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Unit-4 -CE2O24 -Remote sensing & GIS

Two Marks Questions & Answers
1. what is Gis ?
tool for mapping and
A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based
on earth' GIS technology integrates
analyzing things that exist and events that happen
statistical analysis with the unique
common database operations such as query and
visualization and geographic anal'y'sis benefits offered
by maps' These abilities
it valuable to a wide range of
distinguish GIS from other information systems and make
predicting outcomes' and planning
public and private enterprises for explaining events'

2. Write the need for gis

way or another strongly linked to the
Any organization, government private is in some
designed in a proper manner has the
geography in which it operates' A GIS that has been
large volumes of data of these
capability of providing quick and easy access to
by area or by theme to merge one data
features. The user can access & select information
set with another, to analyze spatial characteristics
of data' to search for particular
features, to update quickly and cheaply and asses

3. what are the components of gist - hW)m\ - aa"

components of GIS fall into four main categories:

I) Hardwarel
II) Software:
II) Data:
iV) Users:

4.what are the functions of GIs?

Data Capture:
Data ComPilation:
Data Storage (GIS Data Models):

p6per that.
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6, DefineMa pscale
The Map Scale tells ihe ,se. how the map relates to the real world features it
represents.Toshow a portion of the Earth's srrface on a map, the scale must be sufficiently
adjusted to cover the objective. The extent of reduction is expressedasa ratio.The unit on
the left indicates distance on the map and the number on the right indicates distance on the
g rou nd.

7. What are the different typcs of, 0T?

a). Planimetric (e,9 municipd ry): A map designed to represent the horizontal
positions of features; vertical inbrmdin a qilctfically ignored.
b). Topographic (e.g. USGIS 75 ffi gC): A map designed to portray features on
the surface of the Earth, induding relef (deyatirn), hydrography. and cultural features.
c). cadastral (e.g munkiphl p.rd rT): A nEp representing boundaries of land parcels,
ownership, land use, valuatixr ard dE retrd infomation.
d). Image (e.g LAXIXilfT -D.$ La|tfl: A ,nap representing a remotely sensed picture or
reflection of all or part of tlE Hrb grfu
may or may not be orthqrErDhiiat/ dle t.
e). Thematic: A map rsr 6 t 6a6u spatial relauonships and patterns among
information pertaining to sdrE IIEIE c m* (e.9. income)

S.Define TopograPhic m.?E

A reference tool, showing UEalfE dselecEd nabral and man-made features of the
Earth. ? "Topography- refus b tl- $ile dule srrface, represented by contours and/or
shading, but topographt m4E alsDstE, roEds and other prominent features.

g.Define Thematic Hap6

A thematic map shorvs how {r.Hir ad grtitative data are distributed

geographically. Thematic mry rEqII' rrrd or 5p of a base map in order to convey a

6 pq&tin
specific Aeographic theme, srdr by state, or sales per region.
lo.What is meant by scale d ry?
The scale of a map is the rath,een,Edaao* on the map and corresponding distances
in the real world, e.9., if a rnap tus a q,re d I:50,0OO, then 1 cm on the map equals
50,000 cm or 0.5 km on the Earthl errf-'-

"Small scale" and "large scate' is often @ofilsed, e.g, 1:50,000 vs. 1:500,000
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11. Defination of ceographic information system

"A system of hardware, softyrare, data, people, organizations and instituUonal arrangements
for collecting, storing, analfzing, and disseminating information about areas of the earth.

12. What ls meant by Hap proiections?

A map projections is a method by which the curved surface of the earth is represented on a flat
surfbce and it involved the use of mathematical transformations between the location of places
on the earth and their projected locations on the plane.When the curved surface of the earth
sholvn on a flay sheet,some distorted is inevitable.The distortion is least when the map only
shows smatl areas and maximum when the map shows entire surface oFthe earth.

13.Defane UTM Proiections,

14. What are the names of Standard GIS Softwares?
ATCGIS is an integrated GIS consisting of three
ATCGIS - the desktop software
ATcSDE'- the interface For managing databases, (SDE - Spatial Database Engine)
ATCIMS - software, internet-based GIS for the distribution of GIS data and services
(Internet Map Server)

15,What are the different classification of maps?

cadastral maps,Topograph ical maps,Thematic maps,Relief maps,Geological maps,Weather

maps,Climatic maps,Political maps etc.

