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Original Lesson Plan

Poets: The unacknowledged legislators of the world


Year/Stage: Year 10/Stage 5

Content:

Understand that peoples evaluations of texts are influenced by their value systems, the
context and the purpose and mode of communication ACELA1565
Compare and evaluate a range of representations of individuals and groups in different
historical, social and cultural contexts ACELT1639
Compare and evaluate how voice as a literary device can be used in a range of different
types of texts such as poetry to evoke particular emotional responses ACELT1643
Evaluate the social, moral and ethical positions represented in texts ACELT1812
Analyse and evaluate how people, cultures, places, events, objects and concepts are
represented in texts, including media texts, through language, structural and/or visual
choices ACELY1749
Identify and analyse implicit or explicit values, beliefs and assumptions in texts and how
these are influenced by purposes and likely audiences ACELY1752

English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in his manifesto In Defence of Poetry, described
poets as the unacknowledged legislators of the world. For Shelley there was an inextricable link
between poetry, political views and social action and he wanted to challenge the legislation of his
time through his poetry.

In this sequence the students explore the interplay between context, political views and social,
moral and ethical positions represented in contemporary Australian poet Bruce Dawes poem On
the Death of Ronald Ryan (published in Sometimes Gladness: Collected poems 19541978).
Ryan was the last person to die under capital punishment legislation in Australia.

Activity 1: First contact On the Death of Ronald Ryan


Read the poem aloud to the class and invite students to write down two or three questions they
have about the poem. They might like to think about:
what the poem reminds them of
where their minds went when they were reading and listening to it
the pictures the poem suggested to them
ideas they might like to discuss with the poet
how the poem made them feel.

Activity 2: The context for the poem On the Death of Ronald Ryan

Context literally means with text. This includes the social and historical context of a text as well
as the contexts for its reading, hearing and viewing: who interacts with it, where, when and why.
In this activity the students explore what was at stake in the writing of this poem by exploring its
context.

Preview the following websites that document social reactions at the time:
The State Library of Victorias information on Ronald Ryan. Highlight the navigation on
the right-hand side that loads newspaper articles and images from the day.
The video Last Man Hanged at the Australian Screen website.
Students should investigate:
the purpose of the websites
the origins of the information, including the authors
the viewpoint of the website creators in relation to the death of Ronald Ryan
the voices and views that are privileged and silenced on the site.

Activity 3: Re-reading the poem On the Death of Ronald Ryan


Students re-read the poem again in pairs and revisit their understanding of the poem from the first
focus activity. They then analyse:
how Dawes poem characterises Ryan
how Dawe silences the prevailing political will of the time
how Dawe wants to be a legislator of the time.

Activity 4: Rewriting the poem through textual intervention


Through textual intervention, the students learn about the significance of address, tone, diction
and syntax in the creation of voice in a poem. After identifying these elements in On the Death of
Ronald Ryan, they adapt the poem to create a new poem on a political or social issue that is
significant to them. The students should choose a significant figure involved in a current social or
political issue, then:
highlight key words, phrases and sentences that create voice in the poem
rewrite the poem for their chosen significant figure, substituting new words and phrases
for the highlighted text
publish these poems in a class anthology.

Source: English For The Australian Curriculum. (2013). Lesson sequence 2 - poets: the unacknowledged
legislators of the world. Retrieved from http://e4ac.edu.au/units/year-10/sequence02.html
102086 Designing Teaching & Learning 1H 2017
Assignment 2: APST and QT Analysis Template

Section 1: Australian Professional Standards for Teachers

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Only
standards directly addressed in Designing Teaching & Learning that are relevant to this assignment have been
included. However, this does not mean the other standards are irrelevant to lesson planning and evaluation
more generally.

