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ELASTO-PLASTIC BEAMS A N D FRAMES

JAN B,~CKLUND

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Link6ping Institute of Technology,

Link6ping, Sweden

Summary--Ageneral method for analysis of elasto--plastic beams and frames with large displacements

is described in this paper. A hybrid-type beam element with 3d[ at each end is used in the analysis. The

element stiffness matrix is obtained by inversion of a flexibility matrix, which is computed from an

assumed distribution of internal forces along the element axis. This approach with approximations of

the stress fields better imitates varying stiffness along the beam than the traditional approach with

assumed displacement fields.

Large displacement effects are taken into account by updating the geometry (both node co-ordinates

and cross-section shapes) and accurately computing the elongations of each element. Partial yielding is

considered across the height of the beam as well as along the element axis.

B, C, D interpolation matrices aspects of non-linear beam analysis such as

b width of beam rigid-plastic and elastic-plastic beams with finite

E, tangent modulus deflections and non-uniform elastic beams with

F~(/~) stiffness (flexibility) matrix of beam lamina

F,([,) local stiffness (flexibility) matrix of beam large deflections. A characteristic feature of each of

element these works is that they cover only one special

17, stiffness matrix of structure problem, which is usually solved by analytical

F~, F, parts of global stiffness matrix of beam element methods.

due to initial stresses and strain increments,

respectively For nonlinear analysis of beams a numerical

L length of beam element method offers considerable advantages. A realistic

M bending moment, vector of local element forces stress-strain diagram can be used and beams with

m curvature, vector of element deformation complex geometry, boundary conditions and load-

N axial force, vector of beam lamina forces ing can be treated.

n axial elongation, vector of beam lamina defor-

mations This paper presents a hybrid-type finite beam

P(p) global load (displacement) vector element 5 for analysis of plane beams or frames

0 end moments, vector of global element forces comprised of one or two (i.e. reinforced concrete)

q end rotations, vector of global element displace- nonlinear materials. The beams may have varying

ments

R(r) residual force (displacement) vector cross section and very large displacements are

T shear force, transformation matrix allowed for. The assumptions made are listed

U, W global end forces below.

u, w global end displacements (1) Bernoulli's hypothesis holds, i.e. plane cross-

X, Z global co-ordinates sections remain plane. The cross-sections are

x, z local co-ordinates

a chord slope perpendicular to the beam axis, i.e. shear deforma-

A increment tions are neglected.

strain (2) Curvatures are small but axial strains may be

v Poisson's ratio large. Within an element, additional moments due

tr stress

to axial force and axial shortening caused by

bowing are disregarded.

INTRODUCTION (3) The cross-sections are simply or doubly

THE NONLINEAR behaviour of beams has attained symmetric. Lateral buckling and local buckling do

considerable interest during the two last decades. not occur.

Recent exponents of this interest are the papers by (4) The loads increase monotonically. Local

Verma and Krishna Murty, 1 Campbell and Charl- unloading is taken into account. All loads act at the

269

270 JAN B A C K L U N D

b u t e d axial and t r a n s v e r s e load m u s t be d i s c r e t i z e d

to c o n c e n t r a t e d loads. Act = E,A,:. = E, z a m + E,n. (4)

LOCAL ELEMENT MATRIX increments of the sectional forces a M ( x ) and a N ( x ) in

In this section the local tangent stiffness matrix FI of terms of a m ( x ) and an(x),

the element is derived. This matrix gives the relationship

between increments AM = [AM,AMzAN~]' of local ele- raM(x)] = .f fa bz] dz _ f [ .bz 2 E,bz]. ram(x)]

ment forces and increments a m = [am,am2an2]' of the a N ( x ) J .I [ Atrb J - J UE, bz E,b ] az[ an(x) J

corresponding deformations, Fig. 1. The element forces

(5)

selected are statically independent. The element matrix F,

thus describes deformations only (rigid body motions are AN = F~An. (6)

eliminated).

