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(17·70'8 - 1867)




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MARCH 1974

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~ Bruce Dudley Walker 1974



- OF THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC, (1770's - 1867)



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This thesis dea1s with the qenera1 h~t04Y of the
County of Missisquoi in the Easte~n Townsbips of the ProviQce ,

of Quebec from approximate1y the 1770's up unti1 the time of

Confederation in 18;~. It is an attempt to show the effect

the sett1ers had on this part of the Eastern Townships in

the period mentioned. The thesis en~e~Vors to portray the

w~y the County of Missisquoi evo.1ved from the i 770 ' s unti1

1867 showing the se~lemenc a~ well as th~ e~onomic:
political and social develqpments in this periode





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'S - 1867)



Le sujet de cette thèse est l'histoire générale du

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comté de Mississquoi dans les cantons de l'est ,de la province

de Québec depu~s, approx1mativement. la période de 1770

Jusqu'à la période de la Conféderat1on en 1867. Je m'efforce

de démontrer l'effet que les pionniers ont eu sur cette partie

des Cantons de l'Est dans la période ment10née ci-dessus.

Cette-thèse essaie d'indiquer la façon dont le comté de

c Mississquo1 a évo1vé depuis 1770 jusqu'en 1867, tout en

démontrant l'établissement de~. dévéloppements économiques,

politiques et sociaux de cette période •


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has been very 11ttle work do ne on the County

of qnd consequently it has been rather difficult

to get a lot of material on this subJect. l havr, however,
been able to flnd sorne lnformatlon ln the Redpath Llbrary.

The County pf Missisquol Hlstorlcal Soclety which operates
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A'Museum ln the Village of S~anbrldge East ln the County has

also sup~lied me wlth materlal on the early hlstory of the

reglon.; Mr. Edward Struthers, Mayor of the village of Stanstead
ln the Eastern Townships, has also been very kin~ in providing
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me with materlai on the County of MIsslSqU01. Mr. Strutheri,

' l t lS belleved, lS one of the best authorities on the history

of the Eastern TownshIps. He has a weal th of mat~rial on tht!'

Elarly hlstory of the Eastern TownshlpS. He has been niost help'- .'
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Jul to me when trying to secure materlal for this thesis. l

have also obtained materlal from sorne of the resldents of t~

County of MissisqUOl whose ancestors were among the first

people ta settle in this region. Another source of informa-

tian has been p~ovlded b~ th~_Provincial and Feder~l Archives.
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Finally, l would like to thank· D1;". J. Cooper and

Dr. L. LaPler~e--not nnly for their patience--but for their

gUldanc.e and l.nspiratl.on in encouraging me to proce"ed in 1

tlilS venture.


.e This assignment ~ been very challenging, and,
although rather sketchy in sorne areas' due to the lack of

( information, it is the first piece of work, to my knowledge,
done on the history of the County of Missisquoi in the period
'from the 1770's up unti1 1867.
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Précis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii, i i i
Preface .......................................... f. .. • • ....... • • • • • • • iv
List of Illustrations ............................................. x

MISSISQUOI ................................................................... . 1

a) Location ............................ ~ ............................ ' 1
b) Physiographic Description .•..•.• ~..... 4
c) Drainage ......................................................... . . , 5
d) Vegetation and Soil . • . . . . . . . . • . • . . .• • • 10
e) MineraIs .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. 12

UP UNTIL 1867 ............................................................... .. 14

A. 1730's-1775: Pre-American Revolution
Period: The French Regime in the County
of Missisqu01 ................................................ .", ... '. .. 14

Seigniory o.f Foucau1 t , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Seigniory of Noyan •.... . ••. .. . . ... . . •... •• 17
Seigniory of St. Armand • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 18

B. 1775-1791: The United Empire Loyaliste
in the County of Missisquoi •••...•.••••••• 20

C,. 1791-1812: The Development of Townships
. in the Coun~y of Missisquoi ..••..••••...•• 47

Township of Dunham ....................... . 58
,- T6wnship of West Farnham ••...••.•.•.•....• 63
Township of Stanbridge •.••...•...•.....••• 64
Parish of St. Armand West . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .. . 69
Parish of St. Armand East
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D. 1814-1850: American and British Sett1ement
in the County of Missisquoi ••. •. . • . . . ••.•• 79

The Missisquoi Bay Region . •. •. . .. . . . •. . . •• 82
Township of Stanbridge •. •. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . •• 84
Township of Dunham • . . . . . . . . . . . •.. . •. .. . . •. 87
; Township of West Farnham ",........... •. . ... 89

E. 1850-1867: ~rench-Canadian Sett1ement ln
the, County of Missisquoi •.. 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 92

'. MISSISQUOI UP UNTIL 1867 ••............•.••••.• 99
A. Forest IAdustrles ln the County of
MissisqUOl up un ti 1 1867 •...........•••..• 100

Potash ........................................................ . 100
Lumber i ng •• (1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 101
F'urnl ture Maklng . ~ ...... '...... '" . . . . . . . . . . 103
Maple Sugar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . t'~l ••• ~ ••••• 104

B. Agrictf1 tural Development 1n the County
of MisslSquoi up unti1 1867 •.•..••....•... 105

C. The Development of Mil1s in the County
of Missisquoi up untl1 1867 •.....••.....•• III

D. The Development of Transportatl0n and
Communlcation in the County of Missisquoi
up until 1867 •...•................•••••.•• 120.

Wa ter Transportation • • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . 120
Development of Roads •... 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 121
Development of Rai1roads •...•........•.••• 131

E. Misce11anéous Trade and Commerce in the
CouI;lty of Missisquol up untll 1867. • •••.. /. 133

F. Banking in the County of Mis61squoi
up unti1 1867 ••... \ .••......•.......•..••• 137

MISSISQUOI UP UNTIL 1867 • • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . • 141
A. Polltical Developments-rn-the County of
Missisquoi .Op unt*i ~830 • . • • . . • . • . • . . • . • •• 141

War of 1812 and its Effect on the
County of Mit's.sisquoi: • • • . . . . • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • 144

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B. Po1itica1 Deve10pments in the County
of Missisquoi from 1830-1867 J • • • • • • • • • • • • 148

Po1itical Deve~opments in the l860's
and their Effect on the County of
Missisquoi . ... . ....... . ..... . ......... .. 155

,"'... The Fenian Raid of 1866 into the County
of Missisquoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

UP UNTIL 1867 •..........•.............. ~ .1. • • 163

MISSISQUOI UP UNTIL 1867 .........•.........••

Intercommunity Pattern .... ............ .
(~ 167

Masonic Order .............. It ••••.•••••••• i 70
The Country Crossroads Sett ement 174
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The French-Canadian Social S ........ 175
The Development of'Churches in, the County
of Mlssisquoi .........•."......•......••.. 177

a) Baptist .. k • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 ••••• 177
b) Methodist 180

Methodist in the Parishes of St. Armand
West and St. Armand East •.•.•.......• 180
Methodist in the Township of Dunharn
and Stanbridge .......•...•••.......•• 184

c) Church of Eng1and 188

Church of England in the Parishes of
St'. Armand West and St. Armand East .•• 1e8
Church of England in the Township
of Dunham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . 193
Church of England in the Township
of Stanbridge ....................... . 196
Church of England in the Township
of West Farnham •..•........... " ....• ,. 197
Church of England in the Parishes of
St. George de C1arenceville and
St. Thomas de Foucault ..........•..••. 200


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Congregationals in the County
of Missi.squoi

The 'Millerites
•.• • • • • • • • • . . . • • • • . • • . • • •

•... '.•... . j .......... ...


f) The Adventist Chûrcn Movement 207

g) Roman Catholic Church in the County
of Missisquoï . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20~

The Opve1opment of Schools in the
County of Missisquoi •••.•••....•.....•.••• 210

a) Ear1y Period (1790-1830) .... . . . . ... . .. -
b) Later Period (1830-1860's) .. . .. . .. . ... 216

Development of
Stanbridge Academy ... . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . .

IOGRAPHY .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .


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Maps ,Page
i. -1961' Census Divisions-"':j,Uss-isquoi County 3

2. Relief Ma~ of the County of Missisquoi
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3. Drainage Map . . .. . . . . . . . . ....,. . . .. ... . . . . . . ... .
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4. Granting of Land in the County of
. Mis~isquoi •••••••.•••....••••..••••..• :. • ... • 46

5. Town::thip of Dunham •••...•• ~ ••. : .. . . . . . . . . . • • 57

6. Townsh.j.,p,,,Of West Farnham
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............ -..... . 62 u

7. Township of 11 Stan'bridge . ............ ....... .
' 65
8. Parish of St. Armand West 70

9. Parish of St. Armand ·,East .... .... . . . ... . .. . 73
10. Plan of Miss~quoi County, by Hiram Corey,
D.P.S.--1845, Showing S~age Roads and
Other Rô~ds in the County ••••. ~ •• ~ ••••••••• . 126


l~ Early Log Cabin, (Still 'in use today, just
outside Village of Stanbridge East) •••••••• 56 l

2. Cornell Mfll . . . ... .. . . . .......... . . . .. ..... 115
3. Missisquoi Hotel' .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 136 O(

4. Ridge Chapel, 1842 .~ .......................
. . 180.
5. First MethQdist Church in the' kastern
Townships, Phi1ipaburg, 1819 ••••••••••••••• ~l.> '01 •
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Dunnam' Methodist Church,. ~~''1 Jv."
bui 1 t in 1846.' 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • : •••••• •
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7. St. James Anglican Cfi~rCh,
. Erec'ted, in ,1859 at t~ Village of
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P1geon H~l ••••••••••••.•••••••••••••t'. • • • • • 193
8. ~t. George's Anglican Church in
~larenceville, Ereèted in 1820,
. ~estored in 1897 •..•......•......•........•. 201


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a) Location

The County of Missisquoi is located in the south west

patt of the Province of Quebec, in the are a known as the

Eastern Townships. It lS located in the extreme western
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portion of thlS area, wlth its southern boundary c~inciding

with the United States border. Missl~quoi County extends
from the Internatlonal Border t~ the south, at point 45 north
latitude, to 45 15' at its most northerly posltion. It
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extends from 72 43' west longitude on the east to 73 20'
at the Richelieu Rlver. At its widest points it extends some r

thirty-three (33) miles from east to west and twenty-four (24)

mlles from north to south. The County today covers an area

of three hundred and seventy-five (375) square miles,

( 240 , 000 acres).

Prior to 1829 the County of Missisquoi did not exist

ln name as it was included in the County of Bedford. In 1829

the County of Bedford was divided into two counties~ Rouville
and Missisquoi. The County of Missisquoi now included the
selgniory Qf St'. Armand and the Townships of Dunham, Stanbridge

and Sutton. In 1857 the TownshlP of Sutton became part of the

COuhty of Brome. The County of Missisquoi now incluaed the

Townships of Dunham, Stanbridge, Farnham West and· the Parishes

of St. Armand East, St. Armand West, St. Thomas, and

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St. George. With the increase iJl'settlemen~ in the County.
the Township of Stanbridge w~s Idter broken down into parishes.

Today the County is divided into fourteen census divisions

Ior the sake of convenience. These consist of either

townships or parishes. (see map)


Area in Area in
Subdivision Square Miles Acres ,

Bedford 15 9,600.

Dunham 89 56,960

Farnham West 36 23,040
Notre 'Dame de Stanbridge 18 Il,520

't St. Armand East 48 30, 720

St. Armand West __ 30~ 19,520
St. de Clarenceville 23 14, 720

St • .. Ighace de Stanbridge 30 19,200

St. Pierre de Véronne 15 9,600

St. Sabine 21 13,440

St. Thomas 18 Il,520

Stanbridge Station 8~ 5,440

Venise-en-Ouébec 5 3,200

Source: 1961 Census Divisions; Missisquoi County.

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SCALE:- 1 inch.. = 4 mi te 10


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NO,'AN CLAltE~1i: V'I UE
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b) Physiographic Description (Relief map)

MisS1Squoi County occupies two dlstinct physlographic

areas, the Appalachian Highiand and the St. Lawrence Lowland

or Montreal Plaln. The latter lS a featureless plain, with

~n elevat~on averaglng from one hundred to two hundred feet

above sea level. The former lS part of the complexly folded

and faulted 'Appalachlan system. It varies from gently rolling

country ln the north and west, to the much more rugged high-

lands ùround the Pinnacle Mountain in 'the south east part of

the County ln the Parlsh of St. Armand East. A regional

descrlption by census divisions will give a better general
plcture of the arèa.

The areas of St. Thomas, St. George de Clarenceville,
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Venlse-en-Que ec, St. PIerre de Veronne, Notre Stanbridge,

St. SabIne, and the western part of the Townships of West Farnham

are located on the Montreal P~ain, and vary from just under one

hundred feet to two hundred feet ln elevation. St. Armand West,

Stanbrldge Statlon, St. Ignace de Stanbridge, and Farnham form

the transltion between the plaln and th~· APpalàèhian Hlghlands.
The ChamplaIn fault passes through thes~\r~giqns,
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but it is
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llttle more than a hill, behlnd which the land becomes more

undulating. Stanbrldge and Dunham Townships become more rolling

toward the south-east as one approaches the highlands of

St. Armand East. St. Almand itself changes from rolling land

in the west to the rugged high land of the Pinnacles.


c) Drainage

Thére are many smail creeks and rivers ,in the County,

of Misslsquoi. Almost every hillside has ltS springs of water,

which were a vaIuable means of supplying the early inhabitants

of the County wi th ~drinking water. The numerous streams al,so

furnished an abundance of water power for the early set tIers

as weIl as a means of transportation. Many of the rivers and

creeks ln the County supplied the pioneers with food as there
was a great abundance of fish, such as bass, plke, pickerel,

muskelunge, trout, perch, catflsh, surfish, dory and eel.

There are two maln drainage systems ln the County, of

WhlCh Plke River lS the more extenslve. THe other is the

Yamaska. The two systems are
separated by a divlde that runs

north-west from the highlands of St. Armand East, Ieavlng the

County ln the Parlsh of St. Sablne •


Plke River rlses in Lake Carroi, located ln Ver~ont

about ten miles from the International Border. It flows north

to the Town of Frelighsburg where it is jOlned by a branch

which rises in seIgy Lake. From Frelighsburg the r~ver flows

north-west. In this atea it is deeply entrenched, flowing in

a rather meandering course through the hiiis. It is joined by

severai small brooks and finaIIy by the North Pike branch which

enters it from the north. Shortly after this the river swings \

towards the south west, but then resumes its northerly direction
el at the Town of Bedford where it is joined by Groat Creek. The

streams ln the Pari~sh of St. Armand East are drained by Groat Creelt.

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• !.l'Low 100 FT, f

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2.00 FT.

D 300 ~T,

Sca.I~:- l irLcn. : t mIles
1., "-
v., . +00 FT .

-- . b (J() FT •

. 800 FT

~ . 1,000 r:r•

1,1-00 FT.

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Pike River continues on its nortb~rly direction until it

reaches the edge of the Appaiachlan Highlands. A brook

flowing from the north, le RUIsseaU aux Morpions, WhlCh flowa

alocg the faulted zone, enters here. The river then swings

to the south and flows lnto MisslSqUOI Bay. As it approaches

the Bay It tends to spread out, forming an extensIve swamp

near ItS mouth.


The Yamaska waters cover nearly 700 square miles.
It winds about nlnety mIles through rich and fer~lle country.

The Yamaska 18 a much larger river than PIke RIver, but only

flows through a small part of the County of Mlssisquol, thus

its draInage system is nct as Important. The south-east

branch of the Yamaska RIver waters the north-east part of the

TownshIp of Dunham. It fiows north-west to Farnham where it

Joins the maIn river WhlCh flows north and finally emptles

Into the St. Lawrence River.


The South RIver rises 'in the County of Ibèrville and

passes down through Henryville and into the northern part of

the Parishes of St. George de Clarenceville and St. Thomas de

Noyan in the County of Missisquoi. The river then flows in a

north westerly direction emptyi~g into' the Richelieu River in
IBouchette, Joseph, A Topographical Dictiohary of
the ProvInce of Lower Canada, 1832.

the County of Iberville. South River aètually drains only
- of Missisquoi Bay.
a small portion of the County west Its

princlpal trlb~tary strpam in the County of Missiaquoi ia

le RUlsseau de la Bone (or Wolf Creek, as indieated on Joseph

Bouchette's map of 1831), WhlCh rises in low marshy land near

the InternatIonal Border.


The Roc~ River drains a smaii portion of thé County

just cast of MisSISquoi Bay ln the southern part of St. Armand

W€'st. Its sourc€' lS in Vermont from where it flows north and

then curves back around to the south where it is joined by

seVeral smaii brooks. It th en flows back into the State of

Vermont and flnally emptles lnto Lake Champlain.

By the Nlneteenth Century aIl these rivers had entered

a mature stage and were subject to sprlng flooding, just as

they are today. However, they became very low during late

summer. Sorne of the mills, WhlCh were developed along these

rivers, were in sorne instances compelled to operate only for

a limited time durlng the summer months due to the low

levei of the water.

There are many swampy sections througho~t the County.

These are remainders of ~he Iee Age which eut out hollows

which prevent normal drainage in certain areas. Selby ~ake

is aiso such a hollow, but on a much larger scaie eoveri~q

about 600 acres. \
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Missisquei Bay is a"northward extension of Lake

Champlain. When the glaciers moved through the ,ChamplaIn

Valley, they carved out a hollow which ~s now filled by the

waters of Lake Champlain and Missisquoi Bay. This bay covers

an 'area of about thlrty-five square ~iies.

d) Vegetation and Soil

Before ~he coming of settlers te the County of Missisquoi,

the whole area was an unbroken forest. It was a mlxed forest,

having bot~ declduous and cenif~ous trees with the former mo~t
prevalent. Trees that were ~nd in the County included deciduous
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varleties of maple, blrch, beech, elm, alqer, ash, butternut,

iron-wood and oak, while coniferous trees included spruce, pine,

hemlock, cedar and tamarack. Thls dénse forest,was inhabited

by many animaIs and blrds such as bear, deer, beaver, raccoon,

muskrat, mink, otter, wild turkey, pheasants, partrldge and

many klnds of ducks. These creatures furnished the early

settlers with meat and furs for clothing.

As will be'seen by ~he following regional desciription,

the nature of the soil in the Cou~ty of Mlssisquoi is génerally

rich and productive.

The soil ln the Parishes of ,St. Thomas and -St. George

ls low and swampy in pl'àces, but the. parts that are susceptible

for cult~yatio~ are of a rich and fertIle quality. Apple

orchards, as well as p~um and cherry t+e~s were cultivated

with success by the e~rly settlers in this part ~f the founty.

Various types of grains were aiso grown in this area. The

forest timber consisted of white pine, white oak, cedar, ash, "\

elm, maple, beech and hemlock.

The greater part of the land in the Parishes of

St. Armand West and East i5 of a superior quality and offered

the early settlers a wide choice of soil for diffêrent types of

cultivation. As weIl as the cultivation of apple orchards,

many types of grains, such as ~heat, oats and barley were grown

ln St. Armand West. The land surface in the south-east p~t of
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the Parish of St. Armand East, however, was too mountairi'ous

for the early settlers to cultivate successfully. This part

of St. Atmand East was to re~ain forest eovered with beech, blrch,

maple and plne tlmber. The Plnnaele Mountain covers about six

hundred acres and rises ln conie al shape to a height of close

to 2000 feet above sea level. Just north of the Pinnaele

Mountaln 15 a hill of lesser magnitude ealled the L1ttle Pinnacle

WhlCh aiso remalned forest covered.
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The Town5~ip of Dunharn was a large valuable tract o~

land to the early pioneers of the County of Missisquoi. It had

plenty of tirnber, such as maple, beech, birch, elm, butternut,

iron-wood, white and black ash, oak and plne. The soil in

general is a rl~ black mould with, here and there, a mixture

of sand. The ear~settlers in this Township produced a gr~at
"- ~ ,"
quantity of wheat, barley and oats, as weIl as a number of ··W
other crops which were sold in Lower Canada. There were a few

swamp areas in the Township of Dunham.

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tract of land which was known as the "
Tdwnship o(-Stanbridge ta the early settlers in the 1800'9

w~s weIl timbered ~uced-hard woods of every kind. The

,Townsh~p of Stanbr1dge, 1n general, was'not c1eared as quickl~ ~

by the early pioneers as were sorne of the other areas in the


The soil in the Township of West Farnham varies from
light sand in the south to fertile clay loam along the Yamaska

R1ver. The land in the north west part of the Township is

swamp. The more suitable land was timbered principally with

beech, elm and maple.

e) M1nerals

The County of M~ssisquo1 was not as rich in mineraIs

as were other parts al the Eastern Townships. Thére were,

,- a few mineraIs which were to be mined by the settlers

in the County.

Bog iron ore' deposits were found in parts of the
Townships of Stanbridge and West Farnham.

Large deposits of phosphate of lime are 10cated at
Bedford. Phosphate of lime is used for fert11izer after being

manufactur~d into superphosphate of lime., MarI or carbonate of

lime deposits were found in parts of St. Armand West. When

calcined, 'marI y1elds a nea~ly~pure and white lime for mortar

and other uses. It was often overlaid with'depoaits of black
:"'\0. ~

mould or'peat, and was used as a valuable manure for sandy

soils. .

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, 1 Certain refra.ctory mineraIs were found in the County

of Missisquoi. MineraIs that are used ~p the construction of

furnaces~ or generally for withstanding heat are called

refractory substances. Plumbago or graphite deposits were1
fv r

exploited in the County and were used mainly for the manu-
" facture of crucibles and melting-pots as weIl as for constructing

ô small furnaces. Another refractory m1neral that was found in

certain parts of the County was soapstone or stealite which was

used for a variety o~purposes. Soapstone was used for ·~he
manufacturing of smal1 furnaces, stone-linings, culinary

vessels, water pipes and cistern-lin1ngs. When heated and

made harder and polished, it was used f~~ gas-bu~s and


Thére was als0 an abundapt s~pply of building stones in
the County. Tbe'most popular type of st~ne was marble. There
are still~today many varieties of serpentine marbles found in
·) - .
1 the Parish of~St. Armand West.

'The geographical features of the County of Missisquoi

were to influence. the pat~ern of settlement and the development

of economic enterprise.


, .

, ,-

... --k

1 Th~tt~~men~ of the County of Missisquoi may be
divided int~everal stages. First, the pre-American Revolution

period from the 1730' s up until 1775. Secondly" from 1775 to

the 1790's when settlers from ~he former Arnerican colonies
"squatted" around the shores of Missisquoi Bay.

between 1791 - 1815 when American settlement into the County

was fairly eKtensiv~~ but only by Isolated groups and families.

Fourthly, from 1815 up until 1867 when the entering population
. ,
continued t~'come from the UnIted States, as weIl as from the

BritIsh Islés. Toward the end of this period from about the

1850's on, French-Canadians began to move into the County, while

in sorne areas l the Engl1sh population had begun to -move out •

A. 1730'5 - 1775: Pre-Arnerican Revolution Period:
The French

. Regime in the County of Missisguoi

The County of Mi8Sisquoi 18 con~dered the oldest p~rt
of the E~stern Townships. It was the only section where land

was held under the French seigniorial system. Three seiqniories

weré,granted, two west of Missisquoi Bay,--Foucault and Noyan--

-and one ea8t of the Bay--St. Armand--during the French Regime.
-:Only a pa'rt of the 8eigJ!i0ry of Noyan was tp be later incl'uded in
/ '

the County of Mis~isquoi. - "

, "


.!:: .•

Because of the many years of dispute between the French

and English over the control of Lake Champlain and the lands

surrounding it, the F~ench ln 1731 built Fort St. F~édérlc at

èrown Point on Lake Champlain. The French had hoped to,
strengthen theIr lines of communication between CTown Point,

WhICh was Just north of Lake George, and their forts on the

RIchelieu River up to Sorel. In order to encourage settlement

and to conso1Idate their position on the Lake, after the con-

struction of Fort St. Frédéric the French begen to make a series

of selgnlorlal grants along both sides of Lake, Champlain as far

south as Lake George. Among these grants were the three around

MIssisqUOl Bay WhlCh were granted ~n 1733 and 1734.

In May, 1741 these' three grants, a10ng wi th aIl the

others on Lake Champ1aln, were forfeited as the conditions on

WhlCh they had been granted had not been fu1fi11ed, in the way

of c1eaning and sett1Ing the land. The land was then re-

annexed to the "Crown Domaine". 'I;}1e proprietors were> given
the r~ght of re-estab11shing their tIt1es by improvlng theIr
lands wlthln one year. SIeur Foucault, a member of the

Superior Counc11 of New France, who had been g1ven a selgniorial

grant measuring SlX miles in wldth along the RIchelieu Rlve~

and extending back to MisS1Squoi Bay, in 1733, was one of the
only seignlors who re-establisnfd hlS title in 1743 by
\ ----- ..(
attempting to settle his land.

George H. Montgomery, Missisquoi Bay-



Th~ first settlement in the County of Missisquoi

was probably in Sieur Foucault's seigniory in 1741 when he

sèttled six familles on six farms. Each farm consisted of

240 arpents, sllghtly over 200 acres, with 1,086 feet of river

frontage, extendlng back 6,400 feet. 2 Four other farm lots

were staked out at this time but were not settled. The locatIon

of these early settlers ln Foucault's seigniory would appear to

have been about one mile south and one mile north of the present

Internat~onal boundary. This sett1ement In.other words strad-

d!ed the InternatIonal boundary. Sieur Foucault'erected a stone
windmlll at WIndmlll Point in Alburg WhlCh lS today two mlles

south of the InternatIonal boundary 11ne. 3 An entry made ln the

J~urnal of Captaln Phineas Stems ln 1749 notes that "at the
- ,..,

emptylng of the Lake (ChamplaIn) lnto Shamblee (Richelieu River)

there lS a wIndmill and several deserted houses on both sides.,,4

(The RichelIeu RIver was, by the early settlers, also known as

the Chambly, sometlmes spelled Shamblee.)

As It was too near the dangerous Richelleu River route,

the early settlement in the selgniory of Foucault, however, was

2MisS1Squoi County Historical Society, Fifth Historical
Report, 1913, p. 35. ·
3 '
Crockett, W. H., History of Vermont, Vol. l, Chapter 5.

4MacCallum, Donald, The Seigniories of Noyan and Foucault,
Missisquoi County Hisforical SOclety, Eighth Historical Report,
1965, p. 121.


~ 17

deserted by 1747. This wate~ route was the one most

frequently travelled by the French, English and Indians as

it was the only natural connectI0n between the Hudson. and

St. Lawrence Rlver valleys. Because of the location of this

settlement on Lake ChamplaIn and the Rlchelieu Rlver,

Foucault's settlement was continually belng threatened with

attack by the Indians and Brltlsh. From 1747 untll approximately

the 1780's no further serlOUS attempt was made to settle in

thIS area.


The seignlory of Noyan was 9ranted to a French officer,

Plerre Jacques de Payon~ Sieur de Noyan, a captain of the

mari~es ln Canada ln 1733. ThlS land lay to the north of the

seIgnl0ry of Foucault and measured six mlles along the

Rlchelleu River by nine miles in depth. Isle-aux-NolX in the

Richelleu RIver was aiso included ln thlS grant to Sieur de

Noyan ln 1733. This seignioriai grant also had to be renewed

in 1743 as Sleur de Noyan, 1ike Sieur Foucault, had not

fulfilled his eariler obllgatI0n to settle his land.
Little Information 1s given regardIng any settlement

in Noyan, but there had to be sorne attempt at permanent sett1e-

" ment or Sleur de Noyan would not have recelved his seigniory.

However, the selgniory of Noyan was abandoned about 1747 for

the same reason that Foucault's seigniory was.


In 1748 Sieur Nicolas ,ené Levasseur was granted the

Seignlory of St. Armand which was on the east aide of

Missisquoi Bay. This selgnlory included the -land which had

been formerly granted ln 1733 and 1734 to Sieur de Lusignan

and Sieur de BeauvaIs. Lusignan and Beauvais had failed to

regaln the tltle to this land ln 1741. Levasseur's selgniory

stretched around MisSISquoi Bay from Pike RIver south across the

, forty-flfth parallel, where the InternatIonal boundary was

subsequently located, to about the north of the Mlsslsquoi Riv~r

and extended back nIne mIles from the Bay.S SIeur Nicolas René
t. ' ..

Levasscur was a naval instructor who had been sent to New France

in May, 1739, to direct the buildIng of a fleet. He had visited

the shores of L~ke Champlain around MisSlsquoi Bay in search of

tlmbér suitable for use as
• 0
~asts and spars ln the construction

of ShlpS.' Havlng been highly lmpressed with this area he

petitloned for th~s land and was granted it in September, 1748.

No records are available as ta whether or not any settlement was

made, but it lS probable that there wasn't any, as the other

selgniorles along the shores of Lake Champlain had been

abandoned b~ 1747.

SGeorge Montgomery, Missisguoi Bay-

After the ceding of Canada to the British by the

Treaty of Paris in 1763, many of the French officiaIs and

seigniors left North America and returned to France. ThlS

resulted ln sorne of the selgniorles along tne Richelleu River

and around Lake Champlain being sold by the seigniors. The

seigniorles of Foucault, Noyan and St. Armand were to ,change

owners after 1763.

In September, 1964 th'e selgnlory of Noyan was sold to

Major Genera~ Gabrlel Chrlstie and Captain John Camppell both

of the Brltlsh army.' Christie later bought Campbell's share

and became the solk.owner of the lônd which was then known as

Christle's Manor. 1 ln 1763, Foucault sold hlS seignlory to

General James Murray, who was to become the first Britlsh

'. Governor of Canada. In 1774, Colonel Henry Caldwell rented

the Foucault seignlory from Murray fo~ a term of 99 years. On

• the 28th of February, 1801, Colonel Caldwell purchased this

land WhlCh he had héld under lease Slnce 1774. 6 In 1788
Caldwell petitloned the Brltlsh government, but was unsuccessfu1

ln attemptlng to be compénsated for the loss of 20,000 acres of

land WhlCh had been lost to the State of Vermont when the

international boundary left Caldwell wlth only 15,000 of the

35,000 acres 'of land WhlCh had hltherto composed his seigniory

of Foucault or Caldwell's Manor, as it had come to be known

after 1774. 7

6LeMoine, Sir James M., The Hon. Henry Caldwell, p. 33.

7LeMoine, ibid., p. 33.

In November, 1763 Levasseùr so1d the tit1e to his

seigniory of St. Armand to Henry Guynard, who was a London
merchant. After a series of purchases the seignlory eventua11y

became the property of the Hon. Thomas Dunn in May, 1788. The

Hon. Thomas Dunn was a member of the flrst L~gls1ature and

Execut~ve Counclls ln Canada formed under the Quûbec Act of 1774,

and was nlso one of the Judges of the Court of Common P1eas. He

was to play not only a notable part in the hlstory of Canada but

also ln the history of the County of Missisquo;.

After the~Brltlsh conquest of Canada it appeared that

the obstacles WhlCh had prevented the advancement of settlement

ln the Champlaln - Rlchelleu valley had now been removed wlth

the slgnlng of the Treaty of Paris between the French and English.

Howevûr, thlS opportunlty did not continue for long as tenslon

betwecn the Brltlsh and the Amerlcan colonles discouraged
( settlemûnt along the R1Chelleu Rlver and Lake Champ1aln. ThlS

tenslon was to lead to the Amerlcan Revolution in 1775.

B. 1775-1791: The Unlted Empire Loyallsts in the County

of MisS1Squol

One of the most lmportant contributions WhlCh the

American Revolution was to have on Canada was that it was to

introduce 7,000 AmerlCan Loyalists, ("Torles" to the Americans,
"Unl.ted ftmplre Loyalists" to the British,) iilto Quebec.

Montgomery, ibid.
Wade, Mason, The French-Canadian Outlook, p. 64.

The RevolutIon in the American co.lonies, which resul ted in the

formation of the UnIted States, was by no means a unIted

Tnere were different periods of major mIgratIons, during

the American Revolution, and routes and destinations of the

refugees differed throughout the war. Many of the American

refugees escaped by the Lake ChamplaIn route from conditions

WhlCh they found Intolerable. As mentioned earlIer, Lake

Champlaln served as a connecting link between the Hudson RIver

Valley WhlCh was fliled wlth adherents to the BritIsh Crown, and

the RIchelIeu RIver, along which were situated several BritIsh
posts--the Isle aux NOlX on the New York frontier and further

north on the r1ver, Fort St. Johns, St. Ours, Chambly and Sorel,

at the )unction of the R1chelleu and St. Lawrence. These posts

and others along the St. Lawrence offered refuge to the

Amerlcan loyallsts.

In March, 1777, the Br1tish government authorized an

invi tation to aIl loyal subjects in the American colonies' to

")01n the K1ng's forces under the assurance of receiving the

same pay and allowances as the other corps raised in Brltish

North AmerIca, while to each of those serving until the restoratI0n

of peace a grant of two hundredsacres of land was promlsed in
addltI0n". Many of the loyalists who immigrated into Canada

lOSlebert, Wi~H., The American Loya1ists in the
.:E:.:a:;:s:..:t::.::e::::.:r=-n::.!-=S.:::e:..:i:.;gz.:n~I:.·o=r.:i;.;:e:.:s:.....;a::;n:.:=d~T;.;:o:.::;wn~s::::.:h:.:.:.ip.t:.=s--=o:..:f:......t.::.h:.:=e--=P..:r:..:o:..v:..i~n;;:c:.::e:.....:o:;.:f:......Q::.u==e=b:.::e:.=.c, p • 6•
Canadian Archives, 1885, 251, 237, 238.

came ln large or small parties under military leaders for the

purpose of joining the King's forces. A nurnber of refugee corps

or reglments were formed by these loyallsts. Arnong them were:
Johnson's Royal Greens, Jessup's Royal Amerlcans, Maclean's 84th

Reg1ment, McAlpln's American Volunteers, Peters ' Queen's Loyal

Rangers, the K1ng's Royal R~g1ment of New York and many others.

Many of the loyailsts who came ta Canada wlth the sole purpose of
)01n1ng the Brltlsh army left thelr familles ln the American

colonles and were not to be united wlth them in many instances

untll after the Revolutlonary War ln 1783.

Of course, not aIl the Loyal1sts who entered Canad~ dur1ng
the Revolutlon enllsted ln the Brltish army. Throughout ~e war

there were sorne famlljes who entered Canada unnotlced and settled

in communltlcs where they could take up thelr usual course of 11fe

wlth as Iltt1e lnterruptlon as possIble. Sorne of the~e peacefu1

refugees lncluded Quaker and Baptlst loyallsts who refused to
take up mi11tary arms. One of the areas that some of these

loyailsts faml1les settled or squattpd at was around M1SS1Squol

Bay ln the selgnlory of St. Armand and Ca1dwel1 ' s manor, forrnerly

known as Foucault selgniory before 1774. These early loyalists

were known as "squatters" as the y did not make any appllcation to

purchase or obtaln a c1ear title to the land which they settled on.

Caldwell's Manor was the most popular of the two areas to the early

loyalists because of its proxlmity to the Richelieu River. As

earlyas 1775 there were settlers wKô had come to Ca1dwe11 ' s

11Siebert, Wilbur H., ibid., p. 17.
"-- ~,

23 ,
Manor mainly by boat u~ the Hudson River and intocLake
Champ1ain. There is'actuâ11y very 1ittle record of the

names and exact locatl.on where thf'se early "squatters" settled

in the County of MisslsquOl. It i8 mentioned, however, in the

Sixth Hi s torical Report,
(1960) 01 the MI sai aquol Coun ty

lIistorlcal Socle>ly, that Ephraim, Amos and Burton Hawley came

from Arlington, Vermont in the year 1776 and c1e>aFPd a pl~ce of

land around the present day site of Clarencevi1lc. Mr. Peter

Hawley, their fathf'r, along Wl tb thf' rest of the famlly, came
in th0 summf'r of 1777.

Throughout the A~can Revolution familles of refugee

loyaiists wpre brought into Canada under flags of truce, ~

system that was ln operation on Lake Champlain from the fall of
]778, l.f not 0arller. This method made practicable the

exchange of loyallst dppf'ndents and prlsoners 01 war the

revolution and was made possible because the BrItish navy had

compl~te control of Lake Champlaln. The British navy brought a

large number of loyalist families from C~own Point, Whltehall

and other convenient places ln the Stat~ of·New York to St.

Johns, Quebec, whence they were se~t under guidance to various

localitles to join husbands and fathers from whom they had been

separated by the exigencies of war. 15 Many of the' early loyà1ists

MacCallum, Donald, The Seigniories of Noyan and
Foucault, Mlssisquoi County Historical Society, Eighth
Historical Report, 1965, p. 1?3.

13Clarenceville Century Farm Owner--Hawl~ Fam·
Missisquoi County Historical Society, Slxth Historie
Report, 1960, p. 81.

14Siebert, Wilbur H., p. 20. 15 Ibid. , ,.

who settled in the County of Missisquoi were brought to

Caldwell's manor by the Britlsh warship "Marla", which operated

between St. Johns, Quebec and Whltehall, New York during the

Revolutionary War. ThIS boat was named after SIr Guy Carleton's

wife, Lady MarIa. The commodore of thlS boat, John Steel, was
) , ' " 115
later to settle on Caldwell's Manor himself. , 'j

In many cases th~. mOVement of loyallst famIlles to

BrItIsh North AmerIca from the rebelling Amerlcan colonIes was

not entirely voluntary. For example, ln 1780 and 1781 the New \.

York LegIslature enacted laws calling for the "Removal of Familles

of Persons .who h,ave )olned the enemy.1I They werè.glven twenty

days notIce to depart and the authorltles were empowered to take

and sell thelr goods and chattels and apply the money to the
expense of thelr removal.
.. ConcentratIon pOInts were set up where

these partIes designated for re~ova1 were to report wlth provi-

SIons for two weeks. The refugees were then transport~~under
a f1ag ~f truce ~o Crown POInt, where they boarded BrItIsh 'vessels

that brought them to Point au Fer, which was at the mouth of the
• l

Richelieu RIver, then to St. Johns. Thomas C. Lampee, in his

book, The MissisqUOl Loyallsts, publlshed ln 1938 by the Vermont

Historlcal Society, says that among the Wlves who had been

MacCa11um, Donald, The Seigniorles of Noyan and

Historical Report, 1965, p. 123.

17 Hawke, Gerald P., The Loyalist Migration and its
Effect Upon Our Region, p. 3.

ordered to depart within twenty days were--Rebecca Ruyter,

Catherina ,Best and ~lizabeth Rditer, who were later to settle
around Missisquoi Bay.

Frederick Haldimand in becoming Governor General of

Canada ln 1778 used every mea~s possible to discourage loyalist

settlement around Missisquol Bay. To the Governor General,
, "

the Çanadlan frontier along the New York and Vermont boundary

was~nsulted to loyalist occupation. In September, 1782, he

hàd--In hlS own words--"recelved letters from Vermont and the
~ "
ColonIes "reporting that a number of families, rebe1 as weIl as

loyallst, were coming to settle on the borders of Lake Champlaln.

Haldimand dlsapproved of thlS because, he said, it would afford
means of conveying news to the enemy, and create a rendez-vous

for deserters and rebel emissaries. He tnerefore undertook, in

~ovember, 1782, to discourage the project by sending word into

t h e St e
a"t s t h at not h Ing 0 f . t e d . 19
t h e k ln d wo ûld b e permlt

''-''. Haldimand' s ob]estions to the of the frontiér

"'~ did not put a stop to the series of peti tI0ns requesting his
consent for larg~ partIes of loyalists to take up residence there.
'" 1"
Merrl1l Denison in hlS book, The Barley and the Stream, refers

to a party of 19Z UnIted Empire Loyalists in 1782 camping at
, ~

Bur11ngton, Vermont, waiting for permIssion from the British

18 Ibid ., p. 3;

19Siebert, Wilbur H., p. 31. 0 (Haldimand Papers,
B. 139, p. 345).

, ,
• L

, ,

26 \\\

government to settle at Caldwell's ~anor.
to John Moison and Thomas Lord buyin~ 400 acres of la~d at

Caldwell's Manor ln the winter of 17J2. 20

the sign1ng of the treaty 0; peace, wh\ch officially recognieed

the independence of the Unlted States,
.- "
~À not take place untll

September, 1783. At the end of the American Revolution tpe ,

Loy~llst Corps were dlsbanded and were now compelled tO'seek

homes ln the sparcely settled areas of Canada and the M~rt~imes.

There were actually to be few loyallsts settl~ in Low~r Canada

as compared to the number that set~~ed in Upper "~anada' and the

Marltlmes . . Governor Haldimand,
~s ~entioned, had been qUlte

successful, during the war, ln preventlng the loyalists from

settling ln the Eastern Townships. H1S a~titude towards allowlng

the loyallst to settle ln the Townships after the war was not to
change. Lord North, who was the Btitish Prime Minister during

the Amerlcan RevolutIon, had sugges,ted to Sir Frederick Haldimand 0

that the loyalist refugees at St. Johns and
~..,. .
~rel should be
settled in the area between the St. Lawrence and the United 4t
States. HaldImarid was opposed to this suggestion. In November,

"1783, Haldimand wrote to Lord North explaining "that by keeping

the frontier east of th~:~t. Lawrence uninhabited as long as
"\- ... 1

possibl~ a rupture WI~, ~the neighboring Americans would be

20 0 '
, enslon, Merrill, The Barley and the Stream, p. 29.
"; ,,~, .
, .<


avoided. 1I21 Haldimand thought that for some til1'le ta come there

would be bad feelings between th~ IOYùlist8 and th~ir former
~ i~ o \

,." enémi~s in the United Statps. He also thought th-at thr natural.
. t
incrûas~ in thp'Frcnch-Canadian population'would soon occupy

that part of the country. It s('pmed to lIaldimand a good policy
" t
to havp this frontier araa ~rttled by proplr of a diffrrrnt

religion, spraking anoth~r language and accustomrd to other laws

than those of thr United States. Hal~lmand's proposai for setll-

ing thr loyalistsfin Upper Canada around Cataraqui, now Kingston, .,
was acceptrd by the British govprnmrnt in Ap~it,
,tI. .. ......... 1

1784.7~ The

~ ,
Bri~ish government also acceptrd Haldlman d '~vlews OA thp reasons

for not settllng the Eastrr~ Townships.

t· lIowrvcr, many of thr loyal1sl~ at St. Johns and Sorpl

were not lnterestrd in srttling in Upper Canada and preferred to

settle at Missisquoi Bay. Durlng
, the war thlS rrgion had been

traversed by many of these loyalists and was hence weil known to

them. This lantl around Miss\squoi Bay was reasonably fertile and

'partially cleared anq ,was weil situated in regard to water trans-

portation. Most important to the minds of the prospective

settlers, as Thomas, C. Lampee points out in his book, .!!:!!;.

Missis~uoi Loyalists, was that the e would be a ready market for
7 r
their pr~duce at St. Johns, only twenty miles by land and

approximately sixteen by water. It was €asily accessible and\

,Siebert, Wilbur ~., _p. 34, (Haldimand Papers 856,
p. 201).

22 Ibid., p. 34 • -

.- , .

not,too far removed from previous connections at the other end of
• the lake.. These were advantages that contrasted strongly ta the

remote isolation of Upper Canada, especiaLlyevataraqui {Kingston).23 ,
<' /' , ï
ijence, despi te Governor Ha1dimand ('s objections ta the occupath::m

of the southern border of Quebec by the loyalists, there w~re to

be a large number of petitions for land in this area. The records
-" - ,

at the ProvinCla1 Arch~v~s show some twenty petitions for land
, . around MisS1Squoi Bay by loya11sts and American groups or indi-

vidua1s between 1783 and 1792. 24

One~of the first pe~tions for land around Missisquoi
Bay after the Revolutlonary War was made by Captain John W.

