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The Process

1. The arc is submerged under a blanket of flux. Hence the name.

2. The arc is between the filler metal and the base metal.

3. The arc is shielded by the blanket of flux which also protects the molten metal

4. The filler metal is called as electrode since it is a part of the welding arc.

5. The electrode is consumed continuously in the arc.

6. For continuous feeding, of the electrode is supplied on spools/ coils/ reels / drums.

7. The electrode is fed using a electrode feeder.

8. There can be single or multiple electrodes fed into the arc.

9. The electrode diameter can vary from 0.8 mm to 6.3 mm.

10. The power for the arc can be AC or DC.

11. AC welding is essential when arc blow has to be avoided for welding inside pipes less than 400 mm
ID and for using multiple electrodes, at high welding currents.

12. The thickness that can be welded can vary from 3 mm to 300 mm

13. The welding positions that can be used are flat or horizontal.

14. The welding speeds can range from 150 mm / minute to 2500 mm/min.

15. The weld deposition rate can reach up to 15 kg / arc hour / per electrode.

16. Up to 12 mm of thickness can be penetrated and fused in single pass.

17. The arcing duty can range from 40 to 100 %.

18. The high deposition rate is possible because of high current density.
(amps. / mm2 ) compared to SMAW.

19. The depth of penetration is also higher compared to SMAW because of higher
current density

20. The weld deposition per shift of 8 hours can be in excess of 20 kgs. vis a vis 2 kgs for SMAW.
The Process Variation using Multiple Electrodes

21. Twin SAW involves two electrodes fed into the arc using common contact tip, electrode feeder
and power source. Each electrode must get enough current for proper melting.

22. The Twin SAW operates on DC.

23. Tandem SAW involves two or more electrodes fed into the arc using separate contact tip, wire
feeder and power source for each electrode..

24. The Tandem SAW can be DC lead AC trail , AC lead AC trail with additional trail electrode
on AC , if required.

The Power Source Electrode Feeder Combinations

25. The power for the DC arc can be provided by a constant voltage ( CV )power source when electrode
diameter is less than 5.0 mm and the electrode current densities are in excess of 50 Amp./mm2..

26. With CV power source, the electrode feeder does not need feed back from arc voltage to maintain
reasonably constant welding current / arc length. The self- regulating arc mechanism helps to
maintain constant arc length for a given wire feed rate, when electrode operates at current densities
in excess of 50 A /mm2

27. The power for AC arc, is provided by a constant current ( CC ) power source, since higher OCV is
required to start and maintain AC arc.

28. With CC power source, the wire feeder needs to operate with feed back from the arc voltage for
instantaneous corrective increase / decrease in the wire feed rate, during welding, to maintain constant
arc length.

29. For small diameter electrodes , electrode feeders with fast feeding rates are necessary. For larger
diameter ( >= 2.4 mm ), electrode feeders with slow feeding rates are adequate.
Parameter Setting with Single Wire DC using CV Power Source

30. The DC , CV power source provides required current at welding voltage very close to the Open
Circuit Voltage (OCV) which can be set before starting of the arc.

31. The difference between the OCV and arc voltage depends upon the slope of the static characteristic
Current / Voltage curve, the welding current and the voltage drop along the welding cable.

32. The slope of current / voltage curve for CV power sources is between 1 to 3 volts per 100 Amps.

33. The welding current depends upon the chosen electrode feed rate. Higher the electrode feed rate
more the welding current.

34. The electrode stick out ( distance between contact tip end and work piece ) should not be more
than 5 times the electrode diameter.

35. Two types of fluxes are used to submerge and shield the arc namely - Fused / Agglomerated.

36. Fused flux are heavy while Agglomerated fluxes are light.

37. Flux consumption is higher ( 2 times wire ) than Agglomerated fluxes ( 1.4 times wire )

38. Acidic fluxes perform better than basic fluxes when high welding speeds with excellent bead finish is

39. The flux feeding ahead of the arc should be just enough to cover the arc.

40. The agglomerated fluxes have to be dried before use to avoid porosity and improve slag detachability

41. The electrode should be connected to positive polarity for high depth of penetration.

42. The electrode should be connected to negative polarity for low depth of penetration.

43. The higher depth of penetration and deposition rate can be obtained by using higher current.

44. For a given current, the depth of penetration and deposition rate is more for smaller diameter
electrode, because of higher current density.

45. Wider and flatter beads can be obtained by increasing the arc voltage. Low arc voltage will result
in narrow and excessively convex welding beads.

46. The inclination of the electrode with respect to vertical can affect penetration and bead profile.

47. Inclination of the electrode along the direction of welding ( lead angle ) gives flatter beads with
reduced penetration.

48. Inclination of the electrode against direction of welding ( drag angle ) gives lumpy beads with
increased penetration.

49. Increase in welding speed decreases depth of penetration and reduces the width of the bead.