The increments a M ( x ) and a N ( x ) of bending moment Here F, is the tangent stiffness matrix of the beam lamina.

and axial force at a section x of the element, Fig. 1, are The inverse relationship is

assumed to vary along the element axis as

a n = ~ AN (7)

x x 1Faro,1 where /~ = FF' is the tangent flexibility matrix of the

[am(x)l = I L E O//aM q (1) lamina.

UaN(x)/ 0 0 1J LAN2J

Generally, numerical integration must be performed

when computing the tangent stiffness matrix F,. There-

or in matrix notation fore, the beam lamina is thought of as built up from a

number of fibres of finite thicknesses and with rectangular

AN = CAM. (2) cross-sections, see /~g~dh? Within each of these fibres

Simpson's integration scheme (three-point integration) is

A beam lamina at a section x of the element is considered, used to evaluate the contributions to F,.

Fig. 2. The increment A~ of the strain ~(x, z) at a distance The end rotations am, and a m : and the elongation anz

z below a fixed centre C is expressed in increments can be directly integrated from the curvature a m (x) and

am (x) and a n (x) of curvature and axial strain at C by the the axial strain a n ( x ) according to the formulas

Bernoulli hypothesis as

a ~ ( x , z) = zam(x)+an(x).

(3) /am2/=fo L x

-~-

Am(x)

an(x)]dx (8)

The corresponding stress increment is obtained by Lanai 0

AM 1 AM 2

Am1 Aw(x) ~ ~ ' - ' ~

_~u (x) m2 AN

-~-~An 2

Z

FIG. 1. Element in local co-ordinate system lxz.

An

/Am

t

dx=l Ae I

~b(z L

z

FIG. 2. Beam lamina with monosymmetric cross-section. (a) Lamina of original length 1. (b)

Cross-section.

Large deflection analysis of elasto-plastic beams and frames 271

Am = fo L C A n dx. (9) strongly nonlinear. (The load is assumed to be discretized

so that no load acts between the nodes.) These relations

The tangent flexibility matrix f~ of the element is obtained hold also for linearly elastic beams with varying

from equations (2), (7) and (9). cross-section along the beam axis. As an example a

cantilever with constant width and linearly varying depth,

Fig. 3, was analysed by the two alternative models.

Am = ( f f - c'f~C dx)AM (10) Table 1 compares the errors in rotation m at the right

end and in stresses ~ra and o,, at the extreme fibres of the

Am = f~AM. (11) end sections for a bending moment M acting at the free

end. The results were obtained using small deflection

In the general case the elements of f~ cannot be exactly theory. The errors are related to the exact values given by

evaluated. A numerical integration must be employed. For the Navier beam theory.

this integration, as well as for the integration of the

stiffness matrix of the lamina, the Simpson integration

scheme is used. This scheme has been preferred to more >X

refined Gaussian quadrature methods since it traces

yielding in the extreme fibres of the sections and at the

ends of the elements. If three integration points are used L

in each element the integral in equation (10) is replaced by

the sum

FIG. 3. Linearly elastic cantilever with varying stiffness.

f , = L ( c ' f ~ C ) . - o +--~(C

4L ,f, C)._L,2+~(C

L ,f, C) . . . . (12) GLOBAL E L E M E N T MATRIX

In this section the global tangent stiffness matrix F, of

The tangent stiffness matrix F~ is then obtained by the element is derived. This matrix gives the relationship

inversion of the flexibility matrix between increments AQ = [AQ~AQ~A W, A W2AU~AU:]'

of global element forces, Fig. 4(b), and increments

F, = f,-'. (13) Aq = [Aq~Aq2Aw~Aw2Au~Au2]' of the associated global

displacements, Fig. 4(a).

