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SPE 57261

SPE 57261 Seismically Guided Bypassed Oil Identification in A Mature Steamflood Area, Duri Field, Sumatra, Indonesia
SPE 57261 Seismically Guided Bypassed Oil Identification in A Mature Steamflood Area, Duri Field, Sumatra, Indonesia

Seismically Guided Bypassed Oil Identification in A Mature Steamflood Area, Duri Field, Sumatra, Indonesia

R. Sigit, SPE, D. Satriana, SPE, J.P. Peifer, SPE, and A. Linawati / PT. Caltex Pacific Indonesia

Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Asia Pacific Improved Oil Recovery Conference to be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2526 October 1999.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract

The first large project area under steamflood at Duri field, Area 1, has recently been ramped down to the maintenance steam injection rate. After 14 years of steaming, Area 1 has achieved a recovery factor of about 64%. The available generated steam for this area, aside from the maintenance steam, is now being used to initiate new area development. In 1996, the first 3D seismic survey in this area was acquired in the Southwest portion of Area 1 covering 33 patterns. This 3D seismic survey was aimed as a pilot project to identify the potential bypassed oil. The presence of the steam in the reservoir has changed the seismic velocity, distorted the seismic energy and lowered the frequency content. These factors have therefore lowered the seismic resolution to be able to resolve every injected flow unit. Vertical seismic profiles (VSP) have been heavily utilized as control data to interpret the flow unit boundaries and the faults. As a result, two major flow units (Pertama and Kedua- Baji Jaga units) were interpreted with confidence. Seismic attributes were extracted from these flow units. Pore fluid characterization was done using multi-variate statistical technique from the extracted seismic attributes to obtain the most reasonable steam saturation and bypassed oil maps which match the engineering data and production history. It was found that the bypassed oil regions were mostly controlled by both the stratigraphic and faulting systems. A re-development strategy was generated by a multi functional team to recover the remaining oil. Seismic data was used to guide the interpretation of bypassed oil in areas not immediately adjacent to observation wells. This strategy

consists of:

  • 1. Selective zone re-injection

  • 2. Pattern re-alignment including well conversion and infill injectors

  • 3. Infill vertical and horizontal producer wells.

A target of about 4.6 MMBO of bypassed oil was identified in the study area. The approach used in this study has potential application in other areas in the Duri field that are in the earlier stages of the steamflood process. This would enable to recover of the oil as early as possible in the potential bypassed regions.

Introduction

Located on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, Duri Field, the site of the world’s largest steamflood, is operated by PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia. The field is divided into 13 development areas. Eight of these areas, Area 1 to 8, have been under steamflood. The Duri steamflood began with Area 1 in 1985. Since primary methods will recover only a small fraction of original oil in place (OOIP), continuous steamflooding was employed to reduce the oil’s viscosity and drive it toward producing wells. As a result, the recovery factor of Area 1 has improved from 8% to nearly 64%. This area currently only receives maintenance steam injection. Large-scale seismic steam monitoring technology has recently (1995) been introduced to the Duri field reservoir management process as a means of directly imaging changes in vertical and horizontal steam distribution. This technology was tried in Area 1 in 1996, a mature steamflooded area, to identify the potential bypassed oil and come up with strategic

plans to increase recovery.

Reservoir Architecture

Structurally, Duri Field is a large asymmetrical anticline with North-South (N-S) axis and covers about 130 km 2 (Fig. 1). The local structure around the area of interest (AOI) is characterized as a gentle, South-Southeast (S-SE) dipping of around 10-15 degrees. Many major right lateral faults were identified after interpreting the seismic data. The major fault orientation is mostly North-Northeast (N-NE) trending. The reservoirs are typically composed of deltaic sandstones of the

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R. SIGIT, D. SATRIANA, J.P. PEIFER, A. LINAWATI

SPE 57261

early Miocene Sihapas Group. The sands consist of a complex series of stack channel and bar sands with thin interbedded shale. The steamflood interval within the AOI is at depths between 450 feet to 750 feet, which consists of two major flow-units. These major flow-units, from the top to bottom, are the Pertama and the Kedua-Baji Jaga (Diagram

1).

