You are on page 1of 7

Legal Medicine - outline

Legal Medicine that branch of medicine which deals Identification of Person : hair, clothing, frequent place of
with the application of medical knowledge to the visit, gait, mannerism, complexion, ambidextrous,
purposes of law and in the administration of justice. nutrition, marks, race, stature

Forensic medicine application of medicine to elucidate Bertillon system of ID basis:

legal problems. (fora) 1) Skeleton is fully grown at age 20.
2) No two human beings have bones exactly alike.
Distinction between Medical Dr. & Medico-Legal : 3) Measurements may be taken by simple
1) MD sees an injury with a view to cure it; instrument.
medico-legal sees it as a cause.
2) MD diagnoses an ailment to provide treatment; Portrait parle : spoken picture : verbal description.
medico-legal sees it to testify to it.
3) MD usually ignores minor/trivial injuries; Scientific Methods of ID
medico-legal views it as a whole in order to 1) Fingerprinting : basic types : whorls, arches loops
deduce what really happened. and composite. Lifting prints
4) An MD performs autopsy in order to learn the 2) Dental : wisdom teeth erupts by 18. 32teeth
medical cause of death ; the medico-legal Determination of age .. dental records
autopsy, while determining cause of death, is occlosal,mesial, distal, buccal, lingual surfaces
more concerned with the legal implications of 3) Handwriting : exact signature usually forged
the fact of death. 4) Skeleton : determination of age .. cranial sutures,
sex (greater sciatic notch)
Purpose in studying Legal Medicine : (my own view) So 5) Determination of age
that the lawyer may be familiar with the common 6) Determination of sex : Social, Genital, Gonadal,
medical words/injuries/conditions which he will Chromosomal Test (Jeffrey
encounter in practice. 7) Blood Splatter
8) Blood
PD 856, Dec 23, 1975 (Sanitation Code) provides that a) Blood type table
Health officers , Med. Officers of law enforcement OxO = O A,B,AB
units and medical staff of accredited hospitals are O x A = O, A B, AB
allowed to perform autopsies. . Autopsy required : O x B = O, B A, AB
when required by law, upon order of court, upon A x A = O, A B, AB
request of police, sol.gen. , or next of kin. A x B = O, A, B, AB
B x B = O, B A, AB
Methods of Preserving Evidence : O x AB = A, B O, AB
A x AB = A, B, AB O
1) Photographs, audio/video, Xerox etc ; 9) Hairs and fibers poison traces
2) Sketching 10) DNA rules of evidence
3) Description ; 11) e-Docs rules on e-docs : fax is not e-doc (MCC
4) Manikin method Indl Sales vs SSangYong). Rules re identification
5) Special methods : embalming, soft tissue in by proving it was digitally signed etc does not
formalin, semen/blood samples in sealed apply to criminal cases
containers 12) effect of lighting : can ID a person at 16 yds by
moonlight, 100 yds by sunlight
Methods of detecting deception :
Importance of determination of death :
1) Devices which record the psycho-physiological Civil personality extinguished ; succession (Art 43
response : NCC) ; Partnership ; Agency (except those coupled w/
a) Use of polygraph : can you compel a interest) ; Criminal liability ; personal obligations.
person to take this test ?
b) Use of word association test Determination of Death :
c) Use of psychological stress evaluator a. Brain Death : flat EEG, no reflexes
2) Use of drugs that try to inhibit the inhibitor : b. Cardio-respiratory death
a) Truth Serum (hyoscine hydrobromide c. Eclectic : combination of the above
depresses nervous system)
b) Narcoanalysis or narcosynthesis (sodium Chronological Sequence of Putrefaction :
c) Intoxication .. in vino veritas 12 hrs : Rigor Mortis all over
3) Hypnotism (not reliable) 24 hrs : Rigor absent
4) By observation ; flushing, fidgeting, behavior 48 hrs : Ova of flies; trunk bloated, face
5) Scientific interrogation, catch them in a lie discolored and swollen
6) Confession 72 hrs : Whole body swollen; hairs/nails loose
1 week : Soft viscera putrefied
1975 Tokyo Declaration forbade medical doctors from 2 weeks : Soft tissues largely gone
participating intorture. 1 month : Body skeletonized
Kinds of Death Proximate (Secondary) Cause : the cause of death which
1) Clinical or somatic death resulted from the immediate cause. Ex. Stab wound
2) Molecular or cellular death : 3-6 hrs later caused infection which was fatal. Infection is the
3) Apparent death or suspended animation proximate cause of death.

