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ln(1 + en )

(a)

n n=1

ln(1 + en ) en en

Solution. lim = lim = lim = 1.

n n n 1 + en n en

Therefore the sequence is convergent.

X ln(1 + en )

(b)

n

n=1

ln(1 + en )

Solution. Since lim = 1 6= 0, the series diverges by Divergence Test.

n n

X (1)n

(c)

ln(n + 1)

n=1

1

Solution. Let bn = .

ln(n + 1)

1

i. lim bn = lim =0

n n ln(n + 1)

1 1

ii. bn+1 = < = bn , so {bn } is decreasing

ln(n + 2) ln(n + 1)

Therefore, the series converges by the Alternating Series Test.

2n 5n

X

(d)

n+1

n=1

2n 5n

Solution. Let an = .

n+1

1

1

2n 5n n

2n 5

lim |an | = lim = lim = 25 > 1.

n

n n n + 1 n n + 1

X n5 + n4

(e)

n7 + n3 n + 1

n=1

n5 + n4 n5 1

Solution. Let an = and bn = 7 = 2 .

n73

+n n+1 n n

an n5 + n4 n7 + n6

lim = lim 7 3

n2 = lim 7 =1>0

n bn n n + n n + 1 n n + n3 n + 1

X 1 X n5 + n4

Since is convergent (p-series with p = 2 > 1), the series also converges by

n2 n7 + n3 n + 1

n=1 n=1

Limit Comparison Test.

X 2

2. Evaluate the sum by looking at its nth partial sum.

n2 1

n=2

n

X 2

Solution. Let sn = . By partial fraction decomposition,

i2 1

i=2

n

X 1 1

sn =

i1 i+1

i=2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1 + + + + ... + +

3 2 4 3 5 4 6 n2 n n1 n+1

1 1 1

= 1+

2 n n1

X 2 1 1 1 3

Hence, 2

= lim sn = lim 1 + = .

n 1 n n 2 n n1 2

n=2

X (x 2)n

3. Detrmine the radius of convergence and interval of convergence of the power series .

3n (n + 1)

n=0

(x 2)n

Solution. Let an = n . By Ratio Test,

3 (n + 1)

(x 2)n+1 3n (n + 1)

an+1 n + 1 x 2 |x 2|

lim = lim n+1

= lim =

n an n 3 (n + 2) (x 2)n n n + 2 3 3

|x 2|

The series converges when < 1, i.e., |x 2| < 3.

3

Hence, R = 3 and the series converges when 3 < x 2 < 3, i.e., on the interval (1, 5).

X (3)n X (1)n 3n X (1)n

If x = 1, the series becomes = = .

3n (n + 1) 3n (n + 1) n+1

n=0 n=0 n=0

1

Let bn = .

n+1

1

i. lim bn = lim =0

n n n + 1

1 1

ii. bn+1 = < = bn so {bn } is decreasing

n+2 n+1

Hence the series converges by Alternating Series Test.

X 3n X 1

If x = 5, the series becomes n

= .

3 (n + 1) n+1

n=0 n=0

1 1

Let an = and bn = .

n+1 n

an n

Then lim = lim = 1 > 0.

n bn n n + 1

X 1 X 1

Since diverges, also diverges by Limit Comparison Test.

n n+1

n=1 n=1

1

4. Find a power series representation for ln 1 + 2x using the power series reprentation for .

(1 + 2x)

1 1

Solution. First, notice that dx = ln(1 + 2x) + c = ln 1 + 2x + c.

1 + 2x 2

1

Now, we obtain a power series for :

1 + 2x

1 1 X X

= = (2x)n = (2)n xn

1 + 2x 1 (2x)

n=0 n=0

Therefore,

1 X X (2)n xn+1

ln 1 + 2x = dx = (2)n xn dx = +C

1 + 2x n+1

n=0 n=0

X (2)n xn+1

Letting x = 0, we get C = ln 1 = 0. Hence, ln 1 + 2x = .

n+1

n=0

X (2 ln 2)n

5. Find the Maclaurin series for f (x) = e2x and use this to find the sum .

n!

n=1

X xn

Since ex = , we have

n!

n=0

2x

X (2x)n X 2n

e = = xn

n! n!

n=0 n=0

Letting x = ln 2, we obtain

X 2n

e2 ln 2 = (ln 2)n

n!

n=0

2

X (2 ln 2)n

eln 2 =

n!

n=0

X (2 ln 2)n 2

Hence, = eln 2 = 4.

n!

n=0

6. Find the third degree Taylor polynomial for f (x) = ln(1 + x) centered at 0 and use it to approximate ln(1.5).

f (0) = ln 1 = 0

f 0 (x)= (1 + x)1 f 0 (0) = 1

f 00 (x) = (1 + x)2 f 00 (0) = 1

f 000 (x) = 2(1 + x)3 f 000 (0) = 2

3

X f (i) (0) x x2 2x3

Therfore, T3 (x) = xi = 0 + + .

i! 1! 2! 3!

i=0

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 10

Hence, ln(1.5) T3 = 2 + 3 = + = .

2 2 2 2 2 3! 2 8 24 24

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