B I D Depth Pay LLS/LL NPH Gr RHO Cal Well Sketch PERTAMA KEDUA-BAJI JAGA
B
I
D
Depth Pay LLS/LL
NPH
Gr
RHO
Cal
Well Sketch
PERTAMA
KEDUA-BAJI JAGA

Diagram-1. Diagram of log type in the AOI

The depositional system of the Pertama flow-units is deltaic distributary channel and mouth bar with average thickness and porosity of 60 feet and 32%, respectively. The regional permeability trend in this area is N-S to NE-SW. Permeability ranges from 500 millidarcies to 2,000 millidarcies. The Kedua-Baji Jaga zone is deposited in an eustarine sand and river-mouth sand ridge system. Porosity of this flow unit ranges from fair to poor with permeability ranges from 1,000 millidarcies to 5,000 millidarcies. The Duri oil has a relatively high viscosity (400 cp) with average gravity of around 21API. The initial oil saturation is about 55%.

Area Development History

The AOI is located in the Southwest part of Area 1 consist of

33 inverted seven spot patterns, each 11.625 acre in size. Most of the producers are twin wells to allow for separate completions in the Pertama and the Kedua-Baji Jaga sands. As part of the Area 1 development, the steamflooding in the AOI commenced in 1985 with the injection target rate set to 1.2 BSPD/NAF. The first 5 years steam injection in Area 1, the injection rate was slightly over 1.0 BSPD/NAF, which was close to the targeted rate. By the beginning of 1993, almost all Area 1 was considered to be in a mature state, which was represented by

high wellhead temperature (average 250F) and casing pressure (40 psi). The current DSF strategy is to ramp-up to a target rate of 1.2 BSPD/NAF, maintain that target until the cumulative injection reaches one pore volume, and then ramp- down to a maintenance rate. For Area 1 as a whole, ramp-down of steam injection was started in mid 1995 by changing the steam target from 1.2 BSPD/NAF to 0.2 BSPD/NAF. As part of the ramp down steam injection strategy, the injector wells

in the AOI were shut-in in 1997.

After 13 years of steamflooding, Area 1 has achieved a recovery factor of about 64%. The estimated ultimate recovery is 69%.

Reservoir Monitoring

Reservoir Monitoring is probably the most important part of

steamflood reservoir management. It is useful to monitor the steamflood as a system that includes data from the following sources: injectors, observation wells, producers, and Casing Vapor Collection Systems (CVCS). This order of collecting field data is in the same order that the system responds to steam injection. The data collected at injectors are used to ensure that the injection profiles and heat injection rates are consistent with project design. Observation wells are used to track reservoir

heating rates and monitor steam zone development. Producing wells are used to monitor liquid production response and to determine when steam breakthrough occurs. Steamflood monitoring data should be collected through out the life of the project 4 . Several types of engineering data that are often used in conjunction with 4D seismic analysis in the Duri field are flow line temperature, casing pressure and production data from the producer wells, temperature logs from the observation wells, and injection rate and compliance at injector wells. All of these monitoring data are collected in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the steam flood process. This data gives information about the steam flood response but with limited areal coverage. Injection and production well data give information limited only to what is happening in the surrounding wellbore. The observation well data gives more insight on the vertical coverage, but relies on the assumption of a symmetrical steam front. In order to have both vertical and areal coverage of the steam flood process, we have had to make assumptions on the reservoir process. Typical assumptions included that the areal steam growth was symmetrical based on a radial pattern geometry related to the historical injection and production data or geologic data. However the steamflood process is very dynamic and the effects of reservoir heterogeneity are hard to predict. To minimize the uncertainly in predicting the vertical and areal steam growths, 3D time-lapse seismic data were developed in Duri as a method for monitoring the steam in real-time.