16,Define coordinate system.

Coordinate system.can be thought as a system used to identify locations on a graph or grid .e'9
the system of assigning longitude and latitude to geographical locations is a coordinate
system.There are various coordinate systems available to represent the location of any point.

17.what are the classifications of proiections? -vg l:*n<-a"ra

Conformal - local shapes are preserved
Equal-Area - areas are preserved
Equidistant - distance fiom a single location to all other locations are preserved
Azimuthal - directions from a single location to all other locations are preserved
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l8,What is meant bY WGS?

The World Geodetic System ls a standard for use
in cartography' geodesy' and navigation'
It comprises a standard .ooralnutu frame for the Earth' a standard spheroidal reference
surface (the datum or iuf"'"nt"geoid) ellipsoid) for raw altitude data' and
a gravitational equipotential surface-(the that defines the nominal sea level'
revised in 2004), W h iC.! ]^1a,: ]/?lid
The latest revision is WGS 84 (dating from ].984 and last
,p"," ii"ril.i6.deu.ri"t r.i"."Jintt'a"d wcs 72' wGS 66' and wGS 60' wGS 84 is

obta lle-1
In polyconic proiection a near approach todirection cone'
relatively small-area maps Uy projecting the area in question onto
.o-ne and nt
central meridian on the map isstraight; all the- others are slightly.
not quite parallel; therefore, they ar
quitepara et. simitarly, tn"'iu-ii!L irG"niiv curvedand
not pieciselyperpendicular to .the meridians'

2o.Define Data base management system(DBMs)


A database management system (DBMS) is a software package

with computer proorams'that
control the creation, maintenance) and use of a database'

2l.What are the advantages in Data base

. reduction in data redundancy
o shared rather than independent databases
. ,-"Au.ui'piooiem' of inconsistencies in stored information, e.g. different
addresses in different departments for the same customer
. maintenance of data integrity and quality
. data are self-documented or self-descriptive
o information onlthe meaning or interpretation of the data can be stored in the
database, e.g. names of items, metadata
. avoidance of inconsistencies
o datsa must follow prescribed models, rules, standards
. reduced cost of softvvare development
o many fundamental'operations taken care of, however DBMS software can be
expnsive to install and maintain
. securityrestrictions
o datatrase indudes seorrity tools to control access, particularly for writing
zz.What are the types of database sYs;tems

Tvpes of database svstems

. several models for databases:

o tabular ("flat file') - data in a single table
o hierarchical
o network
o relational
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Sixteen marks Ouestions:

l.Explain the Various Componenb of GIS

2.Explain tre types of, projections and its properties

3.What is meant by DBMS, Explain its concepts and components.

4-WriE brkfiy about process of GIS

s.E)Cplain lrleasurement sca les.

6.Descdbe the projections used in India

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I' what's
i#J';#l;,ilf '-L"":[HiJ,g"rJ:.:rff."il:l rvhat is rhe purpose ora Map?
spatial phenomena by graphically
conveying information
about locations and attributes.
"A iepresentation, norma,y to
scale and on a flat medium,
of a serection of materiar or absfuact
features on, or in relation
to, the surface of the earth.,,
A spatial model ofthe real world,
but differentiated from it by:
symboiization. scale, projection, abstraction, focus,
and purpose
a). Planimetric (e.g municipal
base map)
A map designed to represent
the horizontal positions of features;
specifically ignored. vertical information is

b). Topographic (e,g. USGS

7.5 minute quads)
A map designed to portmy.feah[es
on the surface off the Earth'
F,,rh i-^r,,r.:_,- _-r: ^,(elevation),
hydrography, and cultural including relief
c). Cadastral (e.g municipal
parcel map)
A map representing boundaies
of land parcers, ownership, rand
related information, use, va.luation and other

d). Image (e.g LAAIDSAT

image .mep,)
A map representing a remotely
seosed picturc or reflection
of all or part of the Earth,s surface
may or may not be orthomorphically
e). Thematic

A map used to visrati

reladonstrips ad paltems among information
some theme or pertaining to'
A map is a representation of
the feanrres that occur
expanded to areas outside
Ear*r' obviousrv' this can be
Maps arrow us ro
1.. Visualize
2. Obtain the spatial orientation
and relariooships ofour data
3. present results
of analysis
o Borderl part ofthe map that
extends beyond the neatline.

