total floor area,
the greatest amount of total time. This is
irrespective of the number of stories, to
known as the critical path. In the network
the lot area is known as the floor area ratio
diagram of this problem, the critical path is
(FAR) (B is correct). This limits the overall
1-3-4, with a total time of 4 + 2 = 6 days.
bulk of a building without dictating what
The path of choice A is 3 days, choice C is
form it must take. Allowable floor area
1 + 3 = 4 days, and choice D is 1 + 2 + 2 =
is a term used in the building code and is
5 days.
an absolute maximum (A is incorrect).
Required yards are distances that must be 59. A. Critical path method (CPM) is a
maintained from the property line to the management tool used in the planning and
structure (Cis incorrect). Maximum lot scheduling of construction, in which a
coverage is a maximum percentage that construction project is divided into separate
may be covered by all surfaces including identifiable jobs, called activities. These
buildings, parking, sidewalks, etc. (D is are indicated graphically on a network
incorrect). diagram, including the estimated time
to complete each activity. Float time is
56. A. The requirements for building
the extra time available for an activity or
exiting are based upon calculations and
group of activities above its estimated time
requirements as set forth in the building
duration without any resulting delay in
code (A is correct). The code does not
completion of the project. A is therefore the
allow the architect, the owner, or precedent
correct answer.
to establish different expected occupancy
rates for the purposes of establishing exit 60. D. This type of question tests the
sizes. candidate's ability to use his judgment in
situations where financing dictates cost,
57. D. In stairways that serve as required
scope, and quality of a project. It would
building exits, all of the items listed are
be presumptuous on the architect's part to
regulated by the building code (D is
recommend a 25 percent increase in student
correct). In addition, the flame-spread
fees (A). Such an action would require the
ratings and smoke ratings of finish
approval of the college's administration and
materials, lighting, and ventilation
student body-a policy matter with which
requirements are all governed by the
the architect should not concern himself.
building code.
Delaying the project (B) would almost
58. B. The answer is 1-3-4. A critical path certainly result in an escalation of cost
diagram indicates the order in which and an increased budget. Furthermore, the
various operations comprising a project architect is not qualified to project future
are to be accomplished. Each even has a student enrollments and would, once again,
start and finish, represented by circles, and be acting outside his area of expertise.
Answers 31

Proceeding with a project for which on the transaction. A balloon payment (C)
adequate funds are not on hand (C) is is a final mortgage payment that is much
unrealistic. The architect cannot arbitrarily larger than the typical periodic payments.
reduce space needs 25 percent, nor can he And finally amortization (D) refers to the
reasonably expect to reduce the project's payment of a debt in periodic installments.
quality 25 percent. The only reasonable The correct answer is A.
course of action is to convince the owner to
62. A. CPM is a planning and scheduling
reduce his overall space needs to meet the
technique that uses network diagrams, not
budget prior to entering into an agreement
bar graphs, to show various construction
(D), and to attempt to develop efficient
activities and how they are related
uses of space that will satisfy the users'
sequentially (Ill is incorrect). I and II are
functional needs. The correct answer is D.
correct: the critical path is that path of
61. A. A construction loan is short-term construction activities that requires the
interim financing, which is in effect during greatest amount of time. Other paths, called
the construction of a project. For smaller float paths, require less time. The difference
projects, construction loans are often in required time between the critical path
made through banks or savings and loan and any other path is call the float for that
associations rather than mortgage brokers, path.
because this procedure is usually less
63. C. The critical path method (CPM)
costly and time consuming. Regardless
is a system of scheduling construction
of who the lender is, the borrower must
operations where each activity is assigned
pay certain fees at the time he obtains the
a start date, duration, and an end date. In
loan, including the discount, legal fees, and
addition, activities are linked to indicate
recording fees. The discount (A) may be
instances when one activity must be
known by various names-loan placement
complete before the next activity may start.
charge, origination fee, "points"-and
These relationships are shown in network
represents a fee charged by the lender to
diagrams. The resulting shortest path to
the borrower for the privilege of obtaining
completion is known as the critical path (C
the loan. For example, if the lender states
is correct).
that the discount will be two points, that
means that for every $1,000 borrowed, the 64. A. Programming, while a vital part of the
borrower will actually receive only $980, planning process, is not considered part of
the difference of $20 being two points (i.e., an architect's basic services. AlA contract
2 percent) of the $1,000 borrowed. But the documents recognize that the owner is
borrower will have to repay the full $1,000, expected to begin the design process with
plus the interest on $1,000. In effect, this an established program. Many architects
raises the true interest rate paid by the can, and should, assist the owner with this
borrower. The lender's justification for the phase, however it is generally recognized
origination fee is that it is required to pay as being an "additional service" for which
the costs of the loan officer as well as other the architect is entitled to additional
loan processing costs. Recording fees (B) compensation.
include charges made by the county to
65. A. The critical path is the one in the
record the mortgage, as well as any taxes
network diagram that requires the greatest
levied by the state and federal government
32 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