Mey~s, popu1arly known as "John Wal termire", and Thomas Sherwood'
in August, 1783. ,They petitioned ~ a grant of land along the

east slde of Missisquoi Bay north of the 45 parallel ~or the

beneflt of certaln loyalists name~ in a list accompanying the

petition. 25 Mayers and Sherwood had served in one of the

10yalist regime~ts during the revolutionary war. Having no~

received a reply from the British Government in Quebec, th~y

renewed their application for land around Missisquoi Bay in

October, 1783, on behalf of themselves and some two hundred and

fifty loyalists who had fought for the Brl~ish in the war. 26

Hawke, Gerald P., The Loyalist Migration and its
Effec't Upon Our Region, p. 6.

24Montgomery, Gebrge, MisSisquoi Bay.
25 Ibid •

.,26siebect, Wilbur H., p. 34 (Canadian Archives, 1889,-·74).


'1' . ~\

Permission to go to the Missisquoi Region was also sought at

this timé by Colonel John Peters, as the representatlvè of a
~ -". .
body of refugéeB in Canada who obj~ct~d to the great d1stance
of Cataraqui. Thete were also a number of other l?yalists

in l 783 '-ai'id l 784, at st. Johns who wrote to Govern-;;'r H,aldimand
.~ J :.

asking for .'Îand grants around the Missisquoi regio.,n;If~· Arl of

these petit10ns for land in the Missisquoi region werê refused

by Hald1mand. In Marc~~ 1784 Christian Weh~, who had been a
lie'ûtenant ln the King's Royar R~giment of New York, wrote a

personal let-ter to Governor Haldimand. He wrote from St. Johns.

In part this letter said:

"We are sorry to hear that your Excellency has
such a bad opinion of us, as to our views of settling
the lands we. peti tion for, as if i t wer·.e only for the
sake of trafficklng with the Colonies, we humbly beg
to inform your Excellency that it is no wise our in-
tent10n, nor never wast to settle east of Missisquoi ~
Bay w1th a V1ew to traffic w1th the Colonies. ~e
humbly beg your Excellency will please to order or
perm{~, two or more men, to go around to the Loyalists
and let them signify, by signing their names to what
place they would wish to go~~ and then your Excellency
will find, that it lS not a ,few individuals only who
now 50 earnestly, and humbl~ petition You~ Excellency
for their lands east of ~fi~'s-l~que Bay but there are
more than three hundred of\whom the most general part
ha,ve been weIl Il ving f ar..ffi~ï;~'1_ and sons of able
farmers--And as for quarr~ll"lP\g wi th our neighbours
we have not the least app.F h'ension of being in any
danger from the United St tes by being settled in
the place we petition fo -8as in the upper countriea;
or on Caldwell' s Man'oi;"~"
-.. -'

27 ,
Ib1d., 3'4,
p. (Can 'dl' an Arch.lves, 18 8 9, 7 6) • /

28Early History ~f ( he Eastern Townships--Th~
Philipsburg Settlement, (A thor Unknown. Lecture tQ. the
Missisquoi County Histori al Society). " -.!
- .;. --


Despite Haldimand's cont1nual refusal to grant land

in the Missisquoi Bay region there were sorne loyalists who were

determlned to get land in this area at any cost. In early 1784,

Captaln Justus Sherwood, of the British Secret Service, reported

to tte govftrnment that many of the Missisquni Bay land peti-

tloners had given up thelr project. The exceptlons were a few

headed by Captaln~ A4 anah Prltchard, Henry RUlte~ and John W.

Meyers; Lieutenants ChristIan Wehr; and
J~hn R~ter, Ensign

HarmonUls Best and Messrs. Martin and Taylor.
"They cla1med

to have purchased an old r~lan title, but most of the land

under thls tltle--according to Captaln Justus Sherwood--lay in
Vermont and was sald to have been extended to the North to Pike

RIver by what the same offlcer called "a,trick of the pur-
chaser&.11 ThIS land had been secured from a Mr. James

Robertson, a trader at St. Johns. Robertson had ~ought this

land, It is belleved, in 1765 from the AbenakIs Indlans "nine

mlles south of the MlS..sisquoi River and nine miles north, 'bounded
(on the west) by the Lake ll • John Meyers and hlS group of

Loyallsts purchas~d sorne 20,000 acres of the Robertson terri-
. tory WhlCh fell wIthIn the Province of Canada for sixt Y pounds.

29Siebert, WIlbur, p. 34-35 (Canadian Archives, 1888,
711, 683 vide ante, p. 16).

30 Ibid ., p. 35, Canadian ArchiveS{ 1888, 711.
Ear1y HIstory of the Eastern Townships--~
t Philipsburg Settlement.


James Robertson, it has been argued, never really had a~solute

claim to this territory he sold in 1784, as a lot of it was

in the State of Vermont and fetl,under their jurlsdiction.

As ·~oon as Haldimand learned of this attempt of settle-

ment around-Missisquoi Bay he had his secretary, Major Matthews,

write to Captain Justus Sherwood at St. Johns to glve a full

report of any loyallsts who might be settled in thlS area.

Haldlmand coulee not believe that any of them would venture

to settle ln thlS area contrary to his directlons. On the

12th of March~.·d 784, Sherwood wrote back to MaJor Matthews

reportlng that Captaln Meyers, Captaln Henry RUlter, Lieutenant

ChrIstian Wehr, Lt. John Ruiter, Lt. Conrad Best along with

Messrs. John Martin and Alexander Taylor Harmonus Best, George

Feller James Loveless, Abraham Hyatt and Johannes Mock, were

aIl at work erecting houses about three miles south of the

mouth of Pike River and on that part of Rock River that runs ln
the PrOVInce of Quebec. Apparently, Captain Meyers by 1784,

had got a sufficient quantJty of land cleared to raise 1000
bushels of corn. Captaln Justus Snerwood reported that these

"squatters" on the east side of Missisquoi Bay had said that

they would settle this land at ail costs, "nothing but superlor
'tforce shall drIve them off that land."


32Montgomery, George, Missisguoi Bay.
33 Ibid •

'George Montgomery in his book Missisquoi Bay and an

article wrltten for the Mlsslsquoi County Historical Society

entitled The Phlllpsburg Settlement gives a brief account of

these early settlers who settled around Missisquoi Bay immed-

lately following the war. The RUlter brother~ orlginally came

from Plttstown in Albany County, New York and had fought for

the "Klng's forces" ln th(' revolutlonary war, and had been

stationed at St. Johns. They both had excellent war records

and were hlghly esteemed. Captain Henry Ruiter was to later

move to Caldwell's Manor and act as lntermedlary between the
l~n. Thomas Dunn and the Missisquoi Bay settlers. LIeutenant

John RUlter settled at Misslsquoi (subsequently called

Phlllpsburg) and lat~r acted as Dunn's agent untll hlS death,
when he was replaced by hlS son PhlllP' John RUlter was to

bUlld the flrst house of any promlnence around Mlssisquoi Bay.

Harmonus and Conrad Best were aiso brothers and were from HOSSICk,

ln Albany County, New York and had fought wlth the Queen's Loyal

Rangers durlng the war. Harmonus took up land along the front

of MlsSlSquoi Bay.
Conrad died at MlsSISquoi Bay (Philipsburg)

ln 1785 before they really got possession of thelr land.

Messrs. MartIn and Taylor were, from "Tpe Rocker" at St. Johns.

During the war there had been continuous complaints from

rnliitary authorlties at St. Johns, in respect to the illicit

sale of liquor, to the troops stationed at the fort from a
bUIlding nearby known as "The Rockeryll.34 No record has been

34Montgomery, George~ MissisgUOl Bay.

found as to what became of John Martin, but Alexander Taylor

became one of the leading citlzens of Missisquoi Bay.

Alexander Taylor's son, Ralph, was to be one of the first two

members e10cted to the Legislative Assembly from the County of

MlssisqUOl ln the election of De~ember, 1829. George Feller
was a 10ya11st who came to Canada 'ln 1783 from New York.

Johannes Mock was a prlvate ln Je)sup's Royal Arnericans and

had bppn ln Canada Sinee 1777. Abraham Hyatt was a loyalist

who came to Canada ln 1780. He was th0 father of Gilbert Hyatt

who 1àtpr mov0d to the side of what 18 now the City of Sherbrooke

and bUllt_ thp Hyatt Mills. Sherbrooke was ear1ier known as

"Hyatt's Mllls". ~

Af~pr Captain Justus Sherwood's report to Haldimand ln

March, 1784, on the settlements around MlSSlSquoi Bay, the next
development was an order from the Governor to Major Campbell,

-at Fort St. Johns, to send an offlcer to the new settlements.

ThlS officpr was ,to have orders, lf the settlement were within

the provInce 11ne, to notlfy the settlers that they abandon

thlS area. He was also to order the prlnclpal men who had

encouraged the settlement around the Bayon the Canadian side

of the border to report to Quebec Immedlately while their familles

and other settlers were to report to St. Johns. Major Campbell

followed the Governors orders and sent Lieutenant WIlliam Buckley

to the Missisquoi Bay reglon. On the 31st of March, 1784,

Buckley reported that no settlements had been started on Pike

River. He aiso reported that the cnndition of the swamps and

rivers was such that it was impossible to move the families
of the settlers at MissisqUOl Bay until the late spring.

This indicates that the me ans of transportation from Missisquoi

Bay to St. Johns was very primitive and was only possible dUTlng

~erta1n t1mes of the year. Sorne of the leaders of the M1ssisquoi

Bay settlement went to Quebec to meet wlth Haldlmand who trled to

convince them that they were not to settle around the Bay. After

a few days 1n Quebec they returned to Mlsslsquol Bay still deter-

mlned to remaln on the shores of Lake Champlain. Chrlstian Wehr

on hlS return to MlsS1Squoi Bay from Quebec prepared~and sent

another petltlon to Haldlmand asklng: \

"to proceed ln settling them Indlan land~, as we
have begun, for it lS to be considered that the
season lS at hand, for to make gardens and have
sorne little spots of land cleared for Indian corn,
potatoes, etc., wlthout which it lS hard to make
a llving, and money we have none to buy them and
slnce, l think, and am persuaded that we are not on
the Klng's lands, and His Excellency knows or at
least mlght khow better (if he pleases,to take that
trouble) as l do, how that Indlan land lays, whereof
we humbly hope and beg, H1S Excellency will be most
graciously pleased to acquaint Major Campbell at
St. Johns that we, may proceed in settllng our
Indian Lands. ,,36

These Indian lands that Wehr referred to was the land

which he and the other "Squatters" at Mlssisquoi Bay had

purchased from James Robertson.

Governor Haldimand's reply to Wehr's petition was that

no part of the Indian lands were within the Canadian boundary

Montgomery, George, Missisguoi Bai.

36Early Eastern Townships History, The Philipsburg


line and that not a single acre of Crown land in this area

would be granted nor permissl0n given for any person to settle

there. Haldimand also advised the settlers at Missisquoi Bay

that he had lnstructed Major Campbell that if anyone attempted

to settle ln this region Campbell was to destroy their houses.
It would appear that, as far as destroylng the houses around

Missisquoi Bay was concerned, Major Campbell dld not_ f low

these lnstructions.
Wilbur H. Slebert ln hlS artlcle entitled The n

Loyallsts ln the Eastern Selgnlorles and Townships of the

PrOVince of Quebec says that by the end of April, 1784, fourteen

familles had already located at Missisquol Bay and three more on
Caldwell's Manor aIl of these belng north of t h '
e provlnce l'lne. 37

Slebert goes on to say that Captaln Azariah Pritchard, flndlng

that Haldimand's Opposltlon te the settlement of the area areund

MisS1Squoi Bay was unalterable and that most-of the land purchased
from James Robertson lay ln Vermont, declded to withdraw from the

M1SS1SqUOl Bay enterprlse and settle around the Bay of Chaleur.

Pritchard had a great inf±tlence on a number of the loyalist

refugees. He dlssuaded about two-thirds of the Klng's Rangers,

who were at St. Johns--according to hlS own estimate--from
settllng at MlssisquOl Bay.

37S1ebert, ,Wilbur, p. 35, (Ha1dimand Papers, B162,
pp . 210, 211.)

38 Ibid ., p. 35, (Ha1dimand Papers, B162, pp. 210, 211.)


In May, 1784 a general rendez-vous of the Loyallsts

who had come to Canada by the Hudson-Champlain water route was

arranged for Sorel from which pOInt they were to be removed to

Cataraqui and otper pOInts of Upper Canada. Those settlers

who persisted and refused to go to settle ln Upper Canada were

to have thelr allowances stopped. Up until thlS time aIl the

loyaiists who had come to Canada durIng the war and after had

recelved provISIons and other allowances. The Mlssisquoi Bay

settlers refused to follow the ma]OrIty of the Loyallsts who

were sent to Upper Canada. In so dOlng aIl prOVISIons and

allowances WhlCh they had formally recelved were,stopped.

In the summer of 1784, Sir Frederick Haldimand was

recalled to London after the BritIsh government had recel~ed

numerou~ complaints about his severity towards the loyalists in

Canada. He was replaced as Governor General by Henry HamIlton,

who held the offIce for only a year, when he was replaced by'

BrIgadIer General Henry Hope until 1786, when Guy Carleton, now

to be known as Lord Dorchester, was re-appointed Governor of

Canada ln 1786.

After HaldImand was recalled in the summer of 1784 thè

settlers around MlssisqUOl Bay sent a petItIon in February, 1785,

to Governor Henry Hamilton for the renewal of their prOVIsions

and allowa~s WhlCh had been stopped since May, 1784. In this

petItIon the Missisquoi Bay settlers gave the following reasons

for thelr settling at Missisquoi Bay.


"The peti tion of the subflcribes humbly sheweth
that the fifth day of pétober, 1783 we, with many
others, petitioned His Excellency Frederick
Haldimand for a tract of land east of Missisquoi
Bay but not receiving,an answer to our petition
until late in the winter following, and we belng
desirous to get in som~ way of living again, wé ,
bought a tract of land' of Mr. Robertson in St.
Johns, and sorne of who settled thereon before even
His Exeellency had given orders or pointed out
places for the settling of Loyalists, but, so it
was, that since sorne of us settled at the Bay of
Missisquoi, and others could not move when the
orders came out by reason of sickness and other
hindrances in thelr families, and, aIl of us
hoping that we should yet get the land~in the parts
we petitioned for, but so it was, sine we did not
go, to the place or places pointed at'3~e were
struck off the prOVIsIons list . • • ".

This petition waS signed by Ch~istlan Wehr, Conrad Best, ChrIstIan

t _,
Haver, John Ruiter, Adam Deal, 00hn Cole, LudWIg StreIt, George

Feller, Josamlnd Drow, LudWIg StreI t, J.r., Jacob Thomas, P,u'lip

RUI ter, John Van Vorst"James Henderson, Alexander Taylor.

Christian Hover was the father-in~law of ChristIan Wehr.
.. 40


Streits were loyalists from the State of New York and ha~ been
ln Canada Slnee 1773. PhilIp RUlter w~s the son of John RUlter.

The men who slgned the petition in FebLuary, 1785, were probably

the leaders of the settlers at MisSlsquoi Bay at this time. By

February, 1785, there were a total of twenty-eight different

names of familles known to have settled east of MisSlSquoi Bay.
f •
Most, if not aIl, of the men of this group, had fought during the
war as loyalIsts.

. 39Early History of the Eastern Townships, The
Phillpsburg Settlement.
40 '
Montgomery, George, MisSlSquoi Bay.
4lSiebert, Wilbur, p. 36,

, 1
This peti tion of Feblluary, 1785, was transmitted to
... ,,)of.
...~,. 1
the British government by Governor HallU l ton~ anq finally ln
August, of the same year, BrIgadier General Henry Hope, who

had succeeded Hamilton as Governor, was advised that Loyallsts

"'~n private l~nds were to have "an equal share of the royal

bounty WI th those on Crown lands. 1~...12

The loya1~sts now attempted, wlth the cnange ln the'

government in Canada, to obtaln the tltle to the lands they

had settled around MissisqUOl Bay. In 1786, wlth the return
to British North AmerIca of Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester) as

tGbvernor, ~he settlers around MIss~sqUOl Bay renewed a petltlon

they had made ta SIr Freder~ck Haldlmand ln 1783 for the tltle

to th~s land around the Bay. The petitloners th~s time got

Colonel Henry Caldwell of Caldwell's Manor (selgnlory of

~ Foucault) to present thelr petltlon to the Governor ln
. -~. .
December, 17 8 6. Henry RUlter was the leader of thlS group of
. .~

petitloners. There were three hundred and elghty (380) names

of settlers from the MisSISqUOl Bay area lncluded in thlS
. 43
petl~Jon. The llst of names on thlS petitl0n afmost forms a

census of the region at thlS tlme and ~t is valuable because of

the deta~ls lt gives on the war serVIce of lndlvidual petltloners

and the date of their immIgration to Canada. We learn from

this petition that: the Ruiters, Bests, Streits, Hawvers,

Montgomery, George, Ibld.

43MontQomery, .George, Ibid.

Taylor and Wehr had· taken u ~~~Rear the Bayon the present

day site of the town Garret Sixby, Joseph

Smith, Peter Miller, Nic olas Moore and Philip Luke were

among the first to take up land near St. Armand Station.

Joseph Smith took up land on the present day site of the

village of St. Armand. ~eter Miller settled in St. Armand on

the banks of the Rock River.

, This petition of December, 1786, was not considered by

the Executive Council Land Committee untll February 1788, but

no action was taken on It as ,there were ~evera1 conflicting

petitIons for the terrltory. In the meantime, thr Honourablr

Thomas Dunn had.peen busy complet~ng nis tltles to the srlgniory
of St. Armand WhlCh bccame his possession in May, 1788. '~lth

the slgnlng of the peac~ treaty in Septcmber, 1783, bringtng

the Amerlcan Revolution to a close, the seignlory of St. Armand

had lost about two-thirds of Its territory as the International

boundary Ilnc had been established at the forty-flfth para11el.

Despltr the 10ss of this terrltory to the State of Vermont, the
• 1

Honourable Thomas Dunn continued to hold tltle to the othc~. one-

third of the seigniory of St. Armand. Since Dunn WàS a member

of the Executive Council he was, no doubt, aware of the petition

and seelng the sett1ers' anxiety to get lega1 tit1es he decided

to of fer them his own land on easy terms. In October, 1788,

Thomas D~nn visited MISSlSqUOl Bay and appointed Captaln John

RUlter as his land agent and instructed him to hire a provincial

surveyor to survey his land imme~iately. Ruiter wasted no time

in carrying out Dunn's instructions as he hired Jesse

P~nnoyer to survpy th~ scigniory of St. Armand. Mr. Ounn's,
... - ~

St. Armand s~igni?~y was to be laid l~ts of 210 acres

rach and a~y prrson purchasinq a lot have only to pay for

200 acrrs ~s 10 acres was to be used
ro ..=-d. Pennoyer

had all of thr R~ignlory surveycd ~nd dividrd tnto lots rxcept
for thAl part'around Mis~isquol Bay that had b~~n purchased by

a group of 10yallRts in 1784 from aames Robertson. The loya1ist~

who Ret tl rd 1 n "Robpr tson T~rr 1 tory Il had engag~d Caleb Hendrrson

at an rarllrr datr to survey this land and divide it up into

lots. At fl~st the srttlera, who had aettled on th~ land pur-

chasrd from James Robertson in 1784, did not admit ta Dunn:s

owncrRhlp unttl aftrr 1709 whpn Dunn had Pennoyer re-survey this

land around M15s1Squoi Bay. Pennoyer found that Caleb Henderson

"had brrn out dS rnuch as fifly acres in surveying sorne of the

lots. Thrsp srttlrrs by 1789 now admitted ta Dunn'a ownership et

th~ir land, but lt was not unt!l 1792 that they finally gave way
ta h lS terms 0f .
grantlng t h cm 1 an.
d ,45

Thomas Dunn aiter havin~ his land surveyed ~egan ta

sell I~ts in the seigniory of St~ te the loyalists. He

abandoned aIl sClgniorial rights and granted the lands for cash,

usually 10 pounds per one hundred acres plus the{ obligation to
Early History of the Eastern Townships, The
Philipsburg Settlement.

45 Ibid •
. '

, 41 .

pay a perpetuaI "qui t" rent, or rent, of ~sh~lling
for 100 acres. John Ruiter purchase three hundred and
fifty acre~ of land on part o~the pres day site of the town
of Philipsburg. Captaln John Ruiter w to remain Dunn' s

land-agent at Missisquoi Bay in May, 1797

when he was succeeded by his n turn held the,
position until his death ln November, 1820. Phl ip ~ui ter wâ,s

to establish the village of Philipsburg ln 1809.
Up untll now referenc~ has been made mostly to the

early attempts at settling the eastern.side of M~ssiquoi Bay

in the years immediately following the Arnerlcan Revolution

before l79Q.

On the western side of Mlssisquoi Bay, as previously

mentioned, lies the peninsula that contained Foucault or

Caldwell's Manor. Adjoining this on the north was Noyan or

Chr isti"ê-r S Manor. Caldwell's and Christie's Manors,
as men-

tioned previously were fertile, partially cleared and weIl ,~.

situated *ith reg~rd to wat~r t~ansportationr A number of
loyalists.were therefore attracted to this area after the

rsvolution. One of the first large groups of that loya~sts
were att'racted to this area settled on the wested side of the

baya m11e or two south of the VermoQt 1ine,
~re '-'
Alburgh now

stands. 1bis group of loyalists thought t~~t the~ had "

46Montgomery, George, Missisquoi Bay.

47 Thomas, cyrus, Ibid., p. 16 a

, 1

! •
, -.
" " -
_ _ 1......

settled witihin the Province of Queb~c. ~aldwell'~ Habor,
,~ \t

i t should be remembered, wa.s compqsed o~ 35,000 acres of land,
20,000 which was lost to the State of Vermont a~ter the inter-

natlonal boundary,was established by the peace of 1783. It

was~not until the forty-fifth parallel was accurately defi~ed

that these settl~rs discovered:---tl'ierr-mü~t'akè ,-ar:t,d were in most

cases forced to recross the llne and choose new locatio~:

Among these coloni~ts was William Soles, ua na,tive of Rhode

Island, who had remained at St. Johns and ,Sorel until the close

of the war, when he JOi~êd the company going to Alburgh. 48

'Another loyallst who departed from'the American slde of the

internatlonal boundary 1ine was Captain John Savage. He had
t' , ,
sett1ed in Caldwe11's Manor on the American side Qf the boundary

line and·was forced along with a numbet~of'oth~r settlers in

this area to withdraw to Canada by Ir~ Allen because the y

refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Amer ican States. 49,

In 1792, Savage-along wlth â number o~ other loyalists attempted

to get compensated by the British g?vernment for their lasses ,

by sendlng a petition te Quebec.

Donald, MacCallum, in an art~cle entitled The Seigniories

of No~n and Foucault, published in' the eighth report o~ the

Missisquoi County Historical Society in 1965, refers ta John

Dewar,as coming to Caldwellis Manor in l78j after being dis-

charged from hf~ loy~list regiment. Dewar, according to

48Thomas, Cyrus, Contributions to the History of the -
Eastern To~nships, p. 207. i

49Siebert,- Wilbur, Ibid., p. 37. ..,
43 "

.e MacCallum, bought 9~ acres of land at ~aldwell's Manor on
the 30th of July, 1784 for twenty-eight pounds.

The loyal1st refugees who settled at Caldwell's and

Chrlst1e's Manors pr10r to the 1790's, as prev10usly mentioned,
have been classified by many histqrians- ';5 "squatters" as t~e_

Brltish government did not consent to their settling 1n this'

area. Thes~ settlers, 1ike those at Missisquoi (Ph111psburg)

on the eastêrnt~~O:f~the bay, also fa11ed to receive prov1s1ons

arrd other a110wances from the Br1t1sh government from May, 1784
until August 1785, af·ter they l'lad refused to settle in Upper

Canada. These settlers On the west s1de of the Bay were

reported by Stephen DeLancey, lnspector of Loya1ists, as being
ln d1stress early in August, 1784. Among these settlers were'

such men as John Church, Moses Westover r Captaln Henry RUlter,

John Plckell, Daniel Beagh, Andrew Llddè1, Jer~miah Spencer,

John Curtls, Dan~el Scott, Ebenezar Hovey, John Dewar, Andrew

Brown, Edward Simpson, James McCummlng and Rev. Wl111am Marsh~-

Just to mention a few. Most ,of these families had formerly

Ilved ln the States of New york and Vermont and many of.them

were 0 f E ng 1 15 h , S cote.,
h . h
l rlS or G
erman "
orlg1n. 52

Most of thesé men, Il,ke those who had persisted in
settl1ng on the Eastern side of Mlssisquoi Bay before 1791, were

MacCallum, Donald, The Seignlories of Noyan and
\, Poucaul t, "Missisquoi County
, Hlstorical Society, Eighth Historical
'Report, 1965.

5lSiebert, Wilbur, p. 37, (Canad1an Archives lS68, 742).
52 Ibid ., p. 37.


e to play a major role in the settlement and development of
the Eastern Townships. The MisSlsquoi Bay region with its

proximlty to the Champlaln-Rlchelieu water route had become

one of the most popular areas of settlement of the loyalists and

others on the move to Canadà. From the loyalist settlements at

Caldwell's and Christie's Manors ~d the seigniory of St. Armand,

some faml11es, after l7~O were to scatter throughout the ad~

joinlng country into the reglon kn~~n as the Eastern Townships.

The perslstence of the early pioneers in their efforts

to set tle around MissisquOl Bay eventually pald off, as the

government of Lower Canada after 1791, in an attempt to·attract

lmmigrants from New England, g~ve up the old policy of opposing

settlement along the American border.

The Mlssisquoi Bay area was like a buffer zone or a

stepplng stone f~r the Amerlcan immigrants coming into Canada

by way of" Lake ChamplaIn ~ The MisS1Squoi area served as a

buffe~z"One bet1ween the Unl ted States and the CanaQlan settle-

ments along the St. Lawrence\R1Ver Valley. This area gave the

Amerlcan immlgrants an.opportunity to live a qU,let and simple

life and to 'establlsh themselves ùntll they were ready to move
further inland or Into the more heavlly populated areas of

BrItish North America. The MlssisqUOl Bay region· certainl~

served as an ldéal staglng pOInt for people entering British

North America from the United States.

There were a number of Dutch,' German, Irish and Scotch

colon1sts that had settled in the American colonies along'


the Hudson and Champlain waterway. With the outbreak of the

American Revolution a number of these colonists were forced to

immigrate to, British North America by way of Lake Champlain as

they refused to take up arms against the Brltish Crown.

AlI tpe loyalists who came into Canada during and

after the Ame~ican Revolutl0n were by no means Engllsh or

of British decent. There were large numbers of New York Dutch,

descendants of the founders of New Amsterd~ (New York) and

Albany. New York was origlnally settled by the Dutch.and then

by the Engllsh. With the outbreak of the Revolution a number

of Amer ican-born Dutch faml11es came to Canada from the State

of New York. There were also a number of German Palatlnes who

had settled ln the American colonies in the early eighteenth

century. Many of these German~
remainedoloyal to the Britlsh
. 53
Crown and were therefore forced to flee from the Unlted States.

There were also a number of Irish and Scotch de~cendants who

remalned loyal to the British Crown. Many of these lo'y~llsts
lived ~long or near the Hudson Rlver hence the shortest route

to Canada was by Lake Champlain. As can be seen, there was a

great~ raclaI mixture of loyallsts who came to Canada by way
of the Hudson-Champlaln water route.

54 The Freligh Family", (Author Unknown),
MisS1Squ6i County Historical Society, Sixth Annual Report,
1960, p. 40. , ,



.''', "ï.






,. (>






C. 1791 - 1812:
The Deve10pment of Townships in the

County of MissisqUOl

With the passing of the Constltutiona1 Act in 1791,

a policy of Immlgratlon was begun and was vlgorously pursue~

by the government of Lower Canada for sorne time. One of the

main sources from wh~ch Immigrants came into Lower Canada were

from the New England states and the State of New York. What

lS now the Eastern Townships presented itself as a great un-

sett1ed area WhlCh could be opened up for Eng1lsh settlement.

It was not until 1792 that the government of Lower Canada declded

to op~n ~he Eastern Townships area to sett1ement. As mentioned

prevlously, prlor to 1792 many 10ya1lsts and others on the

move to Canada had settled around MisS1SqUOI Bay due to ItS

proximity to the ChamplaIn-RIchelIeu water route.

The pressure of the 10ya1Ists' immigrants on the

British North Arnerlcan government was Instrumental in galning

the IncluSion ln the Constltutlonal Act of 1791 of the clause

provldlng that subsequent land grants ln Lower Canada mlght be
made elther ln selgneurlal tenure or ln free and common soccage.'

The Arnerlcan Immlgrants did not desire to acqulre lands under

the system ItS "acte de fOl et hommage" and Its

annual payment of qUit renta. Such a feudal system was unsuited

to them. After 1791 the method of land tenure was changed to

the English system or custom of "free and common soccage.,,55

54George Kleiner, Capital Accumulation in Canada
Slnce ConfederatIon, p. Il.

55Thomas Guérin, Feudal Canada, p. l34~


The region we know today as the Eastern Townships was

surveyed between 1792 and 1798 and divided into townships. A

township, which was the English system of land div1sion, was a

plece of land approxlmately ten mlles square, and usually
~}~fiw a
contained 64,000 acres and was divlded into 304 lots each
containlng about 210 acres. Two-sevenths of the land was

reserved for Crown and Clergy Reserves. The rest was to be the

scene of settlement.

In order to obtain a gra~t of land in a township a

number of Ind1viduals had to form themseives 1nto a company

called "assoclates". One person out of thlS company of associ-

ates was selected to act as agent or "leader". It was necessary

for the lndlvidual who was to act as agent for the associates to

obtain a recommendatlon as to hIS being a responsible person.

This agent was to bear aIl expenses incurred ln surveying the

townshIp; to open a road to and through the township; and to

obtaln the sIgnatures of the persons promls1ng to become settlers.

The number of aSSoclates requIred for a township ten mIles square,

was fort y, aIl of whom, wIth the agent, were to take an oath of

alleglance before they were accepted, and the1r names entered

in the Letters Patent; each associate being obliged to make
J "actual settlement."

56Zadock Thompson, Geography and History of Lower
Canada 1 p. 6.

o 57Catherine M. Day, Pioneers of the Eastern Townships,
P~face, P. V.


When 'a group of associates petitioned for a grant of

land, the governor; tnrough hlS appointed board of Commissioners,

lssued a warrant of survey which was carried out by the

surveyor-general. '" The board of Commissioners, which was

established after 1792, was Iocated at Mlssisquoi Bay for

the convenience of settlers lnterested in Iocating in the

Eastern TownshlpS. This appointed ~ard of Commissioners was

required to administer the oath of 'a+Iegiance to agent and

associate, as weIl as ta attend to the varl0US details of the

buslness that came wlth the defined Ilmits of their deputed
. 58
authorlty. John Ruiter was one of these appointed

Commlsslon~rs. The Ruiter papers at Philipsburg include a

book containlng a number of these settlers' lde~larations.

The following is a sample:

"l, James Howard, came into this Province of
Lower Canada the twenty-first or twenty-second
of May last by the way of Lake Champlain, that
l am a native of America, State of Connecticut
ln the Township of Windham. My age is twenty-
one years, my trade or occupation is that of a
~uller, that for six months before l came into
thlS Province have resided in the Townshlp of
Medford in the State of Vermont, and now in
the employ of Jesse pennoyer and Calvin May.
As witness my land at St. Armand in Missisq~~i
Bay this sixteenth day of September, 1794.",

The arrangements between agent and associate were

usually personal and prlvate agreements. Assoclates usually
) -.
Ibid. , p. V.
George Montgomery, Missisguoi Bay,.,.p., 72.

received about two hundred acres, with the st1pulation tfiat

they had to undertake to cultivate two acres out of every one

hu~dred acres capab~ of cult1vation within three years and

at least seven acres with1n srven years~ If these and other

terms were not carr1ed out the land could revert to the crown.

In few lf any lnstances were the condltl0ns of land cultivation

and settlement fulfilled to the letter, but in cases of partial

-. fallure, compromlses were effected. In many cases sorne associates

acqulred more land th an they needed from their agent wlth the

idea of retalnlng lt for speculatlve purposes.

The Masonic Order played a maJor ro1e ln the settlement

and development of the Townships after 1792. In 1795 the

Select S~rveyors' Masonlc Lodge moved from Quebec City to

M1SS1SqUOl Bayas this are a became the center of operation both

for the surveyors and the set tIers who were making applicatlon

for land grants. The early surveys Of the Eastern Townshlps

were conducted by men belonging to the Sele~t Surveyors' Masonic

Lodge--men such as John Frederlc Holland, son of Samuel Holland,

Surveyor-General of Lower Canada, and Jesse Pennoyer, Jeremiah

McCarthy, Nathaniel Coffin, Joseph Kilburn~ Amos Lay, and

others, aIl of whom played a major role ln the surveying of

the Eastern TownshlpS. For a number of years the Select

Surveyor's Lodge contlnued ltS activitles at M1SS1Squoi Bay,

meeting regularly and addlng to lts membersh1p. Many of the

most prominent settlers ln the Eastern Townships belonged to

thls Lodgè. Sorne of the names ~ell known among the early

\ '-

settlers were: Gilbert Hyatt, Amos Lay, William Chamberlain,
Belus Hard, David Moe, J::racoQ Ruiter, Joseph l1urlburt, Dr. 'Levi

Presbney, Stephen Jenne, Solomon Curtis, Francis Hogle, BenJamin

Spencer, Jedediah Hibbard, Ebenezer Fish, Bemsley Lord,

..,. We~ls, John Luke, Jonathan BaIl,
... Dr. Allen Miner,
Isaac SmIth, Rev. James ~unstall, Leon Lalanne, and Jonas

The settlers who had settled un Caldwell's and

Christic's Manors and the seigniory of St. Armand, which of
c~urse included MissisqUOl Bay, could not obtain grants there

because these districts were private seigneurial holdings,

instead of crown land. These areas could not be granted as

townships as they had been sold prior to 1791 u~der the old

se~gneurlal system of land tenure. The settlers living ln

these areas C041d only obtain lan~grants to settle in a
1 ~

townshlp by organ1z1ng or J01n1ng a company of assûciates,

WhlCh many of them dld. 1. ,
Many of the early.settlers at Caldwell Manor were not

sati8fied ln the 1790's as 18 p01nted out in the Slxth (1960)

~nd Eighth (1965) Annual Reports of the Missisquoi County

Historical Society. Despite the fact that the Honourable

He~ry Caldwell,was a good seigneur who encou~~ged settlement,

60Homer MitCh~i~~ Freemasonry ~h th~ ,District
of Bedford, p. 9.

61 MlsslSqUOl County H'lstorlca
'1 S '
oClet'y/:' Th'
~ lr d
Annual Report, p. 97-99.
" '


-e 1
he had not fulfilled aIL his promises when attract~ng people

to settie on his Manor. Caldwell collected a yearly rent of

4 pence per acre from the settlers who settled at Caldwell's

Manor ln the 1790's. In return for thls rent Caldwell was

obllgated ta bUlld dams, mills and roads. Within a year of

moving onto the land ~he setbler had to bUlld a dwelling ~ouse

and clear one acre of lana each year. If their rent was

overdue more than fort y days, Caldwell could come and seIze

somethlng from thelr farm and sell It for the rent at a publIC •

auctlon. If land remained without a tenant on lt for one year

and a day Caldwell could re-possess It and sell It over to
somcone eise. The following petItion ln January, 1795 shows

that the early set tIers in Caldwell Manor were dlsenchanted and

dissatisfled wlth these arra~gements.

"To the Honourable J. A. Paret and James Walker
Esquires, Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, etc.
Your Petltioner~ plalnly show that they becomc
settlers under Colonel Henry Caldwell; on Caldwell
Manor; provided likewlse, that they should be
benefited in receiving provlsions, utensils and etc.,
as other Loyall§ts that settled on the Crown land in
Upper Canada; llkewise furnlshlng them wlth Mills;
Sald benefits were promlsed by sa id Colonel Caldwell
and advertlsed, but flndlng him defIcient in his
promises; his Leases not according to the Law of
the Province, therefore we do'not look upon it that
we are under an Obllgation ta Comply wlth his Terms
of paying hIm 4 pence an acre annually.
Your Petitioners therefore most Humbly pray
that your Honors will be so Lenative as ta take
them into consideration, that they may rent accord-
Ing to the Common Cùstom and Laws of this Province
as your Petitioners as in Dut Y bound WIll for ever
pray, as etc., etc., etc." 63
Caldwell Manor. January 2nd, 171.2.
--------~6~2~c-l-a-r-e-n-c-e-v--ille, (Author Unknown), MISS{~qUoi County
Historical Society, Sixth Annual Report, 1960, p. 82.
63 n . MacCallum. The Seignlories of Noyan and Foucault,
Missisquoi County Historical Society, Eighth Annual Report,
1965, p. 125.

Thêre were fifty-four names attached to this petition.

Because of the unfa1T treatment or conditions that these early

settlers lived under i~ Caldwell Manor, it is not surprising to

flnd, after 1791, manyof these ~et1t10ners sett11ng ln other

parts of the Eastern Townshlps where they could obtain free
land by becoming assoclates.

From the early settlements in the selgniory of St. Armand

and Caldwell and Christie Manors the Eastern Townships, as we

know lt today, got its start. As mentloned above, as soon as

areas farther east were made available for settlement we flnd

these "old" settlers appearlng as associates. Hundreds of others

were attracted lnto the Townships after 1791 by belng able to

obtaln free land from the Brltish Crown. Many pf these people

were from the Statès of Vermont, New Hampshire and New York and

were not, ln sorne lnstances, fortunate enough to bec orne associates

themselves but bought from associates who had acqulred more land

than they needed.

Throughout the l790's groups of people, prlnclpally en

ln most cases, came into the County of Missisquoi from t

United States to make land selections. Most of these men would

travel together in search of land to establlsh a~w settlement.

Sorne of these young ~en were the sons of wea~/~arents who

were giving up the comforts of a weIl est lished home and

communit~ to brave the trials and dlf culties of re-establishing
thèmSelv'es ln the wilderness of a oreign country. These men

before enter~ng the woods wou very often have a plan, showing

the dlvision of tne lots the township in WhlCh they were

interested. If more than one settler was entering a township

an agreement amongst themselv~s would be made to prevent
' ..
differences arising from chonsing the same lots.
~ .
Each settler

would take hlS Ch01Cé 'of lots by reference to the projected plan

of the townshl~. In many cases, ho~ever, th~.settlers when they

arrlved at the lot they had chosen, were disappointed because it

was not fertl1e and was in sorne cases located ln dense and

inaccesslble swamps. When thlS occurred very often they would

dlrect thelr gUlde to lead them to a b~tter tract of land. Sorne

of the settlers who entered the tOwnShlP became either very

9iscouraged by the appearance of the country or by thelr ex-

periences durlng thelr trlp so that they dld not settle but sold

their clalms to other parties. ThlS practlce of clalming, land

and not settllng lt or selllng clalms to other"people
. at-~ high .
price, was a source of strlfê and litigation .. ThlS seems to

have been one of thé unavoldable eVils resultlng from the ~ystem

pursued in granting land ln the Eastern Townships after 1790.

Many of the s~ttlers, however, who entered the County

of Mlssisquoi durlng the 1790's after they found a piece of

-land WhiCh they felt was valuable and had e~tered on agreement
with the agent or an assÔclate of a .township, would return home

to make preparations for transporting thelr
, famili~s to the new

settlement. F~mllies leaving settlements ln Vermont, New

Hampshire and New York woulQ set out for the townships with

usually three yokes of oxen, \:~ne sIed belng loaded wi th hay and

grain fo~ the teams, the two others with the famlly, household



provisions. They very often had to ca~p out in the

woods for as many as four~een nights or more depending on the

distance they had to travel from their old homestead to their

new location in the townships.64 Host of the settlers who came

into the Eastern Townships from the United States arrived here

with enough goods and food in order to survive for a year. When

they arrived at their destlnations they would clear away an

opening large enough to construct a small sha~ty and to cultivate

a few ,crops. The shanty was bUllt of 10gs, usually not mpre

than l2 or 15 feet square, wlth a bark roof. The cracks between

the logs were filled with bits of wood and plastered with clay.

Door and window opening~ were cut out)and blankets or animal

skins were hung up. L~ter doors and gla~,~indows·were made.

A shed ~as usually built ~djacent to the shanty and was cons truc-

ted with pole~ and bark under WhlCh was a sort of primitive firç-

place to be used for cooklng. After the erection of their shanty

and shed their attention was turned to the cultivation of what

Ilttle ground c~~ld be'
. , ready for use. The clearing of land was

a difflcu~t task and usually took a gr~at length of time. When

the crops were planted the 'settlers turneO. 'their thoughts to·

tAe erection of a là5ger dwelling as their ~rlmlti~e shanty did

not allow them anY'iuxurles. Most of the pioneers in theQ

1790'9 usua~ly did not get around to building a log house until

after about their first ye~r ln their new location. The average
64Catherine M. Day. Pioneers of the Eas.tern ?-,ownships. p.167.•



size of these first log houses were'about tw&nty-four fe~
., ,(' -----
in(length by eighteen in brea9th. They were usually divided

into two rooms with the partition and doors, b~ing made of
sp11t and hewn tirnber. The settlers after constructing a

log hou~ for their comfort then-turned to the task of con~

structipg a log barn and stable for their animals.

Early Log Cabi'h
(Still in use today just outside Vitlagé of St.anbridge East.)
Sorne of the earlYI 'settlers who settled in the':back-

woods of the County of M1ssisqU01 were not always successful

making a 11velihood as sorne of them would get discouraged with

the hardsh1ps that they had to go through and would return to

their old homestead l.n the United ~tates.~

IbId., p. 147.



SCAlE:- 31... INCHES ro 1 MILE :\
r;;:;:- - -r-- - - -,....- - - r - - - - -.-- - - -,..- ~ -....- - - -....-- - - r - -
1X Jr 'WI 1 "ID! Yl ta. V _ tl I D ' ,D l
\ 17~
\ - 26 l 1Ub (CHU!4,CHVII•. Li)

\ _ _ _--+_ _ _ _--+___~+-_____ 2!f---+_ _+_~17!-.!9~8~_+---_+_---~---_t
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\ ._ _ _ --+------+ 7 - '::~ ----~- --.. SC.omMOREI

____4-,_ __+--.18-00----4

r-_~-_t_-----+------+----~--~i7'+_----_+_---_+----_+---_+_--~-=_i- --- ___ _
/ -1-1\.~....1c=.8___'49'___-+-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ +_---_A__---~1-6'------- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I----- ____ -+____+---_ _~I
'\ .--... J~ 15 .• 1

r-\ ---"O;;'-/~F----'~\=:\=:-----~---~----4- -- 1 ~ ~.AI'T_l&3_S-_;~;.c-
.. ......L+_--~.----- ------+-----+----,'

l 1\ 1 Il ~ 1
1 \ /\llVNH.t.M FLA -/'1
11--______~----_+~,'~--~_.~~\~--17-95~H~----~~~/ \ 1
1 \ \ 't"'\. 10 ( ~r----+----+---
l ': \ l '- 9 "'"' \ J
" :r B >\KER EAsr l)U1'4 H",,., HA~\lEY5 ~ INC,ALLS "
1 7 V . ' 1
l SELS"" A
--AV 1
11--______~------_t_----,--~-l~~-l--_4~~ \~~~~~---+I-'_t_----_4------_t_------~~
1", TE'III EYCK A 1. HAU 1
1795' SELBY
, \ ,.,arNAA~

;' "\. 3

-- ~ ----

/J -.