Signs of Death : Classes : Natural and Violent death

1) Cessation of heart action and circulation
2) Cessation of respiration Pathological Classification of Death, generally classified as
3) Algor Mortis (cooling of body by 1 C per hour) to Heart, Lung and Brain :
4) Changes in skin : loss of elasticity, flattening of 1) Death from syncope : sudden and fatal cessation
muscles, no reaction to heat. of heart/circulation .. may be due to:
5) Changes in and about the eye : no corneal Disease ; aneurism, embolism, hypertension.
reflex, clouding of cornea. 2) Death from Asphyxia : lack of oxygen .. may be
6) Action of heat on skin due to : pneumonia, choking on food, or
strangulation (hyoid bone fracture) ; lividity,
Changes in the body when it dies : fingernails & lips blue
1) Primary flaccidity 3) Death from Coma : brain inactivity .. may be due
2) Rigor mortis (3-6 to 24-48 hrs) to : tumors, concussion, apoplexy (hemorrhage),
3) Secondary flaccidity strokes, poisons, drugs.

Cadaveric Spasm : distinguished from Rigor : CS Chapter VII

immediate appearance/RM 3hrs ; CS particular
muscles/RM all muscles ; Special Deaths : Judicial death (execution) Electric Chair,
Lethal Injection, Firing Squad ; euthanasia ; suicide.
Changes in Blood :
1) Coagulation Chapter VIII
2) Lividity : hypostatic and diffusion
Disposal of dead body devolves upon 1) spouse ; 2) next of
Diff. between Lividity & Contusion (bruise) : skin kin ; 3) authorities
abrasion , L in epidermis/C below epidermis , Methods of disposal : embalming ; burial (inhumation);
elevated , blood outside veins. disposal at sea ; cremation
Physical Injuries : effect of stimulus on the body
Lividity : pooling of blood. Post mortem lividity Causes of physical injuries :
develops 3-6 hrs after death. a) physical violence ;
Hypostasis of internal organs : b) heat or cold ;
Digestion stops : Digestion of food : 3-4 hrs after meal c) electricity ;
What happens to the body when it dies (Determination d) chemicals ;
of Time of Death): muscles Rigor , blood coagulate, e) radioactivity ;
autodigestive, putrefaction and bloating, f) Barotrauma (change in air pressure) ;
Liver Temperature : decreases 1.5 degrees F per hour to g) infection.
room temperature. Classification of wounds :
Presence of maggots : As to severity :
Presumption of Death 7yrs / 10 yrs to open succession a) mortal ; and
Survivorship : Rule 131 (jj) RoC does not apply to b) non-mortal
succession. As to kind of instrument used :
Declaration of absence 3yrs or 5yrs w/administrator 1) blunt instrument (contusion a.k.a. black eye,
Declaration of presumptive death for remarriage : 4 yrs hematoma or blood cyst)
or 2 yrs under exceptional circumstances 2) sharp instrument (stab, incise, puncture)
Include RPC Art 4 3) laceration (tearing)
4) heat/cold (burn, scald, frostbite)
Inquest officer is the one charged with investigating the 5) chemical explosion (shrapnel)
manner of death 6) infections
Stages of medico-legal investigation : Crime Scene Depth of wound :
Investigation and Autopsy. 1) superficial ;
Autopsy required in : 2) deep (penetrating and perforating)
1) Violent death ; Type of wound :
2) Accidental death ; 1) Closed wound :
3) Suicides ; a) superficial : petecheia; contusion;
4) Death unattended by physician (even in hematoma.
hospital) ; b) Deep : musculo-skeletal ; hemorrhage ;
5) Unnatural deaths. cerebral concussion.
2) Open wound : abrasion; incise, stab, puncture;
Causes of Death : lacerated
Immediate (Primary) Cause : the initial cause which also Special types of wound :
caused the death ; and 1) Defensive wounds ;