Page *

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o part of the map that helps explain
Text Information: text information is a very important
what the map is about. It typically includes:
o Title: describes the general theme or purpose ofthe

author, the source of the map, projections
This would include information such as the map
datums used.
the states, the names ofrivers, lakes, roads, or other

. Date: provides information about when the map was created'

. This is the central theme of the map'
Map tr'igure: shows the primary figure of the map'
cannot show all thd features in
o Inset: often shows another map, especially when the map
one map space, due to the distance between
them' For example' including Alaska and Hawaii
use of insets is to provide a frame of refer:lt"
tt "
along with the contiguous states' Another
inset on our previous map could show North
zoomed in portion of the map For instance' an
while the map figure would show the United
South America with the United States hightighted,
States at a larger scale.
the proper orientation of the map'
. North ArroGraticule: used as a reference to provide
this does not always have to be the case'
Most maps are oriented with north at the top' but
easVwest orientation'
Similarly, the graticule ordinarily run in a north/south'
o Graticule:
indicate what the colors mean, or line symbols'
o ground units and the map units'
Scale: a visual expression of the relationship between

,r* rr * r. rlr.t!**rt*r.,r
En gg

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f,Write a brief note on GIS DATA TYPES & DATA MODELS
collected and stored'
Data can be described as different observations, which are
or solving a problem Digitizing a
Information is that data, which is useful in answering queries
hours of painstaking works' but
large number of maps provides a large amount of data after
the data can only render useful information if it is used in


in themselves represent location
referred .to as non-spatial data since they do not
spatial features' characteristics can
information. This type of data describes characteristics of the
is often referred to as tabular data'
be quantitative and/or qualitative in natue. Attribute data

way a coordinate system is
be specified in a unique way. To specifu the position in an absolute
used. For small areas, the simplest coordinate system is the
regular square grid. For larger areas'
Internationally there are
certain approved cartographic projections are commonly used'
rnany different coordinate systems in use. This Locational
information is provided in maps by
are the basic data elements ofa
using Points, Lines and Polygons. These geometric descriptions
map. Thus spatial data the absolute and relative
the characteristics of that forest, e.g. cover group, dominant '
crown closute' height' etc'' would
data' have
be attribute data. Other data types, in particular image and multimedia
on the specific content of the
become more prevalent with changing technology' Depending
photographs' animation' movies' etc'' or
data, image data may be considered either spatial' e'g'

attribute, e.g. sound, descriptions, narration's, etc'

procedures. TheY are:
l. SPatial Data Models

2. Attribute Data Models

evolved for storing geographic data
fonn of a map. Three basic types ofsparial data models have
digitally. These are referred to as:

P-Ramamoorthy,Asst.Prof/Civil Engg

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Raster Vector tmage

The selection of a particular data model, vector or raster, is dependent on the source and
type of data, as well as the intended use of the data. Certain analltical procedures require raster
data while others are better suited to vector data.

Raster Data Formats:

A simple raster data set is a regular grid of cells divided into rows and columns. In a
raster data set, data values for a given parameter are stored in each cell
- these values may
represent an elevation in meters above sea level, a land use class, a plant biomass in grams per
square meter, and so forth. The spatial resolution of the raster data set is determined by the size

of the cell' For example, Landsat TM satellite imagery data are raster data that are corected to
have a cell size of approximaiely 30 meters on a side. However, spatial resolution can be much

finer, or much coarser than 30 meters. In general, spatial resolution is a function oithe data
collection techniques used, and the desired outcomes.
The size ofcells in a tessellated data structure is selected on the basis ofthe data accuracy
and the resolulion needed by the user. There is no explicit coding of geographic coordinates
required since that is implicit in the layout of the cells.

P.Ramamoorthy,Asst.Prof/Civil Engg Page lo

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3 (l4.3 )z"r.a ^a"t,
very early attempts to build GIS began from scratch, using very limited tools like operating
systems and compilers. But more recently, GIS have bee, built around existing database
management systems (DBMS). The DBMS handles many functions which would otherwise have
to be programmed into the GIS and nowadays purchase or rease of the DBMS is a
major part of the system's software cost. Any DBMS makes assumptions about the data which it
handles. Certain tlpes of DBMS .ue more suitable for GIS than others because
their assurnptions
fit bener.