The first to be created by the crown was that
66 ...
of Dunham, named after a vl11age in Norfolk, England. In

February, 1796, ~thlS townshlp, Wl th l ts 40,825 acres, WhlCh

was referred to as "wèste land near Missisquol Bay, adjénning

the selgnlory of St. Armand, ln th~ County of Bedford l.n the

Dlstrlct of Montreal," was granted to the Hon. Thomas Dunn and

The names of the Dunham assoclates were Thomas Dunn,

Joseph Buck, John Hellcker, Jacob Hellcker, _George Sax,!

Matthew Hall, Wllllam Farrand, Davld Farrand, Joshua Chambers, (

oodward, Davld ~eychert, Jqhn Reychert, John Blake, ------
------ Thomas Best, Danlel Mllls, Jeremlah Reychert, Danlel TraVer,

Alexander McDougall, James Pell, Andrew Ten Eyck, Henry Ten EX~k,
Archibald Henderson, Henry Hall, Ellsha Dlcklnson, Jacob Best, sen.,
. .
George Wagner, Abraham Lampman, John Mllls, Stephen Jenne,

Jacob Best, Adam De'al, LodwlCk Strei t, Samuel 1-1111s, Philit:>

Ruiter and Jacob RUlter. 67

The ploneer of the townshlp is belleved to have been

AndrewJT~n Eyck from New Jersey, who settled ln the ~outh-western

part of the townshlp ln 1793. A son of hlS, Hendrick by name,

located on a lot ad]Olnlng hls father's, a year later (1794).

Among other early ploneers to settle ln the Township of Dunham

66Mrs.QJ. Ellis, The Early History of Dunham.
Cyrus Thomas, p. 110.


prior to 1196 were Jonathan Hart who located on what today

is the west s~~of Selby Lake; Lemuel,Hawley, Jacob Helicker
68 .
and Moses ·Knap~. Jacob Ruiter, who was one of Dunn's

assoclates in 1796' settled on the Sl te of where Cowansville

now stands. He,bul1t one of the flrst grist mills ln the
\ Township of Dunham ln 1800. Wililam Farrand settled around

Se1by Lake. In 1797 Moses Knapp of Arlington, Vermont sett1ed

on land ad]oinlng Wll1iam Farrand's. In 1799 Joseph Baker from

Petersham, Massachusetts, bought Farrand's land and thus an~ther

ploneer faml1y m9ved into the tOwnShlp. The Baker faml1y
- -

became promlnent cltlzens of the County of M1SS1SqU01;-

--_____ Dunham Flat (today known as DunhanD was the nàme of the
flrst v~at developed in the townshlp. The flrst settlers

c~e to Dunham Flat about Sorne of these settlers were
, .
Jacob Pellc~, ~os and Gldeon Hawley, Le

Abraham Lampman, Asa Westov~r~91!~ wag::r. Wlth ~
except10n of Lemuel Hawley they were al,l from---t-he State of New ---

York. These set tled; bUll t thelr homes on the present -?Oad. whlch
. ---~
----------.. ------
runs north and south through the Vlllage of Dunham and divldes ---
the slxth and seventh ranges. Dunham Flat was to bec orne a very

wealthy and prosperous vl1lage ln ~he County of M1SS1Squoi.

, .) " 68
H. Belden, Il~ustrated Atlas of the Dominl0n of
Canada, Hlstorlcal Sketch of the Eastern TownshIpS and
Southw~stern Quebec, p. VIII.

~; ~9Mrs. J. ElllS, The Early History of Dunham.
. e. 70
Mrs. J. Ellis, The Early History of Dunham.
,1 60

The first settler to 4,settle at Nelsonville, later to

be known as Cowansville, was Jacob Ruiter who came here in

1798. He was the son of John Ruiter who had been'one of the

early ploneers to sett1e at Phi1ipsburg. Jacob Ruiter received

a large ~uantlty of land in different townships from his father
who was Thomas Dunn's land agent. Two of these lots were

located on the present day sIte of Cowansvllle (Nel;Qnvl11e).

In 1800 Jacob Ruiter bUI1t a grlst and saw mill on the south
slde of the Yamaska River.

John Church, who came from the State of New' York,

settled on the S'l te of Sweetsburg in 1799. The Town of

Sweetsburg was untI1 1854 called,Chur~hvi11e, in honor of its

early ploneer John Church. He had sett1ed at Caldwell's Manor

IrnmedIately followlng the Revolutlonary War and later came to

the TownshIp of Dunharn. In 1801 John Church bUllt a~srna11

. 72
store adJacent to his home ln Sweetsburg.

In 1804, another former pioneer to Caldwell's Manor,
Peter Pickle, settled near the site of Sweetsburg with his

farni1y. One of hIS sons, Abraham Plck1e, was to bec orne the

tor of several stage routes 1eading from Sweetsburg

to the h
' 73 •
71 Cyrus
- Th ornas, Contrl' b '
utlons to the l
H's t ory 0f t he
Eastern Townships, p. 149.
Ibld., p. 159.

? 73 Ibid ., p. 160.


, <-'


About two mi~es south-east of Sweetsburg there is a

1ittle village known as Scottsmore. One of the first settlers

to settle in this part of the township of Dunham was William

ShUfelt wh~~ame to Caldwell's Manor after the American

Reyolution frQm the State of New York. In 1800 William

Shufelt settled on a lot at Scottsmore until 1808 when he

wen t to Brom~. Th0 "Scot t Neighbourhood, " as Scot tS!ll0re was
formprly ~alled, devploped from the settlement of Daniel Scott

and hlS famlly ln thlS part of the townshlp. Daniel Scott carne

to Caldwell's Manor ln 1784 from the southern part of Vermont.
.. 74
In 1800 he acqulred land ln the townships of Dunham and Brome.

In l 797 Solomon Squler settled ln the eastern part of

Dunham. Soon aft0r this others took up lots around him and

gradually developed thlS part of the townshIp. In 179~ Captain

Amos Woodward, from Pittsfield, Vermont settled ln East Dunham.

Another early pioneer in East Dunham was John Wales who c~to
the townshlp ln 1799 from Union, Connectlcutt.

Other early settlers in thlS part of the townshlp were

Jonathan and Samuel Harvey who arrlved in 1803 from Hebro~,

Connecticutt. In 1807, James Ingalls came from New HampshIre
. 75
and settled ln East Dunham.

Many of the ear1y ploneers ln the County of MlSSISquoi

would bui1d p house, clear a few acres and then sell their

property after two or three years to other settlers for a profit.

Mary T. McCuttcheon, Scottsmore Sketches, (Lecture
at Cowansville High School, Nov. 1959).

75 c . Thomas, p. 169.



/ "
'l'~ 1
1 1" ,,',



'" 1\

1 1 m' r>",-.J-
~ +8 47 46 45 H 43 42 t1 40 3938 37 36 35 311.3 32 31 30'

, n \ 1

1 ~
• 11
I)r--;I I [\..r-- , 1 1
1:::"_- - - -- - - J\.- _ ~-L _I~ U


These early pioncers would then acqulre additional land in

the backwoods of apother towns~ip. Some'of these early
, ;.
settlrrs could br called frontiersmen as.t~ey opened up the
· )

townships for futur~ sptt1~ment.


Prior to 1855, West Farnham in conjunction with East

Farnham constltuted one township under the name of Farnham anJ
formed a part of Sh~fford County.

'l'he cas tprn hal f of ttv'lt township of Farnham was granted

to Samurl Gale and hlS twenty-two associates ln October, 1798.
It was not un~il 1805 that the flrst official Idnd grants ware

made in Wesl Farnham. Howrv~r, eVrn before the actual granting
~ ,,'
of land ln West Farnham therr w~re a f~w bold adventurers who

s~ttled ln thlS area ln the 1atc 1790'5 without having any
", ~'
11110 to the lrlnds. One of these settlers was Joseph Hlggins

nnd hlS famlly who settled on ,HIgglns Hill. The Higglns

fam11y ware to play a promlnent )ole in the early deve10pment

of the Townsh1p of West Farnham. It is also belleved that

Issac GIbbs and Artemus Welsh settled in West Farnham at about
t h p'same ,
tlme as J osep h 1~'
~Igglns. 76 These three families settled

south of the Yamaska near the eastern boundary of the townshlpr

By 1809 almost the ent~re township of West Farnham was

owned by George Al1sopp, who ôbtained the grant for service to

the BrItish government. The Allsopp fami1y did not consider

Gera,ld Hawke, Early His·tory of Farnham.

their lands ~n the township of West Farnham worth exploiting

'before 1840. Despite the fact that the Allsopp family did not

settle ~n
West Farnharn unt11 1840, a nurnber of other settlers

were to sett1e on the Allsopp land. An article in the Sixth

Report of the Mlssisquoi County Historlca1 Society (1960),

entitled the Grantees of Farnham, gives a complete breakdown

of the lots and ranges that were granted in the township of
l West Farnham by the Britlsh Governrnent.


In 1 ~91 Hugh Finlay petitioned the British for

government 1a~d ln thlS area, but was not to be granted it

until 1801 by Slr Robert Mllner, Lieutenànt-Governor of Quebec.

The orlglnal tow~hlp of Stanbrldge was not to be surveyed

untlJ 1800 by Jesse Pennoyer. The town~hip ln 1800 was com-

prlspd of 60,926 acres. Pennoyer's remarks about the township

are rather Interesting.

"The townshlp is 1.n a very e1igib1e Sl tuatl.on
about 10 rn~les south-easter1y from St. Johns,
nearly touching Misslsequoi (Missisquoi) Bay.
It is weIl watered by Pike RIver and several
srnaller streams. On Pike River there are tWQ
good rn~ll seates (sites) called the Upper and
Lower Falls (Upper and ~ower Bedford). Pike
RIver abounds with large quantities of good
fish such as pIke, pickerel, maskinonge and
other kinds. There lS a quantity of very good
land ln the townshIp but sorne parts of it
swarnpy. Most of the swamps may be drained
making thern very valuable. The tirnber in
general is beech, maple, basswood, butternut,
elm, ash, hemlock, cedar and spruce. Il 77

77 liA Bi t of Hlstory and True Anecdotes of Stanbridge
.~ f!ast", Missisquoi County Historical Society, Vol. 9 (1967),
• p. 84.
e OF STAN BRIDGE n-'-6-- r-- ~

-~ _-r
12.7 ..J

5URVE'ep l~ 1600
1 1 ( 1
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After going through many dffficulties in recruitlng

reliab1e and trustworthy assoc~afes, Hugh Flnlay as mentioned
1 \
above was finally granted thé Township of Stanbrldge ln 1801.
/'- /
Hugh Finlay was net to l~è,very long after being granted the
l ) "
10wnshlp. He died in the latter part of 1802 leavlng hlS farnily

ln C}'rea t debt as he owed the crown 1408 pounds. 'AlI hlS

property was seized by the govcrnment.

Sorne of Flnlay'~ assoclat~s lncluded names of famlli~s
WhlCh are stlll found iry the County of Missisquol today. They

are: Martindale, Boomhower, Saxe, Wlghtman, Lampman, Kruller,

Primmerman, W0stov~r, Clapper, Cutting, Hegul, Schoolcraft,

Reynolds, Smlth and.others. There were about thlrty
assoclatcs ln aIl.

The flrst settlers to settle ln the township of

Stanbrldge ~ere Captain Caleb Tree and Nathan Andrews lm 1797.

Caleb Tree,was orlginally from Rhode Island and Nathan Andrews
from Massachus~lts. The sIte selected by these two carly

pioneers was to develop Into the flourlshlng village of Stanbrldge,

today known as Stanbrldge East on the shores of Plke Rlver. 79

Tree and Andrews had prevlously settled in Phlllpsburg for a

short time before moving into the townshlp of Stanbridg~ by way

of Plke River from MissisqUOl Bay. The early settlement of (he

townshlp actua11y took place along the banks of Plke Rlver WhlCh

78 Mrs • Doris Kldd, "Highllghts of Hlstory in Stanbridge
East. The Founding of the Township, May l" 1801," Missisquoi
Coun.ty Historical Society, Seventh Annual Report, 1961, p. 89.

79H • Belden; Illustrated Atlas of the Domlnion of
p. VIII.

winds its way throughout the township of Stanbridge.
In 1799 Jacob Seagel settled on the b'nks of Pike

River at the slte of what was to bec orne the village of Riceburg.
Another early settler in the township prior to 1801 was a

faml1y by the name of Eastman who settled just outside the
present day village of Stanbridge East. These very early

set tIers lnto the township of Stanbrldge were actually "squatters"
as they had no officlal tltle to the land they had settled on.

Another area .which was settled prl0r to 1801, was in

the north-west corner pf th~ township of Stanbrldge known as

Clapperton (now known as MystlC). Accordlng to an article

wrltten by Mr. Alex Walbrldge on the early history of Mystic,

a Mr. John Norton was one of the fIrst settlers to settle around

Clapperton·prior to 1801. Mr. Walbrldge refers to the early

set tIers belng att~acted to thlS area of the townshIp by the

abundance of garne found in the forest and the excellent fish

found ln the creek WhlCh flowed through Clapperton and ernptled

Into Pike RIver. F1Sh such as lunge, bass, pickerel, plke,

black and redfin suckers were found in the creek.

The first offlclal or legal settlement ln thlS part of
th~de by ~~o__~~~~_~amflles named Clapper as
thlS locallty, for rnany years was known as the Clapper settlernent

or Clapperton. The Clappers settled on lots 135and 17 in-the
sixth range. It lS also belleved that Jerry and John Boornhower,

80 Ibid ., p. VIII.
81Information from Mr. Alexander Walbridge who
lives in MyStlC.
., 68

John Steliker, Peter Bockus and a man named Philips aIl

settled in this are a of the township on lots 14, 15 and 16
in the' sixth range in the ear1y 1800's. Mr. Walbridge in his

notes ~~ h1story of Mystic does not mention the exact date

that these people se~i~ __ ~
After the death'of Hugh Finlay in 1802, the wholesale

firm/,.6'} Isaac Todd ahd James 'McGi11 bouqht35,-O-O-O acres of the

-- ---
-- '-:?;:'"h '


above, se1zed aIl Finlay's
-- -------~
from the government who


James McGill was born in Glasgow, Scot1and, in 0
ad as mentioned

,.~.; / -~
~ ft 1744. He emlgrated to ~eriêan colonies where he remaineq
~ . for sorne years, but moved to Canadab'ê"Xore -the Americ-an

Revolution broke out in 1775. After the death of, James McGi11

in December, 1813, 31,000 ~cres of land in the ~ownship of
Stanbridge was granted to Francis- Amable Des Rivieres who was
MCulll's stepson. 82

The township of Stanbridge, according to H. Be1den,~
developed Into one of the most important sub-municipalities

because of Its central posit~on in the county.83 The most

important commercl~~ center i·n the township was the Town of

~dford' WhlCh deve~oped along the south bank of Pike River.

82Malmaison, A paper prepared for the MissisqUOl .
County Hlstorical Society, (Author' unknown).

83 .
H. Belden, Illustrated, Atlas of the Dominion of
Canada, p. VIII •

. '
69 ~,"

The Town of Bedford and the area immediately surrounding it

developed very 1ittle prior to'the War of 1812. In fact

the develbpment of the entire townsh1p or Stanbridge progressed

v€ry slowly for many years as compared to the township of

Dunham and the p'arish€s of St, Arm~nd ~ast and West.

'The selgnlory of ~. Armand (parishes of St. AImand

West and St. Armand East, ~fter' 1834), as mentioned previously,
had been surveyed in 1788 and divided 210 acres each.

Thomas Ddnn by 1789 had abandoned aIl rig'j1ts that he

had to St. Armand and began .granting land for cash • . After 1790

thè seigniory of St. Armand, although.retaining the name

seigniory unti1 1834, became very slmi1ar to the townships'

that were being developed. The only difference was that 'Dunri,

through h~s land agent, John Ruiter, and 1ater Philip Ruiter,

sold land in the $eigniory of St. Armand for cash, whereas

'.many settlers settling in a township were able to obtain 'free

land by organlzing or )oining a company of associates. Once a

settler purchased land from D~nn in the Selgnlory of St. Armand,

he became the ~ctual owner and could do what he wanted with

the land.

D~nn, thrQugh his land agent, was vefy successful in

attracting settlers to St. Armand West and St. Armand East

despite the fact they'had to pay approximately 10 pounds per

one hundred acres. Às mentioned previously, the f irst set"tle-

ment in the Eastern TO~~hi~had been made .at Missisquoi Bay~

o '


~ . 1 ' I~~I 1 ,1 70
( ;

e· '. l 1

.L -
.., 1





- --p
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. :ql'~

, UI

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'u.. 1
0 ..
r. .
p:: \ \
: l

, ~'

, ,

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. ,

r v! __ _
, - , ,
" 71 ..

ln St. Armand'W~st, in 1784 in actual defiance of the
British GoVérnment orders. By 1800 ~lssisquoi Bay was a

flourishlng village and was an important center ln the develop-

ment of the Easter-n Townships as we learn from Joseph Bouchette's

Topographical Description of Lower Canada, publlshed in 1815.

"The Vll1age of Philipsburg (Missisquoi Bay) is
convenlently situated on the edge of the Bay, about
one mIle from the PrOVInce llne. It lS a handsome
place, containing about SIxt Y houses, exceedingly
weIl bUllt of wood, many of them in the peculiar
style of neatness common to ~he Dutch, and the others
more in the fashion of the American than the Canadian
villages. Sorne regard has been pald ta regularity' ln
the formatIon of the princIpal st~eet, which has a
11vely and agreeable appearance. Between this street
and the Bay are many store-houses, with wharfs for
~andIng goods at a short dIstance from them.
~At thlS place thpre are many of the inhabltants
employed in trade and mercantl1e pursuits, besides
artisans, ,and perhaps ~ore than a ~ue proportion of
tavern-keepers. From the wharf there i~ a ferry to
l,the OpposIte side of the Bay, ,a distance of four miles. Il


. 1
..; Another area tliat was partially settled in the Parish of

S~t. j\rmarid West prior to 1790, was St. Armand Station. The fIrst
settle~s, !n this part
t ~ ,"
Qi. the parish of St. Armand West was
, J
. .
1 "'Garret Slxby, Joseph Sml th, Frederick Hayner and Peter Miller.
Ga'tret S~,xl;>y had elght çhlldren, aIl of whom later sf!t tle'd in
~. l,
" ,
St. Armand,and the neighboÛ~lng townships. Freder~ck Bà~ner did

not lIve very long ln the vicInlty of St. Arma~ Station for in
. "
1801.fie sold his farm to NiCholas Moore. 84 Nicholas Moore had

com~ from butchess County in the State of New York. H,e was to

build the ~~rst tannery, in the County of MissisqUOl soon after

84 . 1
. C. Thomas,/tl. ·34-35.
<, ,



=. ~

\ >-
arr~ving ~n Canada. Another early pIoneer to sett\e around

St. Armand Stat~on pr~or to 1800, was PhIlIP Luke, who later

o'pened a store and also bUll t an ash0ry ln fhlS locatlon.

The f.lrst sf>ttlf>r to sottie ln the an"a of. pIgeon 1I1.
was George TltemorC' who came from Columbla County ln New York

ln 1788. Tltemore had thlrteen chIldren, many of who~ were

f'ventually to IlV~ ln lhe Eastern TownshIps. Another early

set tler lo sC' d, PIgeon I1ill prlpr to 1791 was Henry c ____

~ ~.
Groat who cam( Canada from the State of Nf>w York. Grot}t<

...,., the Parlsh of St. Ar~and and J'D lnto
Crf>ek WhlCh runs through
the Townshtp of Stanbrldgr was named after Henry Groat.

In 1791 the Sager famlly ~nclud~ng the father and hlS
three sons camp to PIgeon HIll from the UnIted States. They

purchased two lots on th0 present day sIte of the VIllage.

P1<;}eon 11111 was for a long tlme known as Sagerfield, but
because of the large number of plge1ns ln this are a the name
was changed.


One of the f~rst'settlers to settle ln the parlsh of

Sb Armand East was ~lmpson Jenne, who .. originally came to

Canada from the town of Clarendon, Vermont. H~ settled on a

plot of lan~about nwo mIles east of the present day sIte of
the v11rage of Frel1ghsburg ln 1789. "In the spring of 1190

85 cyr"US Thomas, p. 43-44 .
IbId." p. 52-53.

- -




'~- " ~ \'-....




SC ALE :~ 3/4\ INCHES ECil\lALS 1 MIU:

\\ -.J


Jer~m~ah Sp0nC~r srttlcd on a lot ad)oinlng the Jenne

propprty. Jrrrmidh Spencer had tak0n up resld0ncp at
Cdldwpll's Mêlnor ImmNililtf_'ly followlng thp American Revolution.

rt IS rdtlwr Intrrf'stlng to notr l'hal Simpson J('nn(' ,mct

V0rmont, prlor to th(' American RevolutIon and ln 1790 found

ttl<'msplvps n01ghbourfl oncr morC' • .

,. 'l'h<' flrst s0ttl('r to Sf'tt1P In-lhe' viclnlty of St.

Armdorl Crntrr, known as Cook's Corner unti1 lR67, was John

'Pl lC'mor0. 11(' w.u; th0 brother 0 r G0orgC' Ti ten1o-r~' th0 _ f l nit-
f)<:'ltll'f ,lt PIg00n 11111. john Tllpmore had t0n Chlldrf'n aIl

of whom s<'tt10d ln lhe' Pdr ishNl 0 f St. Arm~nd }o;<:is L ftTI{f St~
/ 1 -- ~

Arm,m/i W0fl t . In 1790, a mMn n~-F0try a1so st>ttlpd ln the

VIC'lnJ ty of S~_~ -ArllYdnd Cpntc'r unl..ll 1794, when he sold hlS

__ .hjnâ t 0 'l'homas Whll'man. Anoth(>r 0arly pIoneer to settle on
t wo tou, of sou th of t hf' present~ vi llage."of st. ~rmand

Crn t l'r W,1S Joiltn Toof, who cam0 ,lo c~nada fr~ t h(> Stil Le 01

N0W York in 1792. !I(' had nln(' chi lrlren allaI. whom scttled
ln tho County of MIHSlS4UOl.

Another ar('d ln the parlsh of St. Armdnd East to be
1, ~.
seltl~d ln the parly 1790's was th~ vll1age of Lagrang~ Ml1lA

on Plkp Rlver (now known as lIuntcr·'s Mills). T,9sac Lagrange
settled at thlS particular spot on Plke River ln 1790. Hp came

to Canada from Alb~y, N('w York and purchased the l~nd on which

he bUllt a housp and later a saw mlll from Philip Luke.

Ibld., p. 57.

• .

Mr. Luke had purchased this land as early as 1783, after the

Amerlcan Revol ution, but had fal1ed to settle on l t. In 1 796,

Abram Lagrange, Isaac's son, settled here. BV 1798 Abram

Lagrange had built ct grlst mll1. It was Ilttle wonder thlS

area in the parlsh of St. Armand East became known as Lagranges
Mi11s. In 1792 Elias Truax, aiso from tne State of New Y~rk-

settled around Lagrange Mllis. There were ~a number of

other set tIers who settlp~~his
-- -
area of St. Armand East, sorne

of thN10 _bQ-lml Jôe Chadsey, who had come from Vermont ln 1790;

Matthew Lampman and hlS son, Abram, who came from Grand Isle

County, Vermont ln 1794. Matthew Lampman did not remaln in thlS

,' area for long as he sold hLS lot ln 1796 to BenJamln Reynolds,

who was aiso from the State of Vermont. Mr. Reynolds had eight

chlldren most of whom later settled ln the parish of St. Armand

Ensl. Another carly pioneer to St. Armand East, was Thomas

Baker who came to thlS area along with hlS two sons ln 1798 from

Rhode island. In 1802, John Krans along with nls four brothers

sett 1 ('cl about a mile west of the village of Lagran g ,. The
'Kr~ns' came to St~ Armand East from the State of New York~
The flrst settler, accordlng to Cyrus Thomas, to settle

at Frellghsburg, in the parlsh of St. Armand East was John S.

Gibson ln 1790. Gibson dld not remain ln thlS loca~e for very

lonq as he sold hlS land to a man named Owens ln 1794. In

1/96 Owens sold out hlS possesslon to two men from St. yohns,

called Conroy and Yumans. They ln turr. after maklng a few

Improvements on the land 's01d out to Doctor Abram Freligh, and


----- ---
his twelve chlld~en [rom Albany, New York_in-1801.

Frpllgh purchased two hundred frem Conroy and Yumans
-- acr~s
- "88
for four thousand-dol1ars~

Anplher early pIoneer ta settle al Frellghsburg was

EIIJah Kemp who came to Canada ln 1799 from SpringfIeld,

Vprmont. ·EllJ~h Ke~p h~d [Ive sons aIl of whom became leadlng

cltlzens l~ thr townsh~p~.
Among the early settlprs to se~l10 n0~r Frellqhsburg

werr Wlillam Ayer and Danlel Chandler. Mr. Ayrr settlpd on a

'Jot ilbo~l('.past of the villaqe of Frplighsburg dftrr
hav 1 ng comç' fr\1lI t he' St a l0 of Npw Ilampshl re 1 n 1796 . .:" In

1798, Jamrs Ayrr, also came to the Eastern Townships and

spttled on a lot alongslde hlS father, WIlllam. Dar1l01 Chandler

along wlth hlS two sons, camp from ConnectIcut and settled ln

the vlClnlty of Frellghsburg ln 180q.
Abbott's Corner WhlCh lS situated about· tWQ mI10s south

cast of Fr01lghsburg was another area ln the parish of St.

Armand East WhlCh was settlcd at an early date. One of the flrst

spttlers to settle ln thlS 'area was Eben~E'r Clark who came from...,

the Atatp of New York ln 1795. Other early settlers ta s~ttle
around Abbott's Cornet wcre Jeded~ah Hlbbard and hlS sons who

came' from Lebanon, New HampshIre ln 1797. Another carly settler
Ç\ .
to thlS area w~ Dr. Jonas Abbott, who cà~e from~Bennington,

Vermont in 1797, and became a prominent and influeJ)tlal citizen,

50 much 50, that the VIllage of Abbott's Corner was named aiter

e him.

88 Ibid . , p. 73.


Ther~ were a numb~r of other families that settled at

cl very early dat~ alnnq the tralls and pathways WhlCh the

ploneers had travelled leadlng from the State of Vermont into

thp pa r 1 sh of St. Armand E.u, t • One of thesp parly srttlrrs

was Issac Glbb, who settlpd prlor lo 179B ,In thp forrat mld'ofay

between Abbolt's Corner and the UnIted States border.

G1bb, howpvpr, saon Roid hIS land to Dr. Allen MlnE"r from

Conn<'c t l C'U t • Dr. Mlner praC'tlC'rd medicine ln this area for a

nurnbpr of ypclrs. In ]79R Cclptaln J. B. Sco[1('ld [rom New Hampsh1re

rt1so Sf't,tlpd ln thlS drf'a. C,lptaln Scofleld acC'ordlng la Cyrus

Thom,l!,; was .1 "grf'ëlt" farmPT. flp WëlS to hav@ lat('r plantf'd al:Yl

Idrgp' oTch.lrd on hlS l.lnd ëlnd .:1180 become a promlncnt d,ury

fI' rrt{e r . Anoth('r parly ploneer ta seltle ln thlS area of the

Unlt<'C:I SLlJes bordeT and Abbott 's Corne"):" was Thomas Arms who ("cIme

from Clarendon, Vprmont ln 1ROO. Thomas Arnts was also, at a

later d~tp, to plant a large orC'hard ln thlS parf of St. Armand
., .

The moat pas{prly part of St. Armand East around th~.

Plnnùclp Mountaln was rt180 settled ln the latc 1790'8. One of
, the fJrst settlers ~o thlS area was Re~ben Dodge who settlcd ln
\ ~;
the valley norlh of thp PInnaclc Mount~ln
ln 1796. ThE:> area 18

today C'alll'd North P1Mnncle. Another Elarly settier 10 thls

,Hea was a man nampd Holiday, who clearled twelve acres of land

and bUJ il th~ 11rst saw mlll ln thlS lobatlon. In 1804 Mr.

Hollddy sold out to Vintpr Barncs from Plttsford, Vermont.

IbId., p. 100. ~

,- r
t _,'f

In 1805, Luther Smlt~ also came to this area from Coleraln,

Massachusetts. Thére were a number of other settlers who came

to thlS are a of St. Armand East but ln many Instances tney

did not remain.

Many of these early settlers who came ta the County of

MissisqUOl' from the New Eng1and States ln t~ perlod from 1 7~1

untl1 1812 wer0 eVldently actuated by the hope of gain from t~e

acqua~ntance of new lands. The growing population of New

England sought an outlet where farmlng condltl0ns were more

favourab1e than in the mountalns and heavlly populated valleys
\ l 90 • '
of New Hampshire and Vermont. A large percentage of these

early settlers contlnued to reside ln the County for a great
many years. They were to witness the transformatlon, not

only of th~ townshlps ln the ~ounty of MlsSlSqu~i, but of many

of the surroundlng areas from a state of natural deiolat{on to

that of an affluen, rural Ilfe, teeming with the sights ~nd

sounds of advanced agrlcultural development. On the other

hand, however, as mentloned previously, sorne of the early

ploneers that came lnto the County were frontler~men in that

they would bUlld a home, clear a few acres and" then ln two o~
# 11)
three years sell thelr property f6r a 'profIt and move further

lnto the backwoods.

,The"years 17~ thfough 1812 was a period of pre-

dominately American sett~ernent into the Eastern Townships.

90 ' ,
J. A. Dresser, The Eastern Townships; A Study in
HUffian Geography, p. 93.


By· 1800 Americans had settled throughout the townshIps and even

as far north as Mpgantic County.
The War of 1812 interrupted

sompwhat thlS f10w of AmerIc~n ~p,tlers
Into thp townshIps,
a1though I I was to continue at a slower pace lnto the 1820's.

l rll1 not a l t ernpt to de al Wl th the eff,iC'c t of the War of 18] 2-

1814 on thp County of Mlsslsquol at thls time as reference wlll

be madp ln th€' chapter on the "Politlcal Deve1bpment of the

County. "

D. 1814 - ItrSO: American and Brltish Sett1ement ln the

County of MlsslSqUOl
After 1R.14 tne 'flrst great wave of Immlgratlon [ro~e

Brltlsh Isles bC'gan,. but even wlth thls, thp majority of the

Inhabltants of the Eastern TownshIps, up unt11 the 182,O's,

were Amerlcans. ThIS period of Amerlcan movement, after 1814,

lnto the Eastern TownshIps has often been cal1ed a "loyallst"

one, but actually few of the settlers were Ioyalists. Rather

they were people who pushed up into the TownshIps Iooking for

new land. Many of these people were skil1ed mechanics and

tradesmen, and even professlonal men, who wlth thelr trained
Skliis and ~arger means, were to place thelr 11ttl~ shops, saw'

mll1s, foundrles and tannerIes on every convenlent waterway and
were to ald ln extendlng the good work begun ,by the old
, 91

91 .
"The Canadlan Loyallsts and thè
Dl s tr.1C t ~Bedf ord ", ,:::M~l,..S_s_i_s__________--t________....
Volume 3, "('~08), p. 106.

~ . ,.

After 1820 the Am~rlcan settlem~nt ln the Eastern

TownshIps assumed less Importance, and the Scotch, IrIsh and

to som. extent the Eng~lsh became more Important. There were

~several reasons for this. On the one hand, more roads were

bUllt llnking together the already settled townshIps wlth the

unsettled as well as ,lmproved routes betwepn thp City of Montredl

and the townshIps. On the othér hand, there were certaIn con-

dltlons ln Brltaln Whlch encouraged emlgratlon such as, the

changes ln the productIve organlzatlon by the d2velopment of

large farms and enc~osures of VIllage commons WhlCh drove large
L ~ ' - r

numbers o~ people off the land. Anothè! condltlo~ ln BrItal
• 1
WhlCh forced the people to emlgrate to BrIt~sh North Ame Ica after

1820 was the numerous bad harvests due t~~àt;~r. condltl ns.

Furthermorè, wlth the conclusIon of the Napo1eonIc Wars ln 1815,
there was a great surplus of manpower in-the BrItish Isles.

ThIS further accelerated the pop.ulatlon moveme"nt from 'Great

Brl tain to the UnI ted States and Brl t'Ish North AmerIca.

In order ta accommodate thlS great Influx of colonlsts
Into British North AmerIca, a number of land ,companles were
es'tabllshed. One such company was the Brl tlsh Alnerlcan Land
Company form~d in 1832 wlth its headquarters ln Sherbrooke. The
\ .
BrItish American Land ~fmpany was granted by the Lower Canada
government more than a millIon acres in the Eastern Townships.

~ Most of thlS land was i areas that"remained to be settled.

The Company was granted few hundred acres, the exact figure'
l ,
unknown, ln the township of West Farnham ln 1832, 1837 and

" 81
again ln 1847. The purpose of the company was to build

," brldges, roads, schools and to open up the terra. tory for

settlemcnt. Although they placed many Brltlsh farnIlies in the

Eastern Townships after 1832, the Bri tlsh AmerIcan--:Lan
real lnterest, aC~rdlng to Raoul Blanchard, was ln land sp

latl0n and the sale of the valuable wood resources on thelr

grants. They are reported actua~ly to have dlscouraged

settlement. 93 -
The Company also bought up rnany of the tracts

land that bad been awarded to people earl~er and who had no

IntentIon of lmprovlng or settling thelr land. In sorne lnstan-

ces the Company was su~cessful in bUylng up a few tracts ln, sorne

of the very remote are as of the çounty of MlsslsqUOl.
DespIte having a great effect on the Eastern TownshIps,

the BrItish Amerlcan Land Company was to have very 1Ittle
Influence on the
.... County of MIsSISquoi. ThIs was rnaInly because

by 1832 just about all of the .land haq been granted and t h

County was fairly weIl advanced qS cornpar~d to the other rea ~

In spIte of thlS great Influx of settlers J.nto the

Eastern TownshIps, after 1814, the County of MisSISqUOI was to

attract very few as compdred to other regl~ns. ThlS of course
, '-
was ~ue to the fact that by 1814, th~ County of Missisquoi was

the mOst densely populated area in the Eastern To~nshlps.

92"Grantees of Farnham", Missisquoi County Hlstor{cai
SOcIety, Sixth Annual R~port, 1960.

93Raoul Blanchard, "Les Can'~ns de L' est", Revue de
Geographie Alpine, Tome XXV, (1937), ~sci~ule l.

" ,
, . \


Settlements ln the County of Misslsquoi had begun very early,

ln fact as previous1y mentloned, a great deal o~ it was before
o ~he land had been surveyed a~ townshlps. Sorne of the early

pioncers had becom.e 'squy-ters. having settled and cleared land

before they had the legal right. ThIS of course, led to con-
fllcting land claims and trouble between the squatters and

proprletors ln sorne arcas. Roblnson declares that by 1813

parishes of St. Armand West and St. Armand East had a population
of 2500 and the townshIp of Dunham 1600. The other parts of

MISSISgUOI hdd proportlonately less people, but were nevertheless

weIl settled.

The County of MisSISquol alter 1820 wap to attract very

few,Brltlsh immIgrants as compared to other reglons rnalnly

because thls region had been qUlte heavIly populated by

Americans prior to thlS d~te.


As mentioned prev1ously, the are a around Missisquoi

Bay lncludlng Caldwell's and ChrlstIe's Manors (partshes of
St. Ged~ge and St. Thomas after 1822) and the old seigniory of
. '
St. Ar~ahd (parishes of St. Armand East and St. Armand West) had
, /

attracted; prior to 1814, the very early pioneers .to the Eastern

, because of thelr accessible location. By

1814 a large percentage of the best farming land in the above

94 B• N'.' Robinson, "The Ear1y History of the Bastern ..

Townships of the\.Province of Quebec," Missisquoi County,
HistorIca1 Societx, Seventh Annual Report, (.1961), p. ~'•


areas had been cultivated for almost a quarter of a century,
/ !.
in Borne locatlons by the early set tIers around M1SS1Squoi Bay.
, ,
George Montgomery in his book MisS1Squoi §ay refers ta the fa~t

that bv 1815 there were 187 lots ln the selgnl0ry of St. Armand

of 200 acres each WhlCh had been conéeded, sorne of WhlCh were

dlvlded lnto much smalle~portl0ns and were,extremely weIl

There were, however, sorne famliles that were to settle
ln the Missisquo~ Bay region after 1814. In most cases those

faml1les that dld locate ln this reglon were attracted by the

great ~mprovements that had been made on the land by the carly
\pçoneers. In the perlod after 1814 most, of the famliles that

settled ln this region were those' that had enough capl tal to

buy a plec;g of cleared land
,c l
These pe<1p

e were not interested in havl clear their own
land al}d then bUlld,a sma11 and crude ca Many of them

were the sons and daughters of wealthy rents who had been

b~ought up ln thp comforts of a weIl esfablished home and

communlty and wanted to enjoy these same comforts when immi-

gratlng to a new country.

Pri<;>.r to 1820 bhe Missisquoi Bay reg~3p/had attracted

for the mos! part Arnerlcans. However -arf~; 1820 lmmigrant ('_

familles from the· Brltlsh Isles began to settle ~? the Missisquoi \

Bay reglon. Famll~es such as the McCartheys, the-McCawllffes,

the Melavens ançi others"; began
to -settle in the parishes
' . "'of" St. ~>

George and St. Thomas (Caldwell and Christle Mànors). In the
, '

- - - - - - - -\ - - - - - - -
{ ~r

181O's Northern Irelanders such as the Millers, the Hunters,

, and others, also
the Cochranes, the Jamiesons, the Macfies
. . 95
began to settle in this reg~on.

Despite some families settling in the Missisquoi Bay
region after 1814, this:areà a~mentîoned above'did not
, , attract
nearly as ~any settlers in~his period as did' ot~r are as.
The townshi~ in the County of Missisquoi were to allure a few
more sett1ers than the Missisquoi Bay r~gion after 1814, but
not nearly~as many as other to~ships. This was due to the
fact that most of the g09d farming land in the townships of
.-Stanbridge, Dunham and West Farnham
\ . '"
nad been qranted at an
early date, and in some instances the land was being held fo~
speculat1 ve pUI!>0ses. In BOme----Cases where a large acreage
had been granted to an individual he would retain possession
-- ~

until his sons and daughters got maEcied and"then he would
divide the land amongst them.


The town of Bedford in the towpShï~ Lof Stanbridge wa.l
'~ to 'dev&lop after' 1814 into one of thfi' / most important commercial
. ~

1 ~ \ ~ ~ ''- *'J
centers in th~ County of MissisquoL Bedford was deve10ped
\" , 0

chiefly alonq the south b.nk of Pike River. The village ~as
~1 ' .

tp he di vided into 'IUpper" and "Lower" Bedford, the former

, . ,por~ion being sitüateQ
....._ _ _ _ _ _ _·_1'":-__
farther upstream than the latter. As

AZO~~ Qu.bec Hi;hways, Quebec Government, 1930 , p. 62.
7 •

• o


-e "mentioned previously, the settlement of this part of the
township of
war of 1812.
~tanbridgedéveloped very little prior to the
Actually it was not
about 1820 that an air

of agricultural progress pervaded the entire township o~

Stanbridge. 96
In the spring of 1819, Benjamin Hauver along with hi~

ten èhildren came to the township of Stanbridge from Albany,
New York. The Hauver's settled on lot number 18 in the sixth
range which was in the vicinity of Clapperton (Mystic). After
living for a few years in a small house they built a large two-
storied frame house which for many years ~s known as ~~uvers

Anoth~r fami~y·that was to play an important role in
the development Of the c6unty of Missisquoi was the Walbridge
family. Solomon Walbridge a~ong with his wife anp children

cam~ from Cambridge, Vermont, in the spring of 1822 to the

township of Stanbridge. Walbridge bougqt from John Norton part
of~lot nu~ber 15 in the sixth range which included a &mâ1l
mille In 1824 Solbmon Walbridge built a large home which becarne
one of the most popular guest homes in the' County.- Th~ Walbr,idqe
family lived
, in this home until 1842 when it was destroyed by
fire'. Solomon Walbridge now moved to Bedford and buil t a ,
" '"
.. '1( .. " ...

boarding house for the employees of a large tannery company"':which

96 .
.) H. Belden, Illuatrated Atlas of the Dominion of .'
Canada, p'. VIII.

.. , •
.. 86
, ,

was locat.ed in the Town of Bedford.
The Walbridge's were
only in Bedford for about a year when the y decided to move
back to Clapperton after the destruction of the tannêry by fire.
O~their return to Clapperton in 1843, Solomon Walbri-,dge gave

up the hotel business and built a smal~er home where ~e 1ived
,with his family~until his de~th in~l854.97 Mr. Alex Walbridge,
Solomon's grandson, ia stil~ living in this home today in Mystic.
In the spring of 1825, another family to settle in the
< Clapperton or Mystic area, of the township of Stanbridgc, were
l '\
1 the C. J. Phelps. They had also emiqra~,d from the $tate of
, ""-
Vermont. Mr. C. J. Phelps was later to become the f1rst post-
master at Mystic.
In 1826 Ga110way Freligh,' son of Dr. Abram Freligh,
. ,-

moved to Bedford from Frelighsbu~9 and became the first post-
mas ter in the town of Bedford. Galloway Freligh married William
Comstock's dauqhter"Lucy, who had come to the township of
Stanbridge in 1822 from Wi11iamstown, Vermont. 98
Another prominent fami1y that came to the township of

Stanbridge in 1826 from the
S~ate of New York was the Cornell's.
Zebulon Corne11 was a blacksmith by trade and in 1830 acqui~ed
a piece o:(...lëtnd and a gr ist mill'" from George J. Hol t at Stanbridge
p -
oEast. The Cornell family ~ith their grist m~ll were to serve
ManyIf of the farmers of the County~of M~ssisquoi from 1830 untilj ....... ~

97 .
Papers from Mr. Alex Walbridge o~ the Early Hi,tory
o .of Mystic or Clapperton.

9S"Th, Px'eligh F~mily", (Author unkno,'",l.
Histor~cal Sociéty, Sixth Annual Report, 19 D
,.p. •

.. - o


\ =Ur n«tO " t,
87 -1

1941. The old Cornell Mill still stands and hoùses
Missisquoi County Historical Society's muse~m at Stanbridge
. ..- '


" . TOWNSHIP OF DUNljAM (1814-1850)
The township of Dunham as mentioned above was fairly
wè11 tettled by ,1813. However, in the 1820' s we begin ta find
some families wh6' had emigrated from the British Isles settling
in the township of'Dunham. One such fami1y was the Selby's who
settled in the township of Dunham in 1822. Jonathan Selby
a10ng with his wife and their two'sons, Thomas and Joseph,
purchased the lot whieh Jonathan Hart had settled on around #
Selby Lake in 1795. The Selby family was to play a major role
in the development of the township of Dunham, 50 much 50, that
" ~
Selby Lake was to be named after them. Thomas Selby was to
become a eommissioner of the Commissioner's Court and also mayor
Qf the Municipal Couneil. His brother, Joseph, was to become
an enterprising merchant. 99
In 1834 Captain Robert Smalt and his wife, alonq with
their nephew, George Stephen, s~ttled about two miles outside
. ,
. the vi11aqe~ Dunh~. Ca~ain small,-who.~as a'shipmaster anq .
• J , , '

had owned a fleet of whalers, immi~rat~d ta the township of
Dunham from 'Aberdeen, Scotland. The area the Sm~ll fami1y
99 C. Thomas, Contributions ta the History of the
Eastern Townships, p. 118. •
~~-i~ '~:
settled ,upon became known as "Scotch Hill". Captain Smal1
and his wife\had one son, James Stephen'Small, who 'in 1855
rebui1t the fami1y home and p1anted maple trees around it which
ga,'{e it the ,name of "Maplewood" rather than "Scotch Hill."
l ,
4This fami1y was to deve10p in the 1870'5 and 1880'5, a large

~ap1e suga~ing business in the County.