Evaluation score 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)


Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Know students and how they learn


1.3 Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socio-economic backgrounds
12345 Comments: No mention of catering for the challenges and social needs of
students with diverse backgrounds although possible
1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
12345 Comments: No mention of recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
students to advance reconciliation and promote equity and equality
1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities
12345 Comments: The delivery of content is moderately differentiated with written and
visual resources and analysis questions to easily access the content. However not
for student needs across full range of abilities
1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability
12345 Comments: No mention of inclusive accommodations to assist students with
disability with functioning in the general classroom although possible
2 Know the content and how to teach it
2.2 Content selection and organisation
12345 Comments: The subject knowledge is organised by how the student can express
their initial understanding and what an improved understanding might look like
2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting
12345 Comments: No mention of assessment. Activity 3 and 4 can be informally
assessed on the development of the disciplinary knowledge, understanding and
skills underpinning social, moral and ethical positions in texts and how students
will make meaning of and apply them in contemporary contexts
2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
12345 Comments: ICT is used to bridge the gap in student knowledge through internet
that enable Australian e-Research
3 Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning
3.1 Establish challenging learning goals
12345 Comments: No selection of specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-
based goals or outcomes
3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs
12345 Comments: The activities are structured to make connections between past and
present learning experiences. The activities are sequenced to mentally engage,
actively explore, verbally explain, conceptually elaborate and creatively evaluate
3.3 Use teaching strategies
12345 Comments: Strategies used are facilitative questioning, independent research,
collaborative learning, explicit teaching of text structure
3.4 Select and use resources
12345 Comments: Contains links to newspaper articles, images and a video to explore
the text in its context but not appropriate for students with different learning
levels of achievement
4 Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments
4.1 Support student participation
12345 Comments: Students can explore and express new ideas, work and participate in
leadership/support roles within student groupings, and take personal
responsibility for managing their learning
4.2 Manage classroom activities
12345 Comments: There is a flow in the order of activities but no mention of additional
activities to the ongoing task to slow down/occupy the students who might work
faster than others
4.3 Manage challenging behaviour
12345 Comments: No mention of a problem-solving strategy that understands and deals
with a probable difficult behaviour
4.4 Maintain student safety
12345 Comments: No mention of potential hazards, eliminating or controlling potential
risks so there is adequate supervision
4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically
12345 Comments: Students are accessing safe government websites. Possible for some
students to be confused and inhibited because of the lack of social cues and
multiple threads of simultaneous topics leading to inappropriate use of ICT
5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning
5.1 Assess student learning
12345 Comments: No mention of specific assessment method but the student
performance and what students have done with their learning for the final writing
activity can be informally assessed
5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning
12345 Comments: No mention of real-time or formative feedback for students regarding
performance on targeted learning outcomes

Section 2: NSW Quality Teaching Model

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following NSW Quality Teaching model elements.

Evaluation score refer to NSW QTM Classroom Practice Guide for each element
Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Intellectual quality
1.1 Deep knowledge
12345 Comments: Students can draw on resources from the internet to help build
knowledge while the lesson keeps a sustained focus on the key ideas. The lesson
provide scope for students to focus on developing deep knowledge on poetry,
political views and social action and provides an overall vision that links context,
political voice and poetry
1.2 Deep understanding
12345 Comments: Students can construct explanations and draw conclusions in relation
to the central ideas through the series of formative tasks. Students consolidate
their learning and apply their newly-learned knowledge in contemporary context
1.3 Problematic knowledge
12345 Comments: The lesson does not encourage students to assess information from
different sources and different points of view
1.4 Higher-order thinking
12345 Comments: The lesson assists students to analyse, question, apply and synthesise
the gathered information and create new understandings, words and poem
1.5 Metalanguage
12345 Comments: The lesson do not provide a glossary of potentially difficult terms to
promote understanding and correct pronunciation
1.6 Substantive communication
12345 Comments: Tasks require students to communicate their knowledge and
understanding only in written mode
Quality learning environment
2.1 Explicit quality criteria
12345 Comments: Activity 2 and 3 provides explicit criteria for a quality response
2.2 Engagement
12345 Comments: Activities have been developed to create some student enthusiasm
and interest in the topics around political voice
2.3 High expectations
12345 Comments: It is clear on from the outset that expectations are high due to the
challenging writing activity at the conclusion of the lesson
2.4 Social support
12345 Comments: There is no clear indication of providing any teacher support
although possible
2.5 Students self-regulation
12345 Comments: Lesson encourages student autonomy and develop initiative to
thoughtfully participate in critical and creative writing. There is a clear outline of
the student responsibility for each task
2.6 Student direction
12345 Comments: The last writing activity allows for element of choice that relate to
areas of interest and relevance to young people. However, they cannot control
over the time spent on each activity and neither can negotiate the criteria
3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
12345 Comments: Students have the opportunity to draw on their life experiences and
make links with previous knowledge when determining the selection of a
political issue to write a poem
3.2 Cultural knowledge
12345 Comments: Students recognise the cultural knowledge of the Anglo-Australians
but no other social groupings
3.3 Knowledge integration
12345 Comments: Students draw on knowledge gained in other subjects and KLA's
such as ICT and Modern History to effectively research and investigate
3.4 Inclusivity
12345 Comments: The activities do not take into account the diversity of young people's
backgrounds in the classroom and do not encourage use of cultural knowledge
3.5 Connectedness
12345 Comments: Activities are highly connected, offering students opportunities to
engage with and see the relevance of the learning experiences and to discuss the
current issues
3.6 Narrative
12345 Comments: Students explore a narrative account of Ronald Ryan and finally
construct a narrative of their own in a poetic form

