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SLAB DE

DESIGN OF ONE

Given:
live load: 4.8 kPa fc' = 28 mPa
fy = 275 mPa L:
floor finish: 1.1 kPa f = 0.9 cover =
ceiling finish: 0.24 kPa f1 = 0.85
mech. duct allowance: 0.25 kPa conc. unit wt.= 23.5 kN/m3
electrical load: 0 kPa
partition load: 0 kPa using 12 mm rebars
miscellaneous load: 0.3 kPa Ad = 113.10
Water Proofing 0.26

Solution:
minimum slab thickness, h
L ( 1.6 ) ( 1000 )
h= = = 66.6666666667 mm
24 24
say h = 90 mm

assume effective depth, d

d = h - cover - half of bar diameter
= 90 - 40 - 6
= 44 mm

slab self-weight = h x conc. unit wt.= ( 0.09 ) ( 23.5 ) = 2.12
floor finish = 1.1
ceiling finish = 0.24
mech. duct allowance = 0.25
electrical load = 0
partition load = 0
miscellaneous loads = 0.3
Water Proofing = 0.26

4.27
WUDL= 1.2 (DL) = 1.6 ( 4.27 ) = 5.118
WULL= 1.6 (LL) = 1.6 ( 4.8 ) = 7.68
WU = WUDL + WULL = 12.798

At END 1 :

Wu L2 ( 12.798 ) ( 1.6 )2
Mu = = = 1.3651
24 24

MU 1.365 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.783
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (44 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.783
= x 1- 1-
275 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 275 4 x 275
= 0.0050909091 or 0.0048104569 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
275 600 + 275

when rmin > r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00509 for As

As = f b d
= ( 0.00509 ) ( 1000 ) ( 44 )
= 224 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 504.91071
As 224

say S = 500 mm

Smax = 3h = 3 ( 90 ) = 270 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 270 mm

S > Smax Therefore S = 270

At MIDSPAN :

Wu L2 ( 12.798 ) ( 1.6 )2
Mu = = = 2.3402
14 14
MU 2.340 x 10e6
Rn = = = 1.343
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (44 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 1.343
= x 1- 1-
275 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 275 4 x 275
= 0.0050909091 or 0.0048104569 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
275 600 + 275

when rmin > r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00509 for As

As = f b d
= ( 0.00509 ) ( 1000 ) ( 44 )
= 224 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 504.91071
As 224

say S = 500 mm

Smax = 3h = 3 ( 90 ) = 270 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 270 mm

S > Smax Therefore S = 270

At END 2 :

Wu L2 ( 12.798 ) ( 1.6 )2
Mu = = = 3.2763
10 10

MU 3.276 x 10e6
Rn = = = 1.880
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (44 )2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 1.880
= x 1- 1-
275 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 275 4 x 275
= 0.0050909091 or 0.0048104569 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
275 600 + 275

when rmin < r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00713 for As

As = f b d1
= ( 0.00713 ) ( 1000 ) ( 44 )
= 313.7807209266 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 360.44279
As 313.7807209266

say S = 360 mm

Smax = 3h = 3 ( 90 ) = 270 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 270 mm

S > Smax Therefore S = 270

temperature bars :

Ast = 0.0020 bh
= 0.0020 ( 1000 ) ( 90 )
= 180 mm2

Ad (1000) ( 113.10 ) ( 1000 )

sst = = =
Ast 180
say S = 620 mm

Smax = 5h = 5 ( 90 ) = 450 mm or
Therefore, Smax = 450 mm (either governs)

S > Smax Therefore S =

DESIGN OF 2S-

Given:
short side A: 3 m fc' = 28 mPa
long side B: 4.5 m fy = 415 mPa
f = 0.9
LOADS: f = 0.85
live load: 0.6 kPa conc. unit wt.= 23.5 kN/m3

floor finish: 1.1 kPa CA = 0.083 using

ceiling finish: 0.24 kPa CADL = 0.048 cover =
mech. duct allowance: 0.25 kPa CALL = 0.06
electrical load: 0.25 kPa CB = 0.017
partition load: 0 kPa CBDL = 0.01
miscellaneous load: 0.3 kPa CBLL = 0.026
Water Proofing 0.26

SOLUTION:
3.00
ratio m = = 0.67 > 0.500 Two-way Slab!
4.50

2( 3.00 + 4.50 ) (1000)

h= = 83.33
180
say h = 125 mm > hmin = 90 mm

d1 = h - (cover) - (half of rebar f) = 99 mm

d2 = h - (cover) - (rebar f) - (half of rebar f) =

slab self-weight = h x conc. unit wt.= ( 0.125 ) ( 23.5 ) = 2.94
floor finish = 1.1
ceiling finish = 0.24
mech. duct allowance = 0.25
electrical load = 0.25
partition load = 0
miscellaneous loads = 0.3
Water Proofing = 0.26
5.34
WUDL = 1.2 (DL) = 1.2 ( 5.34 ) = 6.41
WULL = 1.6 (LL) = 1.6 ( 0.6 ) = 0.96
WU = WUDL + WULL = 7.37

Solving for Moments:

A. Short Span, Middle Strip
at continuous edge
MA = (Wu) (CA) (A2)
= 5.50 kN-m

at midspan
= 2.79 kN-m
MALL = (WuLL) (CALL) (A2)
= 0.52 kN-m
MA = MADL + MALL = 3.31 kN-m

B. Long Span, Middle Strip

at continuous edge
MB = (Wu) (CB) (B2)
= 2.48 kN-m

at midspan
MBDL = (WuDL) (CBDL) (B2)
= 1.27 kN-m
MBLL = (WuLL) (CBLL) (B2)
= 0.51 kN-m
MB = MBDL + MBLL = 1.78 kN-m