amount of time to complete. In this case, performed, however, ductwork design

path 1-3-4-5 requires 14 days, whereas would be limited to single line layouts.
1-4-5 requires 7 days, and 1-2-3-4-5, 13
70. A. The answer is minimizes the amount
days. Path 1-2-3-4 is not actually a critical
of grading required to fit the building to
path, since it does not include activity 5.
the site. Building on a level site is easier,
66. D. All of the factors indicated will have more flexible, and less expensive than
some effect on the time required, however building on a sloping site. However, most
the size of the design team should have the sites do slope. By orienting a building's
least impact (Dis correct). If the team is long dimension parallel to the contours,
well balanced, if they work well together, if less earth is removed in the building's short
they are skilled and experienced, and if they direction when fitting the building to the
can communicate readily with the client, site. Such grading has little effect on natural
then the size of the team should not have a drainage (choice B), nor does it affect the
significant effect. available area for construction (choice C),
which is more a matter of lot size. Solar
67. D. Choice Dis the incorrect answer.
orientation (choice D), has no bearing on
Float time is the difference in time duration
the direction of contours.
between the critical path and any other
path, therefore it is a measure of extra time 71. C. The answer is 150. The gradient, or
available for a given activity (A and B are slope, or a road is calculated by the formula
correct). As long as the float time is not G =V/H, where G is the gradient, V is
exceeded, no delay in project completion the vertical rise, and H is the horizontal
will result (Cis correct). This is true so distance in which the rise takes place. To
long as the delay is not in the critical path. find the vertical rise, solve for V = G x H.
By definition, those activities in the critical Thus, V = 0.05 x 150 = 7.5 feet, which is
path do not have float and therefore may the total difference in elevation over the
not be delayed without impact to the project 150-foot distance. Uphill from elevation
schedule (Dis incorrect). 142.5, therefore, the elevation will be 142.5
+ 7.5, or 150.
68. C. Governmental jurisdictions frequently
finance large construction projects through 72. A. The answer is more expensive than for
the sale of general obligation bonds (C a level site, because the line requires more
is correct). In the United States, property sewer manholes. Steep and irregular land
taxes are primarily used for schools and is invariably more expensive to develop
core government services such as police than levelland, and underground sewer line
and fire protection. Comprehensive installation is only one reason. Such land
planning and eminent domain are not requires more sewer manholes (choice A)
financing methods. because a manhole is required wherever
there is a change in the line's direction.
69. D. The construction documents phase
Choices B and C use similar reasoning;
is the phase of the project where final
lines that follow the ground's natural
calculations and detailed layouts are
downward slope will save excavation
performed. During design development,
costs. However, underground utilities must
preliminary collations and layouts are
be run to where they are needed, which
is not always in the downhill direction.
Answers 33

