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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) volume 3 Issue 5 May 2016

Effect on strength properties of concrete by


using waste wood powder as partial replacement
of cement
Kamlesh Saini*, Vijay Chaudhary ,Ankush Bisnohi, Harshit Agarwal, Meghalal Ram,Sandeep Saraswat
Poornima College of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Sitapura, Jaipur

ABSTRACT: tons waste materials is produce and burn. We are


Saw dust is also known as wooden dust. It is the result of replacing the fine aggregates (sand) with wooden
cutting, drilling wood .it is composed of fine particles of powderdetermine the properties while replacing the
wood, certain animals, birds and insects which live in wood fine aggregates (sand) with wooden powder. The
such as carpenter ant are also responsible for producing issues of productivity, economy, quality and
the wooden dust. It is produced as a small irregular chips environment, they have to compete with other
or small garbage of wood during sawing of logs of timber construction materials such as cement, aggregates,
into different sizes. In this paper main objective is to study sand etc. However this problem can be solve by
the partial replacement of the wooden dust with the varying replacement of cement and aggregates with some
proportion in the concrete and to check the different cementations material or by partial replacement of or
properties of the concrete by comparing with the normal by replacement of aggregate with waste materials.
concrete. The replacement of fine aggregate (sand) with Now a days lots of invention in the field of concrete
certain wooden powder in concrete that makes the technology that can control the use of Cement in
structure more light in weight. The workability, strength concrete. If there will be the replacement of fine
and durability test are studied in this paper. The most
aggregates (sand) with wooden powder with other
material.Then there will be the less emissions of
important properties of concrete is the compressive
carbon dioxide in environment. As we are using the
strength. Also, increasing the wooden dust in corporation
industrial waste material to produce a better quality
caused decreases in unit weights and compressive strength
concrete. The environmental problem can be solve by
values of mortars with a parallel increase in water
the replacement of industrial wastes and by product.
absorption values at all ages. The replacement of fine
The replacement of fine aggregates (sand) with the
aggregates (sand) with wooden powder gives the properties help of waste materials (wooden powder) can be
and the benefits in the actual production of concrete. beneficial for the structure, environment. Thus, the
properties of concrete are change such as workability,
Key words: Wooden Powder, Fine aggregates,
compression test, elongation index etc.
compressive strength, saw dust
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
I. INTRODUCTION
A.V.S.Sai. Kumar and Krishna Rao has studied on
Generally concrete is a composite mixture of binding Strength of Concrete with Partial Replacement of
material, filler material (coarse & fine aggregate) & aggregates with waste material (wooden powder,
water which combines the whole mass. The aim of sugarcane residue).The concrete is a composite
concrete mix design is to achieve maximum material made from cement, water, fine aggregate
durability and compressive strength as possible as and coarse aggregate. The present paper deals with
without any compromise with the quality. Engineers partial replacement of fine aggregates with waste
and scientists are further trying to increase its limits material (wooden powder, sugarcane residue) which
with the help of innovative chemical admixtures and are having properties used as admixture for making
various supplementary binding & filler materials concrete. They have stated that use of waste material
along with modified manufacturing techniques. (wooden powder, sugarcane residue) as partial
replacement of aggregates. As up to 25% of partial
Cement is a binding material used in construction replacement is beneficial to concrete without loss of
activities. The Use of concrete is increased as rate of strength of cement. They have also done research on
construction increased. Concrete is used in effect of waste material (wooden powder, sugarcane)
construction of different engineering and non on concrete. They have made experiment on 25%
engineering structures (short-term wooden powder as a partial replacement of fine
structures).According to the survey, 10-12 million aggregates. The result was that there was no change