Strength Design:
A. Short Span, Middle Strip
at continuous edge
MA 5.50 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.62
fbd 1
2
0.90 x 1000 x (99 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.62
= x 1- 1-
415 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 415 4 x 415
= 0.003373494 or 0.0031876522 Therefore,
(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600
rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
415 600 + 415

when rmin > r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00337 for As

As = f b d1
= ( 0.00337 ) ( 1000 ) ( 99 )
= 333.98 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 338.65
As 333.98

say S = 330 mm

Smax = 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

S > Smax Therefore S = 250

at midspan
MA 3.31 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.38
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (99 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.38
= x 1- 1-
415 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 415 4 x 415
= 0.003373494 or 0.0031876522 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
415 600 + 415
when rmin > r < rmax
Therefore, use 0.00337 for As

As = f b d1
= ( 0.00337 ) ( 1000 ) ( 99 )
= 333.98 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 338.65
As 333.98

say S = 330 mm

Smax = 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

B. Long Span, Middle Strip

at continuous edge
MB 2.48 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.36
fbd 2
2
0.90 x 1000 x (87 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.36
= x 1- 1-
415 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 415 4 x 415
= 0.003373494 or 0.0031876522 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
415 600 + 415

when rmin > r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00337 for As

As = f b d2
= ( 0.00337 ) ( 1000 ) ( 87 )
= 293.49 mm2
using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 385.36
As 293.49

say S = 380 mm

Smax = 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

S > Smax Therefore S = 250

at midspan
MB 1.78 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.26
f b d22 0.90 x 1000 x (87 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.26
= x 1- 1-
415 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 415 4 x 415
= 0.003373494 or 0.0031876522 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
415 600 + 415

when rmin > r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00337 for As

As = f b d2
= ( 0.00337 ) ( 1000 ) ( 87 )
= 293.49 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 385.36
As 293.49

say S = 380 mm

Smax = 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

S > Smax Therefore S = 250

DESIGN OF TWO
with INTERPO

Given:
short side A: 3.8 m fc' = 28 mPa
long side B: 4.2 m fy = 248 mPa
f = 0.9
LOADS: f = 0.85
live load: 4.8 kPa conc. unit wt. = 24 kN/m3

floor finish: 1.1 kPa CA = 0.060 using

ceiling finish: 0.8 kPa CADL = 0.033 cover =
mech. duct allowance: 0.25 kPa CALL = 0.039
electrical load: 2.2 kPa CB = 0.04
partition load: 0.93 kPa CBDL = 0.022
miscellaneous load: 1 kPa CBLL = 0.026
Water Proofing 0

SOLUTION:
3.80
ratio m = = 0.905 > 0.500 Two-way Slab!
4.20

2( 3.80 + 4.20 ) (1000)

h= = 88.889
180
say h = 90 mm < hmin = 125 mm

d1 = h - (cover) - (rebar f) = 69 mm
d2 = h - (cover) - (rebar f) - (half of rebar f) =

slab self-weight = h x conc. unit wt.= ( 0.125 ) ( 24 ) = 3.00
floor finish = 1.1
ceiling finish = 0.8
mech. duct allowance = 0.25
electrical load = 2.2
partition load = 0.93
miscellaneous loads = 1
Water Proofing = 0.26

9.54
WUDL = 1.2 (DL) = 1.2 ( 9.54 ) = 11.448
WULL = 1.6 (LL) = 1.6 ( 4.8 ) = 7.68
WU = WUDL + WULL = 19.13

Solving for Moments:

A. Short Span, Middle Strip
at continuous edge
0.95 0.055
0.905 CA
0.90 0.06

( 0.95 - 0.905 ) 0.055 - CA

=
( 0.95 - 0.90 ) ( 0.055 - 0.06 )
Therefore, CA = 0.060
MA = (Wu) (CA) (A2)
= 16.44 kN-m

at midspan
for DL: 0.95 0.03
0.90 0.033

( 0.95 - 0.905 ) 0.03 - CADL

=
( 0.95 - 0.90 ) ( 0.03 - 0.033 )
Therefore, CADL = 0.0327142857
= 5.41 kN-m

0.905 CALL
0.90 0.039

( 0.95 - 0.905 ) 0.035 - CALL

=
( 0.95 - 0.90 ) ( 0.035 - 0.039 )
Therefore, CALL = 0.0386190476
MALL = (WuLL) (CALL) (A2)
= 4.283 kN-m

B. Long Span, Middle Strip

at continuous edge
0.95 0.045
0.905 CB
0.90 0.04

( 0.95 - 0.905 ) 0.045 - CB

=
( 0.95 - 0.90 ) ( 0.045 - 0.04 )
Therefore, CB = 0.0404761905
MB = (Wu) (CB) (B2)
= 13.657 kN-m

at midspan
for DL: 0.95 0.024
0.905 CBDL
0.90 0.022

( 0.95 - 0.905 ) 0.024 - CBDL

=
( 0.95 - 0.90 ) ( 0.024 - 0.022 )
Therefore, CBDL = 0.0221904762
MBDL = (WuDL) (CBDL) (B2)
= 4.481 kN-m

0.905 CBLL
0.90 0.026

( 0.95 - 0.905 ) 0.029 - CBLL

=
( 0.95 - 0.90 ) ( 0.029 - 0.026 )
Therefore, CBLL = 0.0262857143
MBLL = (WuLL) (CBLL) (B2)
= 3.561 kN-m

MB = MBDL + MBLL = 8.042 kN-m

Strength Design:
A. Short Span, Middle Strip
at continuous edge
MA 16.441 x 10e6
Rn = = = 3.837
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (69 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 3.837
= x 1- 1-
248 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 248 4 x 248
= 0.0056451613 or 0.005334176 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
248 600 + 248
\
when rmin < r < rmax
Therefore, use 0.01697 for As