In a conventional finite element analysis 7 the displace- The relationships between increments of the element

ments (or the strains) rather than the internal forces are deformations and increments of the global displacements

approximated by interpolation functions. For the model can be written, Figs. 4(a), 4(c) and 5.

described above a linearly varying curvature and a

constant axial strain result in the strain-displacement Am~ = A q l -- Aa (16)

relationships

Am2 = A q z - Aa (17)

4 6x 2 6x 1 ] rAmq

[Am(x)] L2 L L2 0 An2 = (Aw2 - Awl) sin (a + Aa)

= /amq

tAn(x)J 0 0 LAn2J +(Au2-AuOcos(a + Aa)-L(1-cosAa). (18)

or An = B A m (14)

consecutive states. Equation (18) is readily deduced by

and the tangent stiffness matrix means of Fig. 5.

For small increments Aa of the chord slope the

following relationships hold

F,d = fo'- B ' ~ B dx. (15)

-f- ~ ~ (19)

The superiority of the hybrid-type element presented

above is obvious in cases of beams whose stiffness varies

along the axis. Consider for example an elasto-plastic

Aa = l [ ( A w e - Aw0 cos a - (Au2 - Au0 sin a ] (20)

beam in the range of small deflections. For this beam the

elements field (%) (%) (%)

Displacement 6.16 37.46 37.46

2 Force 0.27 0.00 0.00

Displacement 0.73 7.92 15,06

4 Force 0.02 0.00 0.00

Displacement 0.06 1.77 4.85

272 JAN B.~CKLUND

wI Q1

L+AL ~ TM

[&w 2

U2+AU2

Z (a) (b) w2+z~w2~ Q2+AQ2

r I ~X

N~I'

L + & n 2 ~ ~ ~~' ~ 2 ~

" m2+A~m2~M2{AM2

T+ &T2/ ~ N 2 + A N 2

Z

(c)

FIG. 4. Beam element in global system at two consecutive states. (a) Geometrical quantities. (b) Global

element forces. (c) Local element forces.

J ' ~X

An= = (Aw~ - Aw,) sin (a + Aa)

Z

equation (21) in the derivation of the element matrix, but it

is retained in the computation of the element elongation

An2 after the incremental equations have been solved. By

use of equations (16), (17), (20), and (21) the following

see Fig b ~ - relationships between incremental deformations and

Y deflections are obtained (Act is neglected in (21)).

(a)

I-Aq,7

[m,l=Fio

Amz|

An2J

1 c,L

0

clL

-s

-_c,L

c/L

s

--s,/,LL

-c

s,'L]

s/L[ / aq2/

|aw,l

/awq

c /Au,/

~--~-~ Au2-ku 1

LAu~J

i w (22)

s = sin c~ c =cos~

Am = TAq. (23)

L (1 - c o s A e O ~ 2

Statical equivalence between global and local element

(b) forces for the two consecutive states gives

chord. (b) Detail of end 2. Q2 = M2

Large deflection analysis of elasto-plastic b e a m s and f r a m e s 273

W2 = N2 sin a - T cost~

U1 = - N1 cos a - T sin s T h e total element tangent stiffness matrix in the global

[/2 = N2 cos a + T sin a (24) s y s t e m is n o w obtained by combination of equations (23),

(30), and (32) together with the local relationship

and A M = F j A m as

Q2+ AQ: = M2 + AM2 =(T'FLT+F~)Aq=(F.+F~)Aq=FgAq. (33)

W~ + A Wt = - (N~ + ANt) sin (a + A s )

+(T + AT)cos(a +As) T h e tangent stiffness matrix is thus c o m p o s e d of two parts

W2 + AW2 = (N2 + AN2) sin (a + A s ) F. a n d F,, corresponding to strain increments and initial

- ( T + AT) c o s ( s +As)

stresses, respectively. This is characteristic of geometri-

Ut + A U t = - ( N , + ANt) cos (a + A s ) cally nonlinear problems, see Zienkiewicz? T h e relation-

- ( T + A T ) sin (a +Aa)

ships used in the derivation are s u m m a r i z e d in a

U2 + A U2 = (N2 + AN2) cos ( s + A s ) transformation diagram, Fig. 6.