Section 3: Identifying Areas for Improvement

Identify the two APST standards and two NSW QT model elements you are targeting for improvement.

APST

1) 1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability


2) 2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting

QT model

1) 1.6 Metalanguage
2) 3.4 Inclusivity
Modified Lesson Plan

Topic area: Stage of Learner: Syllabus Pages:


English Stage 5 EN5-1A, EN5-8D, EN5-3B
Date: Location Booked: Lesson Number:
12/5/2017 English Rooms 2/12
Time: Total Number of students: Printing/preparation:
60 minutes 24 Laptops/ Ipads
Nearpod Interactive Lesson
'On the Death of Ronald Ryan poem
high contrast print-out
Instructions high contrast print-outs
Analysis Questions high contrast
print-out
ALARM high contrast print-out

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


understands and Informal formative Understand that peoples evaluations of Develop and apply
evaluates the assessment via Nearpod texts are influenced by their value systems, contextual knowledge
diverse ways texts poll the context and the purpose and mode of
can represent communication ACELA1565 Engage personally
personal and public Monitoring throughout with texts
worlds EN5-7D the lesson to ensure Compare and evaluate a range of
student engagement and representations of individuals and groups Respond to and
questions, participation via Nearpod in different historical, social and cultural compose texts
challenges and contexts ACELT1639
evaluates cultural
assumptions in Compare and evaluate how voice as a
texts and their literary device can be used in a range of
effects on meaning different types of texts such as poetry to
EN5-8D evoke particular emotional responses
ACELT1643
selects and uses
language forms, Evaluate the social, moral and ethical
features and positions represented in texts ACELT1812
structures of texts
appropriate to a Analyse and evaluate how people,
range of purposes, cultures, places, events, objects and
audiences and concepts are represented in texts, including
contexts, media texts, through language, structural
describing and and/or visual choices ACELY1749
explaining their
effects on meaning Identify and analyse implicit or explicit
EN5-3B values, beliefs and assumptions in texts
and how these are influenced by purposes
and likely audiences ACELY1752

Cross Curriculum themes & General Explicit subject specific concepts and skills
capabilities English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in his manifesto In
Asia and Australia's Engagement with Asia - Defence of Poetry, described poets as the unacknowledged
Activity 2&4 legislators of the world. For Shelley there was an inextricable link
between poetry, political views and social action and he wanted to
ICT capabilities - Nearpod challenge the legislation of his time through his poetry.
Literacy - Activity 3&4 In this sequence the students explore the interplay between context,
Critical and Creative Thinking - Activity 3&4 political views and social, moral and ethical positions represented in
Personal and Social capability - Activity 3 contemporary Australian poet Bruce Dawes poem On the Death of
Ethical Understanding - Activity 2&3 Ronald Ryan (published in Sometimes Gladness: Collected poems
19541978). Ryan was the last person to die under capital
punishment legislation in Australia.
Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred
T/S
Intro Activity 1: Read On the Death of Ronald Teacher: S
Ryan - Poll Prepare the students to use the smart
5-10 mins devices to access the Nearpod
- What ideas sound familiar in the poem? interactive lesson and provides the
- What pictures appear familiar in the high contrast print-outs of the poem
poem? with low vision
- What techniques are used in the poem? Reads the poem aloud with the
students
Ask the students to complete the
Nearpod poll and check for student
understanding as their individual
responses appear live on the screen
Provide general feedback and identify
struggling students

Student:
Read/listen to the poem and complete
Nearpod poll

Resources:
On the Death of Ronald Ryan poem
print-out
Nearpod live lesson pin : TOCKY
https://nearpod.com/student/