Two ways to use DBMS within GIS:

1. Total DBMS solutio,: In this all d,ata are accessed through the DBMS, so it must fit the
assumptions imposed by the DBMS designer
2' Mixed solution: In this some data (usually attribute tables and relationships) are accessed
through the DBMS because they fit the moder wel, while some data (usualy rocations)
are .

accessed directly because they do iot fit the DBMS model.

GIS as a database problem:
some areas of application, notably facilities management deat with very large volumes
of data
which often have a DBMS solution installed before the GIS is considered. Grs also adds
geographical access to existing methods of search and query.
Such systems require very fast
response to a limited mrmber of queries ad linte analysis. Irr these areas it
is often said that GIS
is a "database problem" rather than m argorirtm, anarysis, data input or
data display probrem.
Concepts in Database Svstems:
r A database is a collection of non-redr.urdant deta which can be shared by different application
systems. It stresses on the importance of multiple applications and data sharing.
o It implies separation of physical storage from ,se of the data
by an application program, i.e.
program/data independence. The user or
lxogrammer or application specialist need not know the
details ofhow the data are store4 such details are said to be "transparent to the user".
o Changes can be made to data without afecting olher components
of the system. For e.g.
* change in the format of ,rate it"ms s,ch as from real to integer, and other arithmetic
t' Changes in the file structure such as reorgani zing data internally or char.rging mode of

P.Ramamoorthy,AssLProf/Civil Engg Page l/

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{. Relocating from one device to another, e.g. lrom optical to magnetic storage or from tape
to disk.
Advantages of Database Approach:
{' Reduction in data redundancy - the databases are shared rather than independent and this
reduces problems of inconsistencies in stored information, e.g. different addresses in
different departments for the same customer.
* Maintenance of dara integrjty and quAlly

'1. Data are self-documented or self-descriptive - as information on the meaning or

interpretation of the data can be stored in the database, e.g. names of items, metadata.
{. Avoidance of inconsistencies making the data follow prescribed models, rules and

'l' Reduced cost of software development - as many fundamental operations are taken care

of, however DBMS softrvare can be expensive to install and maintain.

i' Security restrictions - database includes security tools to control access, particularly for

P.Ramamoorthy,Asst.Prof/Civil Engg ,{ PaEF

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-=:=:5:- ..:-----
IhIT'UT ::

, 171toih1lqdr+Po,r"rf oor.Jlff-, o{mo..t2s j n,.u )Dze-a,to

il. A is a graphic representation of
il 'rap a portion of the earth,s surface
to scale. It uses coiorg symbols, ar.d iabels
io rpresent features found on the
ground The ideal representation woulh
be realized if every feature of the area
being mapped could be shown
in true shape. Obviously this is impossible,
an attempt to piot each feature
true b sale would resrrlt in a procluct
to read even with the aid of a uugnifyirg

, i.r.i

b The po'h'ayar oi rnany t'*at,r'es

re'ufues simirar. exaggeraticn.
Theref,;re, the
seleciion oI feafure-s io ire
sfrc,.nt as;:yell as thei: oortrayal_
is in ;1.:cciii-.i riuiiir the
guidance established by
the Defien_se F_{apping Agency.

A map is a visual representation

of an area a symbolic depiction
highJighting relationships
betr,veen elesrents of that
space such as objects,
regions, and themes.

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dimensional. Although most cdrnmonly
used to depict geography, maps ,
represent any space, real or imagrned,
without regard to context or
S..ale; e.g
Brain mapping, DNA mappirrg. anLl
e\rraterreskial mapping.

landownersfiip. For attributes such :rs soil

type or land use (,,norninal,,variables),
shaded maps that highlight regions
i',polygons,') by emoloying different colors or
patterns is generally *.anted. Fcr cther ath.ibuies
(likepopulation ciersi*.._ a
"metric" variabre), a sha-ded map in r^',hich each shade corresponcls
to a range of
population densities is generally wanted.

Thematic maps are used to clisplay geographical concepts such as

distribution, relative magnitucles, gradients,
spatial relatiorrships and
movements. Also called geographic, special purpose,
distribution, parametric, or
planirneiric nraps.