In addition, if sewers below street level sun, and high ceilings (IV) allow a greater
require pumping stations to connect lines volume of space for air to circulate. Dense
to mains in the street, the overall cost will windbreaks (Ill) are generally unnecessary,
rise substantially. Finally, the expense of since unpleasant winds are infrequent,
installing underground utilities on sloping being more closely associated with hot-
land exceeds that of levelland (choice D), humid, as well as cool, climactic zones.
because of generally increased excavation,
76. A. The answer is offrost and heaving
length of runs, and number of direction
of the subsoil. If any of the other choices
changes in the line.
had occurred, the land beneath the paving
73. C. The answer is /, II, and V. Contours would have settled, not risen. Filled land,
are lines that connect points of equal insufficiently compacted soil, and broken
elevation (1). Those that are solid represent pipes would all cause the soil to sink. Only
proposed modifications to the existing the penetration of frost and ice would cause
landform (II), while dashed lines are used the subsoil to heave and the paving to rise
to represent existing or natural topography above its original level.
(III is incorrect). Although contour lines
77. D. We determine the ground slope by
may close on themselves (IV is incorrect),
dividing the vertical change in height by
for example, when indicating a summit or a
the horizontal distance (G =V/H). 5% = 1
depression, they may never split in two (V),
foot/H, or H = 1 foot/.05 = 20 feet.
since this would indicate an implausible
topographic configuration. 78. C. Many candidates find it confusing to
analyze the slope of the ground. However,
74. D. The usual topographic map shows the
it is important to be able to utilize the
location, size, and shape of physical and
topography of a site in order to maximize
other features of a piece of land, including
the use of available land, both in site
property lines, easements, and utilities (A);
planning and building design. Grades for
natural features, such as streams (B); man-
existing as well as man-made slopes are
made features, such as roads and buildings
established by measuring the distance
(C); and contours indicating elevation.
between contours at a given scale and a
Soil conditions, however, are not generally
given contour interval. The formula is
shown on a topographic map (correct
% grade =change in vertical elevation/
answer D).
horizontal distance x 100. Therefore, in the
75. B. The answer is/, II, and IV. The hot- graded bank we are shown a four-foot change
arid zone of the United States includes in elevation for every five horizontal feet
most of the southwest, from Texas and New of land. Using the formula we calculate
Mexico west to the Southern California as follows: 4/5 x 100 = 80%. The correct
deserts. The region is characterized by clear answer is C.
skies, dry air, long periods of heat, and
79. B. Vehicles entering a parking lot from
large variations in daily temperatures. In
the street are invariably traveling at a faster
such a climate one would use thick walls
rate than those exiting (correct answer B),
(1), which tend to make interior spaces
since they are in the process of slowing
cooler by day and warmer at night by
down from normal street speeds. Those
absorbing and then radiating the sun's heat.
exiting are moving along a restricted
Wide overhangs (II) block the high summer

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- l
34 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