2) Patterned ;
3) Self-inflicted. Exam of dead body : if wound post/ante mortem, if wound
Legal Classifications of wounds : was mortal, if death was accelerated by disease, if
Mutilation accidental or homicidal.
Serious Physical Injuries Examination of wound :
Less serious physical injuries 1) Character of wound abrasion, contusion,
Slight physical injuries incision etc.
Musculo-skeletal injuries : 2) Location of wound
1) Sprain damage to ligaments 3) Depth
2) Dislocation physical displacement of bone 4) Condition of surroundings
3) Fracture 5) Extent
a) Simple - crack 6) Direction
b) Compound- multiple cracks 7) Number of wounds
c) Comminuted broken in pieces 8) Other conditions : evidence of struggle, position
d) Linear usually in flat bones of body, degree of hemorrhage
e) Spiral spiral pattern, in long bones Determination whether post or ante mortem :
f) Pathological due more to disease Hemorrhage ; inflammation ; regeneration ; retraction of
Fatality of wounds : edges of wound
1) Hemorrhage
2) Mechanical injury to vital organs Chapter XI
3) Shock Head and neck Injuries :
1) Direct (coup) occur at the site of application of
Complications arising from Injuries : force
1) Shock : disturbance of fluid balance resulting 2) Indirect injuries :
to peripheral deficiency.. caused by a) injury to a. contre-coup develops at the opposite site of
nervous system ; b) anoxemia (reduction of application of force
oxygen-carrying capacity of blood ; and c) b. remote injuries force applied to parts
endothelial damage which have no relation to head (fall on
2) Hemorrhage buttocks may cause basal fracture of skull)
3) Infection c. locus minoris Resistencia injury is not at
4) Embolism : air and fat embolus site of force but at the path of least
Healing of wounds : resistance.
a. Primary (1st) intention when there is minimal 3) Coup-contre-coup : (direct and indirect)
tissue loss with no infection. Scab forms 24hrs combination of injuries
b. Secondary Intention more extensive injury,
scar tissue forms Fractures of skull
c. Aberrated Healing .. may result to : 1) Fissure linear fracture, cause by blunt
1) Formation of Exuberant Granulation instrument, radiating cracks
granulation may protrude to prevent 2) Localize depressed fracture signature
closure of wound. fracture, same shape as weapon used
2) Keloid formation abnormal amount of 3) Penetrating injuries
collagen. May be hereditary 4) Comminuted fractures multiple cracks = severe
3) Stricture contraction of fibrous tissue force
4) Fistula or sinus formation Fistula is 5) Indented fracture indentation of skull, usually
communication between an inner cavity in children, when skull is still malleable
and the outside. Sinus is a tract of 6) Gutter fracture could be caused by a glancing
infection traversing the inner part of the bullet
body. 7) Bursting fracture two fractures parallel to two
points of contact
Chapter X
Trepanation boring a hole into skull to access the brain
Rules for examination of wounds: Intercranial hemorrhage even without fractures,trauma
1) all injuries must be described 1) Extradural or epidural - almost exclusively due
2) comprehensive description and to trauma fracture causes laceration of vessels
sketch/photograph grooved at inner table of cranium
3) independent observations 2) Subdural essentially venous or capillary, many
General Investigation of surroundings : exam of place, causes small blood vessels.
clothing, witnesses, wounding instrument, photo or 3) Subarachnoidal bleeding into the space
sketch of scene etc. between the arachnoidal membrane and pia