Body Activity 2: Use the context clues - Virtual Teacher: T


Field Trip Explain what is 'context'
10-15 Introduce the virtual lesson
mins Teacher explain that context literally Provide the Activity 2
means with text. This includes the social criteria/instruction high contrast print
and historical context of a text as well as out
the contexts for its reading, hearing and Walk around the room to observe
viewing: who interacts with it, where, student engagement to the activity and
when and why. Virtual demonstration assist less capable students in applying
allows for differentiated learning, the skill
promote student engagement and enable Negotiate behaviour and expectations
students with hearing disability or other with challenging students if necessary
special needs to participate in the literacy Student:
activity. Students will see a protest in Virtually visit via Nearpod the 'People
Hong Kong through virtual reality to
Say No' event in Hong Kong to
observe the crowd gathered there, surmise
observe the crowd gathered there and
what is happening based on context clues
use context clues to practice making
and practice making inferences about
inferences
situations. They will be able to articulate
what context clues they used to arrive at
their conclusion and will recognise they Resources:
can use this same type of connective Nearpod live lesson
thinking in their reading of the poem. https://nearpod.com/s/ela/9th-
Primarily, the task introduces the grade/context-clues-L32622324
metalanguage for the lesson, look for
patterns and formulate rules.

Students will also develop knowledge and


understanding of the Chinese society,
culture, beliefs and environments and
identify any connections between people
of Australia and China.
Activity 3: Investigation of the context of Teacher: S
25-30 mins the poem- Group work Ask the students to access the websites
that document social reactions at the
Students using the skills from prior time of Ronald Ryan's execution
activity should investigate: Provide Activity 3 criteria/instruction
- the viewpoint of the website creators in high contrast print-out
relation to the death of Ronald Ryan Monitor student responses via
- the voices and views that are privileged Nearpod in order to provide
and silenced on the site. immediate feedback to individual
students
Students then must analyse: Provide positive support to students
- how Dawes poem characterises Ryan with poor literacy/disability on how to
- how Dawe silences the prevailing to use the required metalanguage
political will of the time using ALARM cognitive scaffold
- how Dawe wants to be a legislator of the Student:
time Explore the web links via Nearpod to
research
A Learning and Responding Matrix Students in groups explore what was
(ALARM) is a cognitive scaffold based
at stake in the writing of the poem by
on Blooms Taxonomy that simplifies the
investigating its context
questions to enable students with poor
Students individually records their
literacy to comprehend the criteria.
Students of all literacy levels are offered analysis in Nearpod open-ended
an opportunity through the scaffold to questions
employ higher-order thinking skills and
construct a response. Resources:
Analyse: considers HOW/WHY EACH Analysis Questions printout
component is aiming to perform its Nearpod live lesson
purpose, role or function and how the http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-
each component interact with each other history/rebels-outlaws/city-
to make the whole criminals/ronald-ryan
https://aso.gov.au/titles/documentari
Nearpod ensures safe use of ICT as
es/last-man-hanged/clip2/
teachers can monitor student
performance, provide real-time feedback
and students are restricted from accessing
other websites other than the inserted link

Conclusion Activity 4: Rewriting the poem- Textual Teacher: S


/Extension intervention Ask the students to choose a
for gifted significant Chinese figure involved in
and Through textual intervention, the students a current social or political issue and
learn about the significance of address, write a new poem according to the
talented
tone, diction and syntax in the creation of criteria
voice in a poem. After identifying these Provide Activity 4 criteria/instruction
20 mins elements in On the Death of Ronald high contrast print-out
Ryan, they adapt the poem to create a Walk around and comment on
new poem on a political or social issue
student's writing weakness and invite
that is significant to them happening in
student to reflect on how the writing
China
can be improved
Save Nearpod classroom and student
Students must:
- highlight key words, phrases and data/responses for assessment and
sentences that create voice in the poem reporting.
- rewrite the poem for their chosen
significant figure, substituting new words Student:
and phrases for the highlighted text Rewrite the poem according to the
- publish/present the poems in Nearpod criteria
Collaborate Publishes on Nearpod Collaborate

Resources:
Nearpod live lesson
Reflection
What have I learned about the teaching and learning process when preparing this lesson?