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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) volume 3 Issue 5 May 2016

in the compressive strength and workability is good reduction of sources and an increase in price. In such
as compare to normal concrete. a situation the waste material (wooden powder, sugar
cane) can be an economical alternative to the river
Venkata Sairam Kumar have studied on Partial
sand. Therefore the waste material (wooden powder,
Replacement of fine aggregates with waste material
sugar cane residue) should be used in construction
(wooden powder, sugarcane residue).The waste
works, then the cost of construction would be saved
material such as wooden powder, sugarcane residue ,
significantly and the natural resources would be used
rubber tyres etc. emits the gases that pollutes the
efficiently towards the performance of High
environment . The aim is to use of the waste material
performance concrete materials for sand and cement
with the aggregates without further change in
in concrete. It was observed that when fine
properties of concrete. The aim of the experiment
aggregates was partially replaced with 25%- 50%
was to find the maximum content of waste material
waste material (wooden powder, sugarcane residue)
(wooden powder, sugarcane) used as partial
maximum strength was achieved as partial
replacement of aggregates in concrete. The
replacement for aggregates. This paper content about
percentages of waste material (wooden powder,
the use of waste material (wooden powder, sugar
sugarcane residue) as partially replacement of
cane residue) and properties of that concrete with the
aggregates in concrete were25% - 50%.From the
replacement of aggregates with waste material
experimental studied 25% of partial replacement of
(wooden powder, sugar cane residue).
aggregates with waste material (wooden powder ,
sugarcane residue) improves hardened concrete III. OBJECTIVES
properties.
The main aim of this project is utilization of
H. S. Sureshchandra has studied on the Effect of waste materials (wooden powder) as fine
Replacement of aggregates by waste material aggregates which is mixed (addition & partial
(wooden powder, sugarcane) in Hollow Concrete replacement) with OPC to investigate the affect
Block for Different Mix Proportions. In this paper an of these waste materials on various parameters of
attempt has been made to determine the properties of concrete grade i.e. M30
concrete blocks produced by replacement of To evaluate and compare the results of density,
aggregates by waste material (wooden powder, workability, compressive strength of M30 grade
sugarcane).The both partial (i.e.50% ) and complete of concrete by using wooden powder with
replacement has been tried with and without standard concrete.
admixtures.Mortar is one of the most important To compare the engineering properties of so
components in reinforced concrete structural improved concrete for M30 (addition &
member. In this paper they have investigated on the partial replacement) specimens with controlled
mechanical properties of mortar modified by waste mix concrete.
material (wooden powder, sugarcane residue) as To ensure the optimum use of domestic and
replacing material of fine aggregate. The properties industrial waste and reduce the carbon footprints.
of mortar were investigated with the replacement of The primary objective is to generalize the
25% and 50% of fine aggregate this work has properties of concrete with the use of waste
indicated that 25% replacement level exhibit higher material such as wooden powder.
strength than the controlled sample. . The partially
replacement of these raw materials by waste products IV. MATERIALS & METHOD:
may reduce the energy consumption and also reduce Cement
the environment pollution. The waste material
(wooden powder, sugar cane residue) can be used as Cement is a binder, a material that sets and hardens
packing materials and helps to reduce the total voids and can bind other materials together. Cement is a
content in concrete. However, the used of waste product including lime as the primary curing
material (wooden powder, sugarcane) lead to a ingredient, but it is far from the first material used for
reduced in early strength of concrete .The decrease in cementation. Cement starts to set when mixed with
workability by the addition of waste material water which causes a series of hydration chemical
(wooden powder, sugarcane residue). reactions. The constituents slowly hydrate and the
mineral hydrates solidify; the interlocking of the
Candana Sukesh have stated about partial hydrates gives cements its strength.
replacement of aggregates with waste material
(sugarcane, wooden powder) in concrete.The demand Local Sand
for natural sand in the construction industry has Those fractions from 4.75 mm to 150 micron are
successively increased which has resulted in the termed as fine aggregate. The river sand and crushed