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"A topogrdphie map is a detailed

and acanr. ate graphic representation
and na.hrral of aitural
featar* on the ground_

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find mineral resources,
oil, and gravel deposits.AI"o,
type of rock you are
you want to know what
buildin o" or else you
might have a Leaning Tower of
or a pile of rubble Pisa
after a ,o:rng earthquake.

practice, of crafting
who makes maps is

Scientists involved ir
the sfudy
shrrtr, a{
of animals,
^_:_, r plants,
;r." u$e
organisms ,-n.6- r^
use maps :nlush'ate whqe r\qlto' and
atlLt omer
other llvine
b in tlee groups Iive or migrate. j5
imDortanf *n _- r .
*^-_. zoologisb
to many It
to krnw wirqe the
-o--qe'r'o Lr.or
that they
Lltey s.,dy
study hv
and where they move peornrc live
to- nple whor.,h.. monibr r
-^-.- endangered species need to know
if the ranges
ra.,.,-. of
^r*._ .. .
migration have **" ago *;;;; *".

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grazing land, ocean floors. and
ocean sediments could be inciuded in this large

Meteorological maps that show

climate, weather and wind are types of
environmental maps. Meteorologists,
oceanographers, geographers, city
planners, and many other professionals
depend greatly on these maps to record
and forecast their specific field.




Political maps show boundaries that

dn,itle one po.litical entity from
another, such as townships,
counties, cities, and states. Some maps emphasize
the boundaries by printing
the areas of each political division in different
for example world maps usually
show each country in a different cotor_

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A political map can be

made of any area from
the local
atl the way up ro the worrd
level. rn generar, ,""r
fewer being produced as

Shaded Relief and Raised
Relief maps are maps
that show relief data usi
ng contour Iines' colors'
and/or shading to evidence
thu elevation.


Michelin in France a Gulf oil in America produced the first roarl maps
to encourage people to
maps were usuarryfree
charge for their
r7l+ wnen
and oir. such
service stations began
maps. to

.s 11 I
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maPs - such as a topographic
map, a Gem Trek map,
Trails lllustratedmap, or
DeLomte Atlas and Gazelteer _
will show ,ni_prorr"d

Some road maps specify

distances between
various points on the map. others
show various culfural geography
features such as colleges and
historical sishts; and
inrormation ;r;" ;;.;;;;"

You will .discover several publishers

that have. produced
maps for given regions.'Exampies
include the ,Michelin
Mairs series for Germany.

chqice for
two, Elain
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universities.Geo hic inJormation technol
investigations,.resource managemen elyggnoe4talimpaql
assessment, urban planning,.cartoqraphy,
criminology, history. sales, marketin&
-and logistics,) For example, GIS might allow emergency planners
to easily
calculate emergency response times
in the event of a nafural disaster, GIS might
be used to find wetrands that need
protection from porutiory or GIS can be used
by a company to site a ne' business ,ocation
to take advantage of a previously
underserved market.

Gta .-

D al
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I E. W. Gilbert,s version (195g) of
John Snow,s 1g55 mapof the Soho cholera
outbreak showing the clusters o{ cholera
cases in the London epidemic of 1g54
l4il,rile the basic elements of topology
and theme existed previously in
cartography, the John Snow nrap was
unique, usjng cartographic methods rrot
only to depict but also to analyze clusters of geographically dependent
phenomena for the first time.

The early 20th century saw the development

of ,,photo lithography,, where
maps \dere separated into layers. Computer
hardware development spurred by




rating classification factor was ajso added

to permit analysis.
CGIS ',rras the t,r,orldls first ,,s;rsts11,, anrl ,azas
arr irr,proverneni over
"::rapoing" appiications as ii orovjcred capabiiities foi: o..terra,y',measurerarnr.,
oigitizing/Scanning' It supported a national coordi,ate
system that spanned the
conii.ent, coded lines as "arcs" rraving a true embedcred
toporogy, and it stored
tire aiiribute and locationar in{ormation in
separate f es. As a resuit of ihis,
Tom'linson has become known as trre
"father oI GIg" particulariy for his use of
overlays in promoting the spatial analysis
of convergent geograpfuc data. CG1S
lasted into the 1990s and built the
rargest digitar .rantl resource database in
Canada lt was deveroped as a mairframe
based system in support of federar a,rd