SPE 57261

SEISMICALLY GUIDED BY-PASSED OIL IDENTIFICATION IN A MATURE STEAMFLOOD AREA, DURI FIELD

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Duri Seismic Steam Monitoring

Large-scale seismic steam monitoring technology was introduced to the Duri field reservoir management process in 1995. This technology provides direct images of the horizontal and vertical steam distributions in each flow unit. The underlying physical basis for seismic steam monitoring is that the seismic wave velocity is altered by the changes of fluid saturation, temperature, and pressure in the reservoir. Laboratory measurements of the Duri cores indicate that compressional velocity (Vp) decreases linearly by 10% as the reservoir is heated up from a temperature of 100F to 350F at 430 psi. An abrupt velocity decrease of 30% occurs with further heating, which changes the liquid phase in the pore space into vapor 8 . Based on the results of forward seismic modeling of the Duri reservoirs, this decrease in Vp due to steam injection will be expressed as an increase in seismic reflection amplitude and travel time of the seismic wave propagation. These findings have become one of the keys to understanding steam behavior in the reservoir using seismic data. A 3D seismic survey was carried out in February 1996 covering about 1.5 km 2 of the Southwest part of Area 1. This is the first 3D seismic survey that has ever been run in this area. The presence of the gas cap in the shallow sand has distorted the seismic energy and lowered the frequency content to approximately 40 Hz (Fig 2). This means that the seismic data is unable to resolve the flow units because their

tickness is beyond the seismic resolution 9 . Six Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) were acquired in the AOI to tie the wells to the seismic and to build the velocity models.

Seismic Interpretation Approach

With the signal frequency bandwidth contained in the seismic data, the seismic data can only be subdivided into two major flow units: the Pertama and the Kedua-Baji Jaga intervals. These two intervals are separated by a thick shale that produces a seismic event that can be followed throughout the AOI (Fig 2). VSP data has been extensively utilized as a guide to interpret the top and the base of these major flow unit intervals. The interpreted time horizons are used for windowing during the seismic attribute calculation. Fault imaging in the seismic data is somewhat difficult. This is caused by the seismic effect of the fault being masked by steam effects such as time sag, frequency and polarity changes. A trace coherency technique was employed to detect the faults. However, only major faults could be identified with confidence. These faults are mostly N-NE oriented, aligned with the direction of the stress field. These faults have not been mapped by previous work in this area.

Pore Fluid Characterization and Quantification Seismically guided pore fluid characterization is a process by which seismic data and its attributes are linked with the dynamic properties of the reservoir 5 . The objective of this

project was to be able to map the steam using multivariate statistical techniques where seismic attributes and well data were used as the main variables. This approach was taken because no pre-steam seismic data was available. Additionally, analyzing single seismic attributes did not give robust steam images that would match the engineering data and production history. A small computer program was developed to do this analysis on a PC. The multivariate analysis in this project comprises three major steps:

1. Pattern recognition using thresh-holding method.

Thresh-holding is a simple classification based on whether a

set of variables meet a minimum and/or maximum value

criteria 6 . About 10 seismic reflectivity attributes were extracted from windows of seismic data corresponding to the Pertama and Kedua-Baji Jaga sand intervals as the input variables for the analysis. In the case of multiple attributes, a set of logic combining rules using intersection and union constructs were used to yield a final classification. The objective here was to be able to classify the known points (injector, producer and observation locations) into steam (class A) and non-steam (class B) using a defined criteria and assumption through use of a training set. After we were satisfied with the result of the training set, a discriminant analysis (DA) function was determined to be used later in the DA to classify the unknown data. Prior to the DA, principal component analysis was performed to select the best variables in the data set as input variables in the DA.

2. Variable Selection Process Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a technique to find the principal directions in which a cloud of input variables is stretched most. (Diagram 2).

. .. X Y Z PC3 PC2 PC1 .. . . . . . . .
. ..
X
Y
Z
PC3
PC2
PC1
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

The plot of input variables has 3 input components (X,Y,Z of each point). There are 3 principal components on an XYZ vector set:

PC1 - within the data distribution and parallel to the long axis (I.e. max variance) PC2 - normal to PC3 PC3 - normal to both PC1&PC2

Diagram-2. Plot of data

with

principal

component

transforms on an XYZ vector set.