As = f b d1
= ( 0.01697 ) ( 1000 ) ( 69 )
= 1171.0976645078 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 96.576061
As 1171.0976645078

say S = 90 mm

Smax= 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

S < Smax Therefore S = 90

at midspan
MA 9.691 x 10e6
Rn = = = 2.262
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (69 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 2.262
= x 1- 1-
248 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 248 4 x 248
= 0.0056451613 or 0.005334176 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
0 600 + 248

when rmin < r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00960 for As

As = f b d1
= ( 0.00960 ) ( 1000 ) ( 69 )
= 662.3673380976 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 170.75117
As 662.3673380976

say S = 170 mm

Smax = 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

B. Long Span, Middle Strip

at continuous edge
MB 13.657 x 10e6
Rn = = = 4.671
fbd 2
2
0.90 x 1000 x (57 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 4.671
= x 1- 1-
248 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 248 4 x 248
= 0.0056451613 or 0.005334176 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
248 600 + 248

when rmin < r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.02117 for As

As = f b d2
= ( 0.02117 ) ( 1000 ) ( 57 )
= 1206.5574123696 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 93.737769
As 1206.5574123696
say S = 90 mm

Smax= 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

S < Smax Therefore S = 90

at midspan
MB 8.042 x 10e6
Rn = = = 2.750
f b d22 0.90 x 1000 x (57 ) 2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 2.750
= x 1- 1-
248 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 248 4 x 248
= 0.0056451613 or 0.005334176 Therefore,

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
248 600 + 248

when rmin < r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.01182 for As

As = f b d2
= ( 0.01182 ) ( 1000 ) ( 57 )
= 673.6094477419 mm2

using 12 mm bars
Ad (1000) ( 113.10) (1000)
S= = = 167.90145
As 673.6094477419

say S = 160 mm

Smax= 2h = 2 ( 125 ) = 250 mm or 450

Therefore, Smax = 250 mm

SLAB DESIGN

ESIGN OF ONE-WAY SLAB

GUIDELINES:
1. Fill-up only colored cells with their corresponding values.
1.6 m slab length
40 mm concrete stress and strain
rebars diameter and concrete cover
constants for computing h and Mu.
mm2 2. Avoid editing non-colored cells for it may cause unreasonable design.
3. For the design of sections having different moments, just replace tha value of
denominator for Mu for that corresponding section.
4. Checking computations using calculator may will not match with the computer's
computations due to rounding-off numbers. Computer uses complete decimal
numbers and exact values.

kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

kPa

kPa
kPa
kPa

1.3651 kN-m
MPa

= 0.00290

use 0.00509

= 0.03783

mm

mm

mm

2.3402 kN-m
MPa

= 0.00503

use 0.00509

= 0.03783

mm

mm

mm

3.2763 kN-m

MPa
= 0.00713

use 0.00509

= 0.03783

mm

mm

mm

628.33 mm
450 mm
(either governs)

450 mm

RESULTING TABLE

Middle Strip Column Strip

SLAB
As (mm2) S (mm) As (mm2)

cont. edge 333.98 250 222.65

12 mm rebars
short span midspan 333.98 250 222.65
20 mm

disc. edge 97.83 250 65.22

Two-way Slab!

GUIDELINES:
1. Fill-up only colored cells with their corresponding values.
mm slab dimensions
concrete stress and strain
rebars diameter and concrete cover
87 mm constants from the table of values
2. Avoid editing non-colored cells for it may cause unreasonable design.
3. Give the exact dimensions of the slab. Don't forget to subtract the supporting
kPa beam dimensions.
kPa 4. Checking computations using calculator may will not match with the computer's
kPa computations due to rounding-off numbers. Computer uses complete decimal
kPa numbers and exact values.
kPa 5. Having discontinuous edge will depend upon the case of the slab.
kPa As seen on the table, depends on slab's case.
kPa
kPa
kPa

kPa
kPa
kPa

MPa

= 0.00152

use 0.00337
= 0.02161

mm

mm

mm

MPa

= 0.00091

use 0.00337

= 0.02161
mm

mm

mm

MPa

= 0.00088

use 0.00337

= 0.02161
mm

mm

mm

MPa

= 0.00063

use 0.00337

= 0.02161

mm

mm
mm

ESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLAB

with INTERPOLATION

RESULTING TABLE

Middle Strip Column Strip

SLAB
As (mm2) S (mm) As (mm2)

cont. edge 1171.098 90 780.732

12 mm rebars
short span midspan 662.367 170 441.578
50 mm

disc. edge 402.186 250 268.124

Two-way Slab!

GUIDELINES:
1. Fill-up only colored cells with their corresponding values.
mm slab dimensions
concrete stress and strain
rebars diameter and concrete cover
57 mm constants from the table of values
2. Avoid editing non-colored cells for it may cause unreasonable design.
3. Give the exact dimensions of the slab. Don't forget to subtract the supporting
kPa beam dimensions.
kPa 4. Checking computations using calculator may will not match with the computer's
kPa computations due to rounding-off numbers. Computer uses complete decimal
kPa numbers and exact values.
kPa 5. Having discontinuous edge will depend upon the case of the slab.
kPa As seen on the table, depends on slab's case.
kPa
kPa

kPa

kPa
kPa
kPa
MPa

= 0.01697

use 0.00565
= 0.04329

mm

mm

mm

MPa

= 0.00960

use 0.00565

= 0.04329
mm

mm

mm

MPa

= 0.02117

use 0.00565

= 0.04329

mm
mm

mm

MPa

= 0.01182

use 0.00565

= 0.04329

mm

mm

mm
sonable design.
ust replace tha value of

match with the computer's

uses complete decimal
Column Strip

S (mm)