Pl0vincial rgqource pranning and management. its strength was cc.t EiDfrrFlri+

6D a-r
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' analysis of comprex data
sets The CGIS was never
avairabre in a commercial
' form.
In 7964,Howard T Fislrer formed
the Labordtoryfor Computer Craphics
and spariar Anarysis at the
Harvard Gracruate schoor of
Design (LCGSA 1g65-
1991), wher.e a number of
rvere deveropecr,
and systems, such as,syMAp,, ,GRID',
ffi ::':ffi;, j#,:Jl:l:]o:
and,oDyssEy _;;;r";;';";r".r;
and inspirational sources ror.
subsequent commercial
universities, research centers,
,"r";.;;;- __";
and corporations worldrvide.
M&s Compuring (tater rntergraph),
Ir"rl^:1lr.re80s, Environmental
j:t::_:"":.h rasritute (ESRr) and cARrs Com;;;;';'""*.e
as commercia,
::::::;:,:::l' l*u:s"a
successfuliy incorporating
"""***; ;;,t,
of the cGIS feafurs, combining
sencrafi^n the first
to separation of spariar
:::i:: T*"* and anribute ;#on;,
ih rrarallel ,r.- j1.^r^--., - - " -'o -'urvurE
{tdra rnto databasq+'trucfureii.
of a publc doinain GIS
was eeryn iii
,lt 4''", c.;a "r -u"s".*i,i ;;";
beg_un b, tli.-
H82 bv
t4SZ tlte
I. need of the United
L" States
military for softr*,are i".
envircnmental planning- O"O"^r"rr.*;;;:;
The larcr 19g0s and
t. 1g0s industry growth
spurred on by the growing wer.e
l,' use of CIS on lJnix rvor.j
computer. By the end
of t
had beer.r consoridated
centur/. the rapid
requiring data format
and h-ansfo. ci_-,J^_r
there is a growing
number or r,"", op*;;:T,:;":::# _".-trv.
systems and can be n{urge of operating
customized to perform


a. a3
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alt'r'r[ c''n?s"'o'']s
*f 619 2 Mo-XfJu'rw-eo14
\ A CIS can be divided into tive components:
Ieople, Data, Hardware,
S=Ho ancl Pjgcgdy.fH...All of these componenrs need to be in balance for the
system to be successful. No one part can r-un without the other.


The people are the component who actually makes the GIS. work. They
include a plethora of positions including GIS managers, database administrators,
application specialists, systems analysts, and programmers. They are responsible
for maintenance of the geographic ,latabase and provide technical support.




professional s3-rr'&Es, and gaki::g degisions. They irclui{e

lecilitv managers,
lesource rnanag'ert planners, sllgirlllg engineers, iawl,ers, L-.!rsin,_,ss-
enfre t-.rl..u e rs. et(:.

GIS speciaiists ale the people w-ho make thc GIS v;ork. They include GIS
managers, database adminis , Spplglgry E sJrtg*l ur*-l),stl u"d
Progranlmers. They responsible for the rnaintenance of ihe geographic
database ancl the provision of technical support to the other two classes of users.


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. {snli::
Procedures include, how the
rh^ data
will be retrie
-*:a stored, managea,
:I: The procedures ,r" ,n" ,**"0'l
nalyzed'''"d fi"'x; ;:::j::T::jr"fir:
rhe abi,*y or a Grs ,"
wha f differentiates this
#jI;j;X;::."T::T:""* to

type of system from r,

The transformadon "rn*,*.t-",,1, ;;;1r*r

iffi::l ::H#
coordinare system,
setting j_:,.:T::TTri:;
set' and converting
data fiom yector to raster
or raster to vector.
(Carver, lgg').


c 4r-
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The producers and the
main products of GIS
., n_-.
1, Environmental
Software are the follo,,ving:
Sysierns Research
Institute ( ESRI Arclnfo, ArcView.
1 Autodesk:
2. ^, , . AutoCAD
3. Clark Labs: IDRISI
4. International Institute for
turvey ancr Earth sciences: ILWIS
5. Mapinfo Corporation: ,.j;.*-"
6. Bentley Systems: Microstation.
7. PCI Geomatics; pAMAp

Perhaps the most time consuming
ancl costly aspect of initiating
a GIS is creating
a database. There are several things to corsider befc
is cruciar to check the qualit-y
:"", l of the data;:;::;:t.T,T:i:
set;an add many unpteasant
and costl;r,r"rr. .r_i,";";;;'";
will be

Attribute Accuracy _ An
attribute is a fact about some
location, set of
locations' or feafures on the srirface
of the earth. This infornration ,-.ite::
measurements of some sort,
such as temperafure or
ele'ation or a lairi r,i a piacr
name. The source of errorr
usually lies within the collection
l.l i.
, ..:a^t , ,, of ihese:acts, It is
v rtd{ i'.: ,ne rnalysis
;:l a<tp4cti r ri 3 CIS lhal
i' ihrs .inform:iicr.i Dr arcdfttie.

