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16587 Pressurised Systems


In the next two sections of this ‘chapter’ we shall deal with two familiar pressure vessel
components; the junction of the hemispherical end and the cylinder and then the nozzle in a
spherical head. The first example is like that already solved using finite element, except we
will only deal with the dished end part of the problem.

The first figure shows the end and the co-ordinate system, φ and x . The second figure
shows the two components separated. Since the two components would normally strain and
displace differently there will be internal force actions at the junction. When the components
are separated we can show their local discontinuity force actions. The force H and the
moment M are obviously equal and opposite on the two components. As already indicated
above, the procedure to be used is standard for shell intersection problems. The solutions
already derived for the edge loading of spheres and cylinders, and presented in the Tables can
be used. We will consider each component in turn and examine the edge displacements and
rotations under the edge forces and moment loadings.

Figure 4.20 Analysis of dished end and cylinder


To compensate for this we just simply change the sign ! 53 .3. Edge Bending Solutions for Displacement and Rotation For the spherical end: π 2 Haλ 2λ2 M from Table 4. 16587 Pressurised Systems Membrane Solutions pa Cylinder:.1 (note α = ) Et Eat 2 For the cylinder: a3H a2 M δc = − + from Table 4.3 2 Kβ 3 2 Kβ 2 a2 H aM from Table 4. but is shown outwards in Table 4. that is χ m = 0 .1 (note α = ) δs = + 2 Et Et 2λ2 H 4λ3 M π χs = + from Table 4.20. this is because the H force is shown inwards in Figure 4. these values are obtained from the stresses derived earlier (page 31) using the direct part of equation (4. the sign change in the equations for the H terms for the cylinder. Nθ = pa 2 [Note. Nx = . There is No rotation of the sphere or the cylinder at the junction due to pressure so we may write the rotation equal to zero. Nφ = .3 χc = − 2 Kβ 2 Kβ Note. Nθ = 2 2 The membrane movements of the cylinder and sphere subjected to pressure p are given by- ∆ = aε θ Using this expression the membrane movements normal to the surface at the junction point are:- m δ sphere = a Et ( N θ − νN φ )= a 2 Et pa (1 − ν ) a m δ cyl = pa (2 − ν ) 2 Et The superscript ‘m’ used above is to identify these displacements as membrane.4) on page 39] pa pa Spherical end:.

since the end is a hemisphere) then. substituting the appropriate expressions. 16587 Pressurised Systems Compatibility must be maintained at the junction of the hemisphere and cylinder so that the total deformation of each part is equal δs + δm m s = δc + δc and χs = χc From the above displacement equation.3 (1 − ν )a 3 2 2 Eta 2 Kβ 4 Eta 2 = = = 12(1 − ν )t β and β 2 2 4β β 2 4β 2 Thus in the above equation:-  2 aλ 2 aβ   2 λ2 2β 2  pa 2 + +  Et − = Et  H M  Et Et   2 Et When the cylinder and hemisphere have the same thickness λ = β (and of course R = a. we can write:- 2 Haλ 2 λ2 M pa 2 (1 − ν ) a3H a2 M pa 2 (2 − ν ) + + = − + + Et Et 2 Et 2 Kβ 3 2 Kβ 2 2 Et  2aλ a3   2 λ2 a2  pa 2 ∴H  +  + M  −  =  Et 2 Kβ 3   Et 2 Kβ 2  2 Et E t3 since K = [12(1− ν )] 2 = 3(1 − ν )( R / t ) = 3(1 − ν )  2 4 2 2  a 2 and β t Kβ 4 Et . in the above equation the term associated with the M disappears and we are left with :-  4aλ  pa 2 H  =  Et  2 Et pa ∴ H = 8λ 54 .

sin α .1 N θ = 2 λ H . since β = λ and R = a 8λ2 Note: the negative sign for the moment stress resultant in the cylinder. ∴M =0 Eat We have now determined the value of H and M and may now proceed to derive the stress resultants in the vessel In the Spherical End:- From Table 4.cos( λψ ) + Membrane N θ 2 pa ( − λ ψ ) pa Nθ = e cos(λψ ) + 8 2 1 1  N θ = pa  + e ( − λ ψ ) cos( λψ ) 2 4  In the Cylindrical Part:- From Table 4.1 a Mφ = H .3 RH ( − βx / R ) Mx = e sin( β x / R) β pa 2 ( − λx / a ) Mx = − e sin (λ x / a ) . e ( − λ ψ ) sin α sin (λψ ) . e ( − λ ψ ) . (since M = 0) λ pa 2 ( − λ ψ ) Mφ = e sin (λψ ) 8λ2 From Table 4. 55 . 16587 Pressurised Systems Using now the equations for rotational compatibility:- χ s = χc 2λ H 2 4λ M 3 Ha 2 Ma + = − Et Eat 2 Kβ 2 Kβ  2λ 2 a2   4λ3 a  ∴ H  − 2  = M − −   Et 2 Kβ   Eat Kβ  using the same relationship for Kβ 2 and Kβ we can write:-  2λ2 2β 2 a 2   4λ3 4β 3  H −  = M − −   Et Et a 2   Eat Eat  since λ = β :- 8λ3 0 =−M .