250

250

250

250

250

250

sonable design.
subtract the supporting

match with the computer's

uses complete decimal

se of the slab.
Column Strip

S (mm)

135

250

250

135

240

250

sonable design.
subtract the supporting

match with the computer's

uses complete decimal

se of the slab.
DESIGN OF BEAM

END 1 MIDSPAN
V M M
from MDM 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL 137.4067 -75.429 140.8715
from Seismic Analysis EL --- 0 ---
1.2DL + 1.6LL 137.4067 -75.429 140.8715

DESIGN OF BEAM REINFORCEMENT

Given:
Wu = 38.19 kN d' =100 mm
fc' = 28 MPa
fy = 275 MPa
f = 0.9
f1 = 0.85 d=
Es = 200000 MPa

d= 540 mm
b= 300 mm
d' = 100 mm
L= 4.6 m b = 300 mm

cover : 40 mm
using 10 mm f stirrups

Wu = 38.19 kN

L = 4.6 m

137.4067 Vu at d distance

d= 0.54 m

140.8715 kN-m
75.43 kN-m

AT END 1 :

Mu 75.429
Mn = = = 83.81 kN-m
f 0.9

Assuming single reinforcement

( 0.75 )( 0.85 ) f1 fc' 600
rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
275 600 + 275
= 0.03783

As = rmax b d
= ( 0.03783 ) ( 300 ) ( 540 )
= 6128.90182 mm2

1 r fy
Mu = f fy f b d2 1- x
1.7 fc'
1 ( 0.03783
= ( 0.0378 ) ( 275 ) ( 0.9 ) ( 300 ) ( 540 ) 1 - 2
x
1.7 28
= 640089810 MN-mm
Mu = 640.08981 kN-m

Mu 640.08981031
Mn = = = 711.2109 kN-m
f 0.9
711.2109003 > 83.81 Therefore, it's a single reinforcement only!

Mn1 = 711.2109 kN-m IF DOUBLY-REINFORCED BEAM

As1 = 6128.90182 mm2
Mn2 = 83.81 - 711.2109
= -627.40090034 kN-m

From Mn2 = As2 fy ( d - d' )

Mn2 -627.4009 x10e6
As2 = =
fy ( d -d' ) 275 ( 540 - 100 )
= -5185.1314078 mm2

where:
fy 275
Ey = = = 0.00138
Es 200000

and 0.003 Es' 0.003 ( c - d' )

= ; Es' =
c c - d' c

solving for c: a
c=
f1 2Mn1
from Mn1 = As1 fy ( d - a/2) ; a = 2d -
As1 fy
a= 236.057
236.057143
therefore c = = 277.714 mm
0.85
Therefore,
0.003 ( 277.714 - 100 )
Es' = = 0.00192
277.714

IF COMPRESSION STEEL YIELDS: IF COMPRESSION STEEL DOESN'T YIELD

Es' 0.00192
fs' = fy = 275 MPa fs' = ( fy ) =
Ey 0.00138
As' = As2 = 384 MPa
= -5185.1314 mm2
Mn2
As' = =
fs' ( d - d' ) 383.95 ( 540 - 100 )
= -3713.7878 mm2

Therefore, COMPRESSION STEEL YIELDS

As' = -5185.1314078 mm2

As = As1 + As2
= 6128.9018182 + -5185.1314
= 943.77041039 mm2

minimum edge distance = cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirrupf

= ( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )
= 70 mm

For compression reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad = 314.15926
As' -5185.1314
N= = = -16.505 say

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 1( 20 )
S= = 180 mm > 25 mm
1

For tension reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad = 314.15926
As 943.77041
N= = = 3.004 say

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 2( 10 ) - 3( 20 )
S= = 70 mm > 25 mm
2

AT MIDSPAN :

Mu 140.8715
Mn = = = 156.523889 kN-m
f 0.9

Assuming single reinforcement

( 0.75 )( 0.85 ) f1 fc' 600
rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
0 600 + 275
= 0.03783

As = rmax b d
= ( 0.03783 ) ( 300 ) ( 540 )
= 6128.90182 mm2

1 r fy
Mu = f fy f b d 2
1- x
1.7 fc'
1 ( 0.03783
= ( 0.0378 ) ( 275 ) ( 0.9 ) ( 300 ) ( 540 ) 1 - 2
x
1.7 28
= 640089810 MN-mm
Mu = 640.08981 kN-m

Mu 640.08981031
Mn = = = 711.2109 kN-m
f 0.9
711.2109003 > 156.52388889 Therefore, it's a single reinforcement only!

Mn1 = 711.2109 kN-m IF DOUBLY-REINFORCED BE

As1 = 6128.90182 mm 2

Mn2 = 156.52388889 - 711.2109

= -554.68701145 kN-m

From Mn2 = As2 fy ( d - d' )

Mn2 -554.6870 x10e6
As2 = =
fy ( d -d' ) 275 ( 540 - 100 )
= -4584.1901773 mm2

where:
fy 275
Ey = = = 0.00138
Es 200000

and 0.003 Es' 0.003 ( c - d' )

= ; Es' =
c c - d' c

solving for c: a
c=
f1 2Mn1
from Mn1 = As1 fy ( d - a/2) ; a = 2d -
As1 fy
a= 236.057
236.057143
therefore c = = 277.714 mm
0.85
Therefore,
0.003 ( 277.714 - 100 )
Es' = = 0.00192
277.714

IF COMPRESSION STEEL YIELDS: IF COMPRESSION STEEL DOESN'T YIELD

Es' 0.00192
fs' = fy = 275 MPa fs' = ( fy ) =
Ey 0.00138
As' = As2 = 384 MPa
= -4584.1902 mm2
Mn2
As' = =
fs' ( d - d' ) 383.95 ( 540 - 100 )
= -3283.3709 mm2