Another prominent family that sett1ed in the township
of, Dunham was Peter Cowan. He came from Montreal in 1836 and
sett1~d at Ne1sonvil1e, where he'became one of the most prominent
men in the County ~f ~issisquoi. In 1849 James O'Halloran, who
1 -.d~ Io' ...,.

was to become the~~~resentative in the House of Commons for
- 1\ -
Missisquoi County, also\sett1ed at the village of Nelsonvi11e.
Wilbur Corey a1so sett1e in the township of Dunham on lot
number 16 in the tehth rang in 1849. 101 This area was 1ater
to be known as "Corey Neiqhbo ,hood."
There were other fami1ies that sett1ed in the township
of Dunham after 1812 but in most instances they had to pay a
high priee for their land. Joseph Bouchette in his Topo-
graphica1 Diotionarv of the Province
, to the township of Dun~am as having a population of 27121 with
. .
ot. Lower Canada refers

. (. .~' • n.~
.. ,.' 1:: 1 .>

nearly the who1e town.~üP li1einq settled 'and with many ·extensive
farms by 1832.
100"Let-ters from Dunham"-, •.(Author unknown), MissisqUoi
County Historical' Societ'y, Volume 9, (1967 J, p. 114.

'10 '
IMrs. Ruby Moore, The Saga of the'Saxes, -(paper
writtenlfor the Missi.quoi County Historlcal. SocIety) •


As mentioned prev:o"UdY~lmost t'Ile entire township of
West Farnham had been granted t the A11sopp fami1y by 1809.
Deapite the failure of the A11sopp family to settle in thi~

township themselves until 1840, this did not discourage other
fa~ilies from settling in this region. A number of families,
prior to 1840 were to settle on the A~lsopp property. These
people were to be referred to as "squatt:.ers" as they had no
title to this land. In some cases, howëver, some of the pioneers
~<:... in West Farnham, in this period after 1814, were to be granted

sm~ll portions of land from the government of Lower Canada,
that is land that had not already been granted to the All$oPPs.
As mentioned previously, in 1832 and 1847 the government of

Lower Canada was also to grant a few hundred acres of l·and in
the township of West Farnham to the British American'Land Company •
In 1817
William Cook came• to the tow.pshJp of West Farnham
from the State of Rhode Island. William Cook was the first
colonist to settle at the present d'ay town of Farnham. The
.' ...
township of West Farn~am was a1so ~o attract Br~~sh immigrants
in the 1820's. In 1822, two brothers from Glasgow, Scotland,

JQhn and James McCorkill settled around what was to become the
town of Farnham.
Until 1827 the t,ownship of W~st Farnham had developed
very slowly. In January of that year, John Bowker, who had
1fvéd in St. Arman~, moved-his family to the town of Farnham.
Bowker was to build the first saw mill in the township of


. 4 ,1
,,' 1
.... , 90
. .
Parnham and was to become extremely active in ',the lumbering
Another ~~tler
who was to play a major role in
the development of the ~ownship of West Farnham was John Frier
Whitfield who settled at Farnham in 1827. Whitfield was to
build the first. storf in the town of Farnham.
Abbe St. Pièrre in his Histoire de St. Romuald de ~
Farnham refers to a number
" .
o~French~èanadians who settled on

the east bank of the Yamaska River above and below the town of
1 il
Fa~nham during the l820·s. This no doubt wa~ due to the
location of tne township of West Farnham which bordered on the
old French seiqniories in the Counties of Iberville, Rouville
. r
and St.-Hyacinthe. Some Pr~nch-Canadianswalso made thelr way
up the Yamaska River in the ia20's from the overcrowde4 and
exhausted seigniorie~ on the banks of the St. Lawrenci River.
The Vama&ka which flows through the old Prench selgniories and
event~ally empties in'to the St. Lawrence Rive.r wëVJ to .be one
, ri . ,
'of the major routes for the French in~~ltration into the
Ea~tern Townships after 1850. It would appear that Many of '
~ese FrenCh-cana~ians who madé their way into the townships of
1 West Farnham in th,is perioCjl before t~e l84Q' s did so' on. their
/ own initiative as the gove~nment o,i Lowe{~ Ca~ada at this time
\ attempted to discourage F~ench set~lement in the Eastern
Townships. As ~arly as 1816'Simon Allard and his family
102a• 8elden, "Historical Sketch of the Eastern
Townships and Southwest Ontario, Il Illuàtrated Atlas of the "
Dominion of Canada.


~ ... 91
established themselves on the bank pf the Yamaska
below the site of the future' town of Farnham. Other French-
Canadian families to settle in West Farnham in\the 1820's

according to Abbe St. Pierre were Christophe Auger and ~dte

Lacasse in 1820; Handré'Truar (date'unknown); J. B. Labonté ,
and Pierre Se~igny in 1823; Joseph Lâmon~agne and Thomas Boisvert
, .
in 1825; Joseph,,--P.agé and Pierre D~ion in 1827; .Edouard F'1eury~
in 1828; Choiniere Sabourin in 1829.

progressed very
As mentioned above, the township of West Farnhatn-'
, .
in fact, according to Charles Core's/

map of 1829 there we~~' only twe~ty-four houses in this townihip.

In the vicinity of the town of Farnham there were only four
houses and one sawmill by 1829.
. The township of West Farnham
continued to progress rather slowly until about 1840, when the.

grandsons of George Allsopp, the majo~ grantee, came to the 1

area and started to dispose of the large Allsopp làrtd holdings.
The A1lsopps, apparently, had a ~o~Sid,ra~e amount of trouble
collecting payment from pers ons who ha_~SqUatted" on their
,lands. These ~'squatters" 'felt that since they had been sett1ed
on th~, Allsopp land for ,po Many years that they were entitled to
the rights'of ownership.103

Prior to 1837' there were no settlers north of th~ Yamaska
~iver in the township o.~ ~st !arnham, but, in that year, James H.
Mosher settled in that part of the townshi~ about a mile north"
,/ ~

. of the town of Farnham. Mosher had formerly lived in the
State of Vermont. 't\
1 1

lO3 G• Hawltè-:-:aarly Historx - Farnham.

tf •

~ Desp~ te the increase in the numbe{ of settlers coming
into the townshi'p. of West p,'arnham this region of the C~>unt)' od
Missisquoi wa~ to remain re1atively quiet until the construction

of the Chambly: Shefford and Stanstead Rai1road in 1858. 104 From'
.. . «

the very ear1y settlements of the township of West Farnham it

would appear that this was probably the first area in the
Eastern Townships ~at became bilingu~l, with the French

,gradua11 y approachfn g from the north and west from the old
:! seignio!ies. while /the Eng1ish settled in the south and east
, (, 1 \
of the townshl.p. 1
E. 1850 - 1867: Freneh Canadian Set~lement in the
. County, of Miss!sguoi

~n 1831, aCèordinq to Blanchard, there was no significant

, . '
population in the townships.
After 1831, how-
ever, came the first French push. away from the old wel1-
estab1ished French parishes which.1ay around the Eastern
Townships. By 1949 there ha~ àpparent1y b~en enough French

movement into the townships that it was necessary to pass an
act authorizing "t!he Church to set up parishes outside the
seignj,euria1 'bounds. ,,105
'J'he Frencli move,ment was now to be
active1y organized by the church. 106

104'B.' N. Robinson, "The Ear1y 'History of the Eastern
Towns.hips of the Province of Quebec, Il Missis9U,oi County
Historical Society, Seventh Rèport, 1961, p. 9.
l05M• Q. Innis, An Economie History of Canada, p. 138.
• l06Raoul Blanchard, "Les Cantons de LI est ft, Rewe de
Geooraphie Alpine, ~me ~, 1937, Fascicule I, p. 194 •

• 'V' ','
(\ "

~ :.~, By 1851 the process of moving into new terr!tory ,to
find an outlet for the surplus population being produced eve~
year in the French parish~s had begun. The Eastern Town~hips

because of their geographica1 position 1 and their'! sparse and
1ate1y-sett1ed popu1ati6n in many areas offered such an outlet.
By 1851 the invasion was weIl under way. At the same time, and
for the same reaso,ns,1 the emigration of the French-Canadian to
the United States to wo;k in industrial establishments had also
started. French-Canadian priests were att'empting to popularize
the Eastern Townships for new settlement as one way of deal"ing
with the migration of their people to a stran~ land. The

emigration of French-Canadians into the United States, and the
movement into the townships, were two sides of the same
phenomenon, and often the townships were used as a stepping-
~tone to the United States.l~ The County of Missisquoi was
to play a major attracting French Canadians after 1850.

In spite of the predominant numbers of English-speaking
residents in the County of Missisquoi, it was clear after 1850

that French-Canadians were becoming ,more nwnerous'. As early as
the 1820's and 1830's some French-Canadians had moved into the
parishes of St. Thomas and St. Geo'(e. Families such as the
Letourneaux, the Comeaus, the St. Jeans, the Lamoureaux
, -...
'" "
107J~an Hunter, the French Invasion of the Eastern
Towns~i,ps, p. 36. 8 i



" .

land others. Th1. trend of French movement into the pari.hes
- ,
o( St~ Thomas and St. George was. to continue into the 1850' s
and 60's. -c •

, One of the most influential FrencQ-Canadian families to
settle in the,Eastern Townships before 1850 wâs François and
Henri ~ieres. ~Y came i.n 1841 to the township of
-~idge and settled j,ust outside the vill'ag~ of Pike River.
t' The Des Rivieres, as previously mentioned, were related to
, ,

. \',~. James MeGill. François Amable Des Rivieres, James McG i Il' SI
step-son, and the father of François and Henri, had been granted
31,000 acres of land in the township of Stanbridge in 1813.
, .. 1 The Des Rivieres built· a lârge home which was talled Malmaison.
After 1841, wi th the construction of. a large saw... mill by the·
Des Rivieres, a number of French-Can~dians began to s7ttle around
Malmaison and became involved in the lumber industry in tnts
The township-, of West Farnham by the miçidle of the
. ,
nineteenth century showed ~
large majority'of French. This was
due, as mentioned before, ta the proximity of this township
to the thickly settled French parishes. According to Selden
the population of the town of Farnham by the l860's was' )

·1 approximately fifty percent French. 109 ..
108Alonq guebec HiOhways, Quebec Government, 1930, ~. 627.
l09 H• Belden, "Historieal Sketch of the Baatern Towrù.hips
Southwest Ontario," 111ustrated Atlàa of the ~minion of


By 1851, one quart~r of the people in the parishes of
St. Armand East and St. Armand West and the townships o~
\' 110'
Stanbridge and Dùnham were French-Canadians. In Most of

~these areas the French came not so much to take u~ land and

colonize, as to work fo~ the English farmers and in the sawmil1s

'or lu~bering camps.
\ .
Sorne of them, however, did. come as

squatters and settled in areas such as the township of West

Farnham. Blanchard says: "WhereveJ;" the r~i1roads appeared,

the Canadiens foliowedlt--apparently first as cheap labour for

the rai1way, later taking up land, or working in the factories
, 1

which sprang up in the towns touched by the railway. This is

why the town of Farnham was to attract so Many Prench-Canadians
after 1860. .
By 1861 the French-Canadian population from the surround-

ing French counties was weIl on the move, both into the
, to~ships

and into the United Sta~es. American and

British immigration
! '\

into the townships had practically stopped. ,He a1so find that'
. (
by 1861 Eng1ish families in the County of Missisquoi are

bec~ming sm~lleiJin size and that the Engl~sh exodus is getting
under way--to the W~t, the United States, and the cities~ As
~ ',1 \
, ,
the English farmer saw his SORS and daughters being attracted
• S'
. b

, away from th~,famil~ home, he had 1itt1e recourse but to sell

"his farm when he was no longer "able to work, or manage it
'-?' ,.
,.. ' ;,.;.,:t.....
~ . ,efficient1y. Many ô~ ~hese
farmS'were bougbt

by the French-
.s.&~~--- .".."""
Canadian. The Crown and Clergy Reserves in ~he townships
Blanchard, Le Centre du Can.da François, "
Province de Quebec, p. 250.

'. 1 ..J ",
, ,

• had been put up for s~le in 1854·and were largely purchased
by FrEmch-Can,adian~. The 1860' s therefore saw the population
-~ , .
in the c~~nty of Missisquoi, begin ta change. This infiltratiop
of the French-Cflnadian into the establish.ed,English communi ties
iA the County of Missisquoi was to continue after the 1860's.
The County of Missisquoi ~y 1861 was still the most
densely populated règion in the townships with 49.6 people per


square mile. The po~ulation in the County of Missisquoi in 1861
was 18,-608. TIlis was di vided in the fo11owing way:
Township of Stanbridge
Township of Dunham 1 .3. 9?3
Township of West Farnham 2,530
Parishes of St. Armand East and
St. Armand West 3,.546
Parishes of St. ~eorge and St. 2,5721: 11
Thenpopuiation of the COenty of Missîsquoi reached a more
mature stage and had neared'e if not achiev thé saturation
\. ,-,
point by 1861. 112 ,... d' -"".....•
In spite of the accessible County of
Missisquoi in attracting the early settlers, . t Il was also more
susceptible ta a loss of population than many ther regions
. , "
in tWe townships. This along wit~ the fact that the fertile
t .. .,.

land had been c1eared and farmed,at a very early date, resulted

IllJea~ Hunter, The French Invasion of the Easte;n
Townships,- p. 75.
112I~id., p. 79-80.

- "
~ ..... L'-~"- d '--L ~ ~
•• ......... ,,~._. ....
, ,



after th'e 1860 1 s N compared to other areas in the Ea.térn l," "


The foreqoing analysts on the settléme~t o~:he counfy
. '\,
of Missisquoi trom the 1730 4 s up until the 1860'8 has shown
that tHis period was comptised of American, British and French
set tIers • The sa,tt1ement of this ragion ~f the Eë!s't'el"n
Townships was actua11y started by the French in the period
...- ,.--
(. 1
prior t,O,1763 and then f-ol1owed by American settlers afte'l
1775 and later British emigrants up unti1 approximately 1860.
Alter 1860 we flnd the F~nch-CanadiRn
. once again forming the ~. ~

major group of people l/cating in the county: *t appear,
~ .. 1
1; / 1

therefore, as if the County of Mlssisquoi has màde a eompl~te
circ~e in regard to the ethnie groups that settled in thls
. '

r~i~n. In t~e.mtd eighteenth century the French-Canadian
loses contral of thïs area but by the middle ~~the mlneteenth
century he ls again gaining control of this land by purchasing
..,,- - 1

it from the III English.'

t .
,/ .
,., /
. ,
In desc;ribing the ~ettlement

.1 hà·ve mainly had to rely on' the Missisquoi County Histo lcal
of the County of Miss squoi,

Society reports and; also on ,CYZ:lJ.$.. '"Thomas and Mrs. ·Cath ri'l-'
. . /-,..... .......,.\.~ . 1
Day's books on the history of t~~ Eastern Townships.f~r my
sources. In the period after 1814 1 have not ..intQ a8 mueh
detail as Most of the settlers t~ lnto t~e-Cou~ after
o •

, this date bought land that had already been eleared and
., .

.11Qh~ ~.veloped

by 80m. of the earlier pion••r •• I.t
r .. tl\" II.

should also be •• ntioned that there i8 little reference made ~ i

,in Any of the sources l have conaulted reqardinq the settlem~nt

of the county of MiaBisquai
after 1814. This i8 mai~1y due to
th- fact that very f~w settlera were attracted to thi. County
. ,
a8 compared to other areas in the period followinq 181~. It
r would appear that the aettlers
, that were attracted to thi.
1 1
,region after ld14 in most cases entered into private aqreements

with some of the early pioneers when purchaslng ~.nd and little
, ~ecord was made of the transaction.


i o '





, ,

.1- '

. \




The geographical features of an area influence th~

economic developmeiit of that area. '~hecounty of Missisquoi as
indicated in chapt~r one was weIl off\in regard to natural re-
, .
sources in i_ts forrsts ~nd farm lands.\ It had Many small creeks

and, rivers which provided a means of tr'ans~ortatio~or the ear:y

, settlers as weIl as furnishing an abundance of water
the establishment of local industry.
~ower for

The early settlers in the Eastern 'l'ownshi~s were not at
. .
first interested in the industrial development of the Townships. \

Thêy had come to mak9 homes and t9 sustain themselves and their
families from the products which the fertile land could yield in
reaponse to their toile As meÂtioned previously, the early
pioneers who came to the County of M~ssisquoi found a wi1derness
of foresta. The story of the development of the County of
Missisquoi is one of hardship and sacrific~. Regardless of-where
the settlers located life was much the sarne in the early.dgys.
After the settler had decided on a location, for a home,
he then had to eut down larqe treea in order to make an "openinq
, 1

large enouqh to cobstruct a small shanty. After the'erection
of hi. ahanty, the settler now concentràted on clearinq an

additional part of the land to ~ultivate a few crope in order
1 ...

to feed his family. As mentioned previously, clearing the land
was a difficult task, and usually took a great length of time •

The early sêttlers lived by hunting and fishing until they were

able to clear the land. Such animaIs as deer, partridge, rabbit

and moose served the settler in many ways. For example, if a
moose we~e ,caught, its skin was turned into moccasin leather,
the tallow was useful~ candIes a~d the meat, when salted, was
much like corned beef. In the summer wild berries were
add~d to
their diet. It usually took almost two years from the time the
settler first arrived at his new home until he was able to-clear
enough land to 9row'sufficient crops for his own family's

There were a number of industries that were developed
from the forest by the early settlers. The earliest type o~

manufacturing in the County of Missisquoi was the production of
potash fro~ the ashes obtained from burning the trees cut by 'the
settlers ,in clearing their land. It was not until the lat.'
1790's that the early pioneers found that the manufacture of
potash~as a profitable way to utilize the timber cut in clearing
the land. The revenue obtained from the sale of wood ashes of
burned timber was the pioneer's first return from the land.
Potash was manufactured in the following way: The trees were •
eut down, and the a.heB from the burnt timber were èo11ected and



l~ached with water from which a lye was obtained. Thl.S was
concentràted by boiling to a crude solid and was calleC:! "black
salts". It was marketable' in this form or in more reffned
' ... -:-- condi tions of potash and pearl-ash, t'he latter being nearly pure
potassiim hydrate. Before the recovery of potassium from mineraI
sources wood-ash was the principal or sole source of supply.
Potash was a great value to the pioneer farmers. Accordinq to
J. A. Dresser in the e~rly l800's the 'sale of potash yielded the

early pioneers about $80.00 an acre. \
The manufacture of potash was an important ind~in

the County of Missisquoi for a period of at least fort y to fifty
years. The potash after be'ing manufactured was barrelled and

transported to Philipsburg, St. ~hns or ~ontreal and exchanged
. "
,for provisions and other household necessities. •
After 1850 the potash industry.soon vanished as chemists
were finding much better materials than potash from burnt trees
to aid them in their bleaching i~d~stry.

) ~,...-

Another industry that developed from the'forest was
lumbering. As mentioned previously there was a great abundance
of good timber throughout the cou~ty of Miss'isquoi. Unfortunately,
t~is had to be removed by the very early settlers to make room
for crops and pastures, and in some instances it w~s done

J. A. Dresser, The Eastern Town4hipSt A Stud~ in
Huaan GeographY, p. 96.


without much for~thou9ht. It would appear that it was'not
until the l820's and possibly the l830's that the lumber indust~y
beqan to be developed by some of "the inhabitants of the County.
/II! , '
The firs~ industry in'the town of farnham was the logqing of pine,
timber from the large tract of unoccupied land belonging to the

Allsopp's. According to Zadock fbompson by l83S'pine, hemlock
and spruce were being sawed into'boards, made into shingles and
hewed into timber for buildings in the County of Missisquoi.

Bass, maple and birch were sawe9 for caQinet work. Much of the
pi ne and oak was exported to the United States and Great ~ritain.2

Francois and Henri , Des Rivieres were probably the most
popular lumber merchants in the County of Missisquoi in the

l840's and 50's. They had a number of lumberjacks working for
them in1 the northern part of the township of Stanbridge. Many
of these lumberjacks were French-Canadians who had been attracted
to this area by the Des Rivieres •.
A of wood and lumber consisting of scantling,
boards, plank, railro~Q ties, telegraph poles and cedar posts
1 0

were carted from the Townships of West Farnham, Dunham and
Stanbridge to the shores of Pike River. Tug-boats and barges
were able to sail up Pike River to the Village lof Pike River
"' where this wood and lumber was loaded and taken down Lake
Champlain and on down to the Hudson River to Ne~ York City
where it was exported abroad.
Mr. Abel Taylor waa one of the
, r

2Thompson, Zadock, Geoqraphy and Hi_ta!! of Lower
Canada, (1835), p. 69. w

...".. ,
; /
leading lumber merchants in the Village of Pike River. 8y /
the 1640's he had built and was operating several barges on the
al.ver. 3
As there was now a demand for saWh lumber. it was not
until the 1850'8 that the "lumber}ng industry reached the saWmill
stages. By the late 1850' s almost every village had its sawmi11.,
The expansion of construction which wertt along with th~ develop-
ment of towns throughout the Eastern To~~ships also provided a
local market for the lumber industry.

Furniture Making
Another industry that was to develop :from the forest /' l '"'

was the construction of furniture. Most of the early pioneers
in the County furnished their homes with the most basic articles
~hich they cou1d make from the forest. Gradually, however, as .
more skilled craftsmen began to settle in the County, furniture
• !

shops began to develop in some of the more heavily populated areas.

About 1850 Philo and ~yman Lambkin built a large furni~ûre factory
in' the township of Stanbridge at the village of ~iceburq on the
:banks of Pike River. The machinery in this factory was run
partly by water and partly by steam. The Lambkins made most of
their furniture from woods sueh as maple, ash and pine whieh was
'-' 4
found in the Townshi~:~f Stanbridge. Another large f~rniture"

3 "Pike Riv:r
Report, 1908, p. 52.
, ~iSSiSguOi County Historiea1 Society,

4Mrs • Doris Kidd, "Lambkin Furniture, Meeburg".
aendezvous With the Past fn
M!saisqMoi. M1ss1aquol County
HIstorieal SocIety, Vol. :}:, 1§7o., p'O. 59.

,; l'o. \ ... t ,_~ t c _ " .

factory that wa. developed in the County of Mi8aisquoi in the
1850:s and 60·~ was at Cowansvi1le. This faètory was known as
Vilas and is still 1n existence as one of
.. "

furniture manufacturers.

Maple Sugar '\
1 \
The maple sugar industry was also deve10ped from the
by the ~àrly settlers in the County. ln many sections of
the unty of Missisquoi maple sugar was foun4, in abundance. In
the spring the pioneers tapped the trees and gathe~ed the sap,
which they boiled in iron kettles to make maple sugar. They used
~ handmade wooden spouts and buckets. Some of the settlers, after
boilinq down the sap, 80ld the'maple sugar as a source of income.
We learn from Cyrus Thomas that by the l86Q's, A&a Westover, who
, had settled in the township of Dunham, was manufacturing "five

to seven thousand pounds of sbgar u annually from his sugar bush. S .
Asa Westover was one of the Most successful maple sugar manu- .
, facturera in the Eastern Townships. At the International'
EXhibition in New York in 1853 he received honourable mention for
samples of his maple sugar and syrup. In August, 1860, at the
Provincial Industrial Exhibition in Montreal, he was awarded a
bronze medal for his maple sugar. 6 .
, f'~.'
It should be noted that the maple sugar industry of
Quebec actually oriqinated in t~e Eastern Townships.

Scyr~. ~o.a., p. 117. Ibid., p. 117.
.................... ----~---------------------

105 ','~

The forest industries in Many instances preeeded the

aqricultural development of the County. As mentioned above, sorne
of the early pioneers~in the County of Missisquoi were succes~ful

in utilizing sorne of the timber they cut in clearing their land
to grow crops.

The County of Missiaquoi after ~he early l800's gradually
developed into one of the wealthiest and best agricultural counties
~ ~

in the Province of Quebec. Under the impetus of c~e~ing the ,land
; ~t
by the early' settlers, Many are as of the County of Missisquoi were
. rapidly strfpped of their timber. The .new s'oil, long fertilized
by leaf-mould, 'yielded excellent crops, for some time. The first
crop to be planted in Most ins~ances was corn, and later wheat.
Secause of the lack of grinding mills and the distance that Most
people in the back-woods had to travel in order to convert this
grain into food, nplumping mills" were brought into general use.
The "plumping mill" was made of a log some fourteen
inches in diameter, standing on one end, while in the other end a
cavity was formed after the' fashion of a salt mortar. The pe~tle -
was of wood, about two and a half feet in lenqth, and some five
or six inches in thickness,'rounded at the bottom, the Middle made
of convenient size for the hand, and fa~tened at the top to a
spring po~e, so as, after each stroke, to rebound for anoth~~.
About a quart of corn was put into thé mortar at a time and 4fter
the pestle r.;,..
had suf~ic;,~ently pounded' the gra'in, the sieve was then
( 106
li .~
;p~ .'"
used ta separate the coar14e and fine meal." The coarae meal
could be used ~r a dish called "hominy" while the fil'le meal
could be mixed with st~wed pumpkins and made into coarse bread, ..,
o~ used in various other ways.7 The cornstal~s ~e also us~q
to feed the livestock which some of the early settlers brouqht,
wi th them to the County. ,Eventually as the market for grain
increased the settlers ~e~e encouraged to raise larqer crops and
to develop small W6ter-powered mills on streams and brooks in
the County rather than usinq the "plumpinq mill" method of
grinding their grain. There was actually a qreat amount of
cereals grown in the "County of Missisquoi" until the development
of the Canadian west. As mentioned{~n chapter one, var.b~
types of grains such as wheat, oats and barley were grown"in
abundance in the Parishes of' St. Thomas, and St. George and
St. Armand West as weIl as the Township of Dunham. ...
The early pioneers, besides growing vario'us j9Pes of
grain, also'cultivated apple orchards as weIl as plum and cherry
trees. There were a number of apple orchards, plum and cherry
trees cultivated in the parithes of St. Thomas and St. 'George.
Apple orchards were also p~nted in the Parishes of St. Armand
West and St. Armand East. According to Cyrus Thomas, Capt. J. B.
Scofield who sett~ed in the Parian of St. Armand East'near
Abbottts Corner in 1798, planted a large apple orchard which
covered more than fifty acre.. Mr. Scofield was a v$ry prominent
farmer. Besides having a large or~ard, he also, owned ,thirty
Mrs. C. M. Day, Pioneers of the Eastern Town.hiR!~,p •. 78 •

, .,
.- /
" •
COW8. Another early pioneer who cultivated. a large orchard was
d. ' - Thom~ Arrus who settled on the MOSt south-easterly l~t in the
Parish of St. Armand East in 1800. According to Cyrus Thomas,
Mr. Arrus's orchard was o~c~ one of the best in the Eastern
. . 8 1
TownshlpS. 1

that was developed by
As more land was cleared, dairying was another industry
p~neers in the County of Missisquoi.
The dairy industry was lead to the development of the
cheese industry in the- The village of Dunham was to become
one of the MOSt popula areas f~r th~ processing of cheese in the
"- \

1-860 's and 70' s • an important cheese factory was built
in the Village of Dunham E. Hill at the cost of $2500.
"Le pre~ier de ce genre, dan~ la ~rovince de Ouebec.
., ,,9
Il t ra i ta i t 1e l a i t d e 900 vac hes d u vOlslnage. Bishop Oxenden
who spent three months in Dunham in the summer of 1870, says in
his book entitled My First Yeàr In Canada, that just about
everyone had his "staff of cows varying from twenty to fifty." He
goes on to say that "these cows are milJted by the roadside, morning
"and evening; the milk i8 deposited in zinc pails, and placed on a
'platform, and a cart comes trotting by, picks up the various
contributions, and carries them to the nearest bheese fa~tory,
where each lot is weighed and duly ~ccounted for. The cheeses,

8cyrus Thomas, p. 99-100.
gRaoul Blanchatd, Le Centre du Canada FrAncaia:
..P.:;r..o...v..i;,;;;n..c..e;.......;;d;.;e;....zQur.;;;:e;,;;be-.-F, p. 250.
1 .,

. " .;

which usua11y weiqh about sixt Y or 8evén~y- pounds, are sent
either into the United States or tO~land.lO
. The County of Missisquoi by t~e 1820'8 had deve10ped
;~,~ ~~

~~ into one of the most progressive agricultural regions of Lower

Canada. Joseph Bouchette's
statistics for the late l820's and
early 30' s showed the" annual agricul tural produce in the County
of Missisquoi to be:' 86,835 bushels of wheat; 93,700 bushels of
oats; 12,000 bushe~s of barley; 252,000 bushels of potatoes;
35,700 bushe1s of peas; 6,000 bushe1s of rye; 20,300 bushe1s of
buck-wheat: 36,706 bushels of Indian corn: 581 cwts. of f~le
sugar and 28,200 tons of hay. Bouchette shows the live~tock
• l ,~

in the County at this time to have included: 3,266 horses:
5,151 oxen; 7,140 cows; 21,705 sheep: 4,600 swine. ll
By the l820's there were a number of important agri-
cuttural commun! ties in the County of Missisqu·oi. The agricul tura1
interests of t~~~ communities were protected a~d fostered by
~ -
means of "agricu1tura1 societies" which were formed in the
different counties
. -
of the Eastern Townships. Periodically y ~hese
"agricultural societies" would sponsor agricultural shows. In
March, 1828 a number of people living i~ the County of Missisquoi
met in the Village of Philipsburg and formed the "County of
Bedford Agricultural Society". (After 1829 it became the

10BishOp Oxenden, "My first Year In Canada", Chapter 'VII,
Missisguoi County Hi,storie.l Society, Seven~h Annual Report,
1961, p. 41.
11Joseph Bou~hette, A Topographie.l Dietionary of the
\ Province of Lower Canada.
Missisquoi Cqunty Aqricultural Society). The ai. of thi.
, "
society was to Rromote, DY... t tsl efforts and example, the') best and
, , .
most approv.ed, 'modes of agriculture throughout t'he County of
Missisquoi. Each member of this Society wa. to pay an annual fee
of at least five shillings. Another resolution adop'ted at this
meeting in March, l828 was "that no person who is Îlot- a "pract.ical

farmer" in the county, and that has not actually pa id his annual,
,!iubscrip.tion, shall be el'ftitled to the benefits of premiums ... 12
George Cook of St. Armand wa~ the first president with Conrad
Derick of Caldwell M~nor, Alexander Brown of Ounham, Asa Westover

of' Dunham and Henry RosenbergK of St. Armana as vice-presidents.
. . '
The Missisquoi
. ' County Agricultural Society held an
annual fair in different towns throughout the County with the
first on~'being held ,:.>at,Philipsburg in the autumn of 1828. In
"the year 1834 the annual fair and cattle sho~as held in the
village of Frelighsburg and was honou~ed by a visit from Lord "

Aylme'r who was the Governor General of Canada at ,that time.
In 1853 therè were two tairs held in the County of
Missisquoi, one at Freliqhsburg and one at Bedford. This was
the first fair held at Bedford. Sinee 1853, however there has

been an agricultural fair every year'in the Town of Bedford.
the Missisquoi County His\orical Society, Seventh Annual Report
(1961) there is a copy of a·letter written in Septeaber, 1853

12 .
", "The Couaty o:f Bedford Ag'rtcultural Association, ft
M!asiagyoi County Historieal Society,. Seventh Annual aeport,
1961, p. 27. ~~ ~


showin9 something of the extent and' guality of the exbibits at
the first fair in the town of Bedford. The writer of the letter,
who is actually unkJ~wn, say; ~hle fair was in- "every re~pect as
good an exhibi~ion of çattl~ as ~ have seen for some time. Here
, .
were ex~ibited many cows, bulls, ox~p a~d heifers, among which l
particur~rly noticed a fine specimen of the Devonshire breed~'

introdu~èd into the county by Messrs. L. Smith, L. Rhicard and
James Taylor, aIl of St. Armand." ,oThe writer goes on to say,
" ,
there were Many excellent brood mates and working hors es on display
~~ the fair as weIl as a larg7,~_
. ~r of sheep, particularly
, 13
These aqricul(ural fairs in the Copnty not~lY provided .
the 4habi tants ~n o~o_rtuni ty to c,ompete against one another in
every phase of farmirig and, to learrl ne.w modes of agricul ture but
also to fraternize with their neiq~Urs in other to~ship8.
~"~~ ) The Missisquoi County Agricultural Society served Many needs of
( the; ~nhabi tant's o'f the County.
\ Besides these fairs, the aqfi~ultural interests of thé
. .
settlers were a1so prortlOt'è,4. by numerous judicious extraèts in

the local newspapers'from ehe agricultural and horticu~tural

p\1blica~ons .of oth~r countries, aso weIl as the "Agricul tural

JQurnal ", which was issued in the prov..i-Qcé of ®ebec and other
''li f~
.~ . v

similar-periodicals published in the United States. These publ~­

cations, along with the county fair, helped to keep the people
1nformed of aIl the agri, improvements o'fe the day.

•• 1.gU~~t~O~~!~o~fe~~~1e~~1~:;!~~1~::~1~~i:
29. '
. '

, , 1

, 111
... " --z _ ~ ..
- ~~ -UNTI~ 1867
~t~; _. Pts mentioned previously, the corn that was raised by
the early settlers wâs at first-pounded in a large wooden mortar

::.--." .......... ,--.
as a "plumping mill". This process continued until small
mills began to be developed on'-'tne many streams and brooks in the
w· --,t"

, \ ,County of Missisquoi. Water-mills weré the first touch of indus-
.. '( '"
/ ,: trializa,tion brought
- . to the CO'Üpty.
Mills were not only con-
, to grind the settlers' grain but saw-mills were also
developed to saw the pionèers' lumber, and, later, woollen mills
1_ to ca'rd the wool from their flocks. Prior to- 17à4 the nearest
grist mill for the early settlers around Missisquoi Bay was at
Burlington, Vermont about fifty miles away. In 1784 Jqhn Saxe,,/
who settled on the shores of Rock River near the present day ,
town of Hiqhgatè, Vermont, built the first grist mill on~~hfs River.
c ' "1
John Saxe received his knowledge 9f milling in Phi~ade1~~ia where
he had been the superintendent of ~ flouring mill befo~~~oving
• 1 vi
to Rhinebeak, New York and then to Rock River. The interaBtiopal
boundary l~ne had nat beén established by the 1780's and'Joh~~Saxe

~ ô\ _ ,
presumed that ~e wa~ settling in Canada.

Saxe's grist mill Qecame a great blessiDg to the eatly

pioneers around Missisquoi Bay. ~e settlers carried lar~e bags v
of grain on their backs to Saxe's Mill in Htghgate, Vermont and 1

after-~av~~ it ground they retur~ea with it,in the sarne manner
to tJ1;eir homes. The s~xe ,fami1.y ~ later constructed'. à. 8aw mill and
14 The Saga of the Saxes., O'r i ttell by Mr8. .,uby Mbore
for the MiS8!.quO~ County Hiatorical SOciety _/ ) . . .,.

• a marble mill on the shores of

qranddauqhter of John Saxe, in her Recollection refers to Saxels
Roe~ River. Hannah Saxe, a

Mi Ils,,' as being a very busy place by 1835 for there was a post
office and general store besides a grist mill, a saw mill, a
marble m'ill, carding machines and a pot ashery. By 1835 the log
grist mill, which the Saxes had bui1t in 1784, had been replaced ,
with a stone mill, Saxels Mills was a very ~opular place and

attracted settlers from a great distance. By 1817 Saxels Mi1ls
appe~s~~ maps of the County of Missisquoi.
o., ...

~,.""'. The first water-mill to be constructed in the County of
~ .... / ....
: Missisquoi was in the Parish of St. Armand East on PiKe River
, "
near the town of Frelighsburg. A man by the name
. of OwenS' . .
erected this grist mill in 1794. In 1796, Owens so1d out to a
Messrs. Conroy and Yuman"from St. Johns who immediately enlarged
the grist mill and bu;lt a saw-mill on the opposite side of Pike
River. 15 These improvements began to attract a number of
settlers to this region of the County. j
Messrs. Conroy and Yuman
did not remain in the area very long as they sold out to Abram
Freligh in 1801. The Freligh Family continued to operate the

mills and to attract settle~~ to the àrea which was to become the
Village of Frelighsburg •
, '"
In 1798 Isaac -Lagrange, Along with his son Abraham,
co~enced building the second grist mill in the Parish of St.
" • . l '
Armand East on Pike River about a mile and a ha1f northwest of

, (
ISeyrus Thomas, p. 73.


_ . . . . .lilII
t 1.·_. . . . '.\;....----.'.,_·_________ . .
iIIII'. . . . .

~ ~"~~~"'i!~~ -

Preliqhsburg. A year or two after this they erected an axe and
scythe factory and later a mill for custom carding and ~loth

d~essing.16 The Lagrange family were skilled in spinning,
weaving, carding and fulling. ~The L~grange's ran woolen mills
for many years on the banks of 'Pike River in the Parish,of St.
Armand East. On the death of Isaac Lagrange, Abraham his son,

qot possession of his father's mills. Abraham after making some
improvements ta the mills ~nd also constructing a general store,
decided in 1841 to divide his property and mills between his
four sons. It was agreed that one could not sell his portion of
the mills without the consent of the other three.
Omie, one of Abraham's sons, an9 his wife ran the mi Ils
for the Lagrange family. Omie Lagrange was a very ambitious
individual and had great ideas for the Lagrange's Mill. Around
1865 he turned the mill into a knitting mill ta make men's under-
wear, and<also attempted to att~act tenants ta the site of the
mille by building houses in this vicinity. He also opened a'
store, and in 1865 a post office was established here with the
name of Lagrange. The main reasons why Omie developed the mill
into a knitting mi1lt was that he was able t~ obtain a large
ordet'to manufacture men's underwear for the Union Army of the
United States which was involVed in the American Civil War.
Unf6rtunately for Lagrange, the Civil War .nded and the orders
were cancelled . leaving the mill with no market. l7 .This was a
16 Ibid., p. 67 • '

• .____-. 17 IIL~ge'lI, Missi.wci County matorical Society,
Seventh ADnual Re~t
.... (1961), p.

( .,
114 l \)

severe blow to the Lagrange family as they had spertt a lot of .oney on
developing this new mill with·the idea of attra6ting business from the
. Union Army. Because of their fin~ncial losses the Lagrange's sald the
mills in the late l860's to Nélson Hunter of St. Albans, Vermont. Mr.
Hunter converted the mills back ta making woolen clotho This area was
to become known now as Hunter Mills and is still indicated on all.mapa
of the County of Missisquoi.
Another settler ln the Parish of St. Armand East ta construct a
mill in the early 1800's was John Krand. He se~tled about a mile west
of the village of Lagrange on Pike Riv~r and built a grist and saw mill
which were in operation for many years. By 1866, only the saw mi1l,was
being used. 18
There were a number of other sma11e~ m~lls constr~cted in the
~ l ,?
Parishes of St. Armand Êast and St. Armand West. One of these was a
saw mill'constructed in 18Q4 on a small stream in the Parish of St.
Armand Ea$t about a"mile north-east of Frelighsburg by a man named
Holiday. This saw-mill by the 1860's became the prop~ty of a Mr. H.
~emin9 and ls indicated on Wallings Map of. 1864, on t~ County of
Missisquoi, as Demings Mill. In 1808, Abel Hurlburt, who had settled
on a lot in the extreme north-east part of the Parish of St. Armand
East, bui1t a grist and saw mill on a stream which crossed his lot. 19
• 1

According to Joseph Bouchette, by' 1832 there were six corn-mills, two
carding-mills, two fullinq-rnills and~ight saw-rnills in the Parishes
of St. Armand East and St. Armand West. 20

18cyrus Thomas, p. 70.
19 Ibid ., p. l04-l05~
20 '
Joseph Bouche t te, ~A~T_opr;;,.o_q..r_a..b_h_i_C_t:;;;;l.......J)_l_c_t_i_o-=no:::ary:::;;..l.__
" Province of Lower Canada, 1832.

.. ,
__ 1 _

115 .f



(Today houses the Missisquoi County
Historica1 Society Museum)

There ~we~e llSO a nUmber ~t water-mills constructed in
the township of Stanb~idge on the banks of Pike River by the ear1y
pioneers~ By 1800 Mr. William Wilson who had come from Waterbury,
rvermont, had bui1t a qrist mill and saw mill on the ban~s of
'-. ,:~ike River as well. as a public inn at the p~esent day s1 te
of the Village of Stanbridge East.
~ ~
• mille
These were the first
to he eonstructed in the township of Stanbridgeel The
Village,Of Stanbtidqe, now Stanbridge Bast, .as the co. . .r01al

> •


, "
. ,
" ,? f,,_, ..
,;"" J.
_ ,.,,:"_< '" .f_" ,

center of this township prior to the development of Bedford
.....)...../ .
in the l820's. A number of businesses were established in the ~

vicinity of 'St~bridge East; a furniture shop in 1806 by the
r ,

Brig~ Brothers, the first in area; a tannery in 1808 and

in 1820 a waal carding mill which was built by John Baker. 2l
The mills at Stanbridge East that Mr. Wilson built became
the property of Zebulon Cornell in 1830. Zebulon Cornell made
improvements to these mills. In 1832 he erected a new brick grist
mi1l and dam and in 1838 a new saw mill waS constructed in place
of the mi1ls that -William Wilson had built. 22 After 1838 Zebulon
Cornell became very active in the lumbe~' tndustry by purchasing
and constructing saw mills in different parts of the Townships.
Mr. Cornell was very successful in' aIl his undertakings, and
accumulated a fortune valued at 48\000 dollars at the time of his
death in 1852. 23 Zebulon's son, Edwin Cornell, took over the
operation of the Cornell Mill in 1853. Edwin Cornell besides
being ~he son of a miller was also a lawyer, having graduatéd in
law from Yale University_ As weIl as operating the mill up un~il

his death in 1890, he practised his profession at Stanbridge East.
During Edwin C9rnell" s regime at- the mill, the millers were
~~iam Scagel and John Dan~els.
In 1814 George Saxe built the first mill at ~icefuro

~Ch i8 about one mile downstream on Pike River tram Stanbridqe

21 Mrs • Catherine Pay, p. 3$6. \.
22"cornell Family", Rendez-Voua with_ ~h. ' •• t in
Mi •• i.guoi, Vol. Eleven, _1970-,~,-p~_~6~7-.---------'----------
Ibid., p. 67 •

• ., ~" ... _ f
.. . ..,



East. Shortly after the construction of thia mill Ricèburg
began to develop into a sma1l village where a furniture .hop,
machine shop and cheese factory were established.
The first use of water power in the village of Bedford
was made by Abram Lampman about 1800 when he built a dam,acroaa
Pike River and constructed a saw mill on the north bank of the
river. In 1811 Mar'tin Rice used the water 'power generated by 1
.Lampman' s dam to build what was called a trip-hammer shop on the
south side of the River. 24 In th1s shop Mr. Rice made all kinds
of lumbermen's tools and equipment for saw mills. Robert J?nes
. in the early 1820's bought out Abram Lampman's dam and mille

Mr. Jone~ made extensive improvements and enlarged the mille
,He also played an important role in lmproving the economic condi-

tions around Bedford by lay~~g out and building bridges and roads
throughout,this area of the township. The'rapide in Pike River
.. around the Village of Bedford were over a mile long. , Many dams
were constructed on the river and seve+al industries began to

deve10p in this area in the 1820·s.
\) , !
Another importan~ mill that was constructed in the town-
ship of Stanbridge on the bankg of Pike River was at Malmaison
, .
which was just north of the Village of Pike River. In 1841
François and Henri Des Rivieres bui1t a saw m~~l and in 1842 a
grist mill at this location. The Des Rivieres .ere extremely
active in the 1umber induatry after 1841. /

24"8edford'~, MiaBisquai c.ounty .Hi.~or19.1 Ss;iety,
Seventh R.port, 1960, p. 72. '", .. '7, '''c

There vere a number of other smaller mills developed
in the Township of Stanbridge, one of these was a sawmill con-
structed at Mystic in 1819 by Edward Dyer and John Norton. A
Mr. W. A. Phe1ps also bui1t a sawmill in the Village of Mystic in
1830. This mill was to become known as the Walbridge Mill.
Jacob Ruiter bui1t the first grist and saw mills in the
1 _

township ~ Dunham at the present day site of the Towp of
Cowansville in 1800. In 1810 William Beach built a carding-mill
in the same vicinity. A number of other mi1ls were constructed on
the banks of the Yamaska River around tne town of Cowansville.
Hiram Traver, in 1843, erected one .of the last carding-mills in

the- area prior to the l870's. In 1858, ,Peter Cowan converted this
J ~

mill into a woolen factory. Accordinq to Cyrus T~mas, in 1863 a
Mr. S. N. ~mith
placed in the same building machinery for
stockinq-knitting. 25
In 1857 two steam saw mills were constructed in the

. ~
Township of Dunham at East Dunham, one by a Mr. R. Patch, thé

other by a Mr. H. D. Atkins and Kr. E. W. Bea~sley.26
The TownShip of Farnham being watered by large branches
of the Yamaska River provided the sett1ers in this area the
opportunity to construct water-mills. As mentioned in chapter

two t~e township of Farnham had deve10ped very slowly until the
arrivaI of JOhn Bowker in this area in 1827. John Bowker, who

engaged in the lumbering business built the first mill in the

2SeyruB Thomas, p. 150. 26 Ibid., p. 171.