16587 Pressurised Systems From Table 4.3 N θ = 2 Hβ e ( − βx / R) cos( β x / R) + Membrane N θ  pa  x N θ = 2  −  . The location of this and from this the magnitude of the maximum Mφ can be found as follows:- p a 2 ( − λψ ) Mφ = e sin (λ ψ ) 8 λ2 d Mφ p a2 = λ e ( − λψ ) [cos(λ ψ ) − sin (λ ψ )] dφ 8λ 2 A turning value of this equation will be when:- 56 . λe ( − λ x / a ) cos(λ ) + pa .21 Stresses in the Junction of a Spherical Head and Cylindrical Vessel It is worth noting here that the form of the distribution of Mx and the Mφ is exactly that given by the finite element analysis and shown in Figure 4.21 Figure 4. since β = λ and R = a  8λ  a  1 x  N θ = pa  1 − e ( − λ x / a ) cos(λ )  4 a  These equations are plotted in the Figure 4. The value of Mφ (and Mx) have a turning value some distance from the junction.15 for the stresses.

leading to. (2) those required to ensure compatibility of edge displacements of adjoining elements. At the junction between the cylinder and sphere internal forces exist. In the case presented here internal pressure is applied to the spherical shell containing a nozzle.24 λ2 t 2 The value of the stress in the cylinder is the same as that in the sphere but is compressive in sign. and to a value of λψ = 4 π pa 2 ( − 4 ) π pa2 ∴ Mφ = e sin = 0.04 8λ2 4 λ2 p a2 The value in the cylinder is M x = − shown in Figure 4. The procedure is the same as for the dished end. 57 .22.8 THE CYLINDRICAL NOZZLE IN A SPHERICAL SHELL Openings in shells constitute a major source of weakness. The edge forces acting on each element consist of:- (1) those necessary to balance the applied loading . Notice that the force discontinuity can be represented adequately by a horizontal force ONLY . tan λψ = 1.sphere and cylinder are separated .provided the nozzle is not restrained axially. 4. In order to determine the value of these forces the two elements .pressure in this case. The nozzle is flush and the vessel is not reinforced.22 shows the two components separated with the forces applied. 16587 Pressurised Systems 0 = cos λψ − sin λψ that is.04 λ2 6 Mφ The bending stress in the sphere is given by σ φ = t2 pa2 that is σ φ = 0. Figure 4. 0 = 1 − tan λψ π .

22 Nozzle/Sphere Discontinuity Forces for Internal Pressure. 16587 Pressurised Systems Figure 4. 58 .

in this equation 4 λ ( )  a = 3 1− ν 2    ts  2λ2 H sin φ o 4 λ3 M (4.6) χs = − − Et s Eat s We must also determine the membrane displacement.8) β 4 = 3 (1 − ν ) 2 2   and K =  tc  12 (1 − ν 2 ) 59 .3 2 MR 2  pa  R 3 δc = − H − cos φ o  2 Kβ 2  2  2 Kβ 3 2 MR  pa  R χc = − + H − cos φ o  Kβ  2  2 Kβ 2 (4. 16587 Pressurised Systems For the spherical head:- Using Table 4. that it includes the component of pa/2 pR 2 The membrane displacement is δm c = (2 − ν ) (4. 2λHa sin 2 φ o 2λ2 M sin φ o 2 δs = Et s + Et s .7) 2E ts 2t For the cylinder:- pa Due to an edge moment M and an edge force H − cosφ o we find from Table 4. however in this case there is no ( rotation χ m s =0 ) δm s = r εθ = a E ( sin φ o σ θ − νσ φ ) pa 2 pa δm s = sin φ o (1 − ν ). since σ θ = σ φ = (4. and also.8) Note.9) 2 Et c 2  R E t c3 In eqns (4.2 for the spherical vessel loaded at the upper edge. the direction of the force on the cylinder.

