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# Giancoli Physics: Principles with Applications, 6th Edition

## 1. Use Newtons second law to calculate the force.

F = ma = ( 60.0 kg ) ( 1.25 m s ) = 2
75.0 N

## 3. Use Newtons second law to calculate the tension.

F = F T ( )
= ma = ( 960 kg ) 1.20 m s 2 = 1.15 10 3 N

10. Choose up to be the positive direction. Write Newtons 2nd law for the vertical r
FT
direction, and solve for the tension force.
F = FT - mg = ma FT = m ( g + a )
r
(
FT = ( 1200 kg ) 9.80 m s 2 + 0.80 m s 2 = 1.3 10 4 N ) mg

12. Choose up to be the positive direction. Write Newtons 2nd law for the vertical direction,
r
and solve for the acceleration. FT
F = FT - mg = ma
a=
FT - mg
=
(
163 N - ( 12.0 kg ) 9.80 m s 2 ) = 3.8 m s 2
r
m 12.0 kg mg

## Since the acceleration is positive, the bucket has an upward acceleration.

13. In both cases, a free-body diagram for the elevator would look like the adjacent r
diagram. Choose up to be the positive direction. To find the MAXIMUM tension, FT
assume that the acceleration is up. Write Newtons 2 nd law for the elevator.
F = ma = FT - mg r
mg
FT = ma + mg = m ( a + g ) = m ( 0.0680 g + g ) = ( 4850 kg ) ( 1.0680 ) 9.80 m s 2 ( )
= 5.08 10 4 N
To find the MINIMUM tension, assume that the acceleration is down. Then Newtons 2 nd law for the
elevator becomes
F = ma = FT - mg FT = ma + mg = m ( a + g ) = m ( -0.0680 g + g )
( )
= ( 4850 kg ) ( 0.9320 ) 9.80 m s 2 = 4.43 10 4 N

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67
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newtons Laws of Motion

19. Free body diagrams for the box and the weight are shown below. The tension exerts the same
magnitude of force on both objects.
(a) If the weight of the hanging weight is less than the weight of the box, the objects will not move,
and the tension will be the same as the weight of the hanging weight. The acceleration of the
box will also be zero, and so the sum of the forces on it will be zero. For the box,
FN + FT - m1 g = 0 FN = m1 g - FT = m1 g - m2 g = 77.0N - 30.0 N = 47.0 N
(b) The same analysis as for part (a) applies here.
FN = m1 g - m2 g = 77.0 N - 60.0 N = 17.0 N
(c) Since the hanging weight has more weight than the box on the table, the box on the table will be
lifted up off the table, and normal force of the table on the box will be 0 N .

r r
25. We draw free-body diagrams for each bucket. FT2 FT1
(a) Since the buckets are at rest, their acceleration is 0. Write Newtons
2nd law for each bucket, calling UP the positive direction.
F1 = FT1 - mg = 0 r r r
(
FT1 = mg = ( 3.2 kg ) 9.8 m s 2 = 31 N ) FT1 mg mg

F 2
= FT2 - FT1 - mg = 0 Top (# 2) Bottom (# 1)

(
FT2 = FT1 + mg = 2mg = 2 ( 3.2 kg ) 9.8 m s 2 = 63 N )
(b) Now repeat the analysis, but with a non-zero acceleration. The free-body diagrams are
unchanged.
F1 = FT1 - mg = ma
(
FT1 = mg + ma = ( 3.2 kg ) 9.80 m s 2 + 1.60 m s 2 = 36 N )
F 2
= FT2 - FT1 - mg = ma FT2 = FT1 + mg + ma = 2 FT1 = 73 N

27. Choose the y direction to be the forward direction for the motion of the snowcats, and the x
direction to be to the right on the diagram in the textbook. Since the housing unit moves in the
forward direction on a straight line, there is no acceleration in the x direction, and so the net force in
the x direction must be 0. Write Newtons 2nd law for the x direction.
Fx = FAx + FBx = 0 - FA sin 50o + FB sin 30o = 0
FA sin 50o ( 4500 N ) sin 50o
FB = o
= o
= 6.9 103 N
sin 30 sin 30
Since the x components add to 0, the magnitude of the vector sum of the two forces will just be the
sum of their y components.
F y
= FAy + FBy = FA cos 50o + FB cos 30o = ( 4500 N ) cos 50o + ( 6900 N ) cos 30 o = 8.9 103 N

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68
Giancoli Physics: Principles with Applications, 6th Edition

36. A free-body diagram for the crate is shown. The crate does not accelerate r
r FN r
vertically, and so FN = mg . The crate does not accelerate horizontally, and Ffr FP
so FP = Ffr . Putting this together, we have
r
mg

( )
FP = Ffr = m k FN = m k mg = ( 0.30 ) ( 35 kg ) 9.8 m s 2 = 103 = 1.0 10 2 N
If the coefficient of kinetic friction is zero, then the horizontal force required is 0 N , since there is
no friction to counteract. Of course, it would take a force to START the crate moving, but once it
was moving, no further horizontal force would be necessary to maintain the motion.

37. A free-body diagram for the box is shown. Since the box does not accelerate r
r FN r
vertically, FN = mg
Ffr FP
(a) To start the box moving, the pulling force must just overcome the
force of static friction, and that means the force of static friction will
r
reach its maximum value of Ffr = m s FN . Thus we have for the starting mg
motion,
F 48.0 N
FP = Ffr = m s FN = m s mg m s = P = = 0.98
mg ( 5.0 kg ) 9.8 m s 2 ( )
(b) The same force diagram applies, but now the friction is kinetic friction, and the pulling force is
NOT equal to the frictional force, since the box is accelerating to the right.

F = F P
- Ffr = ma FP - m k FN = ma FP - m k mg = ma

mk =
FP - ma
=
(
48.0 N - ( 5.0 kg ) 0.70 m s 2 )= 0.91
mg ( 5.0 kg ) ( 9.8 m s 2
)
38. a) a = 3.9 m/s2 (block 1 to the right and block 2 downward)
b) 4.7 m/s
c) 2.8 m