+ (T + A T ) sin ( s +As)

(25) SOLUTION PROCEDURE

w h e r e Nt = N~ a n d T = (Mr + M2)IL. T h e increments AQ W h e n all element tangent matrices have been c o m p u t e d

o f global forces are obtained by subtraction of equation according to equation (33) a n d assembled, a set of linear

(24) f r o m (25). algebraic equations is obtained, which can be written as

AQ2 = AM2

AW~ = A T cos a - ANt sin a - T A a sin a - N t A a cos a Here, A p and Ap are force and displacement increments,

AW2 = - - A T Cos a + AN2 sin s + T A a sin a + N2Aa cos s

AUt = - A T sin a - AN~ cos a - T A a cos a + N~Aa sin s

AU2 = AT sin s + AN2 cos a + T A a cos a - N~Aa sin a. Tt

l -

(26)

H e r e b y , t h e following trigonometrical relationships,

which hold for small As, were utilized

cos ( s + A a ) ~ cos s - A s sin s . (28)

fibre lamina element element

local global

Insertion of A T = (AM, + A M D I L and N ~ = Nt = N into

equation (26) yields FIG. 6. B e a m e l e m e n t transformations.

o

1

o

o laU~l

+ o 1

i~w,/ ciL c/L -s LAN~J rs-N I

(29)

IAwH I-elL -~IL ~ r~+Nc I

/au,/ I-~/L -~/L - rc+Ns I

LAU2J L s/L s/L Tc-NsJ

element assembly. D u e to the geometrical nonlinearities

T h e last term of equation (30) is essential in stability considered, it is not satisfactory to use only a step-by-step

problems only. In s u c h problems the axial force N is m e t h o d in the analysis. Some iterative procedure m u s t be

m u c h larger t h a n the s h e a r force T. Neglecting T, a n d incorporated to reduce truncation errors and to a s s u r e

using equation (20), the term AQ~ can be simplified to equilibrium of the structure at various load levels.

There exists an almost infinite n u m b e r of possible

1 combinations of various step-by-step and iteration techni-

A Q , =~-

ques for solving nonlinear problems. To the a u t h o r ' s

knowledge a thorough review a n d c o m p a r i s o n of s u c h

IO 0 0 0 0 ] [-Aq, -] m e t h o d s h a s not been carried out so far. In the following,

0 0 0 0 0 laq~l a simple step-by-step procedure is u s e d together with a

Nc ~ Nsc

cllaw,l (31)

-IVsc I I a w H

combination of ordinary and modified N e w t o n - R a p h s o n

iterations see Fig. 7.

svu Ns2 -Ns~//Au,/ In the N e w t o n - R a p h s o n iteration s c h e m e , residual

N s 21 LAu2 J forces R are c o m p u t e d as the difference between applied

274 JAN B)~CKLUND

length of

IIncreasethe load by AP~

~Establish the tangent stiff-

/I

Ill //

further

~ t ness of the structure

&

I

j

l

AP=FtA p or R=Ftr

total strains =~+A and total

displacements p=p+~p (or p=p+r)

CHARACTERISTIC DISPLACEMENT

i

Update coordinates,element lengths I

FIG. 7. C o m b i n e d step-by-step and iteration procedure.

and cross-sections

i

loads (P) and the s u m (EQ) of element forces trans- ]

f o r m e d to the global system. 7 Calculate total stresses o. [

R = P - EQ. (35)

Integrate to moments and axial

forces in each element [

The residual forces are applied to the structure and

Calculate residual forces R]

corresponding displacements r are calculated

YES

Should iteration be performed?

R = F,r. (36)

forces, n e w residual forces are c o m p u t e d etc. T h e Print results for actual, load

procedure is stopped w h e n s o m e c h o s e n criteria are level

fulfilled, see i.e. B e r g a n ?

