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Temperature Zoning of Pakistan for Asphalt Mix Design

Important points:

1. The current asphalt binder specifications in Pakistan are based on the Penetration Grade:
penetration test is performed at 25oC.
2. The first step in the implementation of SUPERPAVE methodology is to establish high and low
pavement temperatures for a location.
3. This paper documents the initial ground work towards implementation of SUPERPAVE mix
design for establishing high and low geographical temperature zones.
4. The SHRP model gives higher, high temperature PG grade providing additional protection
against rutting.
5. PG 70-10 binder seems to be the most common grade that encompasses more than 70% area of
Pakistan.
6. The polymer modified asphalt binder produced by Attock refinery (A-PMB) corresponds to harder
PG 76-16 while A-60/70 (PG 58-22) or K-60/70 (PG 64-22) produced at Attock and National
refineries respectively are softer compared to the PG 70-10. Harder grade is more prone to
cracking, whereas softer grade of more prone to rutting. Consequently, the current construction
practices which utilize A-60/70 or K-60/70 may be prone to excessive rutting.
7. In Pakistan, a standard grade of Pen 60/70 is used for construction of flexible pavement.
8. Viscosity grading is not yet established in Pakistan.
9. The SHRP high temperature model was developed from the results of theoretical heat transfer
modeling.
10. Pakistan is divided into six temperatures zones requiring PG 70-10 as the most important binder
that covers more than 70 percent of the area.
11. The predicted low pavement temperature using SHRP model is lower as compared to the LTPP
model for the same air temperature data. The SHRP models provide additional protection
against low temperature cracking as compared to LTPP models.
Application of Construction and Building Debris as Base
and Subbase Materials in Rigid Pavement

Important points:

1. This research presents the test results of a laboratory and field study performed to
investigate the characteristics and performance of dry and wet recycled concrete
aggregate (RCA) as base and subbase materials for concrete pavement.
2. The basic engineering properties of RCA were investigated in terms of the particle index,
the moisture and density relationship, and the angularity.
3. The performance characteristics were evaluated in the laboratory based on the
compactibility, shear resistance, and stability of RCA.
4. The mechanical properties were evaluated in the field using a falling weight
deflectometer to determine the deflection and energy transmission within pavement
systems.
5. Three different types of aggregate were used in this study. The aggregates include
recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), crushed stone aggregate (CSA), and gravel (GRA).
6. The particle indices of the RCA ranged between 14 and 18.
7. The uncompacted voids of the RCA range from 42 to 50.
8. CSA and gravel show the same compactibility, while the RCA has a slightly lower
compactibility than the CSA or gravel. However, the difference is not statistically
significant.
9. Breakage of aggregate particles increases in severity from GRA, to RCA.
10. The stability and the shear resistance of the RCA in wet conditions are lower than in dry
conditions; however, the reduction rate is comparable with that observed in CSA and
GRA.
11. The deflection of the RCA section using the FWD in the field was the similar to that of
CSA section.
Asphalt mixtures emission and energy consumption
Important points:

1. Pavements composed of Portland cement concrete consume more energy than hot mix
asphalt.
2. Switching from hot mix to warm mix technologies would reduce the carbon footprint
generated by the asphalt industry.
3. Cement clinker production emits the largest amount of CO2 among industrial processes,
contributing to about 4% of global CO2 emissions.
4. Warm mix asphalt technologies are processes or additives for hot mix asphalt that allow
mixture production and placement to occur at temperatures lower than those observed
for conventional hot mixture asphalt.
5. The aggregates moisture content is a very important parameter to control the
performance of an asphalt plant. 8.21 kWh for each 1% of moisture content increase.
6. The emissions from batch plants are, in general, higher than in drum plants.
7. Low-temperature mixtures represent substantial energy savings and therefore
mitigation of emissions. These mixtures include cold mixture, half-warm mix and warm
mix asphalt. Also, recycled asphalt pavement seems promising at reducing natural
resources extraction.
8. Warm mix asphalt uses technological advances such as warm mix asphalt foam, Aspha-
min, Sasobit and Evoterm that reduce the temperature of compaction and
production.
9. Asphalt plants based only on gas emit the lowest amount of CO2. On the other hand,
plants based on electricity should be avoided as they emit the greatest amount of CO2.
10. The wide variety of materials used in pavement construction, as well as fuel and
electricity used for construction machinery and recycling plants, have significant
environmental impacts such as emissions to air, discharges into water, and generation
of solid wastes.
Study of the porous asphalt performance with cellulosic fibers
Important points:

1. The porous asphalt (PA) use in road pavements surface layers is one of the most common
solutions worldwide to address the climate changes impact like heavy rain.
2. Comparing to the conventional porous asphalt the cellulosic fibers addition improved
performance to permanent deformation.
3. The performance was evaluated through laboratory tests of indirect tensile stiffness
modulus, water sensitivity, permeability and permanent deformation.
4. The cellulosic fibers used are granules made of natural cellulose fibers with bitumen
mixture, traded with the name of Viatop Premium by JRS, J. Rettenmaier & Shne.
5. The binder used in the porous asphalt production was PMB 45/80 Polymer Modified
Bitumen.
6. The addition of cellulosic fibers does not induce any significant change in the stiffness
modulus obtained in an ITSM test because the results were quite similar.
7. The water sensitivity results identify the porous asphalt with more fine aggregates with
lower ITSR values (9% in average) than the porous asphalt with coarse aggregates, being
these last ones more resistant in water presence.
8. Permeability is one of the most important properties in porous asphalt such as air voids
content. It was concluded by the permeability test that the mixtures with fine and coarse
aggregates with added fibers present bigger coefficients of vertical and horizontal
permeability.
9. In this study, it was observed that porous asphalt with bitumen higher percentages
improve the performance to permanent deformation. This fact was only possible due to
the bitumen retention by the cellulosic fibers.
10. In conclusion, the cellulosic fibers addition in porous asphalt leads to good results in
mechanical performance, allowing the use of such mixtures with durability guarantees,
good functioning and, consequently, users safety, especially in what concerns
aquaplaning phenomena.