Township of Farnham. 7 After the 1820 ',s a number of other mills
were established along the banks of the Yamaska River in\~he

Township of Farnham.

The numerous eam$,in the County of Missisquoi pro-
vided thè early settlers n abundance of water power on a year
round basis for their mil s. ,Henry M~les in his report at the
International Exhibit of 1862 referred to the water-mills o~ the
Eastern Townships as usual kept i~ operation throughout
the winter', unless there w temporary deficiency of water
in the smaller streams, or rendering it un-
. .
in the to work them. 28
As early Bouchette indicated that there
were in the County of Mis~:squoi 12 corn-mills; 20 saw-mills;
5 carding-mills; and 5 fuI ing-mills. 29 Around these mills
villages began to develop. Villages such as Pike River, Bedford,
Frelighsburg, Stanbridge were aIl developed at
points where water-pdwer available to operate mills. By the
l850's village in the CountY-had its

own saw mills) grist m~ll some instances carding mille

,27H• Belden, "His orica1 Sketch of the East~rn Townships
and Southwest Ontario", Il ted Atlas of the Dominion of
( l ,
28Henry H. Miles, East At the International
Exhibition (1862).
29Joseph Bouchet e, A Topoqraphical Dictionary of the
• Province of Lower'Canada 1832 •




Water Transportation
The numerous creeks and rivers in the County of
Missisquoi, although providing the early settlers with an abun-
dance of water power, did not offer a very satisfactory means of

transp~rting goods from one community to another. Many of the
streams and creeks in the County of Missisquoi were unnavigable
due to rapids and also to a low water level in some areas during

the late spring, summer and early'fall months.
The Yamaska and Pike Rivers, the" two main drainage
systems in the County, were the most navigable. Of the two the
Yamaska was more navigable but since only a small portion of it
flows through the County of Missisquoi it did not have much effect
on the economic development of the County. Pike River was navi- ~/
gable onl~ about two miles inland to the village of Pike River.

The Richelieu River was at firet the only artery of
to St. Johns and other commercial centers
on Lake Champlain

and the Hudson for the early pioneers of the County. It "was
aè,tually not until the settling of the townships of Stanbridge
and Dunham in the early 1800's that a road was to be constructed
to St. Johns.
Despite the rapids and low water level~ the freezing
over o~ some of the creeks and streams in the COunty during the
winter, did provide the early settlers an opportunity to travel
for a limited period of time from one community or- ••ttlement °to



another'. tt was not too long before th,e el1r1y pion.eera began to
eatab1iah Il way by which they cou1d trave1 at any time of the

Development of Roads
Samuef:Ga1e and John Duberqer's map of 1794 and 1795
indicates that a number of roads or tra~ls exi~ted in' ~he ~oufi~y

of Missisquoi at this early date. IThere was one fo1lowing the
east bank of the Richelieu River from Albury, New York to the
mouth of South RiveF. Another road went around the shore of
Missisquoi Bayas fàr as the Missisquoi River in Vermont. \A road
was also indicated ·as running eastward from Philipsburg through
... the Parishes of St. Armand Wèst and St~ Armand East and the town-'


ships of Sut ton and Potton to.Lake Memphramagog. There was even

a trail from the Parishe~'of St. Armand northward from Frelighsburg
through the townships of Dunham and the eastern part of Farnnam into
~~he'fford. These roads were known as "winter roads" and were
norma1ly used only when the-frost had bridged the swamps and
stx: eams •
Many of the rivera and streams in the County were usual1y
almost imp?ss~b1e tO,cross d,ring the ,pring unle~s one had a
boat. In sorne areas, temporary crossinqs were made until the
level of the water subsided. Some of these temporary crossings
were made by felling trees so that;, they lay across the s'treams l

Marshy areas were crossed by constructing a corduroy road which
was hothing more than a number of 10gs side b~
side, laid
c~os8wise on the swampy qround.


~ Pi\e River was a seri'tU/~bstacle .
to the settlers in

early times 'until a bridge was constructed. If th~ wanted tg i.'~ _.
. '..- . 1 1

travel by land from the Parishei:J oÇSt. Armanj or th.#; Townships of
/' ""-
Stanbridge or Dunham to the Parishes of St. Thomas or St. George
they had to use ~ scow or construct a raft to cross Pike River.
A scow was a large fIat bottom boat formed of planks with sides
fifteen to eighteen inches high with the ends of the scow ~ising

gradually above the w,ater i.n order to facili tate loadîng and
unloading. Scows were also used to cross the Richelieu River
prior to the construction of a bridge.
The early roads or trails were almost impassable for
vehicles or carts with wheéls. Sleds were usually used by the
early settlers when they had to transport heavy or bulky articles.
o ~

The first wheeled vehicles were ox-carts. Another obstacle faced
by the early pioneers wer~ the numerous robberies on the roads
and trails. People were therefore encouraged to travel in groups
and to arm themselves.
As settlers began to be attracted to certain are as in

the Couq~y, it became necessary to improve communication and
transportation. The first roads of any significance in the County
usually only extended a distance of two or· three miles in different
directions from the center of the more populated areas as most
of the settlers resided within this radius. This concentration
of early.settlers in certain communities in the County became
known as the Country Crossroads Settlement. .
In most instances
the early pioneers were able to obtain ~he' minimum esse,ntials to
~ "
Bustain themselves ·and their families at the Country Cros,roads

.. _01 1"
~ettiement, which usùally had 'a small general ~tore. It wa8 with
the,. de';;lopment of y.i;"l',lages
in the County and small industries

within these villag~s -that a\greater demand was made on the
improvement of transportation to the larger centers of distribution.
As early as 1797 the pioneers in the Parishes of St.
Armand East' and West were attempting to get 8\roa~~~~lt from
'Philipsburg to St. John's. I~ No~ember, l797<:-an advérti'sement

'appeared in the Montreal. Gazette,~s~ing for subscriptfons. ~o
, .. ~ ..,1<\ 1 ... ..- • \ _~

• 'finance the building of a road ~~O~\MiSsisquOi Bay t~ St. Johns.
" ~
... ~R 1 .. ~
How far the_ public responded with their contributipns is not
" 10(",.

known but there was no
\ ,
,~mmed~ate . ,.
Cyrus Thomas in hi~ book~t~fers to the:win~~ of 1797
when some of the settlers from the Parishes of St. Armand and
the township of Dunham went from St. Armand, via Dunham Flat, to,
.St. Hyacinthe for the purpOs-e- of Brocuring salt. "Four or five
of th~ numbe~ harnes~ed their horses before sleds, and th~
1. ......

remainder preceded them on foot, wi th axes to opeh t.he road. ,,30
" In 1804 this road to St. Hyacinthe, which passed through the
village of St. Cesaire, was improved. With the improvement of ~

the roads from the early settlements in the County of Missisquoi
to the C~unty of St. Hyacinthe a 7 considerable amount of trade was
started bet~een the English and French.
t In April, 1808 a society called the Bedford Society'was
fçrmed to open and keep up a t.urnpike road from Philipsburg t.o
St. Johns, and to e~ct. bridges on the Richelieu and Plke Rivers •

• ,30cyrus Thomas, p. 123.

_ _____..... 1 Il.... k ..

This society was composed of aIl the most impo~tant citizens

~ir t~~opment
. around the Missisquoi Bay region.
One gets an indication as to the need
of roads~in the County from the Reverend Charles Caieb Cotton's
letters, /which he wrote to his family in Enqland while living în
the Co~nty of Missisquoi from 1804-1808. Mr. Cotton in a fetter
dated Missisquoi Bay, December, 1804 refers to this area as being
"very badly ~ituated with respect to a market. Il He goes on to
say that Montreal is a distance of about 60 miles from Missisquor
Bay and much of the route is through' a Most "hideous wilderness.,,32
In April, 1808 Mr. Cotton in a letter from Dunham says', "one of
the gr~.ë!.test disadvantages this country labours under is the want
~f g?od\roads, especially of a roacl to the market.of Montreal.

Ne have petitioned the House at-Quebec for a road and a bill has
been° bro 1 t in by our representatives, i t has been read"1a first
~time; and we have some hop~s·that it will he ~àrried. If it is
lost, we mean to vary ~he plan and send in a new petition next
winter. ,,33 A goo~ .road from the Village of Dunham to Montreal
was not to be constructed until long after the Reverend Cott9n
1eft this area ih~ the dairy and cheese industry was established
, "1
in thé ~850's •. Kr. Charles Cotton wrote in another letter from
Dunham in'Sept~ber, 1808:

; - 3lGeorge M~ntg?mery, Mlssisguoi Bay, p. 57.
" 32 Mary .co~t~n Ni:sdom,: "Charles -Caleb Cotton," '!'han ànd
!!gw in Mls~isguoi, Vol. 10, 1967, p. 83. ..
. 1..
1 33Mary Cotton Ifi.dom, "Charles
~ndezvous with the fast in Mia.iaquoi
Caleb Cotton," .',
r Volume Il, 1970, p. 92 •


...~ 1

Dunham, the place where 1 am now settled, i~ much
• the same..,for s.ociety as M. baYe It's~distance from
"Montreal, j.-S by- the ~resent route 7r--~~~t tb...e direct
'distanc~/~s short of 45 miles, and wa ~&~ ~ hopes
that in another y.ear or two a land t'1!)act ~lr.,be made '. .':.:,'1:
to ~eet one tRat is already completed a-~ part of ,~
the way, and then the difficulty and ris~~~'going to
'Montreal at aIl times will be much les;send:- - We have
now to go round the head of Missisquoi' ~Bay' and' then
,. by water in a canoe to St. John's, - I.expect;tQ go to
M. very soon and to take this packet of ietter~-with
me, but not having a horse and the road being ~n sorne
places uery bad for so indlfferent a rider as myself,
1 shall have near seven and twenty tedious~miles to walk
wi th any bund1e of necessaries and s~rtout, be'fore 1
take water carriage and the want of g60d ~commodation
on the road from the bay to St~ John's ~~~~ery great.
Countin9~on favourable weather it will t~~ me nearly
,or quite three days to go from henèe to-Morttfeal and
the same time to return; how little i~iomparièon 1
should think "of this journey ,at home. '. ...~,~.,"'f' '--',,", "
,Cl.. - •
, ....
Joseph Bouchette's map of 1815 s~ows the'roads that existed

in the County at this time. Tbere was a track from DUnham Flat to

the south-west branch of the Yamaska River a~ a place once known ~

ps ferndon and then following the river down to the Village of

St. \Cesair~ in the County of St. Hyacinthe. A track or tr·ail from

Bedf6rd ,and another from the Village of Stanbridge merged at

Haseville before joining the one fr~m Dunham at the ~ead oftthe
Yamaska. quite evident that these roads serv~d more for'.

the con~eniencé of the residents of the townships o~ Dunham and
. 1
Stanb~tdge th an for the ear1y settlers in the T9wnship of West

Farnham:<- This is understandable as the Township of West Farnham

was not as far advanced by 1815./ It was not until the ear1y
, .c'
1830's that a road through the township of West Farnh~ was

"improved" with money obtained from a government qrant.

34 Ibid ., p. "94.
e e

8Y . !
HIRA M CORE Y, D.P. S. ISiS .' ;;

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FROI1 ST· 30HWS 10 ,1
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As othér ro~~ buil t through the villages in the
County l 'stage ~outes were developed. By 1832 a stage c~ach ran
. ~;lY thro P~ilipsburg between Albany, New York and Montreal.
~~ As as~~ or 1835 there was a coach line running from
Joh to Stanstead ,twice a week, going from St. Johns to
Phi ipsburg, Bedfiord, Stanbridge, Dunham~ Churchvi11e, Brome and
Georgeville. This was a two-horse stagè and was run by Levi
Stevens of Dunham and Stephen Chandler of Stanbridge. 35 Accord-
ing to Hiram Corey's map of 1845 this staqe coach route from
St. John's to Stanstead was changed as it did not run thro~gh

Phi.1ipsburg, and Bedford. Hiram Corey's map of 1845 gives an
indication as to the number of ro~~s, thàt èxis~ed in the County
of Missisquoi at this time.
Although there had been some:improveme~s in the develop-

fent il

of good transportati,on in the~

of roads and bridges by the l830's there was still a lack

County. One of the County news-
papers "The Missiskoui Standard" in May, 1835 referred to the
Quebec Legislative Assembly as "squandering the public money on
favoured individuals and on committees for influencing elections"
rather than spending it on improved transportation. The "Missiskoui
Standard" in another editorial in 1835 referred to the Legislative
Assemb'ly as h~ving a "policy of anti-~ri tish faction to hinder
the opening of good roads from the St. Lawrence ,to the Townships."
It went on to say that, (, "as long as that pArty en'tertains their

East" ,
c_i~e_t., Seventh Annualt. Report,
1 •

128 .

present hatred a~ainst us, they will retard worka for the
benefit of the Townships ,as muoh as they can."
Prior to 1855 the early inhabttants had very little,
if any, support from the vov~rnment i~ regard to the construction
and maintenance of roads in the County. It was not until 1855 .
whe~ the Lower Canada Municipal and Roads Act came into effect
that things were to fmprov4. This Act of 1855 established
Municipal Çouncils in each township and parish in the County.
The Council was r~sponsible for the maintenance of all existing
ro~ds wi t.hin i ts boundaries, as weIl as for the repair and cori-
struction of briDges. In order to obtain' the nefessary funds
for these purposes, the Council was empowered to levy taxes and
to calI upon the rate payers ta work upon the roads for a certain
, sum of paye If-the property owners wished to have new portions
of road buiIt, or existing, r~red, aga~n the Council was
responsible. 4

To facilitate the maintenance of its' road system, the

Council ~ivided the parish or Township into five or more over-
seer's divisions, whi~h were then placed under the jurisdiction
of two road inspectors,'each of whom was responsible for a certain
num~er of divisions. Once the Council had set a valuation upon.
the properties, ~~ e~tabiished a tax rate, the overseers were
made responsible for col~ectin~ the taxes in their divisions.
Taxes could be paid by manual labour or in money.. The i~ctors
were responsiple for acceptinq tenders for rep.air and bu~ldinq
bridges, as wel~ as'giving approva~ of work carried out under the
ove~seers. The title given to the overaeera ~tween 1855 and
"Overseers of Roads and Brtdg8a, P'!nce Viewer. and

After 1860 these men were called, Inspectors, and
'the two inspectora were r-eplac~d by a Superintendent appointed by
the Counc il.
After 1855 when a group of citizenp wanted 'a road built,
they would petition the Council. If the Council approved, the y
1 appointed a superintendent to hold a meeting of the interested
parties, to inspect the site of the proposed road, and to prepare
a ,"proces-verbal" or official report to present to the Council.
After ~ear~nq the report, the Council would ~hen dec~de whether
to rej~ct the road, or proceed with its buildinq. If lt seemed
that the road was necessary, b~t of benefit ta only a few, theae
few were sometimes required to buiid it themse1ves and maintain

J it for a specified number of years before the Council would
accept it as a Parish or Towhship road. 36

There wete a number of roads in the eounty by 1855:
however, in Many instances they w~re in very poor condition.
After, 1855 the inhabi tants had a much ~er time in having roads
and bridges conatructed and maintained. ~the numerous creeka
'and streams in. the County the construction and maintenance of
bridqes occupied ,a qreat dea1 of time and money.
... Many of the
bridges constructed in the County were wooden covered bridges.
of the cost
. an~ time involved_~n the construction of these
e~r1y bridges in sorne instances the inhabitants were forced to
pay.a toll when usinq them. Where there was a larqer body of
l '

, 36Ly1a ~rimerman,_ "The Fir~t: Ten Years", Then add Now
in M!s.isgyoi, Volumé 10, 19~7, p. 17-19.

water ta cross the inhabitants were u8ually orçed to take a
Up until'the late 1860'8 a 'ndmber'of ferries operated
in the County. For many years the Richelieu River was crossed
by ferry. The first ferry to service the Ri helieu in the
County of Missisquoi was operateâ by Reuben raUghan from his
property on the Richelieu River ab~ut two m~les south of Isle
aux Noix to the opposite shore at Lacolle. /A number of other
ferries also serviced the Richelieu. The fArst 1icensed ferry
on the Ric~elieu Ri~er was established ab01t 1844 by Robert Hoyle,
~ 1

, Esq. ai\d ran from the "Seigniory of Noyan to the Seigniory of
Lacolle'''. This was later known as Kemp's, Ferry." Another ferry,
_ J

.which was licenséd was kno~ as Hammond's Ferry and ran from the

MnSeigniory of' Foucaul t to Lacolle" at the InterJ'lational .
boundary line. 3 ?

For a 6umber of years a ferry was also used to cross "

Pi~e River at -its mouth. Alexander Dayton was the ferryman, and
paid the Muni~ipal COyncil a yearly licence fee in order to
operate this ferry. In July, 1855 the Parish of St. Armand West
Municipal Council passed the fo1lowing motion concerning the

, , ferry:
IIThat the person or pers ons who shall talce out
L1cence for the ferry across the Mouth of Pi~e
River shall be compelled to keep a good, safe, and
substantial Float and that the following Rates of
Toll shall he chargeable for erossinq said Ferry,
that i8 to Bay

37A Selection "of unpublisbed létters of Lieut.-Col.
Robert Hoyle (1781-1857) a little-known member of the ~egl.1ative
Aasembly of Lower Canada. The MeLellan Historieal Collections_


Por every Double Wagon or Sleign
For every Single Wagon or S1eigh 0.0.6
P~ every Onè Horse Cart 0.0.5
Por every Man and Horse 0.0.3
For every Head of Horses or
Cattle 0.0.2
For every Head of Sheep or Hogs O.O.O~
For every Man on Foot 0.0.2
And that suah Pers on of\Pe~sons shall apply to the
Council and take out Licenèe on or before the first
Monday in August next, for which the sum of One Pound
• ten Shillings must"be paid. And Furthermore, That
such Ferryman be compelled 'to post up in a con-
spicuous place near the Ferry in legible form the
Rates of Toil. And furthermore that said Ferryman
shall be liable to a Penalty of Ten Shillings for
charging higher rates of Toll than is authorized
by his License or in Any other way~travening
the same. 38 "

---- ___-----~he Municipal and Roads Act of 1855 had a great ef1ect
on the development and imptfvemen~ of communication and transpor-
tation in the County. Prior to this the early pioneers had a '
number of hardships to overcome when wanting to trave~ from one
locale to another. The Act ofE55 did not solve-aIL the problems
relating to transportation and communication in the County, but
things certainly began tOlimprove considerab1y after this date.
This improvement in the develop~ent of roads resulted in easier
access to the County and a1so in the growth of small industries
in the villages.

Development of Railroads

Some areas of the County of Missiaquoi did not p~o9r,8a
\ .~ (.

very rapidly,. even wi th the development, of ~oads-~ until . . t;h11ate
\ 1850' sand 1860' s when the first rallway /'was construc:ted. \\"l'he
38Lyla Primmerman, "'!'he Firat 'l'en Yeara", Den anel Bow
in M1ssisquoi, Volume 10, 1967, p. '23-24.

, > f..

vi11aC)e of Farnham ia a perfect e~ample. UIt waa a quiet
count.ry ham1et" \intil t.he constructi.9n of the St.anstead, Shefford
• and Chambly Railway in 1858. This gave an impetus to the growth
of the village. The Stanstead, She~ord and Cham~ly Railway
besides passinq tnrough Farnham alSOJwent through the Village of
Cowansvi'lle. The Town of Farnham by the late l870's was one. of
the 1eading railway centers in the Province of Quebec.
By 1867 a f/ew other railways were servicing t~e cou~ty
of Missisquoi. As early as 1836 the Champlai~ and St. lawrence
Rai-lroad had been buil t as a "portage railroad I~ from Laprairie to
St. Johns to facilitate t~ansportation~between Montreal and New
York. This railroad was ,definit&ly an asset to the County of
Missisquoi. The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad was even-
tual1y extended 'to the Town of Farnham and then 'on to Mystic,
Bedford and Philipsburg
after 1867. \
The Montreal and Vermon~

Junction Railway was complet,ed by 18,64 and ran from St. Johns
- t.hrough the County villages of Stanbridge. Station and St. Armand
Station and on down into the State of Vermont. The Montreal,

Portland and Boston Railway was another railroad that was con-
structed through the County of Missisquoi after 1867. This

railroad went through Farnham, Stanbridge East and Fr~liqhaburg,
but unfortunately was never completed from th!s point on.


--- - ....... _-------~- - --

. -.... !. -


. 133

,. We have seen throughout thié chapter on the "Economic
.. 1
Development of the County of Missrsquoi" how the inhabi tants, after
clearing their land and building a home, began to be involved in a

variety of trade,and mercantile pursuits.
As early as 1797 we learn from the Ruiter books that a,
number of settlers represented a variety of trades. The Rui~er

books also indicate that rum was one of the articles in most
demand and that potash was the principal export in this early
periode By 1810, as mentioned previously, a numbér of vil~ages in
the County had developed a mill as weIl as having estab1ished a

small genera1 store. The general store was a fascinating place
as it carried just about aIl the goods that the early settlers
could not produce in their own pernes. The early pioneers obtained
goods that they needed from the general sto~ in t~e village by a
system of barter. They would bring t? the store such things as
potash, grain, pork" eggs, cordwood and other articles in exchange
for such staples as soda, salt, tea, molasses, sugar and other

goods which they cou1d not produce on their homesteads.
Besides trade f10urishing 1egitimat~ly there was also a
large volume of i1lega1 commerce conducted throughout the 'early
history of- the County of Missisquoi. This i1legal trade took place
alonq the Amerit:an frontier .of the County. 'As ear1y' as 1785 sorne'
of the Missisquoi sett1ers wêre being accused of 8m~qqlinq. In
1785 Sir Evan Napier, a government official wrote to Lieutenant
, , ~

Governor Hope, a private.,-letter on the subject of "so-call'èd

\ 134

Loyalista" 'w~o\ were settling on the border lands in order to
carry on the s~uqglinq trade between the United States and
Quebec. He advised against givinq supplies of provisions to Any
J' ,

other people moving into the Eastern Townships from the United
39 •
The passag~ of the Embarqo Act of 1807 by Unit~d States

President, Thomas Jefferson, resulted in a great volume of illeqa1
trade' passing through Miss~squoi Bay. ,The Embargo Act, was a law
forbiddinq American tradê with foreign countries.
.become not cn1y the gateway for Thethe village of
, . "
of the Eastern Townships but an important link in the connections
. ,

between New York and Lower Canada, was . . a place of immense 111ega1 "'.'
trade for a while after the passage of this Act.
-The smuqq1inq trade was to continue along the American
border of the County until after·l8l4. The people 'of Northern

Vermont were. no more keen on the War of 1812 than were
, .
Ca~adtans as many of them had been engaged in a thriving smuggling
had continued since the days of the Embargo Act 'of
,le07. The smugg1ing of beef from the United States into Canada
was of major importanc~ to Quebec4 40
Besides the ones mentioned earlier, there were a few
other industries and businesses that were geveloped in the County

of· Missisquoi prior to'1867. One,of these was the Victoria Spring
,Company which was established in the 1860'8. The exact date of 1

39Gerald P. H~wke, The Lo~alist Ki9~ation and Its Iff.ct
Upon Our Region.
40 Geor;e Montgomery,,qUoi Bay, p._68. '


the foundinq of this company is unknown. On the road to
., "

Freliqhsburg from Lagrange Mills was a mineraI sprinq coh tainlng
1 - "\) ,
alkaline properties. Around this spring was developed the
Victoria Spring Company. In the mid l860's it was advertised
that these waters possessed powerful medicinal properties which
would effectually cure a great variety of diseases. In a boOklet
publlshed by the Company in 1868 i t .ays, "The use of baths in
this water has been most eff~ctual in the treatment of rheumatism.
Again, nothing will restore to the digestive organs their healthy
tone andtfunctions than a resort to the spring water and the use
of baths and outdoor exercise."
t" •
The officers of the company were: President--Dr. J.

Chamberlain, Esq.--Frelighsburg; Vice-President--Dr. J. S. Briqham,
Esq.--Phflipsburq; Secretary and Treasurer--E. H. Goff--Frelighsburg;
, ~-,

Directors--Oren H. Kemp --Frelighsburg
Wm. M. 'Pattison "
N. S. Smith, M.D. "
S. R. Whitman "
C. S. Browne --Montreal 41
James Westover, Esq.--Laqrange.
lPublic shares were sold in this Company to interested
people at the cost of ten dollars ($10.00) each. For a short time

it appeared as if the company would aucceed, but it soon became
,- .
- apparent that because of the lack of funds and the qreat expenae
that ~ad been put into developing the area around the spring that
it was to fail. The Company had plans to build a large boarding
house to accommodate visitors and lay out the grounds in a

4lMarion Phelps, Lagrange (now known as Hunterls Mills),
Cowansville School, 1960.
luxurious manner but th!s was never completed through lack of.
funds. The Company also 'ttempted to Bell some of the sulphur
water in bottles but this aléa failed. Aa it ran out of money,
the Victoria Spring Company actually did not continue for long.
With the development and improvement in, transpo~t~ion

and communication in the County a number of the inhabitants became
involved as tavern and inn ~:s. On the m9re heavily travelled
routes, hotels, inns and taverns began to be constructed. These
) served not only as meeting places for the local inhabitants but
also as rest stops for travellers. Many of the inns and taverns
in the County were constructed on stage coach roads and mail
routa,, and served as a relay or stage coach station where hors es
wer~ rested and in sorne ,cases changed. A number of these hotels~'
inns and taverns are still standin9 in the County. The picture
below of the Missisquoi Hotel in Stanbridge East was constructed
in 1834 and is today the r •• idence of a Mr. and'Mrs. Campbell •

. .


. \


\ 1



n transportation also re.ulted in a
number of 9 employed in the 'rail service.
With the gradual develop~ent of a road sy~em in the County it
became possible. for the inhabitants to ~Mmunicate_much more
regularly and accurately, with people outside their locale.

There was very little if any money in the èounty of
Missisquoi prior to the 1850's. The early pioneers in the county
as mentioned previously, obtained goods that they needed by a
system of barter. With the devel~pment of smal1 industries in
sorne of the larqer villages in the Eastern Townships it became
~'~ .
necessary that ,.a sys-tem
, "
of banking be developed. In the early
1850's a group of prominent Eastern Township men under the leader-
ship of Col. Benj amin pomroy of Compton began to exploré "the
possibi1ities of obtaining financial backing for a bank. They
were eventual1y successful in obtaining a Charter for the Eastern
Townshi~ Bank in 1855. The capital for this bank was raised by
stock at $50 .00 per~;..share.
1 selling By the beginning of June, 1859,

~tock up to the amount of $206,200.00 had been subscribed. By
i 1862 the capital stock of the Eastern Townships Bank was 400,000
dollars in 8,000 shares. 42 Most of the capital was raised
l~rôUghout the Easter,n To~ships and comprised ali. cLa'sses of the
co~unity, including merchants, mechantc', farmers, professional
and business men of all kirtds. The main purpose of the" Bank wail

to he1p the farmer anq small industrialiat.

42 H. Miles, Canada Eaat at the
Exhibition, (1862).

. .,138

• ! '
. .\
At the close of,the report for the first
operation, December 31st, 1859, there la a sectaon entitled
"General Remarks"', which is highiy Httormative reqarding the
sl~ months of


character of the'Bank. Among thaae remarks ls the foÎlowing:
"Up to of the organization of the Bank this
. ~

large and important. . . !lection of country (Eastern Townships), with-'-"-'-~~-,
,Ga population of 250,000 was entirely dependent on the City of
! r
",Montreal and U,ni ted States Banks located on the Frontie~s, for
aIl bahking accommodations and waa consequently always liable to
u .. '
be hampered by the necessity
- thos~
. Banks weré under of regulating the frequent fl~otuations
of business in- their - ....

several localities • .. 43
The Eastetn Townships Bank began business, in September,
1859 with its head office in Sherbrooke and branches at Stanstead
and Waterloo. In 1861 a Branch waa established in the Village of

Stanbridge East. The Eastern'Townships Bank in i~s first years
was extrem-e1y cautious in i ts .:.:tinancial operation. 1
In 1860 the
deposits wer~ lesa than $7,000.0~.
" The Bank soon estab1ished

itself in the confidence of the people. By 1869, ten years after

its foundation, deposita had ~wn to ~158,955.78\ and the capital
paid in stobd at $400,000.00. 44
The American Civil War had no serious effects on thé

~E~stern Townships Bank. However, the attempted Fjnian invasions

1. C. Woodley,
Bank,~!, Mis_iaquoi County
lepolt't ,. p. 56 ; '.

. '44 Ibid ., p.: 57.

r () ~ _

e· 1
i. .~ ro•• ~h. ban.dian border, in 1866, cauaed conaid.rabl. anxl.ty
for the d.1roctora of th. Bank. They had the bu1k of the ..eur1tie.
and monoy r.movad trom the Stan, and Itftnbridg. la.t branché.,
•• p.cia11y'after an Attempt by the ren1an. ln 1866 to rob the
, StanbridQ~ East brancha It w•• ~nly throuqh the cooln ••• and
.' al.~tne •• oC Mr. N. I~ BriQq., th~ a •• i.tant m.nager, that 'the

;{ ,
attompt rai led.
Tho E"at.rn Townshipa aank continued to aperato unti1,
, 0

1911 whon it m~rOftr.d with thê Canadien Sank of Commorce. The
~t.nbridq~ Ea_t branch w•• in 1870. From 1859 up until - 1

1911 th~ taatfl!rn Townlhipl Bank play.d 'a. major Grole in th. oco-
c. l ,~

nomie dnvalopmont of the, Townships. Thè 1909 Annual Report of
th@ Town.hlpa Bank refera to th@ Bank •• hav1n9 .trength-.
., ,

-, en.d thft uni ty of thn paople of the Townahipa. The Report, tient ,~~

on! to .ay that" "Ev("rywherè thea. lober, a't ••dy and u,n,p.eculatino
, , r

~ eitiz$ns, ft" r~f!rrod to in the oriqinal proapectui have beep
linked\by,thoir connection with and their lndebtedn••• to the
Bank. Let i l be conaidered what thi& institution ha. wrouQht in