Exam. of wounded body : age of wound, what weapon mater of the brain
caused the wound, whether accidental, homicidal or 4) Cerebral bleeding in gray matter.
suicidal. Brain :
Exam of living body : if injury is dangerous, if it will 1) Laceration of brain coup/contre-coup injuries
cause deformity, if it will cause shock, if other 2) Edema accumulation of fluid in brain
complications. 3) Concussion blow to head
4) Compression due to hemorrhage
Face: generally, injuries to the fact heals fast.
Nose : broken nose, fractured nasal bone. 1) Heat cramps : involuntary spasmodic contraction of
Ear : rupture of eardrum, disorientation, infection. muscles due to dehydration and loss of chlorides by
Mouth : lacerations, swelling. sweating ;
Neck : abrasions, ligature marks, whiplash. 2) Heat Exhaustion : primarily due to heart failure due
Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord : C1-7,T1-12,L1-5 to excessive heat ;
Fracture and concussion of spine. S1-5, coccyx 3) Heat Stroke :
Chest : usually to the ribs , fractures. Local Effects of Heat :
Lungs : Hemorrhage, compression, severe 1) Scald : injuries caused by hot liquids
pneumothorax (escape of air into thorax), cerebral 2) Burns : caused by heat radiation ; hot gas or
air embolism, hemoptysis (bleeding into lungs) and contact with hot solids.
subcutaneous emphysema.
Diaphragm : rupture , hernia Burn Classification :
Abdominal Wall : First Degree : erythema or simple redness of skin,
Liver :Spleen :Kidney :Pancreas :Pelvis : fractures. superficial swelling .
Second Degree : there is vesicle (small blister) formation
Chapter XII with acute inflammation. Skin is blackened, hair
follicles singed. Superficial layers of the epithelium
Death or Physical Injury caused by Explosion destroyed.
Third Degree : there is destruction of cuticle and part of
Explosion : a sudden expansion of space (gas). the dermis. Very painful owing to exposure of nerve
Kinds : endings. Healing may leave a scar.
1. mechanical; Fourth Degree : whole skin is destroyed. Surface ulcerated.
2. electrical; Not painful because all nerve endings are destroyed.
3. nuclear; Fifth Degree : involves deep fascia and muscles.
4. chemical Sixth Degree : charring of subjacent tissues, organs and
Nitroglycerin / Dynamite (Nobel) bones.
Causes of Death due to Burns / Scalds :
Chapter XIII Immediate Fatal Result :
1) Death from shock;
Gunshot wounds 2) Death from concomitant physical injuries with
Kinds of firearms : revolvers, pistols, rifles, single shot, burns;
semi auto, auto, shotguns 3) Suffocation.
How a gun works: Delayed Fatal Result :
Single action / double action 1) Exhaustion ;
Bullets : lead, jacketed, full metal jacket 2) Dehydration with hemoconcentration ;
Barrel : rifling (lands and grooves) , twist, direction 3) Secondary shock ;
Caliber : inch / metric 4) Hypothermia ;
Primer : mercury fulminate, percussion 5) Complications such as infections, pneumonia,
Gas burns (point blank) nephritis.
Powder deposits on victim for close range firing, ring 6) Changes in Blood
patterns depending on distance. Heat Rupture : splitting of skin due to heat may be
Parafin test for presence of nitrates not conclusive mistaken for incised or lacerated wound.
Bullet richochet upon impact due to spin rate Heat Stiffening : body becomes rigid due to heat owing to
Bullet migration (unextracted) due to age the coagulation of albuminous matter in the muscles.
Shotguns : ammo, birdshot #4 , buckshot 00
Calibers 12ga / .404 / slugs CHEMICAL BURNS : or corrosive burns caused by the
application of corrosive chemicals on skin.