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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) volume 3 Issue 5 May 2016

sand is being used in combination as fine aggregate Curing


conforming to the requirements of IS: 383. The
The specimen is divided in to 2 sets after the
aggregates are the important constituents in concrete.
vibration and The testing for the blocks and cylinders
They give stiffness to the concrete, reduce shrinkage
for 7 days and 28 Days. De -moulding of the
and effect economy. One of the most significant
specimen was done after the 24 hours.
factors for producing workable concrete is a good
gradation of aggregates. Good grading implies that a Testing
sample fraction of aggregates in required part such
Blocks were tested for the compressive strength of
that the sample contains minimum voids. Minimum
paste means less quantity of cement and less water, the block and cylinder at 7 days and 28 days. The
which are further mean increased economy, higher curing and its types plays vital role on the effect of
compressive strength. The main objective of curing is
strength, lower shrinkage and greater durability.
to keep curing saturated or nearly saturated so as to
Coarse aggregate support the hydration of cement, eliminates problem
like plastic shrinkage.
The fractions from 20 mm to 4.75 mm are used as
coarse aggregate. The Coarse Aggregates from
crushed Basalt rock, conforming to IS: 383 is being
used .Also, the properties show minimal presence of Properties of Material:
Sulphates (SO3) which causes formation of Wooden Dust The wooden husk or the saw dust is a
secondary ettringite(calcium sulfo-aluminate) in light weight material Compare to the fine aggregate
concrete leading to its expansion and rupture; thus which makes the structure More light in weight, less
the coarse aggregates are deemed to be innocuous costly and environment friendly.
and are suitable for production of concrete.
V.Methodology
Wooden dust
In order to normalize our results, two sets (2) of
Wooden saw dust concrete consist of roughly equal samples were prepared. One is made of a standard
parts by volume of Portland cement, sand and pine concrete mix and the other of the wood -concrete
saw dust, with water to give a slump of 25 to 50 mm. mix. This is essential to able to compare the testing
it bonds well to ordinary concrete and is a good results to standard credentials.
insulator. Saw dust from
S.N Properties Value
tropical hardwood has used to make sawdust concrete
1 Moisture 5.70%
with a days compressive strength of 30Mpa and a
spitting strength of 2.5Mpa the concrete has density 2 WaterAbsorption 7.30%
of 1490kg/m3. The wooden dust is replaced in 3 Specific Gravity 0.38
varying proportion in place of sand (0%, 5%, 10%,
15%, and 20%). Fineness by wet sieving
4 16.35%
Method retaining on 45 microns

Mixing
The required quantities of material were weighted out TABLE 1
as per proportions and mixing was done as per IS
specification. Drum type mixer was used for mixing
the material.
Moulding
Size of the mould of 150mm * 150 mm *150mm is
used various mix proportion test is done with the
cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and binder
material

Vibrating
For vibrating the filled moulds the machine vibrator
is used for proper compacting of the mould

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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) volume 3 Issue 5 May 2016

pressed as so many liters of water per bag of cement


(50kg).
2 Compressive Strength
Strength of concrete structures are often based upon
sample testing directly on site whenever concrete
pouring is scheduled.Simulating concrete testing
being done on site, samples are subjected to
compressive strength tests using a compressive
strength machine. .Specimens made underwent
curing process for a certain number of days
and were tested in standard intervals specified. The
results indicated that wooden powder -cement -
gravel mix showed high early compressive strength
and seem to degrade till it stabilized shown in
comparison, the standard mix began low and slowly
increased in strength.

Compressive
S.N % Wooden Strength for 28 Days
powder + OPC N/mm2
1 0 31.6
2 5 32.33
FIG.1 Flow Chart of Methodology 3 10 33.3
4 15 35.6
5 20 32.3
Each specimen was paired according on their pre TABLE 2
determined dry times which will range from seven
(7), fourteen (14), and twenty-one (21) days. This is
for the purpose of finding out the correct curing
duration by using the results that will be obtained 40
from a hydraulic press vertical stress test. The data
taken from the testing was utilized for finalization of 35
the study. Comparison was done according to the:
strength, durability and workability. 30
Compressive
During specimen creation, the uses of six (6) sample 25 strength 28
molds were properly labeled by sets. The two mixes Days
20
were made, one of wooden powder-cement-gravel
and the other of standard concrete. Both mixes have 15
the same proportions. After mixes were laid and left
0 5 10 15 20
to dry for a certain number of days, it will be tested
under a compressive testing machine for compressive
strength tests. The set tests help to show the strength % Wooden powder + OPC
of compressive force that can be withstood by the
mixes.
FIG. 2
VI: Results
3. WORKABILITY TEST:
1. Water Cement Ratio
Workability indicates the ease with which a concrete
The ratio of water to cement is termed as water
can be mixed, transported, placed and finished
cement ratio and is expressed as the ratio of the
without segregation. The workability of concrete was
weight and volume of water to the weight or volume
measured by means of slump test as per IS Code
of cement in the concrete mixture, and generally, ex
1199-1989. In the work, at different proportion of