Therefore, COMPRESSION STEEL YIELDS

As' = -4584.1901773 mm2

As = As1 + As2
= 6128.9018182 + -4584.1902
= 1544.7116409 mm2

minimum edge distance = cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirrupf

= ( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )
= 70 mm

For compression reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad = 314.15926
As' -4584.1902
N= = = -14.592 say

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 1( 20 )
S= = 200 mm > 25 mm
1

For tension reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad = 314.15926
As 1544.71164
N= = = 4.917 say

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 2( 10 ) - 3( 20 )
S= = 40 mm > 25 mm
3

AT END 2 :

Mu 3.401
Mn = = = 3.77888889 kN-m
f 0.9

Assuming single reinforcement

( 0.75 )( 0.85 ) f1 fc' 600
rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x
275 600 + 275
= 0.03783

As = rmax b d
= ( 0.03783 ) ( 300 ) ( 540 )
= 6128.90182 mm2

1 r fy
Mu = f fy f b d2 1- x
1.7 fc'
1 ( 0.03783
= ( 0.0378 ) ( 275 ) ( 0.9 ) ( 300 ) ( 540 )2 1 - x
1.7 28
= 640089810 MN-mm
Mu = 640.08981 kN-m

Mu 640.08981031
Mn = = = 711.2109 kN-m
f 0.9
711.2109003 > 3.7788888889 Therefore, it's a single reinforcement only!

Mn1 = 711.2109 kN-m IF DOUBLY-REINFORCED BEAM

As1 = 6128.90182 mm2
Mn2 = 3.7788888889 - 711.2109
= -707.43201145 kN-m

From Mn2 = As2 fy ( d - d' )

Mn2 -707.4320 x10e6
As2 = =
fy ( d -d' ) 275 ( 540 - 100 )
= -5846.5455492 mm2

where:
fy 275
Ey = = = 0.00138
Es 200000

and 0.003 Es' 0.003 ( c - d' )

= ; Es' =
c c - d' c

solving for c: a
c=
f1 2Mn1
from Mn1 = As1 fy ( d - a/2) ; a = 2d -
As1 fy
a= 236.057
236.06
therefore c = = 277.714 mm
0.85
Therefore,
0.003 ( 277.714 - 100 )
Es' = = 0.00192
277.714

IF COMPRESSION STEEL YIELDS: IF COMPRESSION STEEL DOESN'T YIELD

Es' 0.00192
fs' = fy = 275 MPa fs' = ( fy ) =
Ey 0.00138
As' = As2 = 384 MPa
= -5846.5455 mm2
Mn2
As' = =
fs' ( d - d' ) 383.95 ( 540 - 100 )
= -4187.5178 mm2

Therefore, COMPRESSION STEEL YIELDS

As' = -5846.5455492 mm2

As = As1 + As2
= 6128.9018182 + -5846.5455
= 282.35626898 mm2

minimum edge distance = cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirrupf

= ( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )
= 70 mm

For compression reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad = 314.15926
As' -5846.5455
N= = = -18.610 say

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 1( 20 )
S= = 200 mm > 25 mm
1

For tension reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad = 314.15926
As 282.356269
N= = = 0.899 say

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 2( 10 ) 4( 20 )
S= = 25 mm > 25 mm
4
DESIGN OF VERTICAL STIRRUPS

Vu = 212.484 kN

Vud = Vu - Wu d
= 212.484 - ( 38.19 ) ( 0.54 )
= 191.8614 kN
= 191861.4 N

1
Vc = fc' bw d
6
1
= 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
6
= 142,870.571 N

f Vc 0.75 ( 142,870.571 )
= = 53576.4641 N
2 2

f Vc
Vud > Therefore, the beam needs web reinforcement!
2

determine spacing s of the stirrups, using 10 mm stirrups

Av fy d
s=
Vs
where : Vud
Vs = - Vc
f
191861.4
= - 142,870.571
0.85
= 112944.629 N

f
Av = 2 4 ( 10 )2 = 157.079633 mm2

( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )

s= = 206.52886 mm say 200
112944.629 ( spacing based from Vud )

determine the length or portion of the beam that needs stirrups,

d = 540mm
Vud =

Vu = 212,484 N

x = 4.161 m
stirrups needed here
212,484 N - 38,190 x = 53,576
x= 4.16 m

to provide the needed spacing based from other values of V u to minimize stirrups,

At x = 1 m
Vu = 212,484 - 38,190 ( 1 )
= 174,294 N
Vu
Vs = - Vc
f
174,294
= - 142,870.571
0.75
= 89521.429 N

Av fy d
s=
Vs
( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )
= = 260.566947 mm
89521.429

check for maximum spacing :

1
compare Vs =
89,521 N to fc' bw d
3
1
? 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
3
89,521 N < 285,741 N
d 540
therefore, max. s = = = 270 mm or 600
2 2
Smax = 270 mm

S < Smax use S = 260 mm

At x = 1.5 m
Vu = 212,484 - 38,190 ( 1.5 )
= 155,199 N
Vu
Vs = - Vc
f
155,199
= - 142,870.571
0.85
= 64061.429 N

Av fy d
s=
Vs
( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )
= = 364.124338 mm
64061.429

check for maximum spacing :

1
compare Vs = 64,061 N to fc' bw d
3
1
? 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
3
64,061 N < 285,741 N
d 540
therefore, max. s = = = 270 mm or 600
2 2
Smax = 270 mm

S > Smax use S = 270 mm

OPTIONAL SECTION

At x = 2 m
Vu = 212,484 - 38,190 ( 2 )
= 136,104 N
Vu
Vs = - Vc
f
136,104
= - 142,870.571
0.85
= 17251.781941 N