 

The

aim is

to reduce the dimensionality of a

large

set of

variables to a more meaningful and smaller number of relationships without a significant loss in the contribution to

the variation 7 .

 

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R. SIGIT, D. SATRIANA, J.P. PEIFER, A. LINAWATI

SPE 57261

This technique consists of detecting variables, which behave sufficiently similar so they can be combined into new variables. These similarities are defined by creating a covariance matrix of the original data set and calculating its eigenvectors and eigenvalues. This matrix also defines an m- dimensioned ellipsoid where the sum of the diagonals gives the total variance of the data set. The eigenvectors represent the principal axes of the ellipsoid and the eigenvalues are the lengths of these axes. For each eigenvector there will generally be a group of variables, which accounts for most of its eigenvalue, or variance. A new set of variables will be created from this group using a linear transformation. This transformation converts each original observation to a score by projecting it onto the principal axes. At least one, usually 2

to 4, of these principal axes account for more of the total variance than any of the original variables.

Using the PCA, a number of variables, which significantly

influence

the

total

variance,

can

be

identified

through

assessing the magnitude of eigenvalue of each variable 1 . The higher the eigenvalue the higher the influence of a variable to the total variance. When the eigenvalue of the variables are almost equal, it can be interpreted that there is no correlation between the variables. The axis of each component is perpendicular to one another. This means that all of the variables need to be used in the analysis. Otherwise, only variables with high eigenvalues are selected. Three seismic attributes out of 10, which were Dominant Frequency, Average Energy, and Minimum Amplitude, were identified to have high eigenvalue. These three seismic attributes which account for about 87.56% of the total variance of the original data set were used as the input variables to perform the DA.

3. Discriminant Analysis. Discriminant analysis (DA) is a regression technique. It determines a linear combination of input variables that best discriminate between known groups or classes. The method has two parts. The first is discriminating between two groups of multivariate data from known sources. These two data groups are the control groups. The second step is classifying data of unknown origin into one of the two groups by applying the discriminant function to the unknown group. Regression analysis is used to find the discriminant function. The dependent variable consists of the difference of the multivariate means of the two groups. The discriminant function, R, will be:

R 1 1 2 2

...

m m

where R : discriminant value m : discriminant coefficient for the m th variable m : value for m th variable The DA function consists of finding a transform, which gives the maximum ratio of difference between a pair of group multivariate means to the multivariate variance within the

two groups 6,7 . In the Duri steamflood, the DA is aimed to discriminate between steam (class A) and non-steam (class B) groups. Once the discriminant function has been obtained from the two known control groups, it can then be applied to a group of unknown samples by calculating the Mahalanobis distance (D 2 ) to produce discriminant scores. The scores can then be compared with the critical score of the control group

to classify the unknown samples into class A

(steam)

and

class B (non-steam). (D 2 ) is calculated by subtracting the discriminant score of steam class (Ra) and non steam class (Rb) from the discriminant score of a new sample X (Rx).

Rx

1 X 1

2 X

2

...

m X

m





R a 1 A 1 2 A 2 R b  1 B 1 2 B 2

.. .

m

A m



.. .

m B m

…(5)

D 2 = Rx - Ra or Rx- Rb

D 2

 

  • X m

Y m

 

 

S 2

1

 

  • X m Y m

 

   

p

 

where

 

m

 

: discriminant coefficient for variable m th



A m

: average value for j th variable in the group A

 



B

m

: average value for j th variable in the group B

Rx

: discriminant score at location X

Ra

: discriminant score at location A

Rb

: discriminant score at location B

X

m

: m th variable at location X

Y

m

: m th

variable at A or B

 





X

X

m Y

m

:matrix of variable difference between X and Y

 

m Y m

: transposed matrix of variable difference

between X and Y

 

S

2 1 p

: pooled inverse matrix variance and

covariance of m x m from m variable.