no oreat waterway. facilitate trad., and wbere
-..-......... ~ ...

~~~~ ev.rythinQ ha8 heen won by .tern effort from the wild.rn •••• ,,4»
-, 1
1 -----------" •
By the mlddlo of the ninet •• nth eentury the County of
Mi.siaquo1 wa. v~~y hiQhly dèveloped. A. ment1on.d previoualy 1t -
, '

"'II one of the wealthieat aqricùltural "count1 •• in th.' Province.
It' alao had .developed a number of amall' "1nduatr1e~. Howeveri' -w1th
. ,
. ,

Ibid. , '. p. 60.


'_ . J,
'the continua1 improvem.n~ in tranaportat19n throu;hout the lata
1850' 1) and '1860' a, / industries, qraduàl1.y beqan to decline i"; the
.mall villages in the County of Missisquoi. It became more
--';conomical to import manulactured goods from central locations
auch'as Montreal rather than to produce them in sm~ll villages.
The tanning and milling industri~s disappeared in most areas in
the County.' Small dairy factories also disappeared in many
as it became more profitable~to send,mi1k directly to
Montreal. By the 1870's people.were gOing into other industries
auch as the needle industry in Bedford, the boot and shoe, metal
work - and tobacco indus.tri'es.
After the 1860 ' a,. ~s mentioned previoualy in chapter
two, an incceasing n~mbèr 9f y~unq people 1eft the County to
~ . (

con.tinu~ their education ~r\d .to work in larger centers such a8
Montreal. Many of the young people in the period after the
1860·8 and 70's were not as ~nterested in working on farms.
This~was 9spe~ially true of the Engl1sh population in the
County of Mlsaisquoi.


, .
- ,'" . . <-..........---.. . , "........
. .
t •

·c·. . .
/ ,. .
.. ," "
t. )'



UP 1UNTIL 1867

Throuqhout chapter two we have read of the difficu1ties
that the early pioneer. had in attempting to secure land le9al1y
in the County of Missisquoi prior to 1792. The British govern-
ment prior to thl Constitutional Act of 1791 did everything
possible to discourage settlement in the Eastern Townships. By
1792' the land that had not previously been c)ranted as seigniÇ)ries
was divided into townships of about ten miles square. After 1792
the British government appointed a board of commissioners at
'Mis8isquoi Bay for the purpo$e of granting land in the Eastern

\ Townships.
The 'Constitutiona1 Act o~ 1791 divided Lower Canada into~

fifty territorial counties o• One" of these was tqe county of
, l
à,dfordahire, in which the limits of what ia now Missisquoi County
vere included as well as what is now the counties of Iberville, ,
Rouville and Chambly. These territorial divisfons remained until
1829 when by an Act of the Provincial Parliament, the old fifty
divisions were changed into five districts comprising fort y eountiea
. •.
,. ,

At thi~tim. the County of Bedford w•• divided into two counties,
Rouville .Rd Misaiaquoi, mainly French and Enqliah 8peakinq


reapeetive1y. The County of Missiaquoi inc1uded the •• igniory'
of fit. Armand an? the .Townships of Dunham, Stanbridqe ~nd Buttan.
t/ {

1he population of the Co~nty of Missisquoi in 1829 wa. 7,766 and
- . covered an area. " of 360 square miles. 1
Prior to 1829 there was very litt1e government represen-
tation at Quebee from people living ~the County of Missisquoi.
Thomas Dunn, who was granted a large traet of land in the County,
was very ,active in the ear1y pplitical development of Quebee. (
Howeve~, it should be noted that the Hon. Thomas Dunn did no~
live in the County and did not visit the area that freqUe~.
Sy the Quebec Act of 1774, the Hon. Thomas Dunn was appointed a
member of the Legislative Couneil. He was ,a1so appointed a~ this
time as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1791 with the
passing of the,Constitutional Act; Thomas Dunn was appointed to
the Executive and Legislative Coynei1s of Ouebec. Durin~five
'/ \

different"periods he acted as Pjesident of the Legi~iative co~nci1.2

Despite~omas Dunn's involve.ent in the qOVérnment of OUebee he
1/) ,
did not necessarily rep~~§ent the views of the people of the County
of Missisquoi as he was not e1ected by the inhabitants of the
under the Act of 1829 the County of Mis.iaquoi va. per-
mitted two representatives to the Quebec Legislative Assembly.
Ralph Taylor and Richard V. Fre1i9h were e1eeted in 1829 a8 the

lMissisquoi County Historiea1 Society, F~rth Annual
Report, 1912, p. 78. -
2Gëorge Montgomery, Miasi.~oi 8ax.


---.' 143
first repre.lsen~àtives of tl)e County. In 1831 Ralph Taylor wa8
. re-e1ected a10ng wi t?,.\s.~ev~n Bak~F. _ At t~iS session of the
Legislative Assembly,"Ralph Taylor became involved in a dispute
wJ th the Speaker of the' As~embly,. ,Louis ~oseph Papineau. Mr.
Taylor was very critical of the speaker. The dispute actually

resulted from Kr. Papine,au's criticism of the English settlemen,t
~ v

in the .Eastern Townships an9 over land he1d by the British
• 1 •
, . / American Land Company. ' The British American Land Company was
incorporated in 1833 by the Br;i.tish Government for the purpose
of encouraging immigration and settlement of the waste lands of
the Eastern TownShips. The' Company was granted 850,000 acres for",
this purpose, none of i t being in the County of Missisquoi.
' ~

grant was popular with the Aett1ers of English origin, but
strenuously opposed by the French.
In March, 1833, Mr. Ralph Taylor was, imprisoned f~r
. .;

twenty-fou 7 hours because of a letter he wrote and ~~~ published
in Il'The Ouebec Mercury I f , concerning Mr. L. J. Papineau ~ s -~t.:.kS
. \

about the piopeers who had already settled in the Eastern :owns~ps.

Ralph Taylor was acclaimed by many of his constituents for his

defense of ,the Eastern Townships. In the spring of 1833 a number \
1 ~ ,
of the citizens of the County of Missisquoi met ~t Frelighsburg to \
, \
qive support ta Mr. Taylar. At this meeting "ten resolutions ~~re \\
then put in succession and unanimously adopted, expressing the \ \

just resentment falt, by the inhabitanta of that County, at
the reflectations sa unhandaomely cast upon them by Mr.

\ .. 3
P ap i neau • • .' •

War of 1812 and its Effect on the County of Misaisguoi
On June 18th, 1812 the United States declared war on
Great Britain and ita territories. The War of 1812, needlea8 to
say, brought a great uneaaineas to the people of the County of
Missi~uoi, especiall~ thoae living along the American border and
on Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River. In Canada the war had
more or less been expected, for in February, 1812 the government
of Lower Canada had paased a bill authorizing the Governor, )Sir
George Prevost, to embody 2,000 unmarried men for three montha of
the year. In)he event of war the Governor was authorized to
embody the whole militia of the Province. Under the new act
Governor Prevost, on the 28th of May; 1812, organized four new
battali~ns of militia in Lower .
. Canada.
Upon the declaration of war the United State~ began
attacks almost immediately on Upper Canada; Ihowever, there were
no hostilities in Lo~r Canada until 1813. On the 19th of
February, 1813, Goverl1or George Prevost sent the f,ollowing letter

to Colonel Sir John Johnson, the;commander-in-chiJf of the
Eastern Township battalions.
l'have to desire that you will take i ediate
measures for calling into service One Hun rad and
Twenty'Men, from the Six Township Ba~a11i na of
Militia, under you~ co. .and: these me~ a to serve
under the Militia Law, and are not to re 8in
e~ied mora th an one year, unles. the reatest
~Incident. ln Missisquoi During the Rebellio~ of lB37, ,
(Author unknown) •

e••rqency should render the continu.nee of
thelr services indispensably neceasary.
Your mO~,t Obedient Humble Servant,
George Prevost.
To the Honorable
Colonel Sir John4Johnson, Bart.
etc., etc., etc. " _
-.... "

As indicated in chapter two il n'umber of fo.rts had be~trt '"
, "

built at different times by,the F~énc~, British an~ Americ1ns on
~he waterways 1eading into the County of" Missisquoi, 6xteidinQ
frOm Sorel, at the mouth of the ~ichefieu River, to Fo~t

Ticonderoga, New York, where La~e Champlain empties fnto Lake
George. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, the fortification
which had been constructed on I1e-aux-Noix during the French
Regime, was found to be inadequate ta meet the purpose of defense.
With I1e-aux-Noix being in a strategie location~ the défense of
Lower Canada the British government decided in 1812 to rèconstruct
the fortresB and to build a naval station where smal~ warships
eould be buil t. The reconstructed fort was named "Fort Lennox ll

,During the winter of 1813 and the spring of 1814 a number of
warships were constructed in the dry-doek,of the Island.
One of the first attacks on Lower Canada took place in
June, 1813 whenrtwo Ameriean s~ips sailed fP
the Riehe1ieu towards
I1e-aux-Noix. Aft~r a few hours of fightih q the Ameriean ships
were captured. These two ships wére repaired at the Ile-aux-Noix
dry-dock and were
. later- used by the British in expeditioRS, -against

the Americans at P~attsburg, Burlington, Swanton and Champlain. S

4M1ssisquoi County Histôrical Society, Museum,
Stanbridqe East. '.

" 5 Fort Lennox National Historie Park, Ile-aux-Noix, P.O.,
", ,
In October, 1813 a small fleet of Amèrican 8hip8 ent.rad
Mi8sisquoi Bay afid landed a force of 450 men on its shores under
the command of Colonel Issac Clark. One hundred and fifty of
these men raided Philipsburg while the remainder landed at
C~dwell's Manor ,and plundered sorne of the settlers. These in-
vaders found very little resistance at Caldwell's Manor, however:
at Philipsburg the Fo~rth Battalion under the command of Lieutenant
Colonel Philip Luke,was preparing for the attack when the
t...1 "
Americans struck by"làurprise. Lieutenant Colonel Luke' s men after
putting up sorne resistance were forced to Surrender with one
hundred of them being taken to Burlington, Vermont' as prisoners.
Included in this group of prisoners was Major Joseph Powell, ~ho
was in charge of the 4th Battalion on ..the day of the attack as
h Lieutenant Colonel Philip Luke, unfortunately, was in Montreal. 6
As the Americans left the Philipsburg .area,
they robbed and
plun4~red m ny of the inhabitants' homes as weIl as driving off
their catt e an~~or8es.
e ~ericans made a second attack on the seigniory of
St. Armand in the latter part of 1813. Accqrdinq to Cyrus
Thomas, appro~imately sixt Y Americans came-to the Freligh$burg
. ;'

area .and droye off one hundred and fifty head of cattle. Appar-
l '

ently, howe,,ver, the greater part of these cattle had been smuggled
_into Canac;fa .eariier by individuals living in northern Vermont with
the idea/ot selling them to the British government. 7

6George Montq~mery, p. 95.

7cyrus Thomas, p. 88.

lfter.the second att,ck by the Americans int9 the Codhty
of Missisquoi many of the inhabitants living along ~he United
. ...
States border moved away considerable parts of their moveable
property into.the' townships of Stanbridqe and Dunham •

In January, 1814 a further skirmish occurred when a small
detachment of American "draqoons" crossed into the seiÇJrliory of
St. Armand at Clo~gh's farm. Some of the militiamen and a few
volunteers fram the village of Philipsburg were successful,
however, in capturinq six prisoners and forcing the remainder
. 8

of the Americans to retreat bacK across the border. .
Phi1ipsburg was capturyd fo~ a second time in March, 1814
by Amerlcan Briqadier General McComb, who commanded a corps of
riflemen and a brigade of infantry; ~hen the Americans learned
, , c

that the British were.sending a large from S~. John's to
Phi1ipsburq they retreated bacK across the border.
The War of 1812 came to àn end in 1814 with the siqrting

of the Treaty of Ghent. This War did not have a great ~ffect on
the County of Missisquoi althouqh it had caused hardships on
sorne of the people in the Parishes of St. Armand West
, and St.
Armand East. The majority of the people in northern Vermont and
Along the Canadian frontier were OPPOS~d to th~ War as Many of
were engaged in a thriving smugg1ing business throughout this
periode In some instances in the parishes of St. Armand, fami1ies
f •

-living Along the frontier returned to the United States because of
the thr~at of the American attacks across the border •

. 8George Montgomery, p. 97.


As mentioned préviously, the Act of 1829 estab1ished the


representa~on f~om
County of Missisquoi and provided the .first
this area.
It ha.a a1so beèn mentioned that
Mr. Ralph Taylor, one of the firet elected representatives from
, the County, opposed Louis Jo~eph Papineau in the early 1830" s.
The l830's, as we are aIl aware, was a very difficult time
in the political deve10pment of Lower Canada. It was a time of

bitte.r debate and hostili~y between Louis Josepn Papineau's
radiçals and the French and Enqlish moderates of Lower Canada.
Papineau reçeived sorne support in the County of Missisquoi as he
r, suggested t~e annexation of LOwer Canad~ to the United States.
This was appe~~nq to some of ~he American sett1ers who had come
into the County to obtain free land.
. Many of the sett1ers in the-
northern New Enqland States ~re in favour of annexing , C~ada to
the United States, and were therefore wi11inq to 8upport Papineau
and his radicals.
In 1837 the Honourable Louis JQseph Papineau j spoke at
-- ------. ~

St. James Church in the vill~qe of Stanbri4ge East. According
to Dr. McAleer, the villaq~ of Stanbridqe East W8S the head-
, - 9
quarters for Papineau and his radicals. A newspaper entit1ed
the "Missiskoui Post" was actually established at Stanl?ridqe East
f •
in December, 1834 by Solomon Bingham and Hiram Thomas for the
purpose of discriminating rad!cal propaqanda thro12ghout the
9Dr • McAleer, Hi_tory of Mi.aiaquoi.

Townships. This newspaper had a very brief history for in
1837, when troops were called out to quell the rebels, one of
/-their fi~st aets was to suppress the "Missiskoui Post... They
did this by throwing the press into Pike River and chasing the
editor aeross the international border into Vermont.
Throughout the summer of 1837 the militia in the Codnty
of Nissisquo~ was pr~paring for any trouble whieh might develop
/ with Papineau and the rebels. It was not until December, 1837
that violence came to the County. At daybreak on the 6th of
December, 1837 a ~ob of 50 or 60 men entered the village of
" .,-
Philipsburg and began terrorizing the inhabitants for an hour
before continuing on their way to Vermont. As they departed
1 1
they informed the villagers that they would return before night

,and 'burn
thé village. The set tIers in and around the village of
Philipsburg on l-earning .,that these terrorists were planning to
J;tturn quickly started to prepare for its defense.
The women and children were removed from the village to
a s~e place and messengers w~:e sent throughout the
rally military sUpport. By the late afternoon there were about
,- "300 men assembled 'in the viliage of Philipsburg. Most of these
volunteers were farmers from different areas of the County. These
men were stationed about half a mile south of Philipsburg in
.. A Mr. John P. Deal of Philipsburg volunteered to go
ta Highgate, Vermont and watch to see which road the rebels would
take o~ their return to Canada. It was ,fortunate that he did, as
the rebels had been informed of the defenders at
Philipsbu~g and
therefore took another road into the County by way of Noorels
- <


• Cornera (now St. Armand'. Statidn)~
Mt'. Deal immecfi ately a1erted

the volunteers at Philipsburq and little time was-wast$d in
gettinq to Moore's Corners which was considered the best place

to intercept the rebels. It was not long before the r~bels appeared
at Hiram Moore's farm and the shooting began. The fighting con-
tinued for only about fifteen minutes until the rebels were
forced to retreat back aeross the border. The volunteers de-
feated the patriot rebels before they could conquer any part of
Lower Canada.
After the War of 1812 and the rebe1lion of 1837 it was
, ~

decided by the Br~tish government that a qarrison ~hould be
established at Phi1ipsburq. This village had served as a focal
-'4 1
point in the War of 1812 and the rebe11ion of 1837. A bloek house
was constructed at Philipsburg in 1838 as a,protection against
any further attacks on Lower Canada by way of the United States.
From the Second Annua1 Report of the Missisquoi County Historical
Society, we learn that in 1840 'the Phi1ipsburg block house was
garrisoned by a Colonél Dryer and his corps of.volunteers and
later by a squadron of the "Queen's Light Dragoons." Sorne of the
Royal Montreal Cavalry were also quartered at Philipsburg after .
1840, aecording to reports in'the National Archives. The
Philipsburg block house was also used during the 1866 Fenian
raid to ~etain prisoners who were captured at Pigeon Hill.

. -,

• ..
The 1837 rebellion in Lower Canada resulted in the British

government taking action in an attempt to prevent a similar inci-
• ..,
The Act oY Union was, the- fin'al outcome and became law in
1841. . ..
The passage of the Ac~ of Union in 1841, creating the

Uni ted Provinces of Canâda,
, did not have any adverse ',èffect
on the
~ounty of Hissisquoi. By the Act of Union, the Honourable Philip
Moore of St. Armand was appointed a Legislative Councillor of
Canada; an office he held until Confederation in 1867. The
Honourable Philip Moore while in the Legislative Council was

appointed Chairman of the Rebellion Losses Committee. This c9mmit-
. .
tee was sanctioned by Gov~rnor Lord Elgin to look into the compen-
sation of any person (rebel ou otherwi~e) in Canada East whose
property had suffered damage during
the rebellion
of 1837. The
"Rebellion Losses Bill" was passed in 184e. ~, There had been a ,
number of c1aims for rebe1.1'l:on·'"!bsses in the County of Missisquoi.
From the "First Report of the Commission Losses 1837-1838" (1846)
we learn that the Vosburgh's, Abraham, Peter and Ann, in,Caldwell's
Hanor made a ,.number of claims. There liere a number o~ other claims
made by the inhabitants in the Parishes of St. Armand West and
St. Armand Eas t.
The fi'rst Missisquoi éounty elected rêpresentative to the
United Canad~ Legislative Assembly was a Mr.~ R. Jones., He held
~ffiee from 1841 to 1844. In 1844 a Mr. J. Smith,'a Montreal
Advocate, was elected as the Legislative Asaembiy representative •
,'In 1848 another Montreal Advoeate,
a Judge Badgley, vas e~ected

by acclamatiop as the County representative. The election of


1851 ""was eontested by three candidates, Stephen Baker, Abel L.
Taylor and S~neca Paige of Dunham.
Paige even~ua11y·won. In
the 1854 election Hannibal H. Whitney, of Montreal, bu~ a~native
of Missisquoi l' won over Cha.rles Seymour of St. John-'s, and a ~an
ï ",
by the name of Johnson . . Hannibal Whitn-ey also won again in 1857"
over à John Hall. The election of 1661 was.contested between

/' James O'Halloran, Q~C. of Sweetsburg and Thomas Woods. of'Dunham,~.

wi th Mr. '0' Halloran wfnning. In 1863 Mx. O'Hal1oran was re-
' : 't'10n. 10
e 1 ec t e d b y aee 1 ama
" "

After the Aet of Union in 1841 a 1aw was passed estab1ishing
municipal districts, in which a counei1, ea11ed the Distriœt

"- Couneil was formed. The bistriet Couneil was composed of a'

~,wa~den, '-.
appointed by the Governor-Genera1 ana of touneillors
ei'aè:ted by the different townshiJ?s and parishes in the dis,tr.t'et.

Dependinq 'on tne size of the population each township or p~ri&h. .
eou1d e1eet one or two eounci11ors. These District Counci1s
eontinued un~il 1845 when an aet was passed, ~lishing township .

and parish couneils. After 1845 each township and parish elected
seven eouncil1ors, who at their first session,~ e1eeted a mayor
'and elerk. The District C~unei1 for the County of .Missisquoi
': t ~ Il
he1d its meétings in the ,village of Nelsonvi1le from l~l to 1841.

• 0
In 1847 another act was passed setting up County
, Couneils. .
~A ~ou~ty Couneil was made up of eaeh township or parish in the
l "
~. --, ... / ~ 10 R• Belden, Atlas of ,Canada, p. Ill.
t! -
e "

llCyr,us Thomas, p. 152.

.' 0


, .


ICQunty e1ecting two members and then e1ecting a·mayor and clerk
amongs t themsel ves ./ The Mis8Ü~ciuoi Co~nty Counci l he1d. i ta

iSessions in the village of 06'nham Flat. 12
In 1855, another change was made, whereby.. township,
parish or village councils as well a& CountY,C~uncils
lishèd. By this act: ~ach township, parish or village elected.

sèven councillors and then eiected mayor and'secretary-treasurer
amongst thèmselves. The towns~ip, village co~èil met
once a month. The governmental iur'sdiction of these Councils
~cluded the power to levy and col ect assessments tor the opera-
tion of the ,local administration, the repair of highways '.and
, 1
bridges, discretionary power, in egard to the clos~~q and opening
of new highways, and the supporb,'
of the pdor within their region.
0 "

The m~yors~oz the different township, parish or village councils
in a county forme~ a county council which met quarterly. The
dut Y of ~ County Council was to attend ~o matters in the çounty
which involved more than one township or parish and to act upon
appea1s made by the townsnip or parish councils. f 0

The first session of the count~ 6f Mi~Sisqu~i Council was,
, '
he1d ~n Bedford on the 12th of Sêptember, 1855 __ Present were
~, '.~ayors: Orin Joslin Kemp, Henri Des Rivieres, Louis Bourdon.
Alan~on Ford, Levi Stevens, Andrew Ho1den, E. Johnson Smith and
l ' John S. Holt. Henri Des Rivieres was appointed the Warden of thlstl 1-

~ "
counêil in 1855 and 'was ~-q remain" in this position unU1 1~,57 •
In 1857 1:!he county0 of ~1'S"~~U9i C<?Unci 1 appointed a. cOllUlli ttee ~ of
• 1 ~ '. '

12Ibi~:;~' p'. 146. ,
.. /

., o • •
-. 154
~,I.. John S. HOlt, John Hawley. and Louis Bourdon 'to ~e1ec't a site for
of a courthouse and jai1 ~oc the County. They selected
1 •

.the present ~ay site in Sweetsburg.

1 The expense of the judicia14administration and the duties

of providing and sustaininq court houses and jails in the different
, ,
• •
- was the' responsibility of the Provincial. Government. The
scope of the County Council's .jurisdiction was therefore limited.
--------~----~------~Pr~~~~~~-t~~~~~nQo court of Justice in ühe C~o~~~---
of Missisquoi, therefore aIl' civil and jud~c al disputes were
- ----------~ -----
handled in Montreal. For Many years there were no .civil magis-

trates appointed to preserve peace in the Eastern Townships. As
. ,
the townships began to develop if became increasing1y necessary for

sorne. type of law and order. It was for this reason that some

militia officers were empowered to act in cases when a magistrate's

warrant could nQt be readi1y obtained. Even a sergeant of militia

could execute a wa~rant 1f issued by a magistrate, br, if necessary,

'the justice 90uld appoint a special constable for that purpose.
However, despite these. proceedings, serious and vexatious delays

often resulte4 in the guilty escaping punis?Ment. As mentibned ;n

cases of prosetution for debt, slander and other local and social

difficu1ties in the County ~eople had to takè~their ca~es to the
Courts of Justice in ~ontrea1. ~n Many instances the e~r1y

inhabitants chose to "suffer grievous wrong" rather than apply
for a in the Montr~l QOurts which usually resulted
l, , (

in a lon9 delay and a great expense no~ only in judicial 'fees, but
" also in transportation.

• _ 13';The Mi'$sisquoi County Council," Rendez-vous w~th the
Past in MissJ:sgyo,i, Volume' Il, p. 98-99 •

/ .

, 155
~t was not until,1857 that an etficient judicia1 system
was organized and enforced. At that time, Canada was divided
into districts for judic~ty purposes, and in each of the districts
. .'
Courts of Justice established. Th~ counties of Missisquoi, Brome
and Shefford composed the Judieial District of Bedford. "The
'.judiciàl. off i cers were: "a superior court judge: a sheriff: a ,
-prothonot~ry (clerk of the crown): and a high cOll~table ,,14

jjil and District Oxfices were in the Village of

Besides the establ~.hment of juaiciary districts in Lower
Canada in 1857 the provincial government established the present
day boundaries of the County of Missisquoi. The county now in-

cluded the Townships of Dunham, Farnham West, Stanbridge and the
paris~es of St. Armand, St. Thomas and St. George. Prior to 1857
Farnham West and Farnham East eonstituted one township, under the
name of "Farnham" and formed a part of the County of Shefford.

PGlitieal Develoement, in the 1860's afid their Effeot on the
County of Missisguoi
As we 'are no doubt aware, the political events in the
United S~tes during the 1860's had a major effect on the esta~-

lishment of the Dominion of Canada. Prior ~o the 1860's a number
of people in Canada East favQured annexation to the United States.
However, Lord E~gin, the Qovernor-General, was successful in
destroying the commercial case for annexation by achieving -a
14 .
H. Belden, p. f VI.
- ~.. ,
- -- ~ ..
- ,---
- - -
• "1




commercial reciprocity with the United States in 1854. George

Etienne Cartie~, leader of the Consérvatives in Canada East,'a1so

p1ayed a major role i~ convincing the people that political annexa-

tion to the United States was not a qood thing. Cartier used the
prospective break-up of the United States in the Civil War and

\ \
the ,later threat of its vastly increased military and'industria1

power as arguments for the ~f.rmation ~f a Canadian Nation from the
:"--. .
disunited and defenseless BritiSh North American provinces. ~e

America r a~d the events lmmediate1y fo11owing played a

major part in ~he bringing ab~0~u~t~o~f:<~nred~~~un~i~n~~1~8~67.
~e County of Missisquoi since bord~ing on the, uni~---
1 ~
States ~s. affected in some ways by the Civil War. Duri~q the

ear1y years of the War there were sorne people in the'County that

supported the Southern Confederates.
However, as the War con-
\ tinued and as the people in the County began

·true meani~g of the conflict, the South lost
, .....-
mo~~ bf



/ Many Canadians, including a number from the County'of
, ,
Missisquoi, saw service in the Union Army--some fram antislavery

convictions, or from love of adventure, and other8 because of

economic pressure, took advantage of the hig~ bo6nties that were
of!ered. Still others found employment in factories in the New

nd States. During the later years of the War when volunteers

scarce in the Union, a numQer of recruitifig agents were found

Gounty offering~large baunties for men to join the .U~~on

·e army.
Sorne of tne young men who were recruited ~ro~ the County

never returned home. Abram Hodge, who wa. killed ~n batt1e in the
south, was such a one.
., 157

In October, 1864 the St. A~bans, Vermont bank was

-raided and robbed by twenty-f'ive Confederate soldiers who f1ed

into Canada. Once across the internation~l border they separated.
1 Four of the soldiers held out in the Village of Stanbridge East
until the following day when they wère arrested by Messrs. Blinn,
Knight, Wightman, Martindale and Briggs and taken to Montreal for
trial~15 T~e freeing of these mén by a Montreal judge after a
short trial resulted in sorne resentment
, and threats on Canada by

Americans living in the northern states. They had t4~t that these
men should have been jailed or returned to the ynited States to face
' 1 G

trial. The Canadian government being perturbed. by the 7eaction oI
AJilezicaRIii on the release of- these men rearrested them and "
proceeded with another trial.

... At the close of the American Civil War in 1865 there were
sorne Canadians in the County of Missisquoi who were apprehensive
over the possibility that the Northern armies after having won
over the Sou-th, might launch an attack on Canada.
The Fenian Raid of 1866 into the County of ~issisquoi
In 1857 a group known as the Fenian Brotherhood was
organized in New York City. This group was made up of Irish
patriots and exiles·~ith the purpose of reviving the·struggle for
Irish ïndependence and tG mobilizé sympathy and support in the

United States. '~t'the close of the American Civil War in 1865
-, "
there werf thousands'of Irish men discharged from milltary duties."

.e - .' l' Kiddl, HiÏhli9hts '"Of HistorYj!:n Stanbridge East,
Missisquoi coun~y', ~~~or cal Museum. ~
• 1
5· •


The Fenian Brotherhood now made.plana to attack th.~itish
, 1

government by raids into Caeada at different locations.
Fenian,actually believed that Canadians were ,awaiting an por-
tunit~ to escape from "the British Yoke" and that the)" would
welcomed--but were to find out the exact opposite was true.
Raids were planned in New Brunswick, Lower Canada and Upper
Canada. ' The Fenian threat tô~~anada pointed to the need for the
British North American Provinces to ~nite for the defense of their
frontiers. In 1866 the Fenians begari thelJ;:'-. raids across the
border into Canada.
On the lst and 2nd of June, 1866 a group of approximately
2000 Fenians, under the command of a General Spier, met in St.

Albans, Vermont to prepare for a raid on Lower ~anada by way of
t h e Eastern Towns h ~ps~ 16

On ,June 4th, 1866 General Spier led a force of approxi-
, ""
• mately one thousand Fenians across the border to pi~~n H~II and
set up his headquarters in the home of (a Mr. James Ecceles. The
only Canadian military forces in the i~mediate area of the County
of MiSrii
quoi at the time of thislattack were three 90mpanies of
inf~t wi h ni~e officers and one hundred recruits under a
Captain • Carter of the Sixteenth R~giment. Captain Carter, on
! ' learn~ng of the Fenian advance, ordered the retreat of his men as

he'felt his command was not properly equipped for an engagement ~

wi th the Fenian forces. Carter,' s action in retreating wi thout
~even ~ttempting to sto~, the Fenians advance was severely criticized

l6George Montgomery, p. 112. ..

'. ~
-" ~
, 159
and he was reprimanded for hts "error of jud;emel'1t' in retirinq
"l'l' :.r

wlthout sufficiènt reason". His troops regarded his action' as
an exhibition of cowardice. 17
Because of Carterls retreat the Fenians were~b~e to enter
the County of Missisquoi unmolested, as ~the f\onti~r ~a~~~
unprotected. For about three days the Fenians'~an rio o"er
/ -
large part of ,the Seigniories of St. Armand Eaa and wes~,
, "

ding the villages of Fre1ighsburg and P~on Hill and sorne portions
~ ///~ \

/ \\
of the Township of Stanbridge~ Thé.Fenian~ raided'ho~es, robbed
farms and approp~iated just about everything in sight.~ Cyrus
'. (

Thomas refers to them as a ra9g~d, di~ty, half-armed, chaotic force
of men intent on plundering ànd,burning ratherrthan fighting for
J 18
military fame. l'
i '
Despi te the Fenians' early success in the C01llnty, the'y soon
began to panic when they learned that the reinforcem~nts and
supplies that ,they were expecting from their basea in the State of
t~ ~
Vermont had been intercepted by the United States/ government. '
Meanwhile the Fenians in the parishes.of St. Armand began ta b~come

discouraged--a1td__ demoralized as they knew that i t was only a matter
of time before Britisa.and Canadian troops would arrive to force

them back across the border; General Spier after a Council of War

decided that a retreat to the United States was the ~nly course
open to them. The Fenians began retreating from Ca'~adian sail
c~~ng with them booty of every description. A& t9~ retreating

l 7 Ibid., p. 113. l8eyrus Thomas, p. 48.


, .
, r~
Fenians crossed the border into the United States' they were met

by U.S. army detaehments who seized aIl the arms whieh they had
in the~r possession. General Spier and his officers were arrested
and taken to St. Albans to stand trial for violation of the
Neutrality Law.
,- There were a few,easualties during the Fenian attack on
the Coupty of MPssisquoi in 1866. Sir John A. MacDonald in his
story of the Fenians raids into the Eastern Townships says:
'lA portion of General Spier' s army who were Ratloned
<' at a point about 8 miles from St. Armand when the
main body retreated were charged upon by fort y men of
the 'Montrea~ Guides': sever al Fenians were killed
and sixteen taken prisoner. u19
'i -J~

There ~ere no casualties in the Canadian corps during the 1866
Fenian raid. An unfortunate incident did oceur, however, on the
night of June lOth, 1866 when a Miss Margaret Vincent of EC~ .
Hill~wen~ out for a pail of water a~d-~as mistaken by some aold~
as a Fenian. This e1derly woman was deaf and when ordered to haIt
did not hear the commando The result was that the soldiers ahot
her. The location of this incident is marked on, the side of the
road 1eading from E9c1es Hill to the village of P~geon Hill.
The Retreat of Captain Carter .and t~e failure of the
Lower Canada governmen~ in protecting the Missis~~oi County Frontier
was resented by the inhabitants. They had been forced to stand by
and watch the Fenians pillâge ~heir homes and threaten their lives.
After. the 1866 Fenian raid, the~eople in the county resolvèd to
steps to protect themselves aqainst any future invasions •

,·19 George Mont9omery, p. 113.
! .

Aaa Westover and Andrew Ten Eyck, ~f the township of Dunham, •
were the leaders in this movement. They formed a company of
local farmers and merchants and called themselves the "Home
Guard". Each man furnished his own rifle and ammunition. The
Home Guard developed a lot of pride. After 1866 they had such
regular rifle practices that they became known as a company of
"sharp shooters". They were to get théir test in conflict in
18~0 when'the Fenians conducted ~another raid across the border
into the County of Missisquo:h.\,
The Fenian Raids of 1866, ,along with the American Civil
War, played a major role in Confederation in 1867. The events of
the ear1y 1860's in the United States indicated to the British
(. North American Provinces that there was a need to uni,fy their
resources and manpow~x: for their defense. As J.' M. S. Care1esB
says, the existence of a separate Canada was Ilot just a fortu~ tous
result of 'events in the United States, nor of'Loyalist emotiona1
res01ves to "stay British ". '~It was a1so rooted in powerfu1
factors of geography and commerce that under1ay the who1e Canadian
deveJ, opmen't. ;,-20
It wou1d appear that genera1ly speaking, the inhabitants
of the County of Missisquoi favoured confederation. In the 1867
federa1 election there were two candidates in the County ~f

Missisquoi, bath from the Parishes of St. Armand. One of the

~OJ. M. S. Careless, Frontierism, MetropolitanisM, and
Canadiap History, Canadiah HistorIca1 Review, March, 1954.

candidates was Philip Moore who ran a. an Independent
1 '"" 1

Conservative. Mr. Moore had been offered a position as a
. in 1867 in the Quebee Provincial Parliament
but declined in order to run as a candidate for the Federal House
of Commons. The çther candidate in the County was Brown Chamberlain
who ran as a Conservative. Mr; Chamberlain was elected as the
~irst House af Commdns representative for the County of Missisquoi
- in 1867. \

The provincial 'Legislative Couneil member for the County
of- Missisquoi
after 1867 was. Thomas Wood. Mr. Wood was also the
mayor af the village of Dunham 1n1867. He remainel in the
Legislative Couneil until 1898. Acearding to Geargè Hugh .

Montgomery in the foreward of the Ninth Report of the Missisquoi
County Historieal Society, the Couhty of Mi$sisquoi, by terms! of
the British North Amêriean Act, was one of the "Electoral Districts
of Quebec specially fixed". This was a means of protection for

the English-speaking mi~ori ty which in 1867 formed "the majori ty
of the population in the Cou~tr of Missisquoi.

J •

. . ..



an oPPQrtunity for them to communicate with one another, to
express their political views as weIl' as inform them as to events
not on~y in their own communi ty but a1so in the wo!=,.ld,-, Wi th the
'.. -1 1
development of n,ewspapers in the County the inhabi tants became
better informed.
Journalism in Canada after 1830 differed from t)lat of tlhe
ear1ier period not only i~ numbers but a1so from the standpoint
of newspaper tone and subject matter. Professor W. N. Kesterton
! •
of Carleton University, Ottawa, writes in his "History of Canadian
Journa1ism, 1752-1958," that the -early editor was almost corn..
pletely subservient to the government and therefore a large pari
of their newspaper eonsisted of government announcements, proc1a-
mations, orders and enaetments. Binee he needed government
business the early editor avoided comment on the conduct of those .
in authority.
After the' 1820 t S a new kind of edi tor l1egan to appeaif"

"He waa that entrepreneur who establispE!d a press independent of
revenue. frQmgovernment business. Un1i~e his pradecessor, he


made money chief1y by printinq advertisements and se11inq his
paperâ to a-wider circle of readers. With this shift from
qovernment patrona~e, he became increasing1y self-sufficient
ànd was no longer afraid to involve his newspaper in the/major
issues of the day
~ewspapers from the 1830's on became an éxciting and ,_
vital source of po1itical life. The ed~torial writinq w~s in
some instances extreme, as being sharp and ~itty. The
1 ~

editors and publishers of newspapers in the County of Missisquoi
were no exception. The first n~spaper in the County of Missisquoi,
according to Cyril Thomas, was the "Missiskoui Standard." It
was a weekly journal and was first published and edited in
F,eliqhsburq in April, 1835 by James M. Ferres. The Missisko~i

Standard" commenced publication at a time of crisis in Lower
Canada. Throughout the period 1835 to 1837 numero~ editorials
--------~~---------- • • j
were written by ·'Mr. Ferres attackinq Papineau and his radicals.
In April, 1835 the "Missiskoui, St'andard" wrote that, .. If the
English population of Easter~~anada wish to ever have the privi-
.~ege of being heard in the house of assembly, this is the time to
demand it. The County of Missisquoi is perhaps, the only one,
tha~ has reason to bejsatisfied but it is not for us to look
calmly on, while the genera1 interest of our county is to be
hindered, or promoted." ()

• # lprofessor W. H. Kesterton, "History of Canadian
Journalism, 1752-1958," Canada Year Book 1957-58 and 1959.
op "
! \

\. ~,
l-1\ ••

~ !~-
165 f'

Jamès Ferres difP1a~ed such abilltYr in: his edito~ia1.
, 'r
that in Decembér, 1836.he 1eft Freliqhsb~rq to become mal18ger 'of
...-r~_ t

the editorlal department of the "Môntreal Herald. t1
In December,
l ' f
1848 he bought "The Montréal Gazette" and continued to edit this
newspaper unti1 1854 when he left to represent the County of
, ,
Brome in the Provinci~l Parliament. 2

After James Ferres 1eft the "Missiskoui Standard" a Hr.
J. D. 'Gilman became ~ publisher and continued to operate the
newspaper from Frelighsburg about 1841. The printing-press
was removed after 1841 to 2,hi1ipsburg and a newspaper ca1}ed "The o

1 G1eaner" was published by Hamilton Carro After "The Glean~rtt had
been in existence for a year~ another journal ca11ed the
"Missisquo'i News" began to be published by W. W. Smith. A short
time later "The Gleaner" was discontinued. After being published
\. in Philipsburg for a year, the "Missisquoi News" was removed to
St. Johns ",pere: ï-t:'. becaltle known as "The News" and wa.s to remain

one of the,most important newspapets s~rving the Eastern
m 1
"0Wl\s h'1pS. 3~"
J 1
One of the most c,ontroversiai newspa;pers to he publ~shed

in the County was the "Missiekoui
f P~st.
~ JI As , .. en tioned
l.. Previously, .,
this radical newspaper had been established in i834 in Stanbridge
Bast by Solomon 'Binqham and Hiram Thomas. The 'MiSriSkOUi Post Il

wa. forced to stop publication in 1837 when the ~,fices we:e

2Cyrus Thomas, p. 90. l ",.

3 • ,~,,'
George Montgomery, p.o 118. li

'.' .
"1 1


.. ,. !.

1&, •

• •

~nto the ,United States, because of their support of Papineau
and 'his rebels.
There were a number of other newApapers that wefé
., "
pub1iSh~d at different the Co~nty prior to 1867. Ohe
. ,
of r these was '''rh~ Township Reformer" wh~ch began publication in
J ~ t ~1
--~83? at Stanbridge Ea~t with Mr. Elkana~ ~helPs ~s editor- ~nd a
Mt. F. A. MoDowell as printer; ~other newspaperô that was \
-- • _ .' ': .~ t<

p~blished in the c~unty prior to th:& 187i?' s \tI~The Di~tr~ct~"'

of Bed~ord Times." 1his paper was a wéekly jo~pa~ and was
published in Swèe~sbu~g by a Mr. ~. Rose from~18~6 to .1869.
r l.. . /~
Cyrus Thomas indica~es that this was the ~n1y newàp~er being
published in the county of ~issisquoi in the late 1860's.4
Unfortunately, there is very little informatïon availa&l~on
man y of the n~wspapers that wer~ pubIiShed'in the coun;y
prio~ to the ·1870~s,.

. .,
~cyrus Thomas, p~ 161.
.. . .',

.,'~ .;;:, - '

-,,\ \
~ "

i ".l,'
- ,. ---
- , \, : ::'
\ d

. c

, "'.

,;: '. ...
,II i

~ 13
.. 4.

." , /-

'. , j J \.u_ • \t,tl . . . ._ .... _
) ,

., 1 <

l "
" . \

, UP UNTIL"1867

The early settlers in the County of Missisquoi had Many
q . .
difficulties to~contend with when re-êstablishing themselves in
the wi Idern.ess '. of a Ifew regian. Many of ~he pioneex:s who came

to this regian ,had given up the comfarts of a well...,establi,shed

hor1Ît ••d" comrp~.mity. , '+t ia therefore not· surpJ;:ising to 'find that
" \
•• "
. 1
soon began- to develop a spirit and practice
v Qf mütual dependence. They expresged 0.igh· d~gree of sympathetic "

kindness and intimate personal 'friendship to one aibther.

Coupty of Missis~oi.
wa~ a g'reat amount o~ communi ty spiri-t in the developmen.t or:~~- __
" .\"---
'- \,~
This section on the 'social development of. the County wilr
'. at le~.t>t to, show the means and ways th~t neighbourly relation:--
'ships and ''l')mpanion~hips began to develop between the s~ttlers.
,. ,
This section will ~lso be devoted to the ~arly'deyelqpment of . .,

the diffe~en~ reliqious groups oin the County'as well a8 the,
'" '0, '.
'" ',' . .aettinq up of school's. .
popu~a.r i~ "t~}y d.velo~ent
Work l'bees Il were v.ery
l , , '.

. of tne County or Missisquoi
!., \;
, • . \
~ut out a aettiement from the wilderne.~ was ~ade .,.1er·by the ,
" .'
• 1 1


)o.' . \
....-~- - . ---- --
- - . .

,, \:,

" \

1 ,

# 0

exéhange method known as "bees". The ear1y settlers would help
• ""
' ... 0
one another in clearing the land or in building a home or barn.
This was a means of the early pione~rs getting to know one
another." These "bees," were very often in .the form of picnies.
The women, at the end of a day's work would serve the men a ~earty

Meal and,after ~ner:th~re ~~9ht be a sin~-alOng or a little
'party wi~h the families who had takèn part in the '~bee". "Bees"
• were po~ular ànd necessary for 'the economie suecess in manY'case~
for a 'family and for the development of a ~ommunity. As lnhabi-
tants multiplied' it also became customary for sever~l persons to
jdin eom~any m going for supplies whi~h they could not obtain in
thei) o~ loca~ ~ettlements. wer~ develope? a lot faster ~hen

,.. the early pioneers helped one another. ~
," , As mentioned above, the early pioneers expressed p great .
amount of' kindness and helpfulness to one another,. This was also
-true when sickneas nr death struck a family.." Many a night they

wp'Uld "sit,..up". with a sick friei-td ,or neighbour. In Many instances
when· a death occurred in a family the buriai wouid take pIaee in
the f~ily cemetary whièh was usually on their own property. Most
of the early'settlers had'the family cemetary on their own property,
although in somé instances two or thre~ families would qet togethér
e f
," . , antt:plan a' common' cemetary. '
• t> r

It was' therefore eustomary" from the formation of the
l " ..
. , " ~ ~
earlié~t settlements, for the seattered inhabitants to ge~ together
occasion~lly to help'one another~and also promotê t~iendships.
It'was no~ uhcommon for people to g~ ~everal miles thr~ugh t~~
. . . . .

~ocia17g~therings. As the number of se.ttler."
J __
- - -- ---- -- ---
_ _ k. ___ __


1 1 ~

• .
increased, these assemblages became more frequent and were• more
numeroqsly attended.
Through the summer and winter différent
groups 0
7 people would ~et together for sjng-alon~, quilting bees,
barn dances and in sorne cases just to talk and pass' al?ng the n~~,
to oqe another. Dancing was one of the most popular types of
, ,-
J social gatherings •. Usually someone sufficiently skilled in , .
~ violin would supply the dance music. Quilting bees were social
\ ,
gatherings for the women. According to Catherine Day, at most
of these gatherings, spirituaus liquors were usup l1y considered
'- l
~ssential as a beverage.
Another ,important social funct~on that deve10ped with the •
« ,
increase in the number pf settle'rs was the country fair. This
a ' 1
\ -
was and still is in of the Eastern~Townships a popular
, form of fun and amuse~ent. As mentioned in Chapter III, the
country fair usùally took/he_ form of a c"attle or horse show,
shooting .ma~ches, or "sha, fights If and other fo~s of ell'tertainment.
Hors~ racing was é\,lso anq'ther popular form of e~tert·ainm~pt. ({)ne
of tri~ popular ~cj tracks in the Eastern Townships was
, t::;' '1 ,

~uilt ~n. tJw vicinity of Lagrangels Mit lS on ~he èqadsey far~. l

This track was called "The Trotting Park,of the Eastern Townships
. '.1 1
Turf Cl~~r. and attracted a great n~mber -of people from aIl over
.:r' / -
t~e Ea~r~ ~wns~ips. (
o --- ;-
le. M. Day, ,i,0neers ot t~e ~!.s t!ra Townships, lA. ,120. l ,

.. ,

1 ,
1. - of

• 1
• •
" 1. ~
The Masonic Order was to play an important part in the
lif.~ of the set tIers in the Eastern Townships. ~ The Masonic

Lodges that were established in the period from 1795 up unti1 1867,
were to have not only an effect on the settlement as weIl as the
social development of the County of Missisquoi, but they a1so
played a role in the political and economic growth of this region.

Just about aIl of the most prominent men that settled in the County
becàme Masons. The Masonic meetings which were held- on a monthly
ba~is served as a great place for the early inhabitants to develop
close friendships and to exchange ideas regarding political and
economic philosophies.
The first Masonic Lodge in the County of Mis~squoi was
the "Select Surveyors' Lodge" later known. as "Prevosb Itodge"
1 • r'"

Cafter 1812) which was "established at Missisquoi Say (Philipsburg)
l '~
in 1795. The first meeti~g \ of the "~;'lect Surveyors Lodge" at.
J 1"
Philipsbutg was on February 27th, l795 r,
After 1801 thi. L9dge,
, in order t9 accommodate more men and to make travelling to the
meetings le~burdé-~some, agreed that the lodge should meet
l .
.!~. al t~rnately at the Ih~use, 01 Joel Ackfey in Frelighsbürg and at