I

After the displacement increments Ap have been Has the load level assign- [. NO

solved from equation (34) the local deformations are ed been reached?

calculated by m e a n s of equations (16)-(18). T h e n the

I

strain increments Ae of the individual fibres are c o m p u t e d

according to equation (3) and added to previously

calculated values of e. Total stresses tr in the fibres are

obtained from the total strains using the s t r e s s - s t r a i n

relationship, and integrated to total m o m e n t s and axial FIG. 8. Flow chart of nonlinear f r a m e program R A M F E M .

forces at the three integration points of each element. T h e

section forces calculated in this w a y are generally the iteration procedure. It should be noted that the true

inconsistent with the a s s u m p t i o n s of c o n s t a n t axial force and not the nominal s t r e s s - s t r a i n relationship is required

and linearly varying bending m o m e n t . T h e s e deviations in the input data 9 if large strain problems are to be solved.

cancel h o w e v e r as the n u m b e r of elements are increased.

Finally, another r e m a r k will be m a d e about the integration CANTILEVER WITH CONCENTRATED LOADS

of stresses to bending m o m e n t s and axial forces at the T h e cantilever in Fig. 9 is loaded by two concentrated

three integration points of each element. Before this loads 0.85 P and 1.35 P. The b e a m h a s a u n i f o r m

integration is p e r f o r m e d the shape of the cross-section is rectangular cross-section with width b = 0 . 0 5 m and

updated. N e w fibre widths, thicknesses, and co-ordinates height h = 0 . 0 0 0 2 5 m . Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s is E =

are c o m p u t e d using transverse strain increments Aey and 207 G N / m 2. The bending and axial stiffnesses are held

A~ c o n s t a n t throughout the entire load history. Fig. 9 s h o w s

the calculated displaced position of the b e a m for a load

A~y = Ae~ = - vAe (37) multiplier P = 4.45N. In Table 2 the results are c o m p a r e d

with values of the displacements calculated by Frisch-

where v is P o i s s o n ' s ratio. If the fibre is in the plastic F a y a and Manuel and L e e ? ' In all, 10 steps and 30

range, v is set equal to 0.5. iterations were used.

A computer program designated R A M F E M , based on

the theory presented above, has been developed by the SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH

author and T~tgrdors. 9 By this program nonlinear b e a m s UNIFORM LOAD

and f r a m e s can be analysed by an optional combination of T h e b e a m in Fig. 10 is uniformly loaded and hinged at

steps and iterations. T h e main steps of the program are both ends. T h e b e a m material is elastic-ideally plastic

s u m m a r i z e d in a flow chart, Fig. 8. Here R and r are with Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s E = 220 G N / m 2 and yield stresses

residual forces and associated displacements c o m p u t e d in try = 300 M N / m 2. Fig. 10 displays relationships between

Large deflection analysis of elasto-plastic b e a m s and f r a m e s 275

displacements displacements displacements displacements

in B in B in C in C

Manuel a n d L e e H 0.206 0.631 0.781 1.701

RAMFEM 9 0.200 0.638 0.787 1.716

load-deflection curve for elasto-plastic b e a m with non-

i linear g e o m e t r y asymptotically approaches the curve

0 C corresponding to a plastic m e m b r a n e . T h e n u m b e r s of

steps u s e d in the various calculations are s h o w n by the

small circles in Fig. 10. B e t w e e n 3 a n d 5 iterations were

p e r f o r m e d within each step. In Fig. 11 the variations of

stresses in the e x t r e m e fibres of the central section

according to T i m o s h e n k o and W o i n o w s k y - K r i e g e r '2 and

R A M F E M 9 are compared. O n e half of the b e a m was

divided into five elements of equal lengths.

T h e simply supported reinforced concrete b e a m in Fig.