When the Mahalanobis distance between new observed point X and class A (D 2 R X A) is less than that is to class B (D 2 R X B), then the new observed point will be classified as group A, and vice versa. Figure 3 and 4 are the result of the discriminant analysis of the Pertama sand and Kedua-Baji Jaga sand intervals. These maps indicate the areas that were classified as steam and non-steam areas. The non-steam areas are the areas

where the by-passed oil is most likely located.

After the

steam classification maps were generated, cross validation using engineering and production data was performed.

SPE 57261

SEISMICALLY GUIDED BY-PASSED OIL IDENTIFICATION IN A MATURE STEAMFLOOD AREA, DURI FIELD

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Cross validation using production history matching

approach. Cross validation was performed in the most indicative regions using well data including temperature and PNC logs, production data, WHT, casing pressure and the injectivity. Following are the examples of the cross validation. The Pertama Steam distribution map (Fig. 3) indicates that the three observation wells 5T-51C, 5T-52C and 4T-89B are located in the non-steam areas. This is confirmed by what we see in the time-lapse temperature logs, which indicate that increased heat has never been developed in this interval (Fig. 5). Other examples of verification were taken at producer wells A and B that were only producing oil from the Pertama sands interval. The A well, located in the non-steam area, has never developed a WHT higher than 200F or casing pressure higher than 20 psi (Fig. 6). This suggests that this well has never been heated up by steam because of the presence of the fault, which acts as a barrier. On the other hand, the B well has better production performance since this well has been influenced by steam from the injector in the pattern to the North. The cumulative production of this well is 350 MBO, which is better than the cumulative production of the well A (290 MBO). The average WHT and casing pressure are

around 300F and 60 psi, respectively, which are considered very high for the Duri steamflood environment. Many other verifications using the available engineering information were carried out to improve the confidence on the generated steam image of the Pertama interval from the classification. The same steps and approach were taken to verify the Kedua- Baji Jaga steam map.

Steam thickness calculation. The result of the discriminant analysis is a discrete value. Therefore, it can not be parameterized in order to get a transform to calculate the steam thickness. Since seismic attributes are continuous functions, therefore the seismic attribute with the highest eigenvalue, the Average Energy attribute, was chosen to do steam thickness modeling. Steam thickness in the well is calculated by using temperature and PNC logs run in the existing observation wells. The PNC log measures steam thickness in the well shown by sigma readings. From the time lapse of temperature and PNC logs, we can see the development of the steam chest in the observation wells, which basically represent the sand maturity. The average energy attribute at those observation wells was also extracted from the seismic cube to build the crossplot. Diagram 3 shows the crossplot of the calculated steam thickness from the existing observation wells versus the seismic attribute (average energy). The model indicates a good correlation that is represented by a correlation coefficient of 0.921. Using the generated equation from this plot, a Pertama steam thickness map was constructed (Fig. 7). The same approach was taken to calculate the steam thickness of the Kedua-Baji Jaga steam interval (Fig. 8).

SPE 57261 SEISMICALLY GUIDED BY-PASSED OIL IDENTIFICATION IN A MATURE STEAMFLOOD AREA, DURI FIELD 5 Cross

Diagram-3 Crossplot diagram between Average energy seismic attribute with measured steam thickness.

These steam thickness maps indicate that steam is mostly distributed in the Kedua-Baji Jaga sands. This finding is

supported by the fact that sand units in this interval are more permeable and thicker than the Pertama sands interval. The stratigraphic and fault system in the AOI seems to be playing an important role in controlling the lateral steam distribution.

The noise content in the seismic data sometimes creates a “ broken” appearance of steam around the injectors and

spurious steam indicators, which appear to have no obvious source. Because the seismic data is inherently noisy and is a function of many other non-steam related factors, conclusions based on these data were constrained by all other available geologic and engineering information.

Potential Bypassed Oil Calculation

The generated steam thickness maps from the seismic attribute show the current steam saturation in the reservoir. If we know the thickness of the original net oil isopach (ONOI) of the respected reservoir, then potential by-passed oil can be

calculated using a simple approach by subtracting the steam thickness from the ONOI.