α. for a specific geometry of spherical vessel and nozzle insert.10) χc = − χs Note from Figure 4. It is good when the angle.22 that the +ve directions of the rotations on the cylinder and sphere are in the opposite directions. Leckie and Penny found that by restricting attention to the sphere (ignoring nozzle stresses) they could produce unique curves (at least with little scatter -7%) based on a compound parameter:- R a ρ = a ts The results were given in terms of stress concentration factors. χ c and χ s from above equations (4. R. This is fine for analysing the junction of the dished head and the cylinder. t t2 The above procedure has been used to obtain the stresses which occur in the spherical vessel which is penetrated by a cylindrical nozzle. δ s .1 and 4. It has always been recognised.. A more adequate solution of the intersection problem of the cylinder and sphere was provided by Leckie and Penny in 1963 [Welding Research Council Bulletin No.23 give the Leckie/Penny results for pressure loading for the flush and protruding nozzles. tc and φo Thereafter the values of the stress resultants and stresses found at any point can be found. δc +δm m c =δs +δs (4. see Tables 4.9) the two unknowns.10b). Nθ 6 Mθ Recall σθ D = . ts. It is worth noting however. that the fundamental approach used by Penny and Leckie is the same as outlined above. 60 . δ s . (4. a. however. In this they used a Bessel function solution to solve the nozzle in the sphere problem for various loading conditions.7). The method used covers the whole range of openings. These consist of the following. M and H can be determined. September 1963]. Because there are so many variables in the intersection problem there has always been a difficulty in condensing the data. (4. Using a value ρ and an assumed tc /ts ratio a value for the SCF can be found. is large. Substituting in equation (4. 90. the result of this is introduction of a negative sign in equation (4. That for pressure is defined as:- SCF = (Maximum calculated stress in sphere)/ (pa/2ts) The graphs on Figure 4. σθ B = etc.2. but less accurate for smallish nozzles in spherical vessels. and from this the maximum stress.8) and (4. 16587 Pressurised Systems Compatibility must be maintained at the junction so that the total deformation for each part is equal.. that the solution is not very accurate for small opening angles.10) for δ c . δ m m c .6).

16587 Pressurised Systems Figure 4.23 Stress Concentration Curves for Internal Pressure 61 .

although clothed in mystery by their presentation. Results for edge effects can be found in texts on shell theory. a fillet weld may have a high SCF transverse to its length because of the weld profile but hardly any SCF as far as stress along its length is concerned. as to the justification for neglecting the nozzle stresses. From the above it will be obvious that detailed surface effects or local geometry such as weld details are not covered by shell theory. In the nozzle problem above. This does not usually matter if only the global structural behaviour is relevant. are in fact based upon the analysis of discontinuity stresses from shell theory. 62 . It is also used in ASME. Also SCF’s sometimes have to be compounded. more detailed considerations may be necessary. However. Shell theory is sometimes described as a “centre line” theory. Nevertheless these discontinuity stresses at or near shell junctions have often shown rather good comparisons with experiments. see the earlier reference by Spence & Tooth. in later years. r/t > 10. Almost all the information in national design codes assumes that the pressure vessel is thin in this sense. Of course. the mathematical junction is different from the physical one in any case. The direction of the stress can be important for example. The importance of the underlying assumptions will vary depending on the type of problem being considered. SAA 1228 - 1980 Water Tube Boilers Code in Appendix F.1982. at the junction on the outside surface the shell theory SCF for the meridional direction may have to be multiplied by another SCF to account for the detailed geometry of any undressed weld profile. It should be noted in passing that when an SCF is quoted it usually refers to a particular direction only unless otherwise specified. When an assessment for fatigue is carried out these directions are important and have to be associated with particular welds. In the Leckie/Penny curves this is the circumferential stress in the sphere. The basic equations relate to the shell centre line and the physical presence of the thickness is not properly catered for This is especially so in shell intersection problems such as the nozzle in the sphere case above. where actual peak stresses are of interest. This depends to some extent on the details of the nozzle attachment. as for example in a fatigue situation. although not in SAA 1210 . Many of the rules within design codes. Limitations of shell theory Classical thin shell theory solutions involve fairly complex mathematics and various simplifying assumptions. Despite this limitation the results are sometimes used down to r/t = 5. The surface stresses evaluated from the analysis at the junction really refer to fictitious points.typically. The term “thin” in a shell theory context means that the principal radii of curvature are much greater than the thickness . Thus the theory cannot be expected to be “correct” at the junction although there is no reason why it should not be correct reasonably close to the junction. 16587 Pressurised Systems The Leckie/Penny shell analysis results have formed the basis for some of the design rules on pressure vessel nozzles in BS5500 and also appear in the Australian Code. There has been considerable discussion.

Furthermore. cones. etc. that significant stresses can be generated by shape imperfections. imperfections can give rise to a significant non linear load/stress relationship. in the presence of pressure. In practice due to manufacturing techniques. 16587 Pressurised Systems There is a tendency in using shell theory to treat idealised geometries. perfect shapes such as spheres. vacuum. Most of the codes are weak on this matter.e. certain other situations such as internal pressure in a torispherical end etc.. tolerances and so on. There is a further important point that where compressive stresses exist (external pressure. It should be noted. It is possible to analyse many types of irregularities with similar analysis methods although this will not be pursued here. We shall examine the behaviour of such vessels in later ‘chapters’ 63 . the actual shape may be irregular. however. i. cylinders.) buckling loads are sensitive to imperfections.