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The conversion or
abstraction of the earth
and it,l
, database
defines locarion and
properries of indivicruar
Definition ,.u*.oooto,o.,il::1.4

Duplicating the real

world i,", rh- ^^*-
bv core*ins information
about things,", ;; ;;":#; :l:;:;0,".

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a !!-ci-n!enfl1- B.e-g-{ Iggg"tce !f,.youshqs,.,e_tg keep it up to date.

rtial Data = Sphial (Where) +
Dara (I/\hat) r

" '-;-; t1"'r'.4-

NON-fl'ATIAL Pi$"'iL'i'-4
DATAS '-'r#"-1
I - t,'-( :-l' :t iv.:#<}t
\n-spatiar dara may be
loiiJa ,t g."."0"0'ir""s wirh marching a*ribures
and displayed, as regr:lar maps.
This is common in Geographic Information
Systems (CfS).JFor example
census information
....vrrrrq,urr such
uucn as race
. / or income, non-
data, can be displayed as maps.
1",.":n, "Ortal UnJerumatdy fton_spatial data


Civen the vast range of
spatiai analysis tecliniques that
have been
developed over the past
half century, an)/ summary
o. ..rri"* .r;;"r;;;;;;
subje'ct to a limited depth'
This is a rapidry changing fierd,
and GIS packages are
increasingry incruding
anaryticar toors as standard bu,t-in
fac,ities or as optionar
tool"rtr' add-ins or 'anarysts''
In many instances such fac,ities
are providecr b,v
the oriqinal software suppliers
(commercial vendors or collaboratrve
cwrmercial development non
tearns), -"vhiist in i:ther .rr", ,".r;;;t;;
c ag.-
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developed and are provide
o' parties' Furtherrr
software deveropment
'n"o t,:I}"j:tJ
support, scrip ting r".,,,
l"' o"oo' ;;; t"r; r',o
o"r'^ -
xmfu**":*ffi.:#[!*;; srve guide to the subject.
In geomehy, ? ljne
sesrrro-+ ;^ ^ _

of line segmer '' rvq" ;iil"T;:ii,:::::f ff urr me Irn between
its end points,
generauy,when the
ooo of a biangre or
.'nu square.-rr4orb
""a r",l:,:1']::'
::,n* l edge (of ;ilffJ*;x,x:i:Til"T"J:,."T:J;
When the end points
is ca.lled
both lie on a cutve
such as a circle,
a chord (of that a Iine segment

a plane figure that is bounded

by 4

or c'rneis rhe in'ferior

I"h:"#:;. ;":;::,'1"' ;?1-- ;ii: o *"
y Usually
us u arr two
Evo "', ;H'ff
- ' -- -r'
edg, *'^l:.'"*
oo"t meedng
e rr " ;r
rumoer of dimensions.
is at a corner
not strarght are re

' singreetrge''herwise
single e.tge.
ourrrl, ;.*";;.T;#.:;::X;TJ1
\ - // v'rt(:r wls9 the ling
-"' 'rrt6re tni

' -'- 'rotion has

S.;, been adapbd
l'urPoses For example in in V?flous
-ur v. ways to suit particular
ffi'. thu
Hi,*,", l'L:,-*t'eaptu""
oi"" o'.u slightly 1. generafion) field'
rt up" is srored
altered;";*"'" the
u.,, .,ranipurated rerated ro rhe
Hpin _,"";";;;rrr".lore way

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real world objects

o,n,r,lll"'ot"j":*:** (roads, rand use, erevation)
into hvo abstractions: discrete
obje*s (a r,o,,"; u.,loJl1;?:::;;[ffi.
1!(5. (ra1n fall
trvo broad methods amount or ele'ation).
,rr., to store
-^ Th--r-e are
used ",__^',ciata in a GIS for
!,ector. both abstractions: Raster


A simple vectc
vector eremenrs:
rines ror rivers,
,"r,;;r'J#:.:i:1":'"" points ror wers.