(ONOI Steam Thickness) = Potential Bypassed Oil

Using this approach the potential bypassed oil of the Pertama interval was calculated by subtracting the Pertama ONOI with the Pertama steam thickness (Fig. 9). The same approach was done to calculate the potential bypassed oil of the Kedua-Baji Jaga interval (Fig. 10). Observing the bypassed oil map of Pertama and Kedua-Baji Jaga intervals, there are still many bypassed oil opportunities in the reservoir. It seems that the remaining oil is associated with both stratigraphic and fault systems of the AOI.

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R. SIGIT, D. SATRIANA, J.P. PEIFER, A. LINAWATI

SPE 57261

Redevelopment Strategy

A strategic plan was developed to enable recovering the potential bypassed oil. The plan relied heavily on the seismic

interpretation and the generated bypassed oil maps to give insight into the areal extent and presence of steam detected at observation wells. The Team has focused on three strategies:

  • 1. Selective zone re-injection,

  • 2. Pattern realignment which consist of well conversion and infill injector wells, and

  • 3. Horizontal wells.

Selective zone re-injection. This strategy is applied in areas where the sand intervals appear to have not been swept yet. This information is gathered from the observation wells and the bypassed oil maps to get the areal extent of the prospective zones.

Strategy

No

Pattern

Recommendation

Selected Zone

 
  • 1 4T-17

Re-inject into K, B/J sands

Reinjection

  • 2 4T-22

Re-inject into K1/K2 sands

  • 3 4T-42

Re-inject into P/K sands via 4T-42B

  • 4 4T-88

Re-inject into K sands

   
  • 5 4T-74

Drill infil producer 4T-83B

Pattern

Realingment

  • 6 5T-51

  • 7 4T-62

Convert obs.5T-51C into Pertama injector

Drill infil Pertama injector 4T-62B

  • 8 4T-54

Drill infil Pertama injector 4T-54C

  • 9 4T-48

Drill infil inj. 4T-48D (inject K/B/J)

New Projects

 
  • 10 4T-65

Drill observation well 4T-66C. Drill horizontal producer 4T-57C at the base of the P1 Sand.

  • 11 4S-88

Drill horizontal producer 4S-88D at the base of the P5 sand

Table 1. Type of strategy and its recommendations.

Pattern realignment. This project targets areas of high residual oil in a certain zones. These areas occur when the patterns do not have good areal sweep caused by either the presence of faults or stratigraphic changes, which act as flow barriers. Re-injecting steam at the same injector wells would not give optimum areal sweep. Therefore, the strategy to recover the remaining oil in cold areas like these are to do well conversions (injector to producer or observation to injector) and drill new infill injection wells.

Horizontal well. This technology was selected to recover the residual oil in a massive good quality sand. To be economic, it was estimated that the remaining oil column of the target would have to have elongated sand bodies with thickness greater than 40 feet. The concept for these horizontal wells was that they would produce using a Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) mechanism 2 . The lateral section of the wells would be placed at the base of a thick sand that contained a steam chest. This would provide increased recovery without the need to inject additional steam, and thereby improve the economics of the horizontal producer. A slat rig is not available in Duri. With the current horizontal drilling technology, the depth of sand target was restrained to

not be shallower than 475 feet in order to drill the well with a vertical rig. Table1 shows re-development strategic plans broken down into three strategies. The locations of each recommendation can be seen in Figure 9 and 10. Estimated reserves of 2.0 MMBO were identified by this strategic redevelopment plan. Based on the potential bypassed oil maps, there are still many by-passed oil opportunities in Area 1.

Field Result

Quick action was taken to optimize the resources

availability

in the field. The two recommended horizontal wells were drilled at the Pertama sand target at around 475 feet depth. Well 4S-88D encountered by-passed oil sand and flowed 300 BOPD. The other well (4T-57C) encountered by-passed oil sand, however, the reservoir temperature was still low. Options for remedial action are being evaluated. However, the fact that an area of relatively cold oil could be found in a 14-year-old steamflood speaks to the potential for increased

recovery. The other recommendations are in the progress of field

deployment as the formal approval has already been received.