IDENTIFICATION of firearm through bullet ELECTRICITY :

comparison : Main cause of death is Shock.
1) rifling patterns or striations found on the Other causes is burn caused by electric current
projectile .. using a comparison microscope,
2) Striations found on the ejected cartridge ; PRESSURE : (Barotrauma)
3) firing pin marks on the primer cap Overpressure (hyperbarism) : almost never occurs
4) cartridge extractor marks naturally.
Decrease in pressure (Hypobarism) : causes the Bends, a
THERMAL INJURIES/DEATHS : condition where Nitrogen dissolved in the blood gasify
upon sudden decrease in pressure and causes
Due to Cold : embolisms.
Hypothermia : lowering of bodys core temperature to
fatal level. ASPHYXIA : due to lack of supply of oxygen.
Frostbite : damage to tissues due to extreme cold, may 1) Anoxic death : due to failure of arterial blood to
result in the amputation of the limb. be saturated with oxygen.. such as when :
a. Lack of oxygen in high altitudes;
Due to Heat : Classifications : b. Obstruction of air passage;
c. Paralysis of respiratory organs due to Demi-virginity : woman permits sexual liberties but
toxins. maintains the integrity of the hymen.
2) Anemic Anoxic Death : due to decrease in Self-defloration : practiced in some African cultures.
capacity of blood to deliver oxygen to
tissues/organs : Vaginal Canal : generally tight composed of smooth
a. Hemorrhage ; muscles and fibroelastic connective tissues. May be
b. Carbon monoxide poisoning; stretched on childbirth never to regain the original
c. Low hemoglobin level in blood. tightness.
3) Stagnant Anoxic Death : due to failure in blood Labia Majora and Labia Minora (major and minor lip) :
circulation , such as when : Labia Majora is the exterior lip and covers the labia
a. Heart failure; minora and clitoris. Plump women tend to have more
b. Shock; skin and and tissue forming a more closed labia
c. Blood vessel obstructions (emboli) while thin women tend to have gaping labia.
4) Histotoxic Anoxic Death : there is supply of Clitoris is the organ or a clump of nerve endings located
oxygen but tissues/cells unable to use it : above the labia minora extending into vaginal wall
a. Cyanide and alcohol whose anatomical function seems to be dedicated
solely to providing sexual stimulus or pleasure.
Phases of Asphyxial Death : Female circumcision : practiced in some African cultures.
1) Dyspneic phase : symptoms due to lack of
oxygen and retention of CO2 , lips, fingernails Fourchette : the V shaped posterior end of the Labia
become bluish; Minora (originally). With sexual contact (insertion of
2) Convulsive phase : due to stimulation of penis) it becomes rounded and the edges retracted.
central nervous system by the massive CO2. Not a good indicator of sexual activity as it could be
3) Apneic phase : due to damage to the caused by other factors such as horseback riding,
respiratory center of the brain; fatal beyond stretching of legs (athletics or ballet).
Hymen may have multiple openings or having no opening
Classifications of Asphyxia : at all.
1) Hanging Intact hymen is not necessarily indicative of sexual
a. Breaking the neck (dropping a distance); activity. Rupture could be caused by masturbation
b. asphyxia without sexual contact with opposite sex.
2) Strangulation
a. By ligature hyoid bone usually not Things to consider by the medical examiner :
damaged 1) Condition of the vulva : normally, the labia
b. Throttling : manual strangulation - majora and minora are in close contact with each
3) Suffocation : smothering, gagging, plastic bag, other and covers the area completely. After
SIDS SUNDS sexual contact, the labia may gape. Again, not a
4) Choking obstruction due to foreign object in good indicator of sexual activity.
windpipe : regurgitation of food blocking 2) Fourchette : as discussed before, loss of the
windpipe. Heimlich maneuver normal V shape is not also indicative. It could be
5) Drowning lacerated by penetration, together with the
6) Traumatic Crush Asphyxia vaginal walls.
7) Irrespirable gasses : CO ; CO2 ; H2S ; HCN ; 3) Vaginal Canal : after repeated sexual acts, there is
Cl ; diminution of the sharpness of vaginal
rugositites. Walls will be lax, enough to insert a
Classification based on its action : medium sized speculum with little resistance.
1) Lacrimator or Tear Gas 4) Hymen : is lacerated during the initial act.
2) Vesicant or Blistering Gas : mustard gas However, some are thick and elastic. Childs
3) Irritants : chlorine , phosgene hymen could also heal and return to its original
4) Sternutator or vomiting gas : state.
5) Paralysants (Nerve Gas)
6) Blood poisons : HCN, H2S, CO Medical examination of hymen :
1) General condition : width, thickness, elasticity
SEX CRIMES 2) Original shape of the orifice;
3) If lacerated, must determine degree of laceration,
Virginity : which could be :
RPC definition of virginity : not necessarily a physical a. Incomplete : rupture/laceration does not
virgin ; just a woman of good repute. involve the whole width or height of hymen.
True physical virginity : hymen intact, cannot admit a Superficial (less then ) or Deep.
finger. b. Complete : involves the whole width but not
False physical virginity : hymen also unruptured, but beyond the base of the hymen;
wide and elastic enough to admit two or more c. Compound : laceration involves hymen and
fingers. May indicate previous sexual contact just surrounding tissues ;
that the hymen distended but did not rupture. No Location of laceration : clock method with the fourchette
definite conclusion regarding true virginity. as 6 oclock.