Preparing a lesson plan according to the requirements of the National Standards and
Quality Teaching Model was a new and rewarding experience for me. Analysing the original
lesson plan using the standards and teaching model made me to understand the value of
thoughtful preparation not in displaying teacher talents but teacher traits. Therefore, taking
the challenge of building a lesson that is assessable, accessible for students with disability,
uses metalanguage and inclusive was a pruning process for me as I had learn how students
learn and fix my focus on having the traits that meets the learning needs at every
component of the lesson.

I learned how to be a teacher that plans adjustments for students with learning difficulties
and disabilities using ICT that they may have equal access to participate and demonstrate
learning. Moreover, I understood ICT is a great tool to be a teacher that constantly assess
and keeps record of both classroom and student progress in order to make a reliable report
of the student achievements and critical reflection of my teaching practice. The use of
metalanguage assisted in becoming a teacher that helps students achieve sufficient literacy
proficiency to gain access to the lesson content by engaging the students in a language that
they can comprehend. Exploring the curriculum priority Asia and Australias engagement
with Asia in the lesson plan helped me to be a culturally responsive English teacher that
promotes inclusion of students of other backgrounds.

Overall, I understood I need to set aside sufficient time to prepare a good lesson that meets
the learning needs of all students and creates an environment that invites all students to
learn. Moreover, I greatly benefited from the experience of measuring the quality of my
lesson using the National Standards and Quality Teaching model.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


understands and evaluates the Informal formative assessment during Activity 2 using NearPod Virtual
diverse ways texts can represent Reality
personal and public worlds
EN5-7D
questions, challenges and Informal formative assessment during Activity 3 using NearPod open-
evaluates cultural assumptions ended questions
in texts and their effects on
meaning EN5-8D
selects and uses language Informal formative assessment during Activity 4 using NearPod
forms, features and structures of collaborate
texts appropriate to a range of
purposes, audiences and
contexts, describing and
explaining their effects on
meaning EN5-3B
WHS
What are the key risk issues that may appear for and need to be reduced/eliminated in this
lesson? Using your syllabus and support documents as well as other WHS policy- Outline
the key WHS considerations that are to be applied in this lesson?

Need to ensure there is adequate ventilation in the classroom when using laptops to eliminate
overheating of the machines.
Academic Justification

An increase in cognitive sophistication and a broadened experience base enable the

teachers to make numerous learning and participation decisions based on a students limited

cognitive abilities, affective abilities, and experiences, and environmental factors (Darling-

Hammond, & Bransford, 2012). The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers and

NSW Quality Teaching model achieve its primary purpose when teachers comprehend with

competence what it tells about learning and at what angle of view learning must be centred

in order to prevent student neglect.

All students have exclusive and distinctive abilities and skills (Coil, 2005).

Therefore, knowing the students and how they learn as stated in Standard 1 can help modify

and personalise the learning to improve student achievement. The original lesson plan

though comprehensive lacked in recognising Standard 1.6 that states to employ strategies to

support full participant of students with disability (AITSL, 2016). It is through each childs

cognitive structures that enables them to retain and comprehend their learning (Garner,

2007). Cognitive structures allow students to learn by establishing relevant links with prior

knowledge, discovering patterns and relationships and recognising rules and associating

concepts to real-life situations (Garner, 2007). Students develop cognitive structures through

two particular skills; reflective awareness and visualisation (Garner, 2007). However,

physical impairments, psychological disorders can prevent or slow down the development of

cognitive structures (Garner, 2007). Effective use of ICT can provide learning opportunities

in the classroom that activates the essential skills of reflective awareness and visualisation

(Adam & Tatnall, 2017). Nearpod Virtual Reality task will prompt the students to notice

what their senses are telling them in response to the 'People Say No' protest thus being

reflectively aware. The task also enable students to visualise the information about context

clues helping to transform the physical data into abstract representations.


Recent research studies have found that the one aspect teachers are least confident in

their teaching practice is, assessment (Earl, L, 2003). From the analysis of the research

findings, it is evident that there is a link between assessment practices and motivation of

student learning, hence it is crucial to use assessment practices in daily teaching (Wiliam, D,

2011). The original lesson plan lacked in enriching student learning and performance

through assessment feedback that is given explicitly, aptly and constructively (Wiliam,

2011). Standard 2.3 requires assessing strategies that will ensure the documentation of each

students achievement, progress and potential (AITSL, 2016). One of the strategies used for

examination of students understanding in the modified lesson plan is formative assessment,

which is utilised both in the beginning and during the lesson. The Nearpod diagnostic tools

will initially help to determine what students already know and where there are gaps and

misconceptions. Subsequently, students can then reflect and examine their own progress

from the feedback provided during successive informal assessment during the activities.