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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) volume 3 Issue 5 May 2016

wooden powder replacement different values of VII: REFERENCES


slump was obtained as listed in table.
1. A.V.S.Sai. Kumar, Krishna Rao A Study on
Slump Value Strength of Concrete with Partial Replacement of
S.N. Mix (Wooden Powder + OPC)
(mm) Cement with Quarry Dust and Metakaolin, March 2014.
2. Venkata Sairam Kumar, Dr. B. Panduranga Rao,
1 0 135 Krishna Sai, Experimental Study on Partial
2 5 140 Replacement of Cement with Quarry Dust
3. H. S. Sureshchandra, G. Sarangapani, and B.
3 10 142
G.Naresh Kumar, Experimental Investigation on the
4 15 145 Effect of fly Ash on Mortar Mixes.
5 20 142 4. Replacement of Sand by Quarry Dust in Hollow
Concrete Block for Different Mix Proportions.
TABLE 3 February 2014.
5. Baboo Rai, Sanjay Kumar, and Kumar Satish, Effect of
Replacement M30 Fly Ash on Mortar Mixes with Quarry Dust as Fine
Aggregate. Advances in Materials Science and
150 Engineering.
6. Tasnia Hoque, Muhammad Harunur Rashid, Md.
145 Rokon Hasan, Ebna Forhad Mondol, Influence of
140 Stone Dust as Partially Replacing Material of Cement
Slump and Sand on some Mechanical Properties of Mortar.
135 April 2013
130 7. A.Krishnamoorthi, and G. Mohan Kumar, Properties of
Green Concrete Mix by Concurrent use of Fly Ash and
0 5 10 15 20 Quarry Dust. August. 2013
8. Chandana Sukesh, Katakam Bala Krishna, P.Sri
Lakshmi Sai Teja, S.Kanakambara Rao, Partial
% Wooden powder + OPC Replacement of Sand with Quarry Dust in Concrete
May 2013.
FIG 3 9. T. Subbulakshmi, B. Vidivelli, Mechanical Properties
of High Performance Concrete in Corporating with
Quarry Wastes August 2014. Ms.Monica C.
Dhoka,Green Concrete: Using Industrial Waste of
Marble Powder, Quarry Dust and Paper Pulp October
VI: CONCLUSIONS
2013
10. M.V.Rama Raju , K.V.Vivek , Dr. T. Siva Shankar
The replacement of fine aggregates by wooden
Reddy and P.Srinivas Reddy, Study of Properties of
powder in concrete generally increases the ultimate
SCC using Quarry Dust and Fly Ash
strength of concrete. The following points are as: 11. Dr. A.D. Pofale1. Sighed Raziuddin Quadri, Effective
The compressive strength, split tensile Utilization of Crusher Dust in Concrete Using Portland
strength and flexural strength were reduced Pozzolana Cement.Manu Santhanam and Subramanian
,S.Current developments in self compacting concrete
as the wooden dust is increased morethan
Indian Concrete Journal, June, Vol., pp11-22.
25%. 12. D. A. Opeyemi , O. O. Makinde, The Suitability of
The replacement of 10% wooden powder Partial Replacement of Cement with Rice Husk Ash
with sand, there is about 10% reduction in
weight and 3% reduction in production cost.
Water absorption capacity increases with
increase % of wooden powder. Larger
absorption of water causes the reduction in
the strength
We are trying to find the optimum proportion of the
wooden powder by which the maximum strength is
achieved and the concrete will have light in weight
compared to the normal concrete and environment
friendly.

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