Av fy d
s=
Vs
( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )
= = 1352.11108 mm
17251.7819411765

check for maximum spacing :

1
compare Vs = 17,252 N to fc' bw d
3
1
? 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
3
17,252 N < 285,741 N
d 540
therefore, max. s = = = 270 mm or 600
2 2
Smax = 270 mm

S > Smax use S = 270 mm

At x = 2.5 m
Vu = 212,484 - 38,190 ( 2.5 )
= 117,009 N
Vu
Vs = - Vc
f
117,009
= - 142,870.571
0.85
= -5212.9239412 N

Av fy d
s=
Vs
( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )
= = -4474.7105 mm
-5212.9239411765

check for maximum spacing :

1
compare Vs =-5,213 N to fc' bw d
3
1
? 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
3
-5,213 N < 285,741 N
d 540
therefore, max. s = = = 270 mm or 600
2 2
Smax = 270 mm

S < Smax use S = -4480 mm

At x = 3 m
Vu = 212,484 - 38,190 ( 3 )
= 97,914 N
Vu
Vs = - Vc
f
97,914
= - 142,870.571
0.85
= -27677.629824 N

Av fy d
s=
Vs
( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )
= = -842.78624 mm
-27677.6298235294

check for maximum spacing :

1
compare Vs = -27,678 N to fc' bw d
3
1
? 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
3
-27,678 N < 285,741 N
d 540
therefore, max. s = = = 270 mm or 600
2 2
Smax = 270 mm

S < Smax use S = -850 mm

At x = 3.5 m
Vu = 212,484 - 38,190 ( 3.5 )
= 78,819 N
Vu
Vs = - Vc
f
78,819
= - 142,870.571
0.85
= -50142.335706 N

Av fy d
s=
Vs
( 157.08 ) ( 275 ) ( 540 )
= = -465.20221 mm
-50142.3357058823

check for maximum spacing :

1
compare Vs = -50,142 N to fc' bw d
3
1
? 28 ( 300 ) ( 540 )
3
-50,142 N < 285,741 N
d 540
therefore, max. s = = = 270 mm or 600
2 2
Smax = 270 mm

a. ) along the depth

@ 50 mm spacing = 1 pc

@ 200 mm spacing
540 - 50 = 490 mm
490 mm
= 2.45 say 3 pcs
200 mm

length occupied by 3 pcs stirrups :

( 3 ) ( 200 ) = 600 mm

length already has stirrups :

600 + 50 = 650 mm

b. ) along the 1 m length

@ 260 mm spacing
1000 - 650 = 350 mm
350 mm
= 1.346 say 2 pcs
260 mm

length occupied by 2 pcs stirrups :

( 2 ) ( 260 ) = 520 mm

length already has stirrups :

520 + 650 = 1170 mm

c. ) along the 1.5 m length

@ 270 mm spacing
1,500 - 1170 = 330 mm
330 mm
= 1.222 say 2 pcs
270 mm

length occupied by 2 pcs stirrups :

( 2 ) ( 270 ) = 540 mm
length already has stirrups :
540 +1170 = 1710 mm

d. ) along the 2 m length

@ 270 mm spacing
2000 - 1710 = 290 mm
290 mm
= 1.074 say 2 pcs
270 mm

length occupied by 2 pcs stirrups :

( 2 ) ( 270 ) = 540 mm

length already has stirrups :

540 + 1710 = 2250 mm

e. ) along the 2.5 m length

@ -4480 mm spacing
2500 - 2250 = 250 mm
250 mm
= -0.06 say 0 pcs
### mm

length occupied by 0 pcs stirrups :

( 0 ) ( -4480 ) = 0 mm

length already has stirrups :

0 + 2250 = 2250 mm
M
Note : Fill-up yellow cells only.

END 2
V M
212.484 -3.401
--- 0.000 NOT INCLUDED
212.484 -3.401

CEMENT

540 mm

Shear Diagram in KN

-212.484
Moment Diagram

3.40 kN-m

) ( 275 )

single reinforcement only!

AT END 1
INFORCED BEAM
IF SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM

Mu = f Rn b d
75.429 = 0.9 Rn ( 300 ) ( 540
Rn 0.9580476 Mpa
= 0.85 fc' 1 - 1- 2 Rn
fy 0.85 fc

= 0.85 28 1- 1-
275

= 0.0035569

1.4 fc' 1.4

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 275 4 x 275
2Mn1 = 0.0050909091 or 0.0048104569 Therefore,

As1 fy (0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

mm rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) (28) 600
= x
275 600

when rmin > r < rmax

Therefore, use 0.00509 for As

As = f b d1
= ( 0.00509 ) ( 300) ( 540 )
SION STEEL DOESN'T YIELD: = 824.7272727273 mm2
0.00192
( 275 )
0.00138 minimum edge distance = cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirrup
= ( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )
= 70 mm
-627.40x10e6

383.95 ( 540 - 100 ) For tension reinforcement:

using 20 mm f bars Ad =
As 824.72727273
N= =

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 2( 10 ) - 2( 20 )
S= =
1
-16 pcs.
2 bars horizontally

OK!

4 pcs.
3 bars horizontally

OK!

) ( 275 )
single reinforcement only!