aisle width and are, therefore, traveling and II) typically flow by gravity and flow
more slowly. In addition, vehicles exiting only partially full.
generally slow or even stop completely
84. A. A swale is a flow path similar to a
when they approach the street. This slower
valley, in which the contours point uphill
speed enables a driver to tum within a .
(correct answer A). A ridge is the reverse of
radius somewhat smaller than one travelmg
a swale and is represented by contours that
at a greater speed.
point downhill (B is incorrect). A trench
80. C. All of the statements are true with drain is a device used to collect water
the exception of correct answer C. Angled before conducting it to underground pipes,
parking nearly always leads to more rapid while a drain pipe is any pipe used to carry
traffic flow than perpendicular parking, water from collection points to disposal
because one can pull in and out of an areas (C and Dare incorrect).
angled space more quickly; hence, traffic
85. C. The grade of a slope is equal to the
is obstructed or halted for a shorter period
vertical rise divided by the horizontal
of time. Concerning choice A, traffic aisles
distance, multiplied by 100 to convert it to
generally lead toward buildings so that the
a percentage. In this case, the vertical rise is
buildings are more visible, and customers
20 - 16 = 4 feet, and the horizontal distance
can walk along traffic aisles instead of
is 8 feet. The grade is therefore 4 -:- 8 = 0.50
between cars.
x 100 = 50 percent.
81. A. The U.S. System, which is the basis
86. B. The shape of the ground surface is
for much of the legal description of non-
most often shown on drawings by means
urban areas outside the original 13 states,
of contours, which are imaginary lines
established a grid of north-south lines
that connect all points of equal elevation.
(meridians) and east-west lines (parallels),
A uniform slope is indicted by evenly-
which are 24 miles apart in each direction.
spaced parallel contours. A concave slope
Each 24-mile-square area is in tum divided
is indicated by parallel contours spaced
into 16 townships, each six miles square.
closer together going uphill, as in this
Each township is further divided into 36
question. Parallel contours spaced farther
square sections, each containing one square
apart going uphill indicate a convex slope,
mile. Metes and bounds descriptions start at
and contours which point uphill indicate
a point on the property boundary and then
a valley. If you find it hard to remember
describe the length and direction of each
these typical contour characteristics, you
boundary line in narrative form. Urban land
can cut a section perpendicular to the
is generally described by lot number, block
contours, which in this case would look
name or number, and tract name or number.
approximately like the curve shown below
82. Deed restriction. A deed restriction is any (a concave slope).
clause in a deed that places limitations or
restrictions on the use of the property. ELEV. 40

83. D. Utility lines that do not flow by

gravity, but are under pressure and flow
full, include water and gas lines (III and
IV). Sanitary sewers and storm drains (I
ELE:V. 30
Answers 35

87. D. Where the soil is relatively pervious ramps. They are typically two or more
(A is incorrect), a septic tank that lanes wide in each direction. Expressways
discharges into an underground drain field are designed to allow movement of large
may provide an adequate sewage system. volumes of traffic between, around, and
In that case, potential health hazards through urban centers. Vehicles move at
and water pollution must be considered more rapid speeds because access to and
(Cis incorrect, Dis correct). The tiles access from expressways is limited. Answer
comprising the drain field should be placed C is the correct answer.
at a very gentle slope of about 1 inch in 24
91. C. In an ideal situation, a civil engineer
feet, or 1/24 inch per foot (B is incorrect).
will try to ensure that the amount of soil
88. B. Approximately 300 to 400 square feet removed and added to different areas of a
per car is required for parking, including site is equal so that additional soil does not
stalls and aisles. Therefore, the required need to be imported or exported from the
area varies from 400 cars x 300 square feet job site. This practice is called balancing
per car, or 120,000 square feet to 400 x the site (Cis correct) and is desirable
400, or 160,000 square feet. Since there are because trucking large quantities of soil
43,560 square feet in an acre, this converts can be expensive. Cutting the site is the
to 120,000-:- 43,560 = 2.75 acres, and process of removing soil (A is incorrect).
160,000-:- 43,560 = 3.67 acres. Therefore, Filling the site is the process of adding soil
the least area required is about 2.75 acres. (B is incorrect). Engineering describes, in
B, 3 acres, is therefore the best answer. general terms, the role of the civil engineer
(D is incorrect).
89. A. If you cut a section through the road
where the 100 contour meets the edges of 92. A. Lines that connect points of equal
the road, it will look like the sketch below. elevations are contour lines (A is correct).
Therefore, there is a crown at the center of The other choices are lines that may be
the road (I) and 6-inch-high curb at each found on various types of site drawings,
edge (III). but they are not related to elevations or
EL.100 93. C. The answer is 12 feet. What may
appear at first to be confusing is actually a
simple problem. There is only one factor
to consider: Since the south end of the
90. C. Local access streets provide access wall terminates at elevation 12, the wall
to low-intensity fronting them such as must extend to that elevation in order to
houses and often take the form of loops retain the earth at the east side of the wall,
and cul-de-sacs. Collector streets serve irrespective of the elevation of the level
as the transition between arterials and the area at the west side. The high end of the
local access streets. Although intersections wall would extend 8 feet above the adjacent
with arterials may be controlled with traffic grade at the west (12- 4 = 8), and the
signals, intersections with local streets may elevation at the top of the wall would be
have only stop signs. Arterial streets are 12 feet, or perhaps a few inches higher.
continuous vehicular channels that connect Incidentally, the angle between the wall and
with expressways by means of on and off existing contours is irrelevant.
36 Programming, Planning & Practice Questions & Answers