C ~ 1 . 3 5 P 12(a) is subjected to four concentrated loads. It has a

rectangular cross-section and is reinforced by two ~b6

steel bars, Fig. 12(b). A n experimentally obtained

s t r e s s - s t r a i n diagram for the reinforcement is s h o w n in

FIG. 9. Slender cantilever with concentrated loads. Fig. 13(a), see P e t e r s s o n ? 3 For the concrete the following

test results were o b t a i n e d : "

load intensity W and central deflection w for various

a s s u m p t i o n s . In all c a s e s the displacements are small Initial m o d u l u s of elasticity Eb = 25 G N / m 2

c o m p a r e d with the b e a m length L = 0.5 m. T h e results M a x i m u m c o m p r e s s i v e stress trbc = 25 M N / m 2

obtained by R A M F E M favourably c o m p a r e both with an M a x i m u m tensile stress trb, = 2.3 M N / m ~.

analytical solution '2 for linearly elastic b e a m s with

nonlinear g e o m e t r y a n d with yield hinge theory of b e a m s B a s e d on t h e s e values a third degree polynomial was

with linear geometry. (The p r o g r a m R A M F E M allows a s s u m e d for the s t r e s s - s t r a i n relationship of the concrete,

MN/m

elastic beam / plastic ~//

12 / membrane/ /

W Timoshenko / / / /

1.5 IIIlITIINlllll[llllllllilllllllllll[l[llllNIINllw

~ e l a s t 'lc - I / "/--

/ 2c elasto-plastic

L ~ beam 9 / / / beam ~FEM9

H E= 220 GN/m2 / /

~l.0- O'y= 300 MN/m2 / /

z L: o.5o m / /

0.01m / /

bo lm ////

0.5- // THEORY

first

yielding--~ yield hinge theory ~

~ ~ ! e~aSo~p~ash~tS beam

CENTRAL DEFLECTION w

276 JAN BACKLUND

IHIIHtll l;:IIIHII:H~IiIH:H:H:IIIIIJ:[J

"2'OoOLl

t o

~ _

/

~ . . . .

~ OB' TlmsnenKo

~2

~

~_ L/2

A

~ 5/2 ,';

: - o o o o a o c '- a ~ ~-o o

/~-flrst yielding ~-- B' RAMFEM9~ :

to 200~ /

to

o A ,R A M F ~

E~ i00-

to ! . . . . , ' ' , ,

~ ,, / LOAD INTENSITY W

0

0 5 ~ 1 5 ~/m 2 0

-i00-

-200-

~x-- OA, Timoshenko 12

-300-

FIG. 11. Variation of stresses in top fibre A and bottom fibre B in central section of simply supported

beam.

0.58m kN P

F 0.30m ~

0.10m

I TP i0

IP 0.70m

r

....... 0.3 5m

(a)

" ..... RAMFEM 9

0.10ml [L~.:.,:~

~ ~ i ' : t :~.......... I0.O82m

0.20m

o.8oi 0.602 m

FIG. 12. Simply supported reinforced concrete beam. (a) FIG. 14. Experimentally '3 and numerically obtained rela-

Load and geometry. (b) Cross-section. tionship between load P and deflection PB at point B of

reinforced concrete beam.

Fig. 13(b). Hereby the ultimate compressive strain was

set equal to ebc = 2.5960. The deflection at point B of the

beam, Fig. 12 computed by R A M F E M is compared with STEEL FRAME

experimentally obtained values 13in Fig. 14. In the author's The pitched roof portal frame in Fig. 15 is subjected to

opinion, the results are satisfactory considering the one horizontal and seven vertical concentrated loads. The

uncertainties associated with the experimental data of the cross-section of the frame is shown in Fig. 15 and the

concrete. The computation by R A M F E M required a total assumed stress-strain diagram of the steel (steel of BS

of 10 steps and 33 iterations for four elements. 968, see Sawko and Wilde '4) is given in Fig. 16.

MN/m 2 O

500-

25O

/ MN/m 2

10

FIG. 13. Stress-strain diagrams. (a) Steel. (b) Concrete.

Large deflection analysis of elasto-plastic beams and frames 277

P P

o

P

!30m 1 P

PI j ~ "

0.50P . # / v - - u . ~ m

~ .