OUBLY-REINFORCED BEAM IF SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM

Mu = f Rn b d
140.8715 = 0.9 Rn ( 300 ) (
Rn = 1.78925 Mpa

= 0.85 fc' 1 - 1- 2 Rn
fy 0.85 fc

= 0.85 28 1-
275

= 0.00677

1.4 fc' 1.4

rmin = or =
2Mn1 fy 4 fy 275
= 0.0050909091 or 0.0048104569
As1 fy
mm (0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600
rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) (28)
= x
275

when rmin < r <

Therefore, use 0.00677 for As

As = f b d1
SION STEEL DOESN'T YIELDS: = ( 0.00677 ) ( 300) ( 540
0.00192 = 1096.94509486 mm2
( 275 )
0.00138
minimum edge distance = cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirr
= ( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10
-554.69x10e6 = 70

383.95 ( 540 - 100 )

For tension reinforcement:
using 20 mm f bars
As
N= =

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 2( 10 ) - 2( 20 )
S=
1

-14 pcs.
2 bars horizontally

OK!

5 pcs.
4 bars horizontally

OK!
) ( 275 )

Y-REINFORCED BEAM IF SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM

Mu = f Rn b d
3.401 = 0.9 Rn ( 300 ) (
Rn = 0.0432 Mpa

= 0.85 fc' 1 - 1- 2 Rn
fy 0.85 fc

= 0.85 28 1-
275

= 0.00016 Mpa

1.4 fc' 1.4

rmin = or =
2Mn1 fy 4 fy 275
= 0.0050909091 or 0.0048104569
As1 fy
mm (0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600
rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85 ) (28)
= x
275

when rmin > r <

Therefore, use 0.00509 for As

As = f b d1
SION STEEL DOESN'T YIELDS: = ( 0.00509 ) ( 300) ( 540
0.00192 = 824.727272727 mm2
( 275 )
0.00138
minimum edge distance = cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirr
= ( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10
-707.43x10e6 = 70

383.95 ( 540 - 100 )

For tension reinforcement:
using 20 mm f bars
As
N= =

checking the spacing:

300 - 2( 40 ) - 2( 10 ) - 2( 20 )
S=
1

-18 pcs.
2 bars horizontally

OK!

1 pcs.
5 bars horizontally

OK!
RRUPS

mm
( spacing based from Vud )
191,861 N

f Vs

f Vs = 121,440 N
1/2 fVc = 53,576 N

say 260 mm

( 300 ) ( 540 )

mm
say 360 mm

( 300 ) ( 540 )

mm

say ### mm
( 300 ) ( 540 )

mm

say ### mm

( 300 ) ( 540 )

mm
say -850 mm

( 300 ) ( 540 )

mm

say -470 mm
( 300 ) ( 540 )

mm
)
2( 0.95805 )
0.85 (28)

28

4 x 275
Therefore, use 0.00509

600
= 0.03783
+ 275

er - stirrupf - 2 x stirrupf
0 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )

314.15926
824.72727273
= 2.625 say 3 pcs.
314.15926 arrangement: 2 bars horizontally

160 mm > 25 mm OK!

540 )

1- 2( 1.7892534167 )
0.85 (28)

28
or
4 x 275
Therefore, use 0.00509

600

600 + fy
600
= 0.03783
600 + 275

rmax

cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirrupf

( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )
mm

1096.9450949
= 3.492 say 4 pcs.
314.15926 arrangement: 2 bars horizontally

- 2( 10 ) - 2( 20 )
= 160 mm > 25 mm OK!
540 )

1- 2( 0.0431971752 )
0.85 (28)

28
or
4 x 275
Therefore, use 0.00509

600

600 + fy
600
= 0.03783
600 + 275

rmax

cover - stirrupf - 2 x stirrupf

( 40 ) + ( 10 ) + ( 2 x 10 )
mm

824.72727273
= 2.625 say 3 pcs.
314.15926 arrangement: 2 bars horizontally

- 2( 10 ) - 2( 20 )
= 160 mm > 25 mm OK!
COLUMN DESIGN

For 3rd Level :

Pu = 565.65
PEL = 0
Pu3 = ( 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL )
= [565.65 ]
= 565.65 kN

For 2nd Level :

Pu = 1131.3
PEL = 0
Pu2 = ( 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL )
= [1131.3]
= 1131.3 kN

For 1st Level :

Pu = 2262.6
PEL = 0
Pu1 = ( 1.2 DL + 1.6LL )
= [2262.6]
= 2262.6 kN

Pu = 3959.55 kN

DESIGN OF SQUARE TIED COLUMN

Given:
Pu = 2262.6 kN where As
fc' = 28 MPa r= ; As = r Ag
fy = 275 MPa Ag
initial r = 0.05
f = 0.65

Solution:

Selecting column dimensions:

Pu = 0.8 f [ 0.85 fc' ( Ag - As ) + fy ( As ) ]
2263 x 103 = 0.8 ( 0.65 ) [ 0.85 ( 28 ) ( Ag - 0.05 Ag ) + 275 ( 0.05 Ag ) ]
Ag = 119668.698 mm2

Use: 300 mm x 300 mm

Ag = 90000 mm2
Selecting longitudinal (main) bars:
Pu = 0.8 f [ 0.85 fc' ( Ag - As ) + fy ( As ) ]
2263 x 103 = 0.8 ( 0.65 ) [ 0.85 ( 28 ) ( 90000 - As ) + 275 As ]
As = 8794.40225 mm2

Use: 4 -- 20 mm f OK! ..above minimum req'd rebars

As = 1256.63706 mm2

checking r :
rgmin = 1% of Ag = 0.01
rgmax = 8% of Ag = 0.08

As 1256.63706
r= = = 0.014
Ag 90000

rgmin < r < rgmax OK for rho min! Also, OK! for rho max

Design of ties:

Use 10 mm f size of ties.

( a ) 16 db = 16 ( 20 ) = 320 mm
( b ) 48 dt = 48 ( 10 ) = 480 mm
( c ) least lateral column dimension = 300 mm

Therefore, 300 mm controls!

Note : Fill-up yellow cells only.