Philipsburg. 2 .This arrangement waij t6 ~ontinue until 1810 when
, ,
the Lodge was moved to Ceok's Corner. 1ater known as the
. Villa9~

of St. Armand, where it continued ~ts monlh1y meetinqs u,nti1
1812 when it was d~stroyed by fire. In 1812 the Lodqe, .a

• 1

• <

p. 9

\' r'
, ,

, -'


mentioned above, became- known as "Prevost .. and now met in the
V~llage of Frelivhsburg. The "Prevoat Lodge" continued to be
very ~ctive until 183frAwith many initiations s~ch as: Peter Yager,
. Dr. 1:32rw Chamberlain, JonaB Abbott, Levi Kemp, Asa F,rary, John
Kranz, eorge Washington Stone (grandfather of Chester A~ Arthur,
Présid nt of the United States in 1881), Thomas Wightman,
Ebenezer M~;tin, William Baker, Jpseph Burley and ~acob Cook. 3
According' to Homer M;l. tchell the IIPrevo9t Lod~e" after 1830 ce~se~
to exist until 1844 when it was received and iocated i~ the 1

Village of Dunham~ Among the many men i~itiated to this Lodge

afxer 1844 was the H~nourab1e Thomas Wood who held many important
positions in the County and was eventually:~lected to the
Vrovincial Legislative Couhcil in 1867.
There were other Masonic Lodges that developed in the

l ":

County of Missisquoi such as the "Nelson l".o,dge" which was es\ab-
lished at Caldwell's Manor in 1802. The early·me~~ings of this
. .
Lodge were held at Hix SalIs home in the vicini.ty of the Village
, '"where
C~arenceville he had set aside ,
~ . room for the
Hasons in this area of ·the County. 4 This"1f~e had an extremeIy
. .large membefship, 'in fact, according to H(l)mer,' Hi tche~l sorne of
' . f •

its m~mbers resided south of the International Boundary. Mo~er

Mitchell gives a fai~ly c~plete list of. sorne of the ea)i~:
1" . 5
settIers who wer~ mernbers of th!. Lodge. In looking over the
, 1:'- 1 <
. <>
3 Ibid. , p. 10. ,<


Ibid,. , p. 24. fi
f '
. 1
Ibid. , p. 25;:'26. ",
• ----- "
.... -------. ---- ---- ---
" '( .

.~ -


liat of names it would appear that just about every male that
settled in Caldwell's Manor was a Mason. In 1824 a second
"Nelson Lodge" was established at the Village ~"'HenryVille
;,,~ until_l862, when it was moved to the Village of Philipsburg •
. ,
'l'he original "Nelson Lodge" of 1802 continued to meet in
Clarê'hceville. In 1862 the members of this' oId "Nelson x..-odge"
changed the name to "Clarencevil1e Lodge". Sorne of thé pêople
. in the area of Clarenc'evil~ to join this Lodge in the 1860 1 s were )
Robert Macfie, Willi~m M. 'Malfie, Hènry Taylor, Charles Hunart, -
John Hunter, A. V. Vaughan, John B. Hall, John Terry, Charles N.
. /

Beerwort, Harvey N. ~eerwort, Jas~ G. Beerwort, Walter Billings,
Henry Bissell,.W. J. Bullis, paniel Derick, Henry M. Derick,
Nelson Perick" John Derick, Jas. R~ Fleming, Chas. Manning,
Arlin Martindale, Henry W. Nye, ~o~is Oberndoffer, Alexander
Stewart, John Ta~l~, Alonzo Vosburg,' Henry A. Vosburq, Ira
Vosburg, Lorenzo H. Vosburg~6 \
In 1858, a Ma.onic Lodge was opened in t~e Village of'

'Stanbridge East. Most of the firet charter members oftthe
:~ "S't"anbridge Lodge" hàd been members fôr~eriy of "Prevost Loewe"
-<'II' '#'" ' "-.
-'. ~ .~' at DunhaIh, but now wi th a Lodge closer to their home they joined
this new'Lodge. Som& of these,members were: Jonas B. Abbott,
Henry Baker, Merrish Burnham, Hobart Butler, Michael Chandler,
Caleb Corey, John'H. Corey, Edwin Cornell, Simon H. Cornell,

,Hiram Edson, Wm. EIder, Horatis Horskin, Edward C. Knight"
Ebenezer Martin, Daniel Heiga, Herman O. ""Meige', -Hugh Montgomery,

,6 Ibid ., p. 36. •

------- - -'~- .\ : \
p -~~ - - - - - -- ~ ---.... - - -__ - - : _ _ F'

-----~~~- ~-----------------------~--~
\ '


John Odell, George E. Pattie, James A. Phelpa, Chas. A. Rice,

Edward Rykert, John B. Seymour, Chas."S. Vincent and Henry N.
- 1
Whitman. 7
ln August, 1867, "Browne Lodge" which had be~n establis
in 1864 at Adamsville in the township of East~arnh~m was mov

" . to the village of Farnham. This move, 'according to tl0mer Mi tchell,
, -
was due to the rack of candidates in Adamsville and also because
some of the members of the Lodge resided in the village of
Farnham. Another Lodge to deve10p in the mid 1860'8 was the
lI~oyal Canadian Lodge" in March, 1867 at the vi11ag~ of Sweetsburg.
Many of the 'members of "Browne ~odge" and the "Royal Canadian
Lodge" were form-erly members of "Prevost Lodge". There were mans'
> f
other Masonic Lodges. to develop in the County of Mi8Sisquoi ter
, \~

1867. It is interesting to'note that as a particutar area ecame
mo~e heavily popu1ated it usua11y ~e~ulted in the setting1up of
a Masonic' Lodge. ' '/ ,1 ~l
The Masonic Lodges, 'as mentioned above, had a g/eat '\
/ . l
influence on social l~fe of the early settlers. l t wotÎi"d---appear
, ,
that just about aIl of the ear1y pioneers who cou1d affor? it
~ becaJe Hasons as ~t provided a' very important link with other -'

settlers. In order to belong to a Masonic Lodge an initiation
. fèe of approximately twenty dollars and a yearly fee of $3.00 iri
~ :
most\ i nstances~as ' d •.
requ1re ~ 18 seems-. very 1
8 ""h' l
OW fe~
t '0 us

7Home» Mitchell, Freema,obr.y in the Di.trict ~
B,dford, p. 43. ,,' r~
J:bid., p.' 46.


today, but in the early nineteenth century this was a lot of
monex. It ia no wontler that the more prominent and influen~ial
se~lers jeined the Masonic Order. The Masonic Lodges in the
County of Missisquoi were well-attended by their members. There
were numerlous "o"c:casions when meet;ngs of one particular lodge
wer~ .attended by people from other lodges. Frequently there ~

. were also meetings o'f aIl the lodges in t~e townships. Sorne of
) ,
~ these meetings or social affairs were att~nded by ~he'ladies'

/- along with'their husbands. These ~eetings certainly provided
, , ~

means of establishing friendships and-communIcation between
people of differ,ent areas' throughout the townships.
-\.\) . .
In many instances tQe early pioneers tended to settle in
,~r.thk ci.osely kni t groups mainly as a matter of convenience.
j, ~ ,
~his has been referred to as the country crossroads settlement
which developed into one '~f the main population centers in
certain parts of~the Coun~y. Th~ country crossroads settlement
in sorne instances was the forerunner of the country village.
1 Cookls Corner was the forer~pner of th~ village of St. Armand
just td
mention one, example. ~
The country crossroads settlement
a number of services te the ~ettlers. ,There were one
U )

or two general 'stores, 'in sorne instances "a school, a church and
1 ( 1.- •

l~ter on ~ post-office. Farminq was the se~f-suffieient occu-
• p(tion of most! o'f the set tiers and such a ctosaroads could 8upply
N:i:rtually aIl t't)a.e ~armer I.S needà which could .not be filled oa
e . ..,fi'"


The Crosà'k-oads ~settlem'ent were., as

'Iéiï",' for )lim his

~ ,)0
, )

" (/ .

center of neighbourhood life. Such hamlets, particularly if they
had a church, wer~ likely to be a focus for the informaI "m:bdng"
of the otherwise scattered settlers where it gave them the oppor-
tunity to p~ss on news, to crystallize politic~l opinions and to

,. enforce social control by means of gossip.
On the other hand, the development qf the co~ntry
, . village,
with the continued increase in settlement, was to perform func- .

tions for 9he surrounding area and had a social structure of its
own. The services were more varied: schools: professional.
. services,
'-~ ~

at least to the exterlt qf a doptor and possibly a lawyer; churches; ~ ,

stor,es- o'f" various kinds, perhaps wi th some degree' of specializa-
·tion; a small industrial enterprise of some kin~--wood products
~ 9
~actory, sawmill, or dairy factory. There were severa~xamples
of the development of the country village in the County of
Missisquoi. The developme~t of these two population centers,

the country crossroac:ts settlement \fud th'e country village, ,were
in~luenced not only by the economic' development
C 4 ,
of a particular •
area but, 'as mentioned above, by the necessity for friend$hip
and dependence on, one another. '


The 'French-Can~dian tas also to have an influence on the
'r" ,

\interêommunity·pattern~~ soci~l developrnent of the CQunty of
... ' t et ' 1

. ,Missisquoi. By the middle of 'he nineteenth century the Fren~h-
"canadian, a's mentio,ned previou 'ly, 'began to settle in t,he cou~ty '.
Jt., -"','1 (

,e. t
'1 __- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 1 ~
Jean Hunter, The Fre Invasion of the Eastern Q

CI ,. .-
" " " ,u , -

of Missisquoi in increasing numbers. The French social system
op~rated on the idea of producing large families with all the
b • 10
chfldren remaining together in the sama com~unity. This resul-
ted in French communities developing in certa~n parts of the County
after the l850's.
Ithe infiltration of the French-Canadian int~ the County of
• •
Misâisquoi resulted in the~r taking'every means possible to guard
, ·t
their la~guage and culture in order not to be assimilated by the
English majority.
It was mainly for this reason ~hat the French
remaine~ ln their'~wn i~olated commun~ties unti~ after the 1860's.
Îh some
. lnstances the
.. Fr~ch inter-married with the English ~nd

, ;anglicized their narnes. In most cases, however, as the Frènch
began settling in the English villages they usually remained in'a
, .
group in one part of the village. This 1s still noticeable in
certai.n areas in the County today such as
in the Town of Bedford
~ \).

the French majority still live on the east side Pike River wherèas
the majority of the English people live on the west side qf the "
River. As we know, the French were successful in protecting their
~ language and çulture in. the townships. As mentionéd p~evièusly,
~ by ~~e l860·~lt~e Enqlis~ speaking families in the County ~f

~issisquol were beooming'. smallero .in si ze as they began moving to

ot~erolocationB. This t~~uum was now takep up by the French,
Gradually, therefore, the former Engli~h speaking communi t,les
, o
were taken over by the French. This procèss was to continue

IOHorace Miner',· St. D51i8, A Frengh-CanAdlan PIE1.H, p •. 86.
't ~ _ "

1 0


.1' \
177 f ""

throughout the township';' after the 1860' s unti1 today we find
the Eastern • TownShipsfi)predominant1y made up of French Canadians.
, ~,

. '\
i '
The major i ty of the ear~y" sett1ers were" very re'ligious.
Accordihq to Catherine ,Day, there was a qeneral bellef by Imos t
of the ear1y settlers that "there w~s a qreat and watchfu1 Father,
" 11
whose eye was over His-creatures". Many of the ear1y pioneers
that came to tÀe Eastern Townships thouqht that it was "" Providence

that Iwa~ guiding thetn.
The -early sett1ers in the 1790' s and\ early 1800' s were
l '- inspired in their re1igious worship by the numerous "trave11i'n
1 ("

pr.eachers" that came into the CQunty of Mis~ia.quoi durinq
periode As early as 1793 thé first Baptist and Met90dist
or missionaries carne to the County trom diffetent parts of the

United States. These pioneer preachers.trave11~~ through the
forests Of the County on foot and by horseback. Since there

~ere no churches in the County unti1 about 1819 the~ he~d t~eir

'services wherever and whenever they cou1d; in barns, open fields,
- 0 •
private hdmes and any othe-Z; 1ocati,on where they ':OU1d bring t~e
sett1'&rs together.
'il a) Baptist
' ..... t" •

• ' . -'II

, As e~r1y a~ the ~ummer of 1793 two BaptiB~ missionaries,
~" , a'
John Hebbard and Ariel Hendrick, from ·the State of 'Vermont


C,atherine Day, Pion.ers ?f th~ Eastern ;t'elinahips, p •. ~.J5~.

------ -~-------
.. - --"- • _ _ -F 1

1 d


viaited Caldwell's Manor. After'conducting religious services
J 0

for a short time thesé missioparies returned to the Ùnited

States without organizing a ~hurch. In January, 1794 the ear-1y

settl~rs at Caldwell's Manor'~ent out a request fo~ a minister to
\ . . 12
visit them and administe~he Qrdinance of baptisme This re-

quest was answered by the Reverend E1isha Andrews who was working
as a Bapt~st
C)na~ional 'Boundary.
evangelist in the State of Vermont near the Inter-
After spending a full week in visitaticn,
preaching, inst,ructiJlg and baptizing! Rev. Mr. Andrews returned .
1 -
to cald;1e~l's Manor, and ~e9an making arrange~nts for the
organfzation of "The Baptist Church of Christ in Caldwell's

In ,1796, ~i11iam Marsh, Jr., who was a member of the

Baptist congregati~n at Caldwell's Manor was ordained. Soon after
Wi~liam Marsh's ordination, however, th~ Baptist congregation in

Caldwell~$~Manor ~oved in a ~ody to Eat~n Township in the County
Cl . ~ .' ~ ,

.~ of Compton, where ~ey later forme~'a churc~ in the village of
.' ,
) Sa~erville. In 1810 William Marsh mo~ed to the township of
---~~ - Staftbridge and-began preaching àgain in the County ,~fcMisSisqUot
until 182,5 whc:n Qe went to Whi tpy in U~per Canada.
One of ,the first ministers to take up permaRsnt .sett1ement

- in the éounty of Missisquoi was the Rev. Jèdediah Hibbard, who

. . 12Stuart lvison and Fred Rosser, The Baptists in
upper -and Lower Canada, p •. 156. ,\

13 Ibid., p. 158.
14 .

E. R. Fi tch, _Th
......... B_ap
e .....
.......t ...i ...
s ....
t ...
f_C ....a_ni06!1OAQ..a-.· , p.' 103.·


. i
(1 9
1 -.
/' ,/



l '9 ,

e settleç in the parish of St. Armand East at ,Abbo'tt'a Corner in
1797. By late 1799 Rev. Mr. Hibbard had organized a Baptist
, ?i',
Chapel at Abbott's Corner and continued ~o serve as its minister
until h~s death in 1809.i~ ~edediah Hibb~rd's immediate successor
" ,
wa~ the Rev. William Galusha who after 1820 was succeeded by the
Rev. Mr. Homer Smith who. had settled when very young on a farm in

the parish of St. Armand East. As more settlers came and the
Baptist Congregation grew, i t became neaes'sary in 1841 to bui1d
- .
a larger church atAbbott's Corner. The Reverend A. L." Arms,
. Baptist Minister also School Commissioner and Raad Inspector, was
instrumental in estab11shing this new house of worship. A parson-

., a~e was also built alongside the church in 1841 •
'Baptist $ervice"s were also he1d in the township of
Stanbridge in pri~ate homes and later a'schoolhouse until 1842,
Awhen a Baptist Chapel was çpnstfucted at Stanbridqe Ridge which
. la about' two miles fromlBedf~rd and the same,distance from
. . r' , -t

Stanbridge East. This chapel ~s still in use today. The first
bo~rd of Trustees for
, this chapel in 1842 conslsted of~ ~omas
Lyn:tan John,sOn, Hiram Corey, Asa Martindale, Nat~an

M~nly Blinn. The land for the chapel was bouqht for-the sum-of

three pdunds fifteen shillings from Benjamin Casey. Aftetbthe
Iconstruction o.f the Chapel, Hiram Carey, who was orl.,ei 1r of' the trustee8,
~ \ 'J
went to~ Montreal to try and encourage a 'minister to l'come 'to tJ'leir,
, ___ ,tj
new 'Chapel. Corey was successful in meeting the Rev. Fran'cis N.

, c



.e \
" , .
J .... o



1842 ,-

fami1y'o children. Rev. Jers~y' was a,Methodist, but on .
f ~ .

• .1 J • r ,
taking over the Ridq'e Chapel h.e wa.s orclain~ and inducted int.o
the Bapti'st Church., ,He prea~h~d at 't~e C.... ~pel f~r fo'urteen years. j.
\ ':, ). ~ " /
l'"~ -, ~

b) Methodist ' " • "1. 1.
f ...

, 'J" '. "'~.
~", ;"
The r first Meth~dist missi,onary to ViS!'~ the.. Co un y of.
. '- . .r,

Mi •• 1.q~oi was tne R~~. Lorenzo' DOw
- tJ

who camé from the Uni ed


oin 1799. only'p~aC~ed' in'~he C~unty of Missiaquoi
He not o ' ,

' : in otller tb~~!P. bet-;n. p~'i\1:1Iur\J ',."d Lake Ilèllphr..~\JC?9 •
. \t \
9 l, 'f
~ ,
_<pO, ,
t \ ;;
, ..
1· ....., - ....
ri1 ./
, .
, .l
.'4' • .

' .. 1.
. '''
-, '
' Il'

Rev. Mr. Dow r,eferr'ed ta hlS travelllng from Phllipsburg ta

Lake Memphremagog saylng:

"1 tound the paths and by-ways so sloughly and mlry
they were nearly Impassable~ however, l man~ged to
get the Inhabltants togpther sa that l could preach
to them. For over a stretch of thirty mlles'there
wa& no preaching untll l came, but the Lord made
bare His 1 a rm , and on each tr Ip l founçl the prospec ts '-...,.,'
better." ()

Lorenzo Dow was a weIl known ItInerant preacher who devoted hlS

whole life ta the preachlng of the gospel .
The first Methodist church ln the Eastern Townshlps was

bUllt at Phllipsburg ln 1819. ThlS church stll1 stands and has

been ln use for over one hundred and flfty years. Prior ta the

constt'uctlon of this church ln 1819 the Methodlst "meetlngs" had

been held ln prlvate homes. One of the first Methodlst meetings

ln the parlshes of St. Armand West and St. Armand East was a
quarterly meetlng held ,at Philipsburg ln September, 1806 wlth

Reuben HarrIS as the preacher. 17

It was durlng the mlnlstry of the Rev. Richard Wll1iams .
that the Methodist Church was bUllt at Phl1ipsburg. The securing

of materlals for the bUlldlng of çhurches as weIl as schools was

a major undertaklng ln the days of the early pioneers. , The main

source of revenue and mater lai was supplled by different lndlvi-

duals in the community subscribing money, materiais and labour.

Another means of revenue ln the construction and maintenance of

16 Ibid ., p. 12.
C. Thomas, p. 19.

the early churches was ln the rentaI of pews. The locatIon

and the ,length of tlme to WhlCh a famlly could use a particular

pew ln the church df'pended on the'amount of money they sub-

scrlbed. The deed of land for the constructlon of the Methodist

Church at Phlllpsburg was passed ln October, 1819 by RIchard
1 Ruiter and James Taylor. The Deed was made to a Trustee Board

conslstlng of the Rev. R. WIllIams and Messrs. Garrett Slxby,
A.V.V. Hogle, Charles MIller, James Blalr, James Abbott, Jacob

Taylor, Artemas Turner and Alllson Kllborn. It specIfIes that

the Methodists are to have 'and ellJoy .

In ord~r that they may thereln preach,and expound
God's Holy Word, and per~orm all other acts, of
rellglO\!Ù3 ~orsh~p, provi'ded that the persons so ~
appointed preach no othe~ doctrInes than those
contalned ln the John Wesley notes upon the New
Testament and hlS four volumes of sermons by hlm
published, provlded also that the same preacher
shall not bf' sent to the sald chapel for more than
'two years successlvely, wlthout the consÏgt of the
trustees for the time being, ln wrltlng.

Durlng the years 1818 ta 1829 there were elght dlfferent

nVlnlsters who were asslgned to the Methodlst Church at

Phillpsburg. Accordlng 'to the Rev. Thomas W. Tyson the Church mem-

b~rshlp Increased from 24 ln 1818 ta 366 ln 1828. 19
There were also two other areas ln the parlshes of St.

Armand that developed Methodlst socie~ies ln the early 1800's.

Accordlng ta Cyrus Thomas the Rev. Thomas Best, a Methodlst

preacher from Hlghgate, Vermont, formed a socIety at PIgeon Hill

about 1804. The ear1y Methodlst meetIngs ln thlS locale wer~

18· ~
Phillpsburg UnIted Church, prepared by t~e Rev.
Thomas W. Tyson on the ocbaslon of the 125th Annlversary
CelebratIon, October, 194'4.
19 Ibid ., p. 2.

he1d in the school-house at Pigeon HIll until 1825 when a

Methodl$t church was erected. A Methodist society was also

formed at Abbott's Corner in the parish of St. Armand East as

ear1y as 1806. A Chapel, however, was not to be built by this
SocIety unti1 1841.

F~om 1818 to 1829 the Methodist congregatIon from the

parishes of St. Armand was part of what was known as the St. Armand

CIrcuit WhlCh included the Parishes of St. Armand West and St.

1 Armand East and the tOW~hIPS of Stanbridge, Dunh~m and Sutton.

In 1829 the Ca1dwe11's Manor CIrcuit was joinect with the St. Armand

CIrcuIt until 1839 when only a portlon of the latter became con-

nectpd wlth the Dunham CircuIt.

In 1839 the parish of St. Armand West was found to ~e

strong enough to stand as a CIrcuIt on its own and continued so

tIll 1891. After 1839 the remaining part of the St. Armand CIrcuit

became known as the Dunham CircuIt which was now to Include the

townships of Dunham, Stanbrldge, Sutton and West Farnham and the
parlsh of St. Armand East and Caldwell Manor. The Rev. John B. ~
Brownell was the first minister of this newly-formed cIrcuit of

Dunham in 1839. Cyrus Thomas refers to Rev. Browne1l as being a

popular and powerful preacher.


The!e wete a number.of Methodist worshippers in the town-

ship of Dunham. In fact, by 1850 there were 338 members of the

Cyrus Thomas, p. 98.

21 Ibid ., p. 134.



Built in 1846

Method ~'st Dunham
I~ Cl'rcul't. 22 AS ear 1 y as 1819 a Me th 0 d'lS t ,c h ape 1

was constructed in the village of Dunham. It was not, howeve~,

unti1 May, 1846, that a deed of land was issued for the corts truc- ~.

tion of ,the Dunham Methodist Church.
Seneèa Paige sold t~is'.land

for the sum of $150.00. The Trustees were Rev. Matthew Lang,

Methodist minister; William Gates, Lumas Meigs, Joseph Gollard,
~ ,
Alexander Fuller, Edward Baker, farmers; and Chauncey Clements,

22 Ruby Moore, Historical Sketches of the Churches iQ t
the Cowansville-DUpham Pastoral ëharge, p. 16.



John Watson, Edward Finley, O~rln D~nning, mechanics, aIl of
the township of Dunham. This church still stands in the

Vl1lage of Dunham.

The vl11age of Cowansville (Nelsonvil1~) also attracted

a number of Methodlst worshlppers in the early 1800's. By 1812

the Methodists travelllng preachers were gathering the settlers.

together ln a small school-house, WhlCh had been bUllt by Jacob

Ruiter, ln Cowansville. Relig10us meet1ngs contlnued to be held

ln thlS school-house untll 1840 when the Court House at Cowansvll1e

was constructed and became the place of worshlp until the erection

of the Flrst Methodist Cowansvllle ln 1865. In 1843

James RUlter gave land c nstruction of a Methodlst Church

but for not build on the lot.

In 1852 James RUlter sold the Congregational

Church WhlCh was to waste little tlme in constructing an

ediflce •

• ~n 1863 Gilbert Wells deeded land for the construction of

the First Methodist Church in cowansvilré\ The Trustees of this

church were the Rev. John Armstrong, cyruJ C. Shufelt, yeoman;
John Edward Farr, Wll11am Dent, mechanics, of the township of
Dunham; Philip Van de Waters, shoemaker, of the township of West

Farnham; James N. Humphrey and Elim Humphrey. The First Methodist

Church, .Cowansvllle, was dedlcated in July, 1865 and still stands

as a tenement house on Main Street. Cowansville was not to have a

23 J
I~., p. 86.


resident Methodist minister until 1874. Prlor to 1874 the

mInis ter for the ~nham CircuIt resided ln the vIllage of Dunham.

Another a~ea in the townshIp of Dunham'whlch was to attract

a number of Methodist worshlppers was in East Dunham. In 1843 the

Rev. H. N. Klm~all, whose father, James Klmball, had come to East

Dunham from B~rksh~re, Vermont in 1825, encouraged the buildIng of

a Methodlst chapel. B~ 1857 the Methodlst S6clety at East Dunham

had achleved enough success to erect a church •.

It has been impossible to find very much InformatIon on

the development of the Methodlst church ln the townshIp of
Stanbrldge. However, acco\dlng to an artIcle ln the MlssisquOl'

County Hlstorlcal Society, volume nlne, (1967), Methodlst serVIces

b e ng held ln Bedford, Stanbrldge S1ation and Pike RIver ln
'24 _/
18 8, 1 prlvate homes. In 1858 a MethodJ..,$t Church was bUllt at

Plke er on land glven by the Blakely Famlly. This church was

c 1 ose d ln 1912 an d lS now a reSl"d ence ln t h e VI'Il age. 25 A
, Methodlst Church was also buil t ln the vIllage of Stanbrldge ln

1861 but It was not untll 1871 that a slmllar church was erected
ln the Town of Bedford.\

24 Edi th C. Wood, \ "Wesley Uni ted Church, Bedford", ~
Here and There in Missis~UOl, Vol. 9, 1967, p. 77. '-'
. \ -..
25"Pike River", T~en and Now in MlssisqU01, Vol. 10,
1967, p. 105. \
\ .

IIHig~1i9hts of History in Stanbridge East,
26 DOr l. S Hill, "
The Founding of the TownSh~\>--May lst, 1801", Misslsquoi County
Historical Society, Seventh'Annual Raport (1961), ~. 97.




c) Church of England



The flrst AnglIcan B1Shop of Quebec. was Dr. J~cob

Mountain who was consecrated in 1793. In October, 1799, Bishop

Mountain wrote to Governor Mllnes statlng that the people of St.

Armand and n01ghbourlng townshIps had expressed thelr desire to

have a minister of the Church of England. Dr. Mountaln went on

ta say that som0 of the people ln the County of Missisquoi had

already made large subscriptions to the development of a church
and the supportlng of a minister. Thomas Dunn had offered 200

acres of land for a glebe for the clergymen and Messrs. John

RUlter and Conroy. Th1s land was sufflclent for the constructlon

of two churches at convenient dIstances for the early s~ttlers.

It was proposed ta bUlld one church at MlsSISqUOI Bay (Phll1psburg),
and the other about four leagues back from M1SSIsqUOl Bay. The

"lowe,r church" was to be convenlent ly 51 tuated for the people of

Caldwell' and ChrIstie Manors and for the "back settlers" of St.
Armand. The "upper church" was to be convenlen t for the ".lnhab.l-

of Sutton and BOr
tants of the townshIp of Dunham' and wlthln reach of the townsh.lps

BIShop Mountai,n, ln his letter to Governor

Milnes, also proposed the approprIatIon of a salary of a hundred

pounds a year tor each of the ministers of thése two churches.

Ac'Cordlng to B.lshop Mountain, between 1200 to 1500 people existed
in the areas that these two churches would serve. He referred to
mos~ of these people as being Protestants and mostly of the



Church of England. BIShop Mountain pointed out in his 1etter to

Governor Mi1nes, that wlth the deve10pment of the Church of
. •
England ln these early settlements ln t-he County of Mlssisquoi,

"the foundatlon would bè laId for the l~gitlmate IntroductIon of

the Gosp~l and the establishment of the worship of the Church of

England ln aIl the townshIps recently ~ Ol,t on and nèar the

ProvIncp lIn€' . . . . ,,27 He went on to say that It was ImperatIve

that the Church of England be estabilshed ln the tOwnshIpS in order

that the' sC'ttl('rs 1 children b(' glVf'n "the benéfit of the Sacraments"

and rellgious InstructIon rathe'r than rf'celving les sons from "lgno-

rant enthuslasts or d(,slgning hypocrItes whose doctrIne have little

tpndency to form them ta th€' observance of the dutles el ther of
good men or good sub]ecls."

In D€'c~mber, 17q9 BIShop
, Mountaln received an acknow-

ledgement of hlS letter saylQg that the government of Lower Canada

had agreed to an allowanceTof 100 pounds sterlIng per annum to the

reccntly appolnted Reverend Robert QUlrk Short, as minister of the

Church of England at MlsSISqUOl Bay. This was the first effort to
~stablish the Church of England in the Eastern TownshIps. Unfor-

tunately, the land WhlCh was offered by Thomas Dunn and Messrs.

RUl ter and Conroy was not taken advantage of as the Church of 1

England conducted aIl thelr serVIces in prl~ate homes and school- \

houses until 1808, when a church was erected in Frellghsburg. ~,

Rev. Mr. Short dld not remain very long at Missisquoi Bay

(Phlllpsburg) as he handed hlS parlsh over in January, 1801 to

George Montgomery, Missisquoi Bay, p. 80.
28 Ibid ., p. 81.

Reverend James M. Tunstall. In 1804 the Rev. Charles Caleb
, -
Cotton came to Philipsburg where he remained unt1l l80S whenohe

moved to the townsh1p of Dunham and became Rector for nearly
fort y ytars. Rev. Mr. Cotton was succeeded as Rector of the

parlshes of St. Armand by the Reverend Charles J. Stewart.

R:ev. Mr. Stewart has been called "The Apostle of the

Eastern TownshIps". He was later to become BIShop of Quebec Wl th
a 'See' coverlng the whole of Lower and Upper C&nada. Charles

J. Stewart was the flfth sop of the Earl of Galloway and was

educated at Oxford after WhlCh he had charge of a parish ln

England. In 1807 he offered hlS serVIces to the "Society for the
PropagatIon of the Gospel", and was appointed to the mISSIon of

St. Armand ~ Canada. He arrived at Philipsburg ln November, 1807,

and a few months later went
\ ~o Frellghsburg. We learn of Rev.

Charlei James Stewart's opinion of the County of Missisquol and of

1tS InhabItants in a letter he wrote to hlS mother, the Countess
/ of Ga11oway, ln May, 1808:

Of the Country, however, l shall say that it scarcely
furnishes the necessaties of llfe, and that anything
out of it is not easIly got, communicatl0n in it and
aIl around it belng very difficult. The people are
worse in appearance, or rather manner, than in reality
~ pr1nciple. They are very rude, but less profligate
than in our country. They have aIl sorts of motions and
sects in religion, rather than being less religious or
more unchristian than ~ur people. Far from It; l find
sincere Christians of àll denominatl0ns: and no wonder
, they are divided, where they have no teachers except
"l': Methodists and Baptists, and they very ignorant. Many
are willing to be instructed by me, and more have been
out of the way of, and inattentive to, true religion
th an averse ta it. 3l

Cyrus Thoma!', p • 21.
George Montgomery, p. 83.
Cyrus Thomë\s, p. 8°1
\ 1


e There was no church ~in the parishes of St'. Armand when

• Rev. Stewart arrived so he conducted hlS services in a room in a

tavern inn and later ln a school house ln the village of Frelighsburg

untll 1809 when a church was buift. He had a great influence on

the inhabltants of the parish Of St. Armand. In January," 1809

Rev. Mr. Stewart was successful ln havlng the first Church of

England erected in the Eastern Townships at the vl11age of

Frelighsburg--when the first service was held in thls church

there was a congregatl0n of a thousand
people. 32

Rev. Mr. Stewart did not conf~ne his servlces to the
people of St. Armand but made missionary excurSIons lnto the
nelghbourlng townships where there were neither church nor
" ,

clergymen, and where, b~t f~r hlS occasl0nal visi'ts, these sett-

lers would have had no opportunity for participating in any of

the ordlnances of religion. On these océasions he used to perform

DIvine services, preach, celebrate marriages and ~dminlster the


In 1811, Reverend Mr. Stewart opened a new church ln the

parish of St. Armand West about a mIle south-east of the village

of Philipsburg at Solomon's Corner. This church was ca11ed, in

the honor of the Apost1e of the Gentiles, St. Pauls. According
to Cyrus Thomas, two-fifths of the cost of these two churches in
the parlshes of St. Armand were borne by Mr. Stewart.

In the autumn of 1815, Rev. Mr. Stewart wènt t,ojngland

1eaving his mISSIon in the "temporary charge" of the Rev. James Reid,

32George Montgomery, p'. 84.
Cyrus Thomas, p. 81.

\ )


who had been engaged for three years as a school-teacher at

Philipsburg. Rev. Hr. Stewart returned to Canada in November,

1&17 and was appolnted as Rector of the TownshIP of Hatley. On

the death of BIShop 'Hount~n Ih 1825, Rev. Mr. Stewart was conse-

crated BIShop of Quebec. Mr. Stewart remained ln thIS posItIon

unti1 hlS death ln July, 1817.

Reverend James Reid remalned ln charge of th~ mIssIon ln

the parlsh~s of St. Armand untll 1826. In 1834, he ~as assigned
the rectorshlp' of the parlsh of St. Armand East untll hlS death ln

1865 wlth the Rev. RIchard Whltwe11 being appolnted to the Parlsh
of St. Armand West. Reverend Mr. Whltwel1 served as Rector at

Phll1psburg untll 1856 when he was succeeded by Reverend Mr. C. A.

Wetheral1. Accordlng to George Montgomery, Reverend Mr. Whitweli

was the flrs~ to perform DIVIne SerVice at Bedford and cohtlnued

to do so for about seven years.
During Mr. Whitwell's Rectorshlp at Solomon's
Corner was partlally blown down ln April, 1843. Reverend Mr.

. ..
Whltwel1 took advantage of thlS accIdent by urglng the removal of

the church to a more central locatIon ln the vIllage of Phillpsburg.
\ Mr. Whitwell worked extremely hard raislng ~he necessary funds for

the construction of the new church at Phlllpsburg which was

opened ln 1846.

Because of III health Reverend Mr. Whitwell was forced to

retIre ln 1856 and was succeeded, as mentioned, by the Reverend

c. A. Wetherall who contlnued in the parish for a short tlme until

• 34 Ib1· d ., p. 23 - 24 •
'~ ,..
.. -f#I


e '1>

0' ~

1; ,,'"

,' ~,

.1 -,
Ereched in 1859 at the ...
Village of Pigeon Hill "

his resignation in October, 1858. Reverena Mr. Hugh Montgomery
now became Rector and ·was to remain in th~s office unti1 1814. ~

It was during Reverend Montgomery's rectorship that St. James
,Church ~t Pigeon Hill ~as erected in 1859.
-, "\ .
The ear1y\history of the Church of England in the township
, '
ofJ~unham i8 supplied by the Reverend Canon Micajah Towpsend who ('
spent his boyhQod and youth in this neighb?urhood. Mr~ Townsend
~ ~,

refers to a Reverenq Mr. Nichols, a Church. of England clergyman,

llunhl\nI, At't'Clldlny 10 MI. 'l'nwnHtlnd,' H«w. NII'tlOlM ('ondU('tfHt hi"
H'lIvln' III Il,,. b.trl! 01 H Mt. (lr',H who IIv,'1i III Uw vii 1 (\(J't of
• 1fI
l>unhnn\ •

tht' Chllll'!l 01 '·:llql.H\d who W.U! 011 Il'1.t11y (\ppo!nl"d ln th" pnl4tor,tI

1'11'''11'' 01 thlll IOWIIHIlII' III 1110/1.

1 1 (lll\ Ox 1 1 Il cl 1 Il 1 1Il "

r' "/
III tH04. lit· W.I~I () 1 cLt1lH,d 1 () 1 lin JlI 1 f'!. t hooci 1 fi t IHl t

Y".II ,11\c1 WIHI .'11 ,,1 1(ln''I) .,t MI Htf1 ,'1</1101 ""y W1Wllt Ilr' n'm.lIIH,\1 lInt Il

IIIOtl. Ih 11111 Ilult ~Hqvl('r'tI WPIf' ctmduC't'1d in th .. homl' of Andl'''w

mOlli Iy 1111 IpOI, l'of)(ht<'1 Itlq !~,rrvi(,f'N flll IlOI nnly Chu,ch 01 ~:nql"nd

fil t 1OWI' 1 !l, 1.111 1 JH'oJlII' Il f, 0 t IH't d(-\lIom 111.\1 1()nH ,lM W(.l 1 • 'l'llt· P r o(J n· ... TI

" 01 tlH' Chlll'ch.ol ~:nqli\lld ln IIH' lowrwhip 01 D'lnh{,m, howrv.'r, W.tll

~I\()W ,W It WoHl not IIntll IB/I .l ('hllrrh WiH4 flrf'(~t"d ln tht·

v \ \ \ .It) P () t

CyruA Thom~A, p,' 1 lb.
Mary Cotton WiAdom, "Char 1('9 Caleb Cot ton", Then an,d
MiRais uoi, Volum~ 10, (1967), p. Al.
C. ThomAs, p. 140.

The size of the congregatlon of the Church of England in
th~ township of Dunham between 1821 and 1844 was ex~eme1y sma11.

This was mainly because throughout thlS period the people were

demorallzed by the various forms of religious fanaticism t~at were

being expressed. These ideas tended to draw the people awaY'from

the Church of England.

In May, 1844 Reverend Caleb Cotton was glven an assistant

in the person of Mr. Henry Evans. Reverend Evans was very successful

ln reviving some lnterest ln the Church of England in the township
of Dunham. Unfortunately, Mr. Evans was not to Ilve any longer

than one year after receiving his ordination to preach in the town-

Shlp of Dunham. A short tlme aft~r the passing of Mr. Evans, the
Bishop of Quebec, in February, 1846, appointed the Rev. J. Scott,

wh6 was the Incumbent of Brom~, to render as much assistance as he

could to the aglng Rev. Mr. Cotton. Rev. Mr. Sco'tt continued to
help untll the death of Rev. Mr. Cotton ln October, 1848 after ~

38 '
WhlCh tlme he became Mr. Cotton's successor.

One of the flrst tasks undertaken by Reverend Mr. Scott

when he came to the townshlp of Dunham was the erectlon of a ·new

stone church ln the vlllage of Dunham. The wooden church which

had been ereeted ln 1821 had become unsafe and delapidated by 1846

due to the lack of interest in the Church of England by the 1n-
,~,v~~ants in the townshlp of Dunham. The new church with a glebe

parsonage house was finally completed in June, 1851 at the
\. 'li

cost of nearly seven thousand dollars. Th~s money had been contri-

buted by the "'inhabi tants since March, 1846. Although not being
38 Ibid ., p. 143.

: 196;

tota11y comp1eted unti1 1851, as mentioned, the new church was

opened for "Divine Service" in September, 1849.

, Reverend Joseph Scott continued as the rector of Dunham

until his death in August, 1865. He was succeeded by the Reverend

JohnPGoddon, who former1y had charge of the Church of Eng1and
missi.on in the townships of Potton and Bol ton. ~


There is very litt1e record of the ~arly development of

the Church of England ln thé township of Stanbridge. What infor-
matlon we get is from the Reverend James Jones' diary..Reverend

James Jones was the first rector of Bedford. He left England in

March, 1841 to offer his services to the Society for the

Propagation of the Gospel in British North,America. Ac;6~ding to
Reverend Mr. Jones' dlary his flrst Sunday in Bedford was January

23rd, 1842. He writes, "the attendance tolerab1y good ~onsidering

that there had ~een so long a suspension of rellgious worship."

Prior to 1842, the Reverend Richard Whitwell had conducted Divine

worship in the village of Bedford during the early 1830's when

rector of the Parish of St. Armand West. Reverend Mr. Jones not

only preached in Bedford, but also conducted services in the

Town of Stanbridge. At a service in Stanbridge ln January,
1842, the Reverend James Jones recorded that there were about

120 people in attendance. From Mr. Jones' diary we also 1earn

that he commenced organizing a Sunday Schoo1 at Bedford in

-e February, 1842. In July, 1842 the Reverend James Jones was

given the authorlty to emp10y hlS son WIlliam as lay assistant.

Reverpnd James Jones in the fall of 1842 set out on a

flve wppk tour IObegglng" for a parsonage house in the vIllage of

Bedford. He was to evpntua11y be successful in having a Parsonage

House constructE:'d ln thf' summer of 1843.

Reverend Mr. Jones' dlary gives us a good indication as to

the missionary wcrk that the Church of England was do~ng, for in

February, 1843 he wrltes, there were 81 candIdates for confirmation

at Bedford, 13 at UppE:'r Mills, 32 at Frelighsburg, 20 at Dunham

Flats and 27 at Frost Village.

In March, 1843 the Reverend Mr. T. Johnson of Abbottsford,

who had held services ln Farnham, engaged the aSSIstance of Mr. Jones

and hlS son WIllIam to help the people ln the TownshIp of West
Farnham build a church. The Reverend Mr. James Jones, as weIl as'

asslstlng the people ln the TownshIp of West Farnham, ~ontinued to

preach ln the Village of Bedford and vlcinity until 1863 when he

retired. Mr. James Jones was to enjoy h!s retIrement untii 1879

when he died ~t the age of 92 in the Town of Granby.


The flrst Church of England ln the TownshIp of West

Farnham was bUllt in 1847 ln the Town of Farnham. Reverend Mr.
1 WillIam Jones, Reverend James Jones' son, was the first pastor of

this church WhlCh was named St. James. Previously ta 1847, the

Reverend Mr. T. Johnson of Abbottsford, as mentione~, had held

occaslonal serVIces in the Cook Hotel in the Town of Farnham.

The Reverend Mr. Caleb Cotton of Ounharn, also conducted sorne

services in the Township of West Farnharn prio~ ta 1847.

In Ju1y, 1845 BIShop G~orge J. Mountain appolnted the

RevE"'rpnd Jam~s Jones, to rnake a trIp to England "for th~ purposc

of obtalnlng the rneans of creatlng a perpetuaI endowment [or

Farnharn and if possiblE"' ln whole or in part for Bedford." Mr.

Jones collected 1400 pounds, 600 which was granted towards the

erectlon of St. James ~arnharn. Another 600 pounds was

grantPd to thE"' AnglIcan missiondry work ln vlcinlty of the Town

of Pike River wlth the remalning 200 pounds gôing to thE"' purchase
19 '/ -
of a glebe dt Bedford.

AlI of the rnoney approprlatcd to West Farnham was not

us~d ln bUIlding the church. Reverend Mr. Johnson ln 1845, en-

couragE"'d the peoplE"' ln the TownshIp of West Farnharn ta do as

much as they could ln supplylng matE"'rlals and tlme Irt the cons truc-

tlon of thE"'lr church wlth the, r~sult being he was able to save more

than two thousand dollars as an endowment. The land on WhlCh the

church was built was glven as a glf~ by Colonel James AIlsopp .
Prlor to thls the land was occuplcd;by Orange Spoor wlthout lagal
~ 1

ciaim. The church on receiving th~s land paid Mr. Spoor the sum

of twenty-flve' pounds for his improvements and bUIldIngs. These
buildIngs were used as-a parsonag~ until December, 1892. 40 In

Scptember, 1848 the Reverend Mr. WIlliams Jones, after sorne brief

correspondence with the BrItish American Land Company, was

"Extract from the Journal of the Reverend James Jones,
First Rector of Bedford", Missisguoi County Historlcal Society,
Eighth Annual Report, (1965), p. 66. "
40Gerald P. Haw)ce, '''From Canon Mussen's Diary", Missi~guoi
County Historical Society, Eighth Annual Report, (1965), p. Il.

sucçessful in obtain1ng another 50 acres of land for his church.

ln June, 1849 the church was finally consecrated by Bishop George

Jrhoshaphat Mountaln.

The Rrverend Mr. WIllIams Jones prûsided over the church

ln Farnham untll 1857 whrn he was succeeded by the Reverend Mr.

ArchIbald Campbell Scarth who remained at St. James Church untll

185<). RrSldes conducting services in West Farnham, Reverend Mr.
Scarth also preached ln the Township of East Farnharn at Adarnsvillp,

South-West R1ver and ln a school-house somewhere near Brigharn's
Corner. Rrvrrrnd Mr. Scarth in wrItlng to Reverend Canon Mussen

ln January 11 th, 1894 teferr-cd ,t.O the in the parishes of

Wrsl and East Farnham as being)easlly offended and requlred a

gr~'a t dPrt lof ,1 t tention to / n'ring the~ to church. He wen t on to

say that by taklng an lnterest 1n the inhabitants' chlldren,

lhrlr farms and thelr affalrs generally, their good will was
rasll y won.

Mr. Scarth was succeeded in December, 1859 by the Reverend

Mr. Thomas W. Mussen who wa-s to rernain rector of St. James Anglican

Church ln Farnharn until 1901. In Reverend Mr. Mussen's diary we

learn that in April, 1860 at one of the Vestry meetIngs, the ques-

tion of maklng the seats 1n church free was discussed. PrIor to

th1s each seat had becn rented for flve shillings per annum. After

AprIl, 1860 lt was " understood that the S~nday collections were to
... be increased by the parishloners in order to meet aIl costs of

church services. Reverend Mr. Mussen goes on to say that the

IbId., p. 14. 42 Ibid ., p. 16.


the change worked well as the collectlons doubled. Under the

able directIon of Reverend Mussen the Church of England ln the

Township of West Farnham contlnued to make great progressa



Many of the ~arly settlers ln th~ Parl~hcs of St. George

and St. Thomas favoured the Presbyterlan [orm of worshlp up untl1

1815. AB carly as 1810 plans were made for the constructlon of a

Presbyterlan G~urch ln ~he Parlsh of St. Thomas de Foucault two
mlles south of the preseht Anglican church 1n thlS reglon. The

plans for th1S church were suspended by the wat of 1812-14. The

early worshippers ln thlS area, after falllng to sccure a Presbyterian

mlnister, accepted the appolntment of an AnglIcan mlnistcr ln the
persan of the Reverend MlcaJa~ Town~end ln June, 1815.

He was appolntcd to take charge of the Church of England's

work ln the two parishes. Reverend Mr. Townsend conducted hlS

serVIces ln local school houses until 1817 when a church was com-

pleted ln the Parlsh of St. Thomas de Foucault. ConstructIon was

begun on St. George's AnglIcan church ln what lS today the Town of
Clarencevll1e ln 1818, and was completed ln 1820. The money

for the construct1o~of thlS church was raised by subscriptions in

different parts of the provlnce, and a donation from the Society
for the aid of EpIscopal Mlssions. As mentioned in a previous

43 G. P. Hawke, "Canon Mussen's Diary--Farnham", Then and
Now in MisSlSqUOI, Vol ume 10, (1967), p. 69.
44Everett Hauver, "Centennial of Anglican Church ln
C1arencevi11e and Noyan, 1915", Ml.ssisquoi County Historical
Society, Eighth Annua1 Report, (1965), p. 48. Q

45 H. Belden, "Historlcal Sketch of the Eastern Townships
and South-West Ontario". Atlas.


Erected in 1820, restoreq in 1897

chapter, the two par1shes of St. George and St. Thomas 'were

established in 1822 by Royal Letters Patent.

In February, 1829, Reverend Townsend was inducted to the

Rectory of St. George and in July, 1843 to that of St. Thomas.

During Mr. Townsend's later life he was assisted by Reverend

Thomas Goddin and Reverend C. Lancaster. Canon Townse~d had a

great influence on the lives of his parish10ners. The establish-

ment of Clarenceville Academy l'~~ ~-attrlbuted largely tç> the
l ,
generous and wise spirit of Reverend Townsend. The Church of

England made great progress ln the Parlshes of St. George and

St. Thomas under the dIrection of the Reverend Mr. Townse~d.

The Congregationals were not very weIl recelved at first

in the ProvInce of Quebec. The Church of England with lts estab-

lished rights was agalnst the Congregatlonal ldea of religious

independency. The flrst Congregatl0na1 minlster in the Province

of Quebee was the Reverend Benton who arrlved ~n Quebee City ln

1801. Reverend Benton was deprlved by the CIVIl authorltles of

making offIcIal reglstration of blrths, marrI ages and deaths. On

hlS protestlng against~hls treatment he was arrested for libel,

and sentenced to SIX months imprisonment, and a fine of flfty

The flrst Congregatl0nalist in the ~astern Townships that

there js any record of was Reverend John Jackson. The Reverend

Mr. Jackson was born ln Petersham, Massachusetts in 1771 and was ,

ordalned flrst pastor of the Congregatlonal Church ln Gill,
Massachusetts in 1798. In 1811 he came to Canada and settled

ln the Township of Stukely where he stayed until 1815 when he

moved to the Township of Brome. From 1815 to 1820 the Reverend
Mr. Jackson went about the County of Brome and parts of the County

of Mlssisquoi dOlng mlsslonary work for the Congregational Church,

preaching in school-houses and private homes. The Reverend Jackson

was denied a lega1 register, but l t lS be1ieved he kept records of

46 Ruby G. Moore, Historical Sketches of the Churches in
, the Cowansville-Dunham Pastoral Charge, p. 61.

births and
deaths whlch are among the Congregatlopal records ln

Cowansville. In 1820 he retlred from the mlnistry and engaged
in farmlng. He was to Ilve untll March, 1844.

The Rev~rend Davld Connell succeeded the Reverend

Jackson's Congregational missionary work ln the Eastern Townships.

Reverend Mr. Connell was actually lnduced to settie ln the

Township of .Brome by Mr. Jackson, as there was no church or mlnl-
ster of any ctenomlnatlon ln thlS area. Mr. Jackson became a

great frlend of Reverend Connell.

In 1846 the Reverend Davld Connell began to preach

occaslonally ln the Vlliage of Cowansvllle ln the Township of

Dunham and aiso ln the Township of West Farnham. It was not long

after the Reverend Connell began preachlng ln Cowansvllle 'that,

at the request of the Congiegatlonal Mlssionary Societ~ he moved

hlS place of resldence from Brome to Cowansville. He contlnued,

however, hls pastoral labours at Brome. In 1852 constructlon was

begun on the Congregational Church ln Cowansvl1~e for Mr. Connell

and hlS worshlppers. The lot on WhlCh this church waS bUllt was