--<~. j

pI h=O .89m

~'~0 50P

0.9

15.24m

2.82P 3.18P

FIG. 15. Pitched roof portal steel frame.

FIG. 18. Displacements just prior to collapse. Linear

geometry.

MN/m 2

moments and, consequently the ultimate load. Spreading

4OO of plastic zones leads to a smooth load-displacement

curve.

yield stress 0y=434 MN/m 2 The decrease in carrying capacity due to second order

2OO effects (nonlinear geometry) should be pointed out, see

yield strain ey=2.15.10 -3

Fig. 17. The elasto--plastic solution obtained by RAM-

FEM with second order effects included gave an ultimate

e 0.02 0.04 0.06 load which is 27% below that of the first order solution.

Y The displacements just prior to collapse obtained by the

linear geometry are given to scale in Fig. 18.

FIG. 16. Stress-strain diagram for high yield stress steel to

BS 968TM.

REFERENCES

1. M. K. VERMA and A. V. KI~SrtNA MURTY, Int. J.

,0

mech. Sci. 15, 183 (1973).

// LINEAR GEOMETRY 2. T. I. CAMPBELL and T. M. CHARLTON, Int. J. mech.

Sci. 15, 415 (1973).

3. S. S. GILL, Int. J. mech. Sci. 15, 465 (1973).

4. P. G. HODGE, JR., Int. J. mech. Sci. 16, 385 (1974).

5. J. BACKLUND, Finite Element Analysis o f Nonlinear

Structures, Diss. No. 129, Chalmers University of

Technology, Grteborg (1973).

INEAR GEOMETRY 6. L. ]~GARD, Analytical and Numerical Analyses o[

Nonlinear Beam Elements, Diss. No. 152, Chalmers

University of Technology, Grteborg (1974).

30 RAMFEM9 7. O. C. ZIENrdEWlCZ, The finite Element Method in

Engineering Science, McGraw-Hill, London (1971).

Sawko and Wilde 15

8. P.G. BERGAN,Nonlinear Analysis o[ Plates Consider-

ing Geometric and Material Effects, The Norwegian

Institute of Technology, Division of Structural

0.5 1.0 m

Mechanics, Report No. 72-1, Trondheim (1972).

FIG. 17. Load-displacement curves of portal frame. 9. J. BACKLUND and H. TAGNFORS, R A M F E M - - A

Computer Program for Analysis o[ Nonlinear Plane

Beams and Frames. (in Swedish), Chalmers Univer-

The frame was analyzed by RAMFEM using a sity of Technology, Department of Structural

subdivision into 10 elements as indicated in Fig. 15. Two Mechanics, Publication 75:7, Grteborg (1975).

different calculations were performed; one including both 10. R. FRISCH-FAY, J. appl. Mech. 28, 87 (1%1).

geometrical and material nonlinearities (11 steps, 34 11. F. S. MANUEL and S. LEE, J. Franklin Inst. 285, 452

iterations), the other material nonlinearities only (7 steps, (1%8).

21 iterations). The horizontal displacement h of joint D 12. S. TIMOSHENKOand S. WOINOWKSY--KRIEGER,Theory

obtained for the two cases for different load levels are in of Plates and Shells, (2nd edit.) McGraw-Hill, New

Fig. 17 compared with values computed by Sawko and York (1959).

Wilde. '5 In their analysis reduction of the yield moment 13. H. PETERSSON, Bending Stiffness of Slabs in Shear

M, due to axial force was not considered. Further, Wall Structures, Chalmers University of Technology,

non-elasticity was confined to (strain hardening) hinges, Department of Building Construction, G6teborg, to be

i.e. spreading of plastic zones was disregarded. Both these published.

effects are included in the present method. As can be seen 14. F. SAWKO and A. M. B. WILDE, Proc. ICE 37, 195

from Fig. 17 there is a significant difference between the (1%7).

two solutions. 15. F. SAWKOAnd A. M. B. WILDE, I A B S E Publ 29-i, 51

The axial force considerably reduces the ultimate (1%9).

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