UMN

Ag ) ]
mum req'd rebars
FOUNDATION DESIGN

DESIGN OF WALL FOOTING

Given:
DL = 13.44 kN/m a= 0.2 m
LL = 0 kN/m depth of footing = 1500 mm
fc' = 28 MPa
fy = 420 MPa cover = 75 mm
f = 0.9 0.75

qa = 200 kN/m2
conc weight = 23.5 kN/m3
soil weight = 16 kN/m3 LL
DL

a
Ground Line

1500mm

500mm

1m

Solution:

d = 425 mm

qe = qa - ( h x conc weight ) - ( soil height x soil weight )

500 1000
= 200 - ( 23.5 ) - ( 16 )
1000 1000

= 172.25 kN/m2

DL + LL
width required ( l ) =
qe

13.44 + 0
=
172.25

= 0.078 m say 1 m

1.2 DL + 1.6 LL
qu =
width required

=
1

= 16.128 kN/m2

depth required for shear at a distance d from face of the wall :

l - a
Vu = - d ( qu )
2

1 - 0.0002
= - 0.425 ( 16.128 )
2

= 1.2079872 kN

6 Vu
d=
f fc' ( bw )

6 ( 1.208 ) (10 )3
=
( 0.75 ) 28 ( 1000 )

determine steel area ( d = 425 mm )

l - a 1 - 0.0002
cantilever length = = = 0.5 m
2 2

take moment at face of the wall :

0.5
Mu = ( 16.128 ) ( 0.4999 ) = 2.0151936806 kN-m
2
Mu 2.015 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.012 MPa
f b d12 0.90 x 1000 x (425 )2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.012
= x 1- 1- = 0.00003
420 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 420 4 x 420
= 0.0033333333 or 0.0031497039 Therefore, use 0.00333

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x = 0.02125
420 600 + 420

Therefore, use 0.00333 for As

As = f b d
= ( 0.00333 ) ( 1000 ) ( 425 )
= 1416.667 mm2

S= = = 221.76 mm
As 1416.66666667

say S = 220 mm

DESIGN OF SQUARE COLUMN FOOTING

Given:
DL = 312.19 kN a = 400 m
LL = 156.1 kN depth of footing = 1500 mm
fc' = 28 MPa
fy = 420 MPa cover = 90 m
f = 0.9 0.75
fs = 40
qa = 200 kN/m 2

conc weight = 23.54 kN/m3

soil weight = 18 kN/m3

400 mm

400 mm

Ground Line

1500mm

350mm

2m

Solution:

d = 260 mm

qe = qa - ( h x conc weight ) - ( soil height x soil weight )

350 1150
= 200 - ( 23.54 ) - ( 18 )
1000 1000

= 171.061 kN/m2

DL + LL
Af required =
qe

312.193 + 156
=
171.061

= 2.73756 m2

Use : 2 m x 2 m footing
Af = 4 m2
bearing pressur`

1.2 DL + 1.6 LL
qu =
Af

=
4

= 156.096 kN/m2

a.) depth d required for one-way or beam shear :

2m
A1

0.54 m d = 260 mm

0.8 m

Vu1 = qu ( A1 )

= ( 156.096 ) [ ( 0.54 ) ( 2 ) ]

= 168.584 kN

6 Vu1
d=
f fc' ( bw )

6 ( 168.584 ) (10 )3
=
( 0.75 ) 28 ( 2000 )

= 127.438 mm < 260 mm OK!

b.) depth d required for two-way or punching shear :

A2

d/2

a
400 + 260 =

d/2

bo = 4 ( 660 ) = 2640 mm

Vu2 = qu ( A2 )

= ( 156.096 ) [ ( 4 ) - ( 0.66 )2 ]

= 556.390 kN

3 Vu2
d=
f fc' ( bo )

3 ( 556.390 ) ( 10 )3
=
0.75 28 ( 2640 )

= 159.315 mm < 260 mm OK!

12 Vu2
d=
fs d
f +2 fc' ( bo )
bo

12 ( 556.390 ) ( 10 )3
=
( 40 ) d
0.75 28 ( 2640 )
2640 + 2

Solving d by Quadratic Equation

2 :

where a = 158.745078664 d2
b = 20954.3503836 d
c = -6676681.1672
-b f b2 - 4ac
d=
2a

d= 149.4417276 mm or -281.441728 mm

determine steel area ( d = 260 mm )

l - a 2 - 0.4
cantilever length = = = 0.8 m
2 2

take moment at face of the wall :

0.8
Mu = ( 156.10 ) ( 0.8 ) ( 2 ) = 99.902 kN-m
2

Mu 99.902 x 10e6
Rn = = = 0.821 MPa
fbd 1
2
0.90 x 2000 x (260 )
2

0.85 fc' 2 Rn
r = x 1- 1-
fy 0.85 fc'

(0.85)( 28 ) 2 x 0.821
= x 1- 1- = 0.00199
420 0.85 x 28.0

1.4 fc' 1.4 28

rmin = or = or
fy 4 fy 420 4 x 420
= 0.0033333333 or 0.0031497039 Therefore, use 0.00333

(0.75)(0.85) f1 fc' 600

rmax = x
fy 600 + fy
(0.75)(0.85)( 0.85) ( 28) 600
= x = 0.02125
420 600 + 420

Therefore, use 0.00333 for As

As = f b d
= ( 0.00333 ) ( 2000 ) ( 260 )
= 1733.333 mm2
using 25 mm bars ; Ad = 490.87

Ad (1000) ( 490.87) (1000)

S= = = 283.1942308 mm
As 1733.33333333

say S = 280 mm
N
Note : Fill-up yellow cells only.

NG

( wall thickness )

425mm
0.00003

0.00333

0.02125

OOTING

( column dimension )
260mm
400 + 260 = 660 mm
0.00199

0.00333

0.02125