94. C. The answer is site Ill. By adding in reducing solar heat gain than controlling
the widths of the sites along Main Street, the gain once the glass has been exposed to
we determine that the block between 1st sun.
and 2nd Avenues is 300 feet long. Since
96. D. A flood plain is the relatively flat
Main Street slopes 15 feet downward
land within which a stream flows. When
along its length, from 123 to 108, the
the volume of flow exceeds the stream's
slope is calculated to be 15/300 = .05, or
capacity, which occurs more or less
an assumed uniform slope of 5 percent. c

regularly, it overflows its banks and spreads

Using this slope and moving eastward from
over the flood plain. Consequently, a
the comer at 1st Avenue, the elevations at
flood plain should preferably be limited to
each of the site comers along Main Street
uses such as agriculture or recreation. In
are 123, 120, 115, 111, and 108 at the 2nd
practice, however, this is not always the
Avenue comer. Therefore, with 11-foot
case (A is incorrect) because of economic
stories, the building height would be 11 x
pressure to use the land for construction,
5 =55 feet. In order not to exceed the City
rather than for agriculture or recreation (C
Hall dome elevation of 168 feet, the ground
is incorrect). Limited low-density housing
floor elevation of the new 55-foot structure
is often permitted (B is incorrect), provided
would have to be at 168- 55= 113, which
the structures are elevated above flood level
is the exact midpoint of Site III. If one
(D is correct).
assumed eight-foot ceilings, Site III would
still be the appropriate choice. Building on 97. B. By studying a sun chart for a location
Site IV would comply with the ordinance, in the north temperate zone, which includes
but it is not the highest site, while a five- the United States, one can see that in the
story building on either Site I or Site II winter, the sun is low and oriented to
would exceed the City Hall dome elevation. the south. Therefore, the south wall of a
building receives a great amount of solar
95. D. The southwest desert location implies
radiation (I is correct), while the east and
that the overwhelming climatic problem
west walls and roof receive very little (Ill is
in the structure is solar heat gain. In this
incorrect). In the summer, the sun is higher
regard, we can eliminate the flat roof
and oriented more to the east and west.
feature (B), since roof shape alone has
Therefore, the south wall receives less solar
little effect in reducing heat gain. Insulated
radiation (II is incorrect), while the east
glass (A) windows are helpful, and this is a
and west walls and roof receive more (IV is
possible answer. Fixed vertical louvers (C),
especially on the south side of a building,
do little to diminish direct solar heat gain 98. C. The winter solstice refers to the day
when the sun is high. Horizontal louvers with the minimum hours of sunlight, which
would be more efficient, but that is not one usually occurs on December 21 in the
of our choices. Finally, deeply recessed northern hemisphere (Cis correct). Choice
openings (D) are very effective in shading A describes both the autumn and spring
glass, regardless of their orientation. In a equinox, which occur around September
choice between insulated glass and shaded 21 and March 21 respectively. Choice
glass, shaded glass (correct answer D) is B describes the summer solstice, which
preferred because preventing sun from usually occurs on June 21. Therefore, Cis
reaching the glass is always more effective the correct answer.