Duration of laceration : Disorder in Perception :
1) Fresh bleeding : recent ; 1) Illusion : false interpretation of perception ;
2) Fresh healing with fibrin and edema of 2) Hallucination : false perception when there was
surrounding tissue : after 24 hrs ; no stimulus ;
3) Healed with congested edges with sharp Disorder of Memory :
coapted borders : 4 10 days old 1) Dementia : form of insanity due to deterioration
4) Healed without congestion with sharp coapted of brain, but without delusion or uncontrollable
borders : 2-3 weeks ; impulse ;
5) Healed with rounded non-coaptive borders and Acute Dementia
retraction of edges : more than 1 month. Dementia Paralytica : cirrhosis of the brain :
Complications : infection ; hemorrage, fistulae, stricture, degeneration of physical, intellectual and moral
sterility (due to infection). power leading to paralysis ;
Dementia Praecox (schizophrenia) :
Death from the sex act : Senile Dementia
Male : usually from hypertension, cardiac arrest. Toxic Dementia
Female : almost never , maybe suffocation/strangulation 2) Amnesia : loss of memory, anterograde and
Stuck inside : no medical reports yet. retrograde
SEX CRIMES : Disorder in content of thought :
1) Delusion : erroneous belief in something which is
Rape , Seduction (simple and qualified) not a fact : of Grandeur, persecution
Acts of lasciviousness , same with consent (paranoia), hypochondria , conspiracy.
Abduction (forcible and with consent) 2) Obsession : continually occurring thoughts and
Adultery and concubinage impulses
Prostitution Disorder in the trend of thought :
Corruption of minors , white slave trade , abuse against 1) Mania : State of excitement accompanied by
chastity exaltation which is out of step with his
Grave Scandal surroundings ;
Immoral Doctrines 2) Melancholia : depression
3) Manic-depressive psychosis : alternating states
Unnatural Sexual Offenses/abnormalities between mania and depression
Pedophilia Disorder of Emotion :
Zoophilia 1) Exaltation : unwarranted well being/joy ;
Gerentophilia (older women) 2) Depression :
Necrophilia 3) Apathy : disregard of surroundings (sociopathy)
Incest 4) Phobia : fears (Deimos and Phobos) fears of
Satyriasis / nymphomania things, places, situations, illness .. such as
Frigidity / impotence arachnophobia, hematophobia, agoraphobia,
Fetishes claustrophobia,

MENTAL DISTURBANCES Disorder of Volition (Doing) :

1) Impulse or Compulsion : irresistible urge to do
Insanity : from sociological viewpoint is the inability to something : such as pyromania, kleptomania,
adapt to the environment due to mental causes. nymphomania, suicidal impulse,
Legal Importance :
1) Civil code Art 38 : is a mere restriction on Mental Deficiency :
capacity to act ; 1) Idiot : IQ 0-20
2) Marriage : may be annulled when one is of 2) Imbecile : IQ 20-40
unsound mind unless they continue to cohabit 3) Feeble minded : IQ 40-70
after regaining sanity ; 4) Moron : higher end of feeble-mindedness
3) Succession : must be of sound mind at time of
execution of will ; Malingering : feigning disease or injuring to avoid a
4) Witness to wills : responsibility/obligation.
5) ObliCon : insane cannot give consent ;
6) RPC : exempting circumstance Other mental conditions :
1) Somnambulism (sleepwalking )
Factors influencing Mental Disorder : 2) Hypnotism (mesmerism)
1) Heredity 3) Delirium : state of mental confusion
2) Incestuous marriage 4) Hysteria : (off the books)
3) Physical illnesses
4) Emotional distress Drugs and Poisons :
5) Toxins
RA 9165 : things to remember
Manifestations of Mental Disorders : 1) Chain of Custody of evidence
2) No plea bargaining ..sec 23
Disorder of Cognition :
3) No probation to TRAFFICKERS AND
PUSHERS only .. users eligible for probation
sec 24
4) Mandatory drug test Sec 36 (f) persons
charged and (g) candidates for public office
declared unconstitutional by SJS vs DDB 2008
5) PDEA made the LEAD AGENCY in
enforcement (but not the exclusive agency)
Popular Drugs :
1) Opium
2) Marijuana (hallucinogen) not addicting
3) Magic Mushrooms (hallucinogen)
4) Hashish
5) Cocaine coca cola
6) Methamphetamines (uppers)
7) Cough Syrup (codeine phosphate)
8) Rugby (solvents)
9) Barbiturates (sedatives) downers
10) LSD (hallucinogen)
Alcohol :

Legal drunkenness : 0.15% blood alcohol

Wine / liquors
Fermentation process

Poisons :

Snake Venoms
Corrosives (acid, insecticides)
Carbon Monoxide

Antidotes :

Actions which survives death :

The question as to whether an action survives or not

depends on the nature of the action and the damage
sued for. In the causes of action which survive, the
wrong complained [of] affects primarily and principally
property and property rights, the injuries to the person
being merely incidental, while in the causes of action
which do not survive, the injury complained of is to the
person, the property and rights of property affected
being incidental.

RA 7438

Lucas v. Lucas GR 190710 DNA testing

june 6, 2011