In response to the improvements made to the original lesson plan using the NSW

Quality Teaching Model, the aspects of the lesson's metalanguage and inclusivity were

addressed. Activating the students' existing knowledge about a lesson topic and engaging all

learners in critical thinking requires the necessary literacy support (Wilhelm, & Wilhelm,

2010). Students with sensory, physical, intellectual, behavioural or speech difficulties or

specific learning difficulties like dyslexia can exhibit problems acquiring literacy skills

(Basil, & Reyes, 2003). Therefore, the original lesson plan lacked in using the metalanguage

to build the students' capacity of all learning levels to participate in the challenging literacy

activities (Schleppegrell, 2013). The use of metalanguage can assist students in

understanding new concepts, fostering imagination and creativity, using vocabulary

according to learning abilities, providing opportunities for the students to communicate in

the target language, offering guided practice with high success rates and supporting with

self-reflective feedback for further improvement (Schleppegrell, 2013). This was addressed
by employing the A Learning and Responding Matrix (ALARM) cognitive scaffold to

provide a meaning metalanguage to analyse and revisit the text and to construct a response

based on the writing criteria. Thus, each student can participate by experimenting a feature in

the prepared lesson and collect the sufficient knowledge and equally interact with other

students in the group work to continue meet the learning outcomes.

In mainstream classrooms, when learning environment fail to conform to supportive

and safe principles, students do not become resistant but rather inflexible contributors

(Carlson, Hemmings, Wurf, & Reupert, 2012). Reports display significant gap in student

performance due to negative school encounters, poor teacher-student relationships,

classroom alienation, language barriers, racism, poor self perception of academic ability, and

prior learning failures are factors known to be affecting their active involvement (Wilhelm,

& Wilhelm, 2010). Quality Teaching model proposes to identify strategies to promote

inclusivity. This was addressed by adding the Context Clues activity based on the Hong

Kong 'People Say No' protest. This meet the cross-curriculum priority Asia and Australia

engagement with Asia which advocates the social and cultural forces to shape the students to

be connected with and contribute to their classroom community.


References

AITSL. (2016). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Retrieved from


http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-forteachers/
standards/list

Australian Screen. (2017). The Last Man Hanged. Retrieved from


https://aso.gov.au/titles/documentaries/last-man-hanged/clip2/

Adam, T., & Tatnall, A. (2017). The value of using ICT in the education of school students
with learning difficulties. Education And Information Technologies.

Basil, C., & Reyes, S. (2003). Acquisition of literacy skills by children with severe
disability. Child Language Teaching And Therapy, 19(1), 27-48.

Carlson, L., Hemmings, B., Wurf, G., & Reupert, A. (2012). The instructional strategies and
attitudes of effective inclusive teachers. Special Education Perspectives, 21(1), 720.

Coil, C. (2005). Tools for teaching and learning in the integrated classroom (1st ed.).
Moorabbin, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow Education.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2012). Preparing Teachers for a Changing


World (1st ed.). New York: Wiley.

Earl, L. (2003). Assessment as learning (1st ed.). Corwin Press, INC.

Garner, B. (2007). Getting to "got it!" (1st ed.). Alexandria, Virg.: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development.

ICT in the Writing Classroom: The Pros and the Cons. (2014). International Journal Of
Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 4(1).

NESA. (2017). NSW Syllabus: English. Retrieved from


http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/english/

Schleppegrell, M. (2013). The Role of Metalanguage in Supporting Academic Language


Development. Language Learning, 63, 153-170.

State Library of Victoria. (2017). Ergo research resources results: Ronald Ryan.
Retrieved from http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/rebels-outlaws/city-
criminals/ronald-ryan

Wilhelm, J., & Wilhelm, P. (2010). Inquiring Minds Learn to Read, Write, and Think:
Reaching All Learners through Inquiry. Middle School Journal, 41(5), 39-46.

Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment (1st ed.). Bloomington: Solution Tree.