Conclusions

  • 1. Without a baseline, seismic monitoring can be used to characterize the pore fluid in a mature steamflood area by utilizing multivariate statistical approach and integrating geologic and engineering information.

  • 2. Using 3D seismic data, many significant faults, which have not been mapped before, were identified. These faults appear to play important roles in the lateral steam distribution. This suggests that seismic data need to be obtained prior to developing new steam areas to optimize the pattern design and the oil recovery.

  • 3. Most of the steam in the AOI is distributed in the Kedua- Baji Jaga sand intervals.

  • 4. The success of this analysis has changed the ramp-down strategy in Area 1 as many bypassed oil opportunities are still identified in the reservoir.

  • 5. This redevelopment strategic plan in the AOI has successfully identified about 2.0 MMBO recoverable reserve, which is about 1% of the total cumulative production of all Area 1.

  • 6. The potential by-passed oil maps indicate opportunities for future re-development.

  • 7. This multi-functional team approach of seismically guided selective zonal re-injection, pattern realignment, and horizontal SAGD development in a mature steamflood area has potential application in other areas of the Duri Field.

SPE 57261

SEISMICALLY GUIDED BY-PASSED OIL IDENTIFICATION IN A MATURE STEAMFLOOD AREA, DURI FIELD

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Nomenclature

BSCWEPD/NAF - barrels of steam (as cold water

equivalent) per day per net acre-foot of net pay

MMBSCWEPD - million barrels of steam (as cold water

equivalent) per day

PVI - pore volume injected (%)

WHT - producer wellhead flowline temperature

Acknowledgments

We thank the management of P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia

for permission to publish this paper. We would also like to

thank to all of Duri AMT-SS members who have given big

support during the process of the EARR project. And special

thank is dedicated to all EARR team members for putting

together the outstanding efforts to make this project happen.

References

  • 1. Davis, J., Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, John

  • 2. French, Wiley & Sons, M. R., Toronto, Siagian, 1986 M., and Thurston, F.

K.:

“Overcoming the Challenges of Shallow Horizontal Drilling in the World’s Largest Steamflood,” paper SPE

54289presented at the 1999 SPE Asia Pacific Oil and

Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 20-

22 April, 1999

  • 3. Hagen, D.: “The Application of Principle Components Analysis to Seismic Data Sets,” Geoexploration (1982) 20, 93.

  • 4. Hong, K., C., Steamflood Reservoir Management: Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery. PennWell Publishing Co., Tulsa, OK, 1994.

  • 5. Insan, K.,: “Identifikasi Arah Pergerakan Uap Berdasarkan Analisa Diskriminan Multi-attribute Seismik, Lapangan Duri, Indonesia”, Thesis Sarjana (S1), Geofisika Explorasi, Institut Technologi Bandung (October 1998)

  • 6. McLachlan, G.J.,: “Discriminant Analysis and Statistical Pattern Recognition (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Applied Probability and Statistics)”, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, 1992

  • 7. Tabachnick, B., Fidell, L., Using Multivariate Statistics, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1989

  • 8. Waite, M.W., R. Sigit, A. V. Rusdibyo, T. Susanto, H. Primadi and D. Satriana, “Application of Seismic Monitoring to Manage an Early-Stage Steamflood”, SPE Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, November 1997.

  • 9. Widess, M. B,: “How thin is a thin bed?,” Geophysics (1973) 38, 1176-1180.

SI Metric Conversion Factors

ft psi

F

acre

6.894757

E00

= kPa

3.048

E01

= m

(F-32)/1.8

=C

4.046873

E01

= ha

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R. SIGIT, D. SATRIANA, J.P. PEIFER, A. LINAWATI

SPE 57261

N Banda Aceh Medan Pekanbaru Padang Jambi Palembang Fault
N
Banda Aceh
Medan
Pekanbaru
Padang
Jambi
Palembang
Fault

Fig. 1 Location map of the Area of Interest (AOI) showing the development areas of the Duri field and its regional structure

framework. Areas 1 to 8 have already been under steamflooded.