the same land that James RUlter presented to the Wesleyan Methodist

Soclety ln 1843, wlth the provislon that they start to bUlld a

chapel Wl thln twelve months' tlme. Apparently the Methodists were

not able to construct thelr church, 50 ln 1852 Mr. RUlter sold the
land to the Congregatlonallsts. ;

47 C. Thomas, p. 260.
48 Ibid ., p. UH.

49 Mrs • Ruby G. Moore, p. 64.

The Reverend David Connell continued to preach in

Cowansville and in-the Township of Brome until 1853 when he

resigned the pastorate and went to the United States. He was

succeeded by the Reverend Richard Miles who was to remain in this

pastorate for only t~o years as he died in 1855. Reverend Miles

in his two years at Cowansville revived interest ln the

Congregational Church. The following extracts taken from a

report Mr. Miles sent to the Canadian Missionary Soclety ln

June, 1854 Indicate sorne of the dlfficulties that the Congregation-

allsts were faced wlth in their work in the Township of Dunham and

.. From the short time l have had charge of Brome and
Cowansville stations, viz: about five months, this
is my first report. l have been employed in the various
departments of labour, pertainlng to the rather extended
stations. There 18 a distance of eleven miles between
them, and generally a state of roads which renders it
hard travelling. There are alao minor stations atl
which l preach. At each of the stations there is a
neat and commodious church, but as yet, no really .
organlzed church, but l antlcipate such an organization
in the very near future. At each of these stations
a Sabbath School exists. Shortly after l took charge
here an Episcopal was sent to preach and reside in
CE>wansvi Ile.
Our own distinctive principles and facets
are yet but little known and appreciated in thlS
sectlon of the country. Much patience and persevering
labor is therefore necessary to promo te our denomina-
tional stability. This north-eastern part of Dunham
Township presents a fine and extensive field for
vigorous efforts to extend our d~nominational cause,
which has hltherto scarcely had a name or a place
round about. The population is cornparatively
numerous, and prospering ln their worldly
éircumstances. 50 '

The Rever.end Thomas Rattray succeeded the Reverend Mr.
Miles until 1856 when he resigned and was followed by the

SOIbid., p. 64-65.

Reverend Archibald Duff. Under the leadership of Reverend

Rattray the Congregational Church in Cowansville was finally

formed in March 24th, 1855. For on that day nine persons were
- 1

associated in Church fellowship and, "promised to walk together

according to the commandments of the Lord Jesus, and to maintain

in aIl their integrity the rules and ordinances Chrlst has

established ln His Church".51

In October, 1856 the Reverend Archibald Duff, formerly

pastor of a Congregational Church in Scotland was invited to
the pastoral office of the Congregational Churches at Nelsonville

and Brome. Mr. Duff contlnued to mlnlster in Cowansville, Brome

and. Farnham Centre wl'th great diliqeJ?ce and considerable Succéss

untl1 1862 wnen he went to Sherbrooke. Reverend Duff was suc-

ceeded by the Reverend J. A. Farrar who contlnued to preach until

February, 1866 when he went to North Troy, Vermont. In the spring

of 1866, ~ver~nd Charles Poole Watson formerly a pastor from

London, England was invited by the members and adherents of the

Church 9f Cowansvl11e and Brome to become their pastbr.

Reverend Watson contlnued to conduct services every Sunday morning

in Cowansville, andr on alternate Sunday afternoons at Brome Corner

and Dunham Flats until 1877.

There is very llttle informatiQn on the development of

the Congregational Church in the Township of Stanbridge and the

Parishes of St. Armand East and St. Armand West. However, ~

accordlng to George Montgomery, in September, 1843 the

C. Thomas, p. 155.

Reverend Joel FlSk was called as pastor to the Congregational

Ch~rch at Phllipsburg. 'i
The last reglster lssued to thls church

was ln 1854. Mr. Montgomery goes on to say that it lS sort of

a question as to why the Congregational Church in Phl11psburg
ceased to eXlst after 1854. A1thoJg h not havlng come across

any records on the Congregatlona1 actlvlties in the Township o~

Stanbrldge, l would a~sume the Reverend FlSk did VISlt parts of

this TownshIp and conduct services ln prlvate homes.


Another "so-called" rel IglOUS group Whlch had sOllle suCCess

ln attractlng followers ln the County of Mlssisquol ln the 1830's

and early 1840's was the Mlllerltes. WIllIam MIller was a

preacher who came Into the Eastern Tow~hlpS from the State of

New York. In 1835 he started the prophecy that the world was

to be destroyed ln Aprll, 1843. HIS followers, who were cal1ed

"The Mlllerltes", accomplished more in a few years than aIl the

other religlous denomlnatlons had done. Even those who did not
agree wlth the?"Mlller~tes" and had had little Interest in
religion became qUlte fearful, wlth the result being that large

numbers of people began going to the cnurches of a mo~e orthodox

character for baptlsm. In the Methodist reglster for 1842 there

were 129 baptisms ln the TownshIp of Dunnam as compared to only

8 ln 1848, when the people thought that the scare about the

world coming to an end'was over. 53

George Montgomery, Missisquoi Bay.
el 53Mrs • Ruby Moore, Historical Sketches of the Churches
in the CowansvillQ-Dunham Pastoral Charge, p. 16.

The "Milleri tes" were enhanced by their belief that the
world was going to end in 1843 when there ~s a total eclipse of

the sun in September, 1838. ThIS was later refe~d to as

"Black Tuesday". Many fel t that this darkness was sent- as a
warnlng to ~hem that the end was not far off.

After 1843 when the world was not destroyed as had been

proPhesfd, the "MillE:rltes" ceased to eXlst.

, -
The Aàventlsts were another religious group that con-

'ducted serVIces ln the County of MisS1Squoi. There lS little

record of the early deve10pment of the Adventist Church Movement
in the County. However, we do k~OW that~ November, 1858 the •
Adventlst Church Movement was organlzed under the name of the

St. Armand Branch of the Advent Church in Dunham. Mr. Jonas

Soinberger was the le'ader of the Advent Church in the County of

M1SSlsquoi. He was born in the Parlsh of St. Armand West in

October, 1818 and spent aIl his llfe ln this area. Jonas
Sornberger owned almost 400 acres in the Parlsh of St. Armand

West. Besldes having a farmhouse and a sawmlll on 9roat Creek,
he ~lso provided the land where the Adventist Church was built

about 1863. The 1umber for the construction of the church came -
from Jonas' farm'and was sawn ln hlS·Own sawmill. It is li ttle"

wonder that the chapel was referred to as Jonas Sornberger's


When the Adventist Moveme,nt was first started in this

area in 1858 there were eight members. By August, 1863, there

WilH il total of thlrtY-.!'Ilx mflmtwrH of tht' St. Armand Brnnch of the
Adv€'nt Church in I>unhtlm. Jon.\R Sornbf'rqf'r Wi\fI net ive, in th€'

Adv(tnt IHI mini!ilry lOI m.wy YO.HH ,tnd conllnUt,cf to pn'rH'h ,unti 1

no oth«·r Ad,vI'nl 1111 Churchl ' l1 c()n~truct('d ln thfl CO\lnty of

MiHHIHqUOI 1n 1 lit' 1/160 ' H cHI 1 hf't (1 1 H no rt'ç'ord.,

9.~ ROMAN C~'1'1I0r. ~C qIORCl! 1 N'l'Il"; COU.N1.L.Q.l::...-M1SS1SQUQl

'l'h(\I-(\ .\ppl'.\r.'1 10 hr· vr-ry 1111 II' InformaI Ion on the'

dl'vI'lnpm('nt 01 Iho Rom.lO C.ltholtc Chlltch \n ttH' County 01

Mln~;jHq\l()1 priot' ln tilt' IHGO"H. 'l'h('\ fInI! RomeU1 Catholj(' rf'CliRlnr

iHI~ut'd ln ll)!' ('ounty of MiRSIRCfuoi Wt'R in duly, lH41. It WilR

i!Hllll'd to M"HHI H. 1..\\ r.\nC'I' ,lnci f'illvE'y, missl0nclry pt'if'stR for the'

(';,IHt prn Aftpt' IB41 M~ indicdtf'\d in thft Rom,ln C,\tholic

t 0 di ft l're'n t 1 o(',lll t l!'l'l 1n t h(' Townsh ipM.

'l'hE.' dC'v('1opmf1nt of thl' Ccltholic Church in Uw County of

M1HHi~quàl had i tH gn'iÜ('Rt SUCCNIS in th!' TownRhip of WüRt

Farnham WhlCW, ~s mpnlionrd prpviously, attractE'd rrünch-Canadian

famlllP~ prior to th~ 1860's. ThE' first Roman Calholic sarvice

was Iwld i.n th(\ 'l'own, of Fdrnham about 1845 in a Mr. Lafontain!" s
homE'. A temporary Catholic Church was built
, "
on the north aide

54Flora J. Rhicard, "Invitation to Guthrie", Rendez-vous
with tho Past in Missiaquoi, Volume 11, 1970, p. 107.
George Montgomery, Missisguoi Bay.
A. K. Moore, "Farnham", Then and Now iOn Missisquoi,
Volume 10, 1967, p. 61. '



of the Yamaska River ln 1846, near where the present Catholic
Church is located in the Town of Farnham. It would seem there

was no other Roman Catholic church or chapel constructed in the

County of MisS1Squol prior to the 1860's. Accordlng to the

"Eastern T.pwnships Gazetteer and General Buslness Dlrectory" for

1867, the only Roman Cathollc Church at this time ln the County

of MlSS1SqUOl was in the vlliage of Farnham. As prevlously

mentioned, there were very few French Roman CathollcS in the

County of ~iSS1Squoi up untll about the 1850's. The few that

had spttled in the County ln the 1830's and 40's were not, it

would appear, very rellglous as the Roman Catholic Church did not

encourage thelr fo11owers to move off the old tradltlonal famlly

parlsh. What Roman Cathollc ml~slonary work was done ln the

County of M1SS1Squoi prlor to the 1860's was'conducted ln most

instances ln prlvat~ homes.

There were a great number of preachers of dlfferent

rellglous bellefs who came Into the County of MlSS1Squoi prlor to

the 1860's and 70's. Sorne were extremely successfu1 ln attractlng

fo11owers whlle others fai1ed. As mentioned, the early preachers

conducted serVIces ln private homes and later school houses. The

more succe~sful rellgious groups eventua11y constructed churches

ln certaln centres and ln many instances assigned a resldentlal

pastor. The early preachers had to llve with the hardshlps of the

pioneers. Many of the early ministers and preachers, besides con-

ducting religious serVIces, took to farming, practised medicine and

taught the settlers' children.
57 Ibid ., p. 63.

The constructlon and up-keep of a cpapel or church

was a major undertaking for the eëirly pioneers. The settlers \

belonging to a certain religious denomlnation would slgn a contrect

agreeing to pay a fixed sum towards the cost of their church.

In sorne lnstances this was a sum of money or a certaln amount

of produce such as grain or cattle which was sold at market.

The local mlnister ln sorne centers was paid in this fashion as

'weIl. It lS no wonder that ln certain areas throughout the

,County many of the early settlers did not assoclate wlth a reli-

gious group as they probably felt they did not have the money o~

goods. Many of the early settlers, after carlng for thelr
farnlly, had very little ln the way of money or produce ta help

finance a rellgious" group. ThIS may be the reason why sorne

religlous organlzations were not able to attract too many



a) Early Perlod (1790 - 1830)

Most of the early pioneers who came to the County of

MlssisqUOl were interested in education. They had grown up ln

are as whêre schools were weIl established and the y wanted to

see their children educated. According to Mr. Edward Struthers

ln an article wrltten in June, 1968, entit1ed The United Empire

Loyalists, some of the very weIl educated people of the

American colonies came to the Eastern Townships during the

Arnerlcan Revolutions and immediately fol1owing. It was for

this reason that most of the early settlers wasted little time

in making provIsIon for th~ lns~ructlon of thelr youth.

Prior to th~ construcLlctr of the first schools in the

County, the children o( the parly srttlers were taught in most

lnstances to read ~nd wrlte b~ thelr mothers. Once the chl1dren

knew how ta read, they would Lake turns reddlng aloud for mental

and practical lmprovrment Whl10 lhclr mother, wlth her work of

seWlng or cooklng, Rat by to act as prompLer. In some Instances,

as mentloned prevlously, the parly prrachers taught the settlers'

childrcn to read and wrlte.
As more settlprs movrd Into a parllcular localIty, the

inhabltdhts began to organlzP prlmary schoals. The first schools

were constructcd and maintalned by the cltl7.pnS of a communlty,

without govprnment aSslstanc~ of any kind. Sorne leading man of

a communlty would cal] a meetIng of hlS nelghbours; t~ey would

chooie a sIte for a schoolhouse, glvr money, materlals or labour

and construct a bUIlding.

The rarly school housrs werp log or frame bUI1d1ngs

wlth sorne belng made of stone. In sorne instances there were no

floors and the seats were placed bn the hard-packed earth. The

earllpst seats were logs wlth the upper surfaces hewed fIat.

Later plank benchcs werc used wlth wrlting surfaces attached

to them. Usually SIX ta elght puplls c9uld be seated on these


One of the settlers ln the cornmunity would be assigned

the task of trylng to locate a teacher. In this very early

period teachers were completely unt~ained. A teacher was judged

by common sense and reputation. If they were able to keep order

and impart d little knowledge, well and good; if not, someone

else was blred instead. The teacher's salary would be paid by

each settler subscrlblng a certaln amount dependlng on the number

of children they had attendlng the school. In addl tion to thelr

salary, the teacher usually received free board ln the homes of

their pupils, spendlng at each house a length of tlme ln proportion

to th~ number of chIldr~n. A teach~r sornetimes had to lIve in a

on~ or ~wo room cabln wlth two or mor~ adulls and perhapR five or

SIX chlldr~n. This practlce of "boarding around" contlnued ln

the Eastern TownshIps untll about 1885. A teacher's sà1ary prlor
to the 1830's was usually five to nine dollars a month. As

weIl as provlding money and board, the parents had to supp)y wood

to heat the school during the wlnter months. From this It can bê

seen that the cost to the early settlers of provIdlng schoollng ,

for thelr ch11dren was a great expenditure and was a draIn on

the farmers' scanty Incorne. /

In 1792 the Honourable Thomas ~nn, who granted the

earliest tltles to land around Mlssisquol Bay, saw the Importance

of provldlng a schoo1 for the settlers ln this area. Captaln

John RUlter records an ear1y account between Thomas Dunn and

hlmself Indicating that on January 14th, 1797, Dunn pald 2.10
59 v
pounds ln cash towards a school house. According to CyrIl

Thomas, thlS school-house was bUllt between St. Armand Station

58Ly1a Primmerman, "The Common Schools Prior to 1860",
Missisquoi County Hlstorlcal Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 98.
George Montgomery, Missisguoi Bay, p. 76.

.e and Philipsburg and was to accommodate the settlers ln both

these localities. This dwel1ing was used not on1y
, as a school
house, but also as a place for holding public worshlp.

As mentioned prevI0usly, the cost for the construction

and up-keep of the early schools by the settlers was a heavy

burden as seen from a petition sent to Governor-General SIr James

Henry CraIg ~n November, 1810. In the DominIon Archives is to

be found à copy of a petItion from the Inhabitants of PhIllpsburg

to SIr James Henry Cralg setting out that they have erectéd a

school and hIred a schoolmaster but that this, coupled• wIth the

erectIon of a church, had exhauste~ thelr resour~es so that they
were unable to keep up their payment and were obliged to WI thdraw

theIr chlldren. ThIS Petition was dafed Philipsburg, MissisqUQI

Bay, 7th of November, 1810 and ~as s%gned by a large number of

PhI1Ipsburg people. PhIlip RUlter's accounts show that the

deSlres of these settlers were met in a matter of a year as the

Government forwarded cash to coyer the sa1ari of a scho01master
in 1811. Mr. James Reid, who was ordained deacon in May, 1815,

contlnued as schoo1-master of the Phil.ipsburg schoo1 until 1817.

Another school house to be constructed by the early

pioneers in the Parlsh of St. Armand West was at Pigeon Hill in

1803. By 1832, there were at 1east three others in the Parish.

The oldest aval.lable minute book on the schools in the Parish of

St. Armand West is qated 1861. From this minute book we learn

CyrIl Thomas, p. 18.
6lGeorge Montgomery, Missisguoi Bay, p. 76.


that by 1861 the School Munlclpallty of Phillpsburg had been

erected and comprlsed the entlre Parish of St. Armand West and
had at least eight schools ln operatIon.

According to Mrs. DorIs Kldd ln an article written for

the MlsS1SqUOl County Hlstorical SocIety, lt was not many years

after the first sett1ers had settled ln the Townshlp of Stanbrldge

that a sma11 log scho01 house was constructed north of the VIllage

of Stanbrldge. There lS no record of the date this log school-

house was erected. However, it must not have been adequate because

ln 1820 Mr. Robert Burley donBted land ln the Vlllage of Stanbrldge

for the-constructIon of a brIck school-house. This brick
. school-

house was also used for religious worshlp wlth the Adventlst,

Baptlst, Methodist and AnglIcan preachers conductlng services here.
ThIS bUIldlng stlll stands and lS used as a resldence.'

The carly settlers around the VIllage of MyStlC ln the

Townshlp of Stanbrldge constructed a school-house ln 1825. ThIS

scho01-house, accoràlng t"o Mr. Alex Walbrldge of MyStlC, was

bUllt on the JOlnt stock prlnciple. That is, each person who

contrlbuted to the bUlldlng was consldered a share holder to the
amount of hlS contrIbutIon. BenJamin Harver was the main con-

tractor and was compelled to take hlS pay in shares on the

school-house. ThIS school-house, like most others bUllt in

62Flora J. Rhicard, "The School on the Hll1", Missisquoi
County Historical Soc let y, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 74. ,

63Voris Kidd, "Early Schoo1s and Churches of Stanbridge
East ", MissisqUOl County Hlstorical Society, Seventh Report,
1961, p.,93.


this early period, was used as a "" for not only
educationa1, but socl.a1, moral and rell.gious gatherings.

Another ear1y school-house to be constructed was ln the

Village of Bedford. in January, 1828 sorne of the inhabltants of

the Township of Stanbridge met at Robert Jonès' store (C. O. Jones

Hardware today) on Main Street ln Bedford to discuss the necessl.ty

of erectlng a school-house ln the Vlllage. Davld Smlth, Gal*away

Freligh, and Sylvanius Howard were appolnted ta ferm a cemmlttee

te superlntend the erectlon of the flrst school-house. 65

There were four schoo1s constructed before the 1820's ln

the TownshlP of Dunham by the early ploneers. One was Just eutside

Dunham F1ats wlth the others in the north, west and east parts of
. 66
the Township.

As mentloned prevlously, the communltles ln the County of

MissisqUOl which were sufficiently sett1ed ln thlS ear1y perlod

estab1lshed and administered thelr own prlmary or "common" school.

The course of study in these primary schools consisted of reading,

wrltlng and~arlthmetlc. There were few books avallable te the

students and the ones that were, were published ln the Unlted States.

The teacher's ewn knowledge often set the llmits of the course ln

these early schools. .These schools were later to be adminlstered

by school boards establlshed by government educatirn acts.

Besldes the primary or "common school" there were two other

Mr. Alex Walbrldge, Papers on the Vl11age of Mystic.

65Siona Pich~, ~istory of Bedford High Schoor~ Missisguoi
County Historical Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 42.

66Mrs • Joe Ellis, The Early History of Dunham.
public school classifl.catlons--"mo"del schools" and "academics

or grammar schools" in which the higher branches of education

were taught. There lS no reference to the construction of

"model schools" ln the County of Ml.ssisquo~, however it is
probably because the l.nhabltants referred to thls type of school

as an academy or school. It was not, ln most l.nstances,

until grants were made by the Provl.nclal Government that these

Instl.tutlons of hl.gher, which were schools ln the

present sense, were establlshed. According to Zadock Thompson,

these Instl.tutlons of hlgher usually recel.ved from
100 to 200 pounds each on an annual basls. ?

b) Later Perlod (1830 - l860's)

In 1829 an Educational Act was passed and later amended

ln 1832 to glve help to individuals who had been

supportlng thelr own schools. This Act offered grants to a

maXl.mum of two hundred dollars ($200.00) to asslst in the building

of school-houses. It aiso provided for a grant of el.ghty dollars

($80.00) to each school teacher who taught a minimum" of twenty

pUpl. l s. 68 This provlncial assistance gave an l.mpulse to education

in sorne areas of the To~nships. to Mrs. Flora Rhicard in an article written for

the M~ssisquoi County Bistorical Society. this Education Act also

6lzadock Thompson, Geography and History of Lower
Canada, p. 60.

68Lyla Primmerman, "The Common Schools Prior to 1860",
- Missisquoi County Historical Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 42.

provided for the schools to be, inspected by three "Visi tort ...

These "School V~s~tors" seemed to have a great deal of authority. ,

They received a government grant of 20 shillings to be distributed

by them, among the children whom they found excelled in each

sohool dIstrict.

In 1833 there were 48 school dIstricts in the County of
" 69 The dlfferent munlclpalltles throughout the County

were dlvlded lnto two or more "School DistrIcts". As late as 1838,

those people ln a "dIstrIct" who wanted a school, appolnted a
commlttee to look after the school: They then signed a petition
aSKlng that a school bé bUll~ in their district. Those who

signed a petItlon had to agre~ to pay theIr proportion of the

JOInt expenses, accordlng to the number of scholars they had

agreed to send, even lf, later on, theIr chIldren did not attend.

The followlng IS a typlcal agreement.

At the request of a part of the freeholders
of School Dlstrlct Number 4 ln the Western Parish of
St. Armand Peter Prlmmerman (and) Henry Rosenberger
consented to Serve as a Commlttee to have a School
Kept ln said District durlng the ensurlng Five or Six
months Commenclng on or about the first day of May,
1838 and for the carrying on and support of the same
the underslgned do hereby blnd themselves to Send the
numbers of scholars annexed to their Several names
and to pay such proportion of the joint expenses for
the whole period whether they send or not, As the
number attached to their name makes them liable for.
Should a Subscriber wish ta Send for a part of the
term more than his Stipulate n~mber: he will be

Flora J. Rhlcard, Notes on St. Armand.

called on to pay only for the time s~ch extra
Scholars shall have actually attended. ~ll
who sign this paper must consider themse.l ves
bound by the above named conditions.
Names No.
(signed) Henry Rosenberger 3"
Benjamin McDonald 2
Jermiah Bockus 2
Peter Primmerman 2
Paltus Cammel 2
John Best 1
Jacob Rosenberger 1
Rufus Creller 2 70
Joseph Burley Jr. 1

In 1841 an educational act was passed establlshing

elective school boards, but not givlng these boards the right

to levy taxes. AlI taxes were to be collected by municlpal

councillors, who were appointep to thelr positions. This system

of having school taxes collected by another appointed body was

so unpopular and against the prlnciples of local self-government
that the Educatlonal Act of 1841 was amended in 1846.
The Educational Acts of 1841 and 1846 provided for each

municipality which was dl.vided lnto two or more "School Districts"

to elect "School Cornmlssioners" to form a corporation, to

hold offlce for three years and to execute various duties. These

included aIl objects pertainlng to the management and disposaI of

property applicable in their districts to public education, the

appointment of teachers, the regulation of course of study and

fees, the raising of money from assessment and other sources,

70Ly1a Primmerman, "The Common Schools Prior to 1860",
Missisquoi County Historlcal Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 99.
7l Ibid ., p. 101.

, \

with power to prosecute persons who neglected to pay their portIon
, 72
of school taxes. AlI property owners paid school taxes but each

district was responsible for the expenses incurred by its own

school. Special assessments were always levied on the dIstrIct

whe~ SCh~lS were being repalred or new ones being built. The

"School Commlssioners" in a municipailty received a government

grant a~ntlng to ~oughly half of the total salaries paid to

t~achers ln their distrIcts. The CommIssI0ners would then apportion

this monêy among the schools ln their dIstrIcts accordlng to the

number of children of school age. The distrIct school committees

apparentl y used thls money to pay a part of the teachers '- salaries.

The publIC schools derived additlonal flnàncial support

from tUItI0n fees. Accordlng to Henry Mlles ln 1862, the tees
chargeab1e ln the prlmary schools were not to exceed two shlllings.

In April, 1868 the School Commissioners ln the Munlcipaiity of

Phllipsburg, which comprised the en tire Parlsh of St. Armand West,

passed the foliowing resolution on fees: "AlI scholarsounder five

years of age and attending school, are to be taxed 40 cents per
mon th. . . Other scholars were only taxed 15 cents per month."

School attendance was not compulsory but it was encouraged

by the requirement that every family must pay school rates

whether they had chlldren at school or not. Each school year

was divided into terms varying sllghtly in length, but usually
72 '
Henry H. Mlles, Canada East at the International
ExhibItIon, (1862).

?3 Ibid •
74Flora J. Rhicard,'" "The School on the Hill", Missisquoi
County Historical Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 75.

220 (

aVf'rdging four months. 1'hf'sf' wpr{' known aR "summ<"r" and "wint(\r"

schools. Summf'r schools uAually bpgan in May and laRtf'd untit

AUgURt; wlntf'r schoolR wprr opprdlpd from Dpcf'mbpr until Mdrch.

URU.lI 1 Y a ci if frrpn t t C'ilchC'r "k(\pt Il th(\ Rehoo 1 dur i nq fi'ach of

thr~f' t(\rmR, sa thrrp was Ilttlp cont In~ity. Thp Rchool popu-

lat ion chanqC'd cons idC'rilbl y f rom onC' t-prm ln anot hrr, wl th t hf/'

RUmm(\r tprm bplnq attrndpd m.unly by galA and young clllldn"n,

whi1C' boys .md ~o\Jnq m~n w('nt durinq thJ wintf'r, when thC'y wPrt'
not nf'pdpd on thp farm. Th(' dqPM of childrpn f'nrollpd ln wintrr
schools oftrn rdnqrd from fiv~ to twenty-onr.

'l'hp Sehool CommisAlon('rs ulHlally t rlf"d to hlr(~ .} fpmalr

l-~dueat Ion Act of IB41 (bd not ilt fi rst lmprovp thf' ccllibr(' of

trachrrs vrry much dS thg st-ilndard of rpqulrpmpnts and insuf-

fiei('nt p.\y [.ulpd to p~ller tlrst cidAA tpachprs in thp publIC

RchoolH. Most of th(' bpttrr tpaGhrrs prlor to thr 1850's came

[rom thp UnlvC'rslty of Vprmont. Many of the young men and womC'n

from thr County of Missisquoi who wcrf' fortunate pnough to get a

univC'rsity pducation Wf'nt to the UnIversity of Vprmont prlor Ji
thr pstabllshment of Canildian unlversllips. By the 1850'8 thf'

cal1brp of tf'achprs as weil as the total f'ducational system in

the Eastern Townships bf'gan to improvp. There were several

reasons for this, one belng the appointment of Dr. Rotus Parmelee

in 1852 as the first School Inspector for the District of Bedford.

Dr. Parmelpe was a gradua te of the Un1versity of Vermont in 1826

Lyla Primmerman, "The Common Schools prior to 1860",
Missisquoi County Historical Society, Eighth Report, 1965,
p. 102-103.

and came to Canada as Principal of the Hatley Academy in th~

County of Stanstead. ~hile Pr~ncipal he began the study of

medlcine at Montreal and Quebec and eventually got a dlploma.

~en appolnted Inspector of Schools in 1852 for the District of

Bedford, WhlCh included the County of Mlssisquo~, he had under

his charge approxlmately three hundred primary schoois, besides

several academlCS nnd other superior schools whlch he vlsited

semi-annua1ly. The School Inspector, besides vlslting the

various schools under their supervIsIon, had ta have a perfect

know1edge of the detalls of the Educatlonal Laws, had to be

fam11iar with the nablts of the people, and had to have experlence

in the art of teaching and trainlng youth 50 as ta enable them ta

furnlsh u~eful suggestlons to the t~achers. Under Dr. Parmelee's

WIse and earnest endouvours a better system of educatIon began to

develop in the County of MisS1SqU01. Dr. Parmelee was one of the

founders of the Dlstrict of Bedford Teacher's Assoclation. He

was ta re~aln very actlve in education ln the Townsh~ps up untl1
his death ln May, 1870.

Another reason for the lmprovement in the educatl0nal

. system in the late 1840's and early l850's was that twice a year

the School Commissioners were required ta send a report ta the

Superintendant of Education givlng information on each school

in their districts. The Superintendant of Education was appointed

by the Governor-General for the purpose of executlng the various

provisions of the "Educational Laws". He was requi~ed to prepare

76Julia H. S. Bugeia and Theodora C. Moore, In Old
Missisquoi with History and Remini§cences of Stanbridqe Academy,
p. 56-57.
an annual statement indicating the conditions and progress of
education throughout the Province of Lower Canada. The foliowing

is the Fr(~lighsburg (District Number 1) report for the half year

ending July, 1845.

Teachers: Philip LûkC' 2nd (Winter) Ellza Cross (Summer)
Number of Boys: 32
Number of Girls: 34
Period of Tuition during 1845: 4 3/4 months
Total Amount Paid Teachers: 4.4 3~ pounds
Total Amount expended durlng the year for the
support. of school including" the sum paid the
teacher: b 20.18.9 77

In the 1850'.c; "Tparhprs A.c;soclatlons" began to develop

consl~ttng of tcacher.c; and pprsons, offlcially or otherwisp,

connected wlth education in the Townships. Meetlngs were he Id at

Intervals of SIX months ln dlfferent towns and villagps and were

usua1ly weIl attended, and continued during two or three successive

days. Thpsp mpetings were open to the publlC and conslsted of

addresses and speeches of an lnstructlve and interestin9 character.

By 1861 anyone who wanted to become a teacher ln a distrlct

'school had to pass cducational tests in order to recelve a teachlng

dlploma. These tests for people wanting to teach in the County of

Misslsquol distrIct schools ,took place in the Court House ln the
vlliage of Sweetsburg.

,In the periàd after 1840 there were several academies, or

high schools in the present sense, constructed in the County of

Lyla Primmerman, "The Common Schools Prior to 1860",
Missisquoi County Historieal Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 103.
Cyrus Thomas, p. 161.

Missisquoi. One of the most popular and influential academies

to be constructed in the Cou~ty of Missisquoi was Stanbridge

Academy. It was to attract students from several areas tftrough-

out the Townships as weIl as from the State of Vermont.

In January, 1854 a meeting was held ,in the school-house

of Stanbridge East for \he purpose of organlzlng an "Academy
Association". ThIS meetIng was attended by a majority of the

thirty citizens of Stanbridge East who had subscribed to a building

fund fo~ the constructIon of an academy in 1853. Subscriptions had

rapged from two pounds ten shIllIngs to twenty-five pounds.

Mathew Saxe, a resident of Stanbridge East, had given the land

for the Academy ln 1851. Mr. N. Marley Blinn was appointed chairman

and Joseph c. B'aker secretary at this meeting. The meeting' resul ted

ln the drawlng up of a constItutIon calling for the constructIon of

an "academicàl Institution" (high school) in the VIllage of

Stanbridge East. The constitutIon called for the capItal stock.

of the Stanbridge East Academy AssociatIon to be five hundred

pounds currency and to be divided into two hundred shares of

two pounds, ten ShIllings each. The constItution also called

for the officers of the AssocIation to consist of five trustees

and a secretary-treasurer, elected annually from among the

shareholders. The duties of the trustees was to select and

engage teachers; prescribe the course of study; control. the f
building and the letting of it for various purposes, "when it

shall not Interfere with the operation of said school"; to calI

for instal{ments to meet building expenses and to regulate
the duties of the secretary-treasurer.

In 1855 the Stanbridge Academy was very fortunate in

that it received a government grant of three hundred pounds.

Academies at this time were not officlally SUbsldized or aided

by the government. This grant, however, was obtained through -

the influence of the Hon. PhIlIP H. Moore, M.L.C. and a resident

of St. Armand, who had a keen lnterest in the advancement of

educatIon ln the Eastern TownshIps.

The Stanbrldge Academy opened September, 1855 with Mr.

Nathanlel P. GIlbert of Pittsford, Vermont and a graduate of the

UniverSIty of Vermont, as principal. Miss HarrIet CurtIS of

St. Albans, Vermont was engaged as mUSIC teacher. The engage-

ment of the teachers IS set ln the old mInute-book for

August 13, 1855:

At a meeting of the trustees at Edson's
Hall, an engagement was entered lnto wlth Mr. N. P.
Gilbert as prlncipai for one year on the fol1owing
terms:- The Trustees to pay him $300 per annum,
and the school fees aris~ng from the department
taught by him and hlS assistant; said fees to be
125. 6d. per quarter per scholar, for common branches
and 155. for higher branches and languages, the
sald Gilbert to pay his assistants, also to pay
his wood, printing, etc. The said trustees aiso
approved of the engagement of Miss. Harriet
Curtis, teacher of music, at $6.00 per quarter,
per scholar; and aiso of the purchase of a SIX-
octave pIanoforte of the manufacture of Boardman,
Gray, Company to be furnlshed by Pierce and Baker
for $225.00. 80

79Julia H. S. Bugeia and Theodora C. Moore, In Old
Missisquoi with History and Reminiscences of Stanbr1dge
Academy, p. 2t-23.
80 Ibid ., p. 28.



In the Stanbridge Academy school report for the first

quarter, ending ln November, 1855 we learn that therè was a

total of fort y students, seventeen males and twenty-three

females enrolled. The report for the 'second and thlrd quarters
shows a marked Increase in attendance with a total of sixt y-four

attendlng durlng the second quarter endln9 February, 1856 and a

total of seventy for the third quarter endlng May, 1856~ After

1856 no more names of students were recorded by the secretary
for a number of years. As mentloned prevlously, sorne of the
students that attended the Academy came from a great dIstance.
Many of the cltlzens of Stanbrldge EéiSt opened their homes to

these students and took them ln as boarqers or roomers at small


In 1856 Mr. N. P. GIlbert was succeeded as prInclpal of

the Stanbrldge Academy by hlS brother, SImeon, who was also a

graduate of the Unlverslty of Vermont. At the close of the schbol

year ln 1856 Mr. Slmeon Gllbert retur~ed to the Unlted States to

work on his Doctor of DlvinIty degree ln Theology at Congregational

Seminary ln Andover, Massachusetts with hlS brother, Nathanlel.

prIncIpal of Stanbrldge Academy.
Mr. Hobart Butler succeeded Simeon Gilbert in 1857 as

Mr. Butler was from East Berkshire,

Vermont and graduated from the University of Vermont in 1852. In

1853 he began Academy teaching at Granby where he al'so edi ted the

"Granby Gazette". From Granby, Mr. Butler went ta Clarenceville

Academy for a short time and then came ta Stanbridge Academy where
he remained princIpal untll 1864. The Stanbridge Academy under

81 Ibid ., p. 31. 82 Ibid ., p. 77. 1

the principalship of Mr. Butler from 1857 to 1864 gained a

wide-spread reputatlon as being one of the ~oremost academies

in the Province. Mr. Butler was assisted ln the Academy by his

wife. In 1858 Mr. Butler began Issulng a catalogue or prospectus

on the Stanbridge Academy. In looklng thlS catalogue over for ~
the year 1858, one lS impressed by the nature of the lnstltution

as weIl as the course of study that was followed in thlS perlod.

It can be seen why Stanbridge Academy attracted students from aIl

over the Townships and the State of Vermont.

In 1864, Mr. Hobart Butler reslgned as Prlnclpal of

Stanbrldge Academy as he was admitted to the practlce of law ln

the Dlstrict of Bedford. Mr. Butler, after being admltted to the

Bar, moved to the Town of Bedford from Stanbrldge East. He was

not long ln Bedford when he opened a school for prlvate scholars

ln his own home on the banks of Groat's Creek. ThlS soon ex-
panded to Bédford's flrst Academy.

Mr. Butler was one of the most prominent educational
leaders of his tlme ln the Provlnce. He sought to interest the

publlC in the value of educatlon by communicatlons to the press,

by publIC addresses and many other ways. As mentloned prevlously,

academles in the 1850's and early 1860's were not subsidlzed or

aided by government grants, apart from a favoured few, and even

then to no appreciable extent. They were not under School

Co~missioners and could not be supported by a school taXe They

were practically prlvate institutIons suppbrted by tultion feep

83Siona Piché, History of Bedford High School, Missisquoi
County Historical Society, Eighth Report, 1965, p. 43.

and prlvate donations of ~ose interested in the school. Mr.

~utler worked extremely hard and was eventually successful in

helping to conVlnce the government of the need for financial

support for the development of academies in the Province. He

also SQught to create a unlty of interest among the academy

teachers of the Province and others interested ln education to

the end that there mlght be uniformity in text books and

methods of teachlng. In order to try to fulfil these objects,

Mr. But'ler was one of the prime movers in forming the DIstrict

of Bedford Teachers' ASSOCIation and was for sorne time its

preSIdent. Mr. Butler was also one of the founders of the

ProVIncIal ASSOCIation of Teachers ln 1864.

It can be seen w~y the Stanbrldge Academy galned such

a great reputatlon un~er the prInclpalshlp of Mr. Hobart Butler.

The Stanbrldge Academy, although It was to contInUe for many

years, was never to be as popular an Institution as it was

from 1857 to 1864 under the gUIdance of Mr. Butler.

By the 1860's, as prevIously mentioned, there were other

academles that had been established in the County of Missisquoi.
, 84
~s early as 1840 an academy had been built ln Dunham. The

Dunham Academy was the first academy erected in the,County of

MIssisqUOI. Prlor to 1854 there was a 1ack of superior education

ln the Cowansvllle and Sweetsburg are a of the townshIp of Dunham.

In 1854 the Reverend J. C. Davidson, Rector at Cowansville for

the Church of ~gland, an~ hiS sbn, J. B. Davidson, Rector of

Cyrus Thomas, p. 147.

St. Armand East 1n 1867, at the request of Peter Cowan, opened

a high school in the old Court House in Cowansvl11e. This high

school continued in the Court House until 1856 when the enter-

prising citlzens of Cowansville and Sweetsburg contributed

suff1cient money to erect, half way between the two villages, a

two storey school later known as the MisslSqUOl High School.

Mr. J. C. DaVIdson contlnued lS PrinCIpal of ~ltution

" u,ntll about 1865. This high school continued to attract a
1 \ :

l~rge number of students \hroughout the Cowansvll1e and Sweetsburg

area for a number of years. Another hlgh school was constructed

ln Cowansville about 1864 by Andrew Cowan, a brother of Peter

Cowan. ThIS sehool was ereeted at Andrew Cowan's exp~se as a
Female Acndf'my.

Another academy that was establlshed ln the County of

MISSlsquol prIor to the 1860's waS the Clarcnceville Academy

which was constructed ln 1844 and contlnuf'd to be used as a

school untll 1948. The establIshment of this Academy was attri-
buted largf'ly to the generoslty of the Reverend MICa]ah Townsend.

Prlor t.o the openlng of t-he Clarenceville Academy ln 1844, the

Reverend Mlcajah Townsend at the request of several gentlemen

and Wl th the sanction of "The Lord Bishop of Montreal", opened

his own "Fami ly Classlcal Ins tl tUtl on" in 1837. Aecording to

IbId., p. 157-158.

86" Address Gi ven ln 1898 by Dr. Cedric Cotton of
Cowansvllle", Then and Now ln MissisqUOI, Vol. 10,1967, p. 29.

8 7Mrs . Everett Hauver, "Centennial of Anglican Church

in Clarencevl11e and Noyan (1915)", Mi,Bsisguoi County Historical
SOCIety, Sixth Report, 1960.

a Missisquoi County Business Heading in 1837, Canon TowQsend was

to open his "F~miIy Classicai Insti tutlon" on the Ist of May, 1837

for the instruction of boys Cover 7 years old) and young gentlemen

in the various branches of English, French and Classical

There were a number of other schools established in the

County of Missisquoi besides the ones mentioned above. However,

very 1ittle record has been kept on many of them and It lS there-

fore impossIble ln many instances to know exactly when the y were

establlshed. Sorne of these were establlshed ln prlvate homes.

We do, however, 1earn from "The Eastern Townshlp Gazetter and

Buslness Dlrectory" of 1867 that each VIllage in the County had

at least a prlmary school and ln many lnstance~ had an academy

Chigh school) as weIl by 1867. Phillpsburg ln 1867 had an ele-

mentary schoo1 and a hlgh school. The Ph111psburg Hlgh School,

according to Geokge Montgomery, was constructed ln 1849. In

1867 a Mr. H. H. Carpenter was Prlncipal of the High Scho61. By

1867 the School Municlpallty of Phl11psburg, WhlCh as prevlously

mentloned, comprl~ed the entlre Parish of St. Armand West, was

divlded into eleven distrlcts. According to a census taken in

September, 1860 ln the Parish of St. Armand Wes~, there were a

total of 301 children attending schools under the control of the

'School Commlssioners for the Munlcipallty of Philipsburg. There

"C1arencevllle", Missisquoi County HIstorical SOCIety,
Sixth Report, 1960.

were also a total of 21 attending "superior educational

establish'ments" (high schools) wi thin and wi thout the
Munlclpa l'lty. 89

The Village of Freligh~burg ln 1867 had a primary
school and an academy WhlCh had been constructed ln 1856.

The School Municipa1ity of Fre1ighsburg in 1867 inc1uded aIl
the schools 1 n the Parish of St. Armand Eas t and was di vided \

into t~n different dIstrlct schools. Mr. J. H. Smith who was

Secretary-Treasurer for the Frelighsburg Munlcipal School

Commissloners submitted the following report ln 1867.

Name of No. of
Distrlct No. Scholars
, Name of Teacher Wages
Cook's l 3S A. Terrell $15
La Grange 2 20 Hattie E. Wood 8
Whltney's 3 No school
(Not llsted) 4 39 Sarah A. Gage 8
Abbott's 5 39 Melbourne Brlggs 14
Miner .0-:", 6 27 Sarah A. Drew 8 '""T
, /'
Demming's 7 19 Jane B. Smith 8
Barnes 8 39 Jas. P. Kerley 15
Knap's 9 20 Flora E. Smi th 8
10 abolished
Amos Il 34 Helen Ml.ner 8
Books used ln the schools were as follows:-
Speller's:- Town and Webster' s
Readers:- Lovell s Seriesj

Grammar's:- Weld' s and Smi th' s
Geogr aphy :- Lovell' s
Arithmetic:- Sangster's, Adam's and Greenleaf Rey's, Hodkins, Goldsmlth's England
Government grant for the first six months of
year 1867 was $103.16. Local assessments for half
year were $378.14~.
J. H. Smith received $35.00 for boarding
Ml.SS Gage for 17~ weeks while she was teaching
No. 4 school.
Leonard Titemore received $4.00 for boarding
teacher at Cook' s C~rner, (number of weeks not

89Flora J. Rhicard, Notes on St. Armand, Paper presented to
the Missisquoi County Historical Society at the Community School in
Cowansville, 1957. '
90Rodney Mahannah, "The Fre1ighsburg pro~estant School
Building", Missisquoi County Historical Society, Séventh Report,
1961,' p. 71.

Ben~Jah Owen received .75 cents for
cleanlng school house in Barn~s District.
H. D. Smith recpiveq. $18.25 for 18~ 91
cords of wood supp11ed Abbott's Corner School.

W(' also learn (rom "Thf> Eastern TownshIps GazE"tter and
General BWHnpss DirC'ctory" for 1867 that the> smill1 villagt"' of

Noyan ln thp Parlsh of St. Th6mas had a ptlmary school. Since

th('r(> was no hlgh school ln thr villagp of Noyan, the students

would go 10 the Cl~r(>ncrVll1f> Academy which was only about two

and d half mIles away.

Thrn"' 18 no mpnt.lon of any schools in thE:' vlllilgE:' of
Filrnham 1n "'1'110 Eël:=llprn TownshIps Gazpt ter and GrnE:'ral Businpss

DlrC'ctory" for 1867. HowC'vrr, for a vlllagc wlth a populatIon of

approxlmatply 800 ppoplp ln 1867 therp must havr bCE:'n two or

Accordlng to an artIcle

wrlttpn by GE:'rilld HawkE:' thp flr.'H school ln the' Township of

Wrst F<lrnham was bUl1t on thE:' lilgg.ln.9 farm wlth Danl('l ~oshf>r

as thr flrst trachE:'r. Unfortunately Mr. Hawke dops not lndicate

thr datr thdt thi~ school was constructt"'d. 92 There was no

school ln the villagp of Farnham untll the summer of 1846 when

an old log housr coverpd wlth slabs and slab bE:'nches to sit on

was opf'ned wlt:n a MISS Jane Reed as teacher. In the autumn of

1846 a new school-housE:' was opened in the vlllage of Farnharn
wlth a Mr. Patrlck .Murtaugh as teacher. The above lS the

only informatIon that appears to be avallable on the development

91"SchoOl Municlpallty of Frellghsburg--1867", Here and
There 1n Miss1sqU01, Volume 9, 1967, p. 20.
92Gerald Hawke, Ear1y History--Farnham.
93"Farnham", Then and Now in Missisquoi, Volume 10,
1967, p. 64.
of schools in the townships of West Farnham prior to 1867.

In conclusion we have seen ho\\' the early pioneers

wasted Iittle time in finding means of educating théir children.

We have seen how the early pioneers beg~n wi th a very primitive

type~of instruction taking place in the home w1th the child's

mother being the teacher. Gradually, however, as time pro-

gressed and as the pioneers began to produce a 11ttle extra

income 7 primary schools began to develop in are as where the

inhabitants could afford to support them. By the 1840's

s~me areas in the County were able to flnancially support

1Cademies or high schools as well as primary schools. It

was partly through this educational initlative and lnterest

of the early Missisquoi set tIers that the County of Misslsquoi

had become one of the most popular areas of settlement in the

Eastern Townships by the 1860's.
B l B LlO G R A P H Y


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• \

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