In a GIg geographical features

are oft
considering those
are expressed o, 0o,".;, ;orilHT:;ff-r".":, ;.ffi,.,nJ:
be expresseti reature,s rrrar can
;;,'"p;fi;:""."ir;:,.r:,phical best
example, the loca words' simple Iocation
h.ons of u'ells, For
peak e.revafions;
iroints convey the feah of interest or trailheads'
]east a L'i iiLarmant"t
be rrsed to ."p."r".,,
or *t"'
ur"u,*ouni ilisplal'ed
a iriap of the worrd
*,or]*"" ", " "rr";:":"J::::#::::::
pcints rather ihan
porl, rJo
"." r.r,,0,":':;,;:*:'

._-i,rqEs oR
. One-dimensionai
rinear rea'[ures such
u,l ffi i,:: i.'.#:,f
res,u,u..,n u,,
ffi "l::, ::-T
rea tu


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polygons are ,so,-{ r^-
used for geographical
particular area of ."" features that cover
l the uu.r] a
boundaries, 0,,,,,,*;. incrude rakes, park
;; ;;::"T :;::::::may
uses. r,orygons
amounr of irLformafion convey rhe most
of the ,,::: polygo,
.e file types. ;^,,",," feafures
and a.rea. can measure perimeter

coloured depending -
on level
'-.. "u qsE(r to rdentj
,,.Beomgqyl that are within
(1'6 km) of a lake
r tugh of polturion. (polygon g
. ,,t-*'"

E ?.:.
. :
a :. . Vector features
' can also be
il"::*:: r",rr*;T:,.1_,:::T,,
must not overlap'.
through the
used to .epresent vector daia
continuously vary
and tuiangurareo """-,:-::;1t"ns ing phenome,a. Contour
o."rriJ"ll, lines
oiher conrin,*r";:;r" to represenr
are connected
-, **" ;:
varues at point
",","*; ".
by Iines to forr,, iocations, which
.- ._-
rriangtes mesh of biangtes.
*o*r.",,n",";t l;;_,**lar an" ,u.. or-*"


A raster data
fpe ig in esser,". u.t,
--.. rype
iar wirh 0,r,", of digitar irnage.
Anyone who is
on"#i"u"tt recognize
-- 'Lrl,Bruze the
tr,e pixel
", ;" ,;;r,
iduar unit
unir of an image. p;rei as the sma]les
imase A , -^:,.-l
nct,frsm ,n.".,-.*"n, ^ these.exers wir

vector modet.
;;;I::":1r creare an im4ge

tr{&ire a cligirar
image ,, ;;;; 1",,n ,n" outpur as
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a discrete vaiue,
e-xien.1eo 6_1. uSing
raster bands
co.iormaps ia mapping coiors,
behveen a
.i,., ranie rr.itlr onc
ro!\ lor p.trlt unique teli
:asrer Cata set is The resolution oi thr
its cell width in gro.,r",.l
,.,it .
Raster data is stored
in variorrsformats; from a standard
j:i:..!.::. ol TIF, JpEG, eic.
binary Iarr,,c objecr (BLOB)
data si,:_:.,!: -::r.-: ..

rrlanagem_ent systern
(RDBIV{S) similar tr

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lacl ):um*4"1)
are advantages and disa
using a .raster or vector. data

a rnuitituije of

:, ,i..

much :.Smaller. ritr storage

data can

and marnraine.
image will have to ho -^*_r^, ";;;;
rne fraster ;j;#,;:::#,

anarysis capabirity
esf".ialry ,,ne6a6,1,,,
;. .:1r1"::l]::-:.n:*"
as roads,
porver, rair, te]ecommunications,
'"' rterworKs" ,,..1.,
etc- For ex
t:" characterisrics
or roads.
tyst to query for the 0..,",
best route .1r hdll.^ r r _ ""0'1*;:l;,"j:::
duuws Lne

es and a conaecting
road ls at least hro
lane highrt-a.,
ie,featu,*..;r;l--;-- ,-, -.-'.. i{'.'5f'!'-"I:qeftry+ ,,', ''":: ',.'...: ",'::,'-

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