Observation

Injector Injector Injector VSP Injector Pertama Top Kedua-Baji Jaga Top Dalam Top By Passed Region
Injector
Injector
Injector
VSP
Injector
Pertama
Top
Kedua-Baji
Jaga Top
Dalam
Top
By Passed Region

Fig. 2 A seismic line which tie to VSP across the injector wells illustrating a low frequency type of seismic from the area due to the

presence of shallow gas cap in the near surface and steam in the reservoir.

SPE 57261

SEISMICALLY GUIDED BY-PASSED OIL IDENTIFICATION IN A MATURE STEAMFLOOD AREA, DURI FIELD

9

Class A Class B Fig. 3 – Steam map of the Pertama interval as a result
Class A
Class B
Fig. 3 – Steam map of the Pertama interval as a result of discriminant analysis using multi seismic attributes.
Class A Class B Fig. 4 – Steam distribution map of the Kedua-Baji Jaga interval as
Class A
Class B
Fig. 4 – Steam distribution map of the Kedua-Baji Jaga interval as a result of the discriminant analysis using multi seismic

attributes.

10

R. SIGIT, D. SATRIANA, J.P. PEIFER, A. LINAWATI

SPE 57261

4S-74B 4T-26D 4T-33D 5T-51C 5T-52C 4T-67C 4T-73B 4T-89C Pertama Top Kedua Top Baji Jaga Top Temp.
4S-74B
4T-26D
4T-33D
5T-51C
5T-52C
4T-67C
4T-73B
4T-89C
Pertama
Top
Kedua Top
Baji Jaga
Top
Temp.
log

Fig. 5 A log cross section along the observation wells indicating time-lapse of temperature log profiles (solid line at the right

column). Notice that the temperature profiles at well 5T-51C, 5T-52C and 4T-89C show no heat development

interval.

at

the

Pertama

Production history well A (cold well)

Production history well B (hot well)

Tubing Pressure Tubing Pressure Cumulative Cumulative Casing Pressure Casing Pressure Casing Pressure Casing Pressure Water Cut
Tubing Pressure
Tubing Pressure
Cumulative
Cumulative
Casing Pressure
Casing Pressure
Casing
Pressure
Casing
Pressure
Water Cut
Water Cut
Well
Well
Temperature
Temperature

Fig. 6 - Examples of production history from a cold well (well A) and an hot well (well B), which produce oil from the Pertama sand

only. Notice the difference in the Well Head Temperature (WHT) and the casing pressure developments through time which yield

different in cummulative oil production. Hot producer well (well B) has better cummulative production during the production

lifetime.

SPE 57261

SEISMICALLY GUIDED BY-PASSED OIL IDENTIFICATION IN A MATURE STEAMFLOOD AREA, DURI FIELD

11

Injector Producer Observation Less Steam Major fault regions (Feet)
Injector
Producer
Observation
Less Steam
Major fault
regions
(Feet)

Fig. 7 Steam thickness map of the Pertama sand interval generated from steam thickness modeling using Energy average seismic

attribute and the measured steam thickness in the wells.

Less Steam Injector regions Producer Observation Major fault (Feet)
Less Steam
Injector
regions
Producer
Observation
Major fault
(Feet)

Fig. 8 Steam thickness map of the Kedua Baji-Jaga sand interval generated from steam thickness modeling using Energy average

seismic attribute and the measured steam thickness in the wells.

12

R. SIGIT, D. SATRIANA, J.P. PEIFER, A. LINAWATI

SPE 57261

Injector By-passed Oil regions Producer Observation Major fault Horizontal well location Location of the re- development
Injector
By-passed Oil
regions
Producer
Observation
Major fault
Horizontal well
location
Location of the re-
development plans
(Feet)

Fig. 9 By passed oil map of the Pertama sand interval and its respected strategic redevelopment plans.

Injector By-passed Oil regions Producer Observation Major fault Location of the re- development plans (Feet) Fig.
Injector
By-passed Oil
regions
Producer
Observation
Major fault
Location of the re-
development plans
(Feet)
Fig. 10 – By passed oil map of the Kedua-Baji Jaga sand interval and its